AIR spotlight summary on “Venezuela NAM summit”
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit was held in Venezuela and was attended by Indian vice president Hamid Ansari. The genesis of NAM was the result of the two blocks during the cold war era. Even before the first meeting of NAM in Belgrade by Yugoslavia, it was in the meeting at Bandung in Indonesia in which the five principles of NAM evolved. It was Jawaharlal Nehru and V.K Krishna Menon who for the first time used the expression Non Alignment in 1953 and 1954.
Significance of NAM
- Since the end of Cold war, NAM is trying to find a role for itself. Earlier it was fighting against colonialism, racism, apartheid, developed countries and their imperialism on developing countries. After the end of the Cold war the focus of the movement was changed. It focused on economic cooperation so that the economic conditions of the citizens of the developing countries could improve.
- There are other organisations like NATO which was the product of the Cold war, but that did not cease to exist after the disintegration of Soviet Union.
Need for UNSC Reforms
- India has been actively pushing for UNSC Reforms at various forums and even in NAM and vice president Hamid Ansari raised question whether an organisation designed in 1945 with 51 members is really appropriate to serve the needs and demands of the international community that now comprises 193 independent sovereign states.
- All the 193 nations of the UN acknowledge and accept the need for UN Reforms. The question is how to take the reform forward. In this context NAM is also not a united house, it is a divided house.
- In 2005 at UNGA it was acknowledged for UN reforms particularly in the size, structure and composition of UNSC. In the 70th session, the United Nations adopts documents based negotiations for Security Council reforms.
- There are vested interests of some countries who do not wish for UNSC reforms.
- We need to raise this subject at every forum so that international community comes to know about the importance of UNSC reforms.
- India has all the eligibility to become the permanent member of UNSC.
Issue of Terrorism
- India has raised the issue of Counter Terrorism and it has to be the top priority for NAM. India is pushing for the world community to recognise that terrorism is no longer a regional issue but a global issue. Today there is hardly any country in the world without affected by terrorism. Be it Paris, Turkey, London, USA, Spain and the list goes on and all are affected by terrorism.
- For many decades India has been proposing for a comprehensive UN convention on Terrorism. We are not able to take that forward because there is no agreement on the definition of Terrorism. There are some countries like Pakistan who try to divide Terrorism into Good and Bad Terrorism.
- Countries like India, Afghanistan and Bangladesh claim that the perpetrators are trained and funded by Pakistan. China feels that its political relations and strategic partnership with Pakistan is more valuable to it than a fight against Terror.
- India must find its way to make the global community aware that Pakistan is responsible for Terror activities. India tried to pass a resolution on counter terrorism in NAM. The resolutions in NAM are based on total consensus and Pakistan blocked the resolution. We had a similar move by china when it blocked India’s UN Bid for Ban on Jaish Chief Masood Azhar.
- This is like a catch 22 situation for India. India must continue applying global pressure in forums like NAM, G20, East Asia Summit and ASEAN upon Pakistan.
Iran is part of India’s extended neighbourhood, it is our civilisational partner and there is no need to depend only on NAM to come together with Iran.
- There are so many issues which confront the International community today like UNSC reforms, terrorism, climate change, ensuring peace and sustainable development. NAM can play a useful role in dealing with these issues.