SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A April 16, 2016
This is a new feature. As feedback from our side on your answers is missing, we thought of providing detailed synopsis of important Secure questions on daily basis so that you could revise our synopsis and compare it with your answers. We intend to post synopsis of Secure questions every next day of posting questions on website.
You must write answers on your own and compare them with these synopses. If you depend on these synopses blindly, be sure of facing disaster in Mains. Until and unless you practice answer writing on your own, you will not improve in speed, content and writing skills. Keep separate notebooks for all GS papers and write your answers in them regularly. Now and then keep posting your answer on website too (Optional). Some people have the tendency of copying content from others answers and pasting them in a document for each and every question. This might help in revision, but if you do not write on your own, you can’t write a good answer in real exam. This is our experience at offline classes. We have seen many students who think they were regularly following Secure, yet fail to clear Mains. So, never give up writing.
Also never give up reviewing others answers. You should review others answers to know different perspectives put forth by them, especially to opinion based questions. This effort by us should not lead to dependency on these synopses. This effort should be treated as complimentary to your ongoing writing practice and answer reviewing process.
These synopses will be exhaustive – covering all the points demanded by question. We will not stick to word limit. You need to identify most important points and make sure these points are covered in your answer. Please remember that these are not ‘Model Answers’. These are just pointers for you to add extra points and to stick to demand of the question – which you might have missed while answering.
As you might be aware of, this exercise requires lots of time and energy (10 Hours), that to do it on daily basis! Your cooperation is needed to sustain this feature.
Please provide your valuable feedback in the comment section to improve and sustain this initiative successfully.
General Studies – 1;
Topic: Effects of globalization on Indian society
Panama papers, the set of 11.5 million leaked confidential papers which show the financial arrangements of politicians and public figures. They show the ways rich can exploit secretive offshore tax regime.
Globalization played a significant role in formation of black money.
- With rise in technology there is increase in digitization :
- Communication and financial information developments allow money to move anywhere easily making it difficult to find the origin once it gets into international banking system
- With dollarization of black markets proliferation of financial secrecy havens developed
- Because of global integration money laundering, funding of wars, terrorist financing, trafficking became easy
- Megabyte money developed where the transactions were done in a very simple and fast way
- Offshore banking as an alternative to avoid funds being highly taxed within the home country.
- It led to development of greater class divide where 1% of population has 60 times the incomes of poor. Because of this poor will be dependent on the rich.
- Round tripping and transfer pricing, participatory notes ,hedge funds have all become increasingly integrated within the financial system because of globalization.
- It makes it difficult to find whether it is a legal for of tax avoidance or illegal for of tax evasion.
- Off shore companies in US were the major reason for the recession which had huge ramifications worldwide.
- In India till 2003 no Indian citizen could setup corporate entity overseas..once laws allowed overseas setups accountants took advantage of the loopholes which made Indians invest in companies while not owning them
- under the liberalized remittance scheme of RBI Indians can place upto 2,50,000$ abroad.this was also one of the main reasons for black money.
- Tax havens developed which provide high networth people to invest with zero disclosure agreement ,easy to get registration etc.
With effective implementation of GAAR,the recent blackmoney act,FATF,BEPS of OECD,FEMA the black money can be at least curbed in the present globally integrated societies.
General Studies – 2
Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,
Obama doctrine is term frequently used to describe one or several principles of foreign policy of US. It is still not clear whether there is an actual Obama doctrine. It is a phrase used to describe Obama’s style of foreign policy.
Main features of Obama doctrine:
- Central part of the doctrine emphasizes on collaboration and negotiation rather than confrontation and unilateralism in international affairs, which was a total change from the Bush interventionist regime.
- But Obama’s stand that US must reserve the right to act unilaterally if necessary to defend US and its interests is a clear indication that US has not abandoned its war doctrine
- Main point of the doctrine was to make America safer
- Finishing the fight with Al-Qaeda and Taliban
- Securing all nuclear weapons from terrorists and rogue states
- Rebuilding alliances to meet the challenges of the 21-st century. Closer relationships with china and India.
- Equal partnership and friendship with all with engagement based on mutual respect and common interests and shared values.
- Military cannot be used to solve humanitarian problems and diplomacy would help.
- Shifting focus to east and south Asia from west Asia
- US cannot solve all the problems of the world.
Concerns for India:-
- US cannot be expected to come for India’s aid during India-china conflict along the disputed land border or anywhere.
- US willingness to sell F-16 fighters and attack helicopters to Pakistan so that Pakistan can fight in Afghanistan shows the indifferent attitude to India’s concerns.
- US has also been willing to placate Pakistan on nuclear issue even implying that it is a response to Indian cold start at that time.
- Obama cut his 2015 republic day visit to India to attend the funeral of Saudi king .This show the secondary importance given to India.
- to normalize stability in Afghanistan Pakistan, China, Iran are given more importance.
Successes of the doctrine so far:-
- No direct involvement in Syria unlike Iraq and only diplomatic meetings held there.
- Successful nuclear agreement with Iran that led to lifting of sanctions on Iran.
- Visiting Cuba was a great initiative in normalizing the relations at least to an extent..
- Shedding of protracted obstinacy of Myanmar
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
3) In 2014, the World Bank warned that India’s “excessive healthcare” situation can harm patients whilst providing marginal benefits. It is said that the poor in India have access to surgeries but not basic healthcare. Critically discuss the causes and consequences of this skewed scenario. (200 Words)
- Misuse of the financial provisions in the government’s health welfare schemes
- Example:In period between 2009-14 number of major surgeries like c-sections conducted under the national health mission has shot up remarkably.
- Reason for increase in c sections was because of janani shishu suraksha karyakram
- In Andhra-unnecessary c-section to claim money under aarogyasri scheme
- Weak public health infrastructure and Vacancies in primary health centres lead to dependence on tertiary care services and private hospitals.
- No proper audit of medical procedures followed under the government health welfare schemes
- No regulation and laws of the private healthcare services and medical insurance schemes
- Government’s role in not building the crucial aspect of social infrastructure.
- Lack of public awareness that more medicines and tests do not necessarily mean superior treatment and healthcare
- Failure of Indian medical association to handle the issue.
- Medical education becoming increasingly commercialized gives the doctors with money as a motive .
- Increase in insurance cover
- Poor and women pay the highest price
- Chattisgarh uterus scam and other hysterectomy have immense side effects like osteoporosis,a higher risk of heart disease and tendency of depression.
- Leads to exploitation of private hospitals which leads to their monopoly and also increase in out of pocket expenditure
- Government resources get wasted without any benefit
- Immunity gets reduced because of c sections as the protective bacteria of the gut microbiome is gifted to the normal delivery children through the passage of natural birth passage of matter.
Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
4) It is said that in India, there has not been any basic transformation in both the knowledge base and institutional structure for managing water systems since the end of the British rule in 1947. Discuss the importance of having institutional structure for managing water systems and recent measures taken by government to address this deficiency. (200 Words)
Importance of having institutional structure for managing water systems :
- Hundreds of millions of people still do not have access to safe drinking water is a shame and concern
- Declining groundwater level and increase in salinisation of groundwater because of subsidized irrigation systems promoted by the government
- Growing demands for water supply for irrigation, navigation, industries, urban areas shows water governance has become a complex subject far beyond water engineering.
- Water conflicts in different states and between neighboring countries
- 21% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water according to world bank
- Poor water quality resulting from insufficient and delayed investment in urban water treatment facilities.
- Monsoon dominated climate adds to the problem of water scarcity
- Insufficient water per person due to population growth
- Pollution of rivers
- Serious gap between the frontiers of knowledge and knowledge base that runs government process.
- No citizen responsibility to conserve water and no institutional mechanism to support conservation
Recent measures by the government:
- Restructuring of central water commission and central ground water board based on recommendations of Mihir Shah committee
- Namami Ganga and clean Ganga fund-cleaning the ganga and controlling pollution
- Jal kranthi abhiyan-aaimed at turning one water stressed village in each district of the country into water surplus village
- National hydrology project to prepare a hydrological database for effective water resources planning and management.
- Adhering to sustainable development goals-goal 6 and 14 dealing with water and sanitation,sustainable use of water.
- PM krishi sanchayee yojana-extending the cover of irrigation and improving water use efficiency.
- Smart cities-to handle drainage and sewage system with proper planning.
- Hamara jal hamara jeevan-to create awareness on water conservation and planning in 2015.
- Watershed development projects.
- Interlinking of rivers to ensure greater equity in the distribution of water by enhancing the availability of water in drought prone and rainfed areas
General Studies – 3
Topic: Infrastructure; Security challenges and their management in border areas;
Need for a maritime infrastructure and maritime strategy:
- Securing energy and trade routes to sustain economic growth
- To tap huge mineral resources of Indian ocean
- Foreign trade-40% of current GDP is linked to international trade and most of it is seaborne.
- Delay in delivery of equipment by Russia and Indian government organization on time
- To create port based smart cities.
- India has a huge coastline of 7500 km and its location is on all major shipping highways
- Also south western Indian ocean is reviving its glory as the suez canal reaches saturation or is blocked by inimical states.
- Maritime strength is pivotal in containing piracy on high seas and trafficking,narcotics etc..
- Keeping check on increasing forays by other countries into India’s backyard.
- To curb Maritime terrorism which led to infiltration of terrorists during the 2011 Mumbai attacks.
- Necessary for india’s growing international profile.
- Importing equipment for abroad has huge security concerns so indegenisation is significant for maritime security.
- To counter china as it is gaining its influence in the Indian ocean by its maritime silk route and other strategies.
Initiatives so far:
- Sagarmala programme-leads to port led development ,improve coastal economy,modernize ports and integrate them with SEZ.it reduces the logistic costs of shipping
- Industrial clusters are being created along the coast.
- Port rail connectivity corporation has been created with the responsibility of connecting industrial hubs to various ports by trains.
- Make in India gives impetus to the ship building industry
- Port mechanization and modernization programme in order to enhance port infrastructure.
- Project mausam-transnational initiative meant to revive its ancient maritime routes and cultural linkages with countries in the region.
- India is cooperating with Maldives and Sri Lanka in a tripartite cooperation.
- International fleet review is a reminder of India’s capabilities to help build an open secure and propsperous Indian ocean and hosting of first ever global maritime summit 2016 is another point which shows the importance india gives to maritime strength now.
- Need for a single governmental agency to act as a focal point for india’s maritime policies and interests.
- Strategic vision encompassing the future is needed considering global shifts of power as well.
- Replacement of generalists by specialists for specialized maritime knowledge
- Develop waterways with neighbouring countries with multilateral exchanges,joint exercises etc.,
Topic: Storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
6) Reforms that rely only on technical solutions may not give the desired effect. In the light of recent launch of the National Agricultural Market Scheme (eNAM), it is said that Karnataka’s Rashtriya electronic Market Scheme (ReMS) is said to be a lesson for eNAM scheme to succeed. Examine. (200 Words)
NAM is an e-trading platform for famers in its efforts to build a national market and double farmers income by 2022.To achieve this multiple reforms in agriculture sector are needed. NAM attempts to improve the marketing aspect of the agriculture sector.
Rashtriya electronic market scheme:
- It is similar to NAM
- It unified 100 principal markets were unified by the e-platform within 1 year of launch.
- Autonomous body REMS limited is in charge of entire process of unification and is proceeding according to a definite plan
Success of REMS:
Succeeded to the extent that an independent body REMS limited tasked with unification generated sufficient revenues and created a positive momentum.
Despite the success of Karnataka model replicating it on an Indian scale will be a major task before that some issues need to be addressed .they are:-
- Gains from REMS to farmers have remained muted.
- Commission agents fear unification will affect them adversely as farmers can enter details of commodities in the e-platform and sell to the highest bidder without any mediation from the agents. This is a very potent impediment against forward movement of reforms.
- Though assaying facilities were present they remained in disuse because of apprehensions of loss of income felt by farmers.
- Absence of involvement of all stakeholders, farmers, traders, agents, APMC’s and government the gains are slow and minimal.
- APMC laws -permit the first sale of crops after harvesting by farmers to take place only in regulated market yards/mandis.Restricts farmers universe of buyers to just traders licensed.Most of the farmers are till dependent on these committees.
- Farmers usually sell off to the local produce aggregator even before crops reach mandis.
- NAM would not lead to reduction in various levies imposed by states beside mandi taxes making interstate trade still a problem.
- Fruits and vegetables are kept outside the purview of NAM. So volatility in prices will continue thus depriving farmers from getting better prices.
- High taxes and levies imposed by Punjab ,Haryana and Andhra Pradesh on agricultural commodities trade is still a problem.
General Studies – 4
Topic:Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;
7) Citing an acute water crisis in parts of Maharashtra, the Bombay High Court has evicted the Indian Premier League from the State’s cricket stadiums. Is this decision morally correct? Justify. (150 Words)