SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A April 05, 2016
SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A April 05, 2016
This is a new feature. As feedback from our side on your answers is missing, we thought of providing detailed synopsis of important Secure questions on daily basis so that you could revise our synopsis and compare it with your answers. We intend to post synopsis of Secure questions every next day of posting questions on website.
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General Studies – 1;
Topic: Features of Indian society
1) A spate of murders and dishonourable crimes in the name of ‘honour’ whether of a family or caste or community have been reported in the recent past and are continuing to be reported (NCW). Why this practice persists? What laws exist to prevent such incidences and punish individuals involved in such crimes? Examine. (200 Words)
- ‘Honor’ killings stem from a social system that has been conditioned by a rigid, often local, understanding of what honor means. understanding of honor is colored by a weft of patriarchy and misconstrued religious and cultural values.
- In several communities across India, women are seen as the emblems of family honor. Their behavior, decisions and actions are seen as a reflection of the family’s “values” and so any deviation from the “accepted” route is a dent on family status.
- feed on the Lakshman Rekha mentality in which a line is drawn around a woman to protect her, and crossing that line, by a man or woman, calls for action from family men whose sense of honor or masculinity has been perceived to have been challenged.
- Caste endogamy, caste purity ensures this patriliny and emphasizes the need for controlling the female sexuality to assure the paternity and lineage of the offspring. A man’s honour largely lies in his ability to impose such control on his womenfolk.
- Since inter-caste marriages ,village exogamy tend to weaken the differences existing among the different caste groups and disturb the caste hierarchies, marriage or a love affair between a high caste girl and a low caste boy is always contested and criminalized.
- Cold-blooded murders for the preservation of honour is the direct cause due to a feudal-mindset, the belief in male-chauvinism, lack of formal governance in rural areas and Khap panchayat acting as parallel courts.
- the “culture of silence” adopted by the villagers leading to lack of any substantial evidence thereby hampering the process of investigation, when taken up, is another perpetrator of this social stigma.
- Lack of political will to take steps towards the abolition of the Khaps
- Even the police and the judiciary at times act as mute spectators and passive supporters of the honour protectors.It is generally mostly targeted against women even though the murder of men also takes place.
- The recent murders in Tamilnadu and Karnataka brought this gruesome act to the limelight again.
- Honour Killing is ultimately a form of homicide and thus constitutes a violation of Article 14, 15(1) and (3), 19, 21 and 39(f) of The Constitution of India.
- It is against the various International Commitments the Government of India has made in the “United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women” (1982), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).
- Though Article 51 (e) of the Indian Constitution enumerates the fundamental duty to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- Inter-caste marriages have been validated in India as early as in 1949 by the Hindu Marriages Validity Act, 1949.
- Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, diametrically against the customary marriage rules in India, offers more freedom in marriage by doing away with identification of marital partners according to caste and permits both sagotra and inter-caste marriages.
- Preventing a woman from marrying a person of her choice is an emotional abuse under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
- the Supreme Court in 2011, outlawed the evil practice of of protracted illegal honour killings by Khap Panchayats in India establishing that individual liberty under Article 21 has the highest place in the Constitution
- landmark case of Lata Singh v State of Uttar Pradesh the Supreme Court has ruled that “there is nothing honourable in such killings, and in fact they are nothing but barbaric and shameful acts of murder”
- In the case of Arumugam Servai vs.State of Tamil Nadu, the Supreme Court has declared honour killings based on the perception of the Khaps, wholly illegal that must be stamped out.
- The Supreme Court in Bhagwan Dass v. State of NCT, Delhi, 2011 laid down that honour killings satisfy ‘the rarest of the rare’ doctrine so as to attract the death penalty for its perpetrators.
- the idea that the members of a gotra descended from a rishi is not historically true since many gotra names are territorial or professional in significance. The general public ought to be made aware of this reality.
- Honour killing crimes go unreported resulting in a very low conviction rate. To deal with this issue, it is essential that a specific legislation in this regard with heavy penalty is enacted.
- an additional clause specific to honour killing in section 300 of the IPC, amendment of The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 and The Special Marriages Act, 1954, which would do away with the provision for the mandatory 30 days notice period for marriages intended to be solemnized under this Act.
- Like all social evils, unless society shuns these practices, the police and judiciary alone cannot save women who want to break free from arranged and abusive marriages.
- “in August 2012 the Law Commission of India prepared draft legislation known as theProhibition of Interference With the Freedom of Matrimonial Alliances Bill. This bill was designed to target the unlawful activities of communal assemblies in these cases.However, even now, the draft has not been presented before the Parliament, and the future of the proposed bill looks uncertain.
General Studies – 2
Topic: Functioning of judiciary
2) It is argued that Indian criminal justice system needs urgent reforms owing to its ineffectiveness and inefficiency. Briefly discuss how this system compares with justice system in other countries such as USA, UK and Australia, and examine what measures are mooted to reform criminal justice system in India. (200 Words)
- The U.S. adopted plea bargaining and diversion to administrative and quasi-judicial institutions with the result that less than a third of criminal cases are allowed to go for trial.
- Even in UK it reformed its criminal justice system giving a central role to the victims to direct their cases in the system.
- In Australia the victim is brought centre stage through what is called “restorative justice” to replace unproductive aspects of conventional criminal processes.
- On the recommendation of the Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System (2003), India also adopted “plea bargaining” to take out from the system cases punishable up to seven years of imprisonment for negotiated settlement without trial.
- However, the result that even after a decade of its introduction, it remains a dead letter not invoked by those caught in the system.
- India has around 12 judges per million population
- US has 50 judges per million population:
- Decongesting prisons by releasing undertrials:
- landmark order in Bhim Singh vs Union of India, the Supreme Court directed the fast-tracking of criminal cases, and the release of undertrial prisoners who had completed at least half their maximum prison term pursuant to Section 436A of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC). Bringing attention to the plight of those languishing in prison while awaiting trial.this needs to implemented effectively.
- victim oriented jusitce/restorative justice:
- allow the victim of rape to question the accused.
- distinctive feature of restorative justice is that it looks at the needs of crime victims which are today outside criminal justice concerns, leading to frustration and alienation of victims from the system itself.
- Restorative justice is a welcome idea particularly in the matter of juvenile justice, property offences, communal conflicts, family disputes, etc
- need for the investigating agencies to equip themselves with the latest investigating tools to match the intelligence of the criminals and help the prosecution to get more number of convictions.
- addressing pre trial detention which is the main problem as releasing undertrials,fast track courts,zonal courts,lok adalats ,greater judge or police population ratios are only temporary fixes.
- Number of public prosecutors have to be increased as one of the predominant cause(s) for delay in disposal of criminal case is due to shortage of public prosecutors.
- Prison officials are one of the most important, and often the most neglected, part of the criminal justice system. They regularly review the legal status of undertrials to determine whether they have spent enough time in custody to warrant release under Section 436A.
- Unfortunately, on average, only 66.3 per cent of the sanctioned posts are filled, with Bihar having only 21.1 per cent of the sanctioned prison official strength
- emphasis should be on ensuring the implementation of existing provisions, such as regularising the functioning of the Undertrial and Periodic Review Committees.
- efforts should focus on improving data collection and digitisation, and on mapping the existing reform landscape to prevent duplication of work.
- committee on criminal justice reforms :
- guiding principle in the reform process should be decriminalisation wherever possible and diversion, reserving the criminal justice system mainly to deal with real “hard” crimes.
- reform of police processes, including investigation of crimes, professionalisation and rationalisation of court systems with induction of technology and limiting appeal procedures to the minimum required.
- amendments into penal code in light of changing demands of the society.
- More than 80 per cent of reported crimes went unpunished due to several reasons and the loopholes in the present criminal justice system
- More than 66 per cent of India’s prisoners are undertrials, which is over twice the global average of 32 per cent. Of these 2,54,857 undertrials, more than 2,000 have been in prison for over five years. Overburdened by the flood of arrestees (nearly 75 lakh were arrested in 2012, according to the National Crime Records Bureau), prisons have experienced an increase in the number of undertrials and overcrowding
- India has one of the lowest police-population ratios, of 131.1 officers per 1,00,000 population (against the UN norms of 222). Corruption is also an endemic problem; in 2013,
- Transparency International found that 62 per cent people reported paying bribes during their interactions with the police. Misaligned incentives to arrest persons (for example, to demonstrate the progress of investigations) have resulted in 60 per cent of all arrests being “unnecessary or unjustified”.
- backlog of more than three crore cases, with the SC itself currently hearing 64,000 cases.
Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
- India and Saudi Arabia have become economically more significant for one another with USD 39.4 billion in bilateral trade in 2014-15.
- The collapse in oil prices led the fiscal deficit of saudi reach 98 billion dollars in 2015 and in the act of diversification India is considered as avast potential
- India can leverage the Gulf riches to accelerate India’s economic growth.
- Saudi showed keen interest in investing in India’ infrastructure development in areas such as railways, roads, ports, shipping, and energy.
- With Riyadh’s interest in creating jobs for Saudis,Indian companies like TCS contribution to the training and employment of locals (especially women) has been highlighted.
- This will reflect the broader theme of highlighting to Riyadh and Saudis that it is not just India that benefits from the relationship—they do too.
- signing of labor cooperation agreement and another to promote bilateral investments in the private sector.
- agreed to transform the buyer-seller relationship in the energy-sector to one of deeper partnership focusing on investment and joint ventures in petrochemical complexes, and cooperation in joint exploration in India, Saudi Arabia and in third countries’.
- With growing India’s clout at the world stage PM Modi was conferred with the kingdom’s highest civilian award
- India is trying to fill the vaccum developed because of strained relations between US and saudi as US started to embrace Iran and abandonment of egypt.Also the declining influence of US,2008 economic crisis,changing global consumption patterns made saudi look towards India and Asia.
- India ‘s speedier action keeps in check China’s increased activity in the region
- Stronger relationships with Pakistan’s allies like Saudi Arabia and the UAE can help India get a more sympathetic hearing on global and regional forums and put pressure on Islamabad.
- explore the prospects for deepening defence cooperation with the Gulf states
- acquired a security dimension with both countries stepping up cooperation in counter-terrorism intelligence-sharing,terror financing and money laundering.
- Riyadh handed over individuals wanted in India is a welcome step
- The two also agreed on the need to intensify defense cooperation through mutual visits by military experts and joint military exercises
- this is the first time that Saudi Arabia has politically endorsed India’s concerns over terrorism, extremism and Islamist radicalisation.
- The joint statement rightly affirms that terrorism should not be equated with any particular religion and has an oblique reference to pakistan as it calls on all states to dismantle terror infrastructure “where they happen to exist”
- Saudi Arabia and the United States imposed joint sanctions targeting the Lashkar-e-Taiba militant group is a welcome step.
- the Saudi-Pakistan relationship-there is nothing substantial to suggest that the Pakistani-Saudi alliance is getting any worse
- diaspora-related issues-including the treatment of Indian workers in-country and efforts towards Saudization that might limit employment opportunities for Indian expatriates
- ideology-related concerns, particularly funding from Saudi Arabia for organizations in India, which might be increasing the influence of Wahhabism in the country; the Saudis are accused of funding extremist groups in West Asia, particularly in war-torn Syria.
- regional dynamics, including Saudi Arabia’s rising tensions with Iran that has had consequences for Indian citizens, for example, in Yemen from where Delhi had to evacuate 4,640 Indians (as well as 960 foreigners).Over the medium-to-long term, there are also concerns about potential instability within Saudi Arabia.
- incidents involving Saudi diplomats in India have also negatively affected (elite) public perceptions of the country.
Topic: Powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
4) It is said that Panchayat and municipal corporation elections are not as free and fair as those conducted by the Election Commission of India. Examine why and suggest how these elections can be made free and fair. (200 Words)
- These elections come under the purview of the State Election Commissions that are constituted under a state Act, which does not provide for the independence and impartiality enjoyed by the Central Election Commission as their terms and conditions are subject to the whims and fancies of the state government
- These are dominated by local issues based on caste, creed and other petty matters that the opposition parties always question the neutrality of the conduct of such polls.
- The rules relating to the compilation of voters’ register, timing and scheduling of elections, regulation of campaign expenditure, staffing of polling booths, use of state police machinery, etc., vary from state to state. The ruling parties are often accused of interfering with the conduct of these elections
- The money power in these local elections is also increasing mainly because the candidates feel success in these elections will improve their image in influencing state patronage and they being identified for various positions in parties and subsequent selection for contesting polls to state assemblies and Parliament.
- Muscle Power: Violence, pre-election intimidation, post election , victimisation, most of the riggings of any type, booth capturing both silent and violent are mainly the products of muscle power.
- Criminalisation of Politics: Political parties tap criminals for fund and in return provide them with political patronage and protection.Rough estimates suggest that in any state election 20 per cent of candidates are drawn from criminal backgrounds
- Lack of Moral Values in Politics: Due to degeneration of leadership, parties have been entangled in power struggle for the sake of personal ends.
- There have been evidences that due to reservation policy, certain women got elected into the setup, but they acted merely as the mouth-piece of the their male family members.
- bringing the administrative control of State Election Commissions under the purview of the Central Election Commission so that the appointment of state election commissioners and deployment of central paramilitary forces by the Election Commission of India can help conduct more fair elections.
- police should start mopping up operation of the areas infested with “known goondas and bad elements about seven days prior to the polls.
- IAS and state officers need to be appointed as Election Observers in all districts of the State in order to conduct the Panchayat Elections, in a free, fair and transparent manner
- 73rd amendment act -The state government is also empowered to make laws providing criteria for disqualification of candidature from panchayat elections and also to legislate with respect to maintenance of accounts by the panchayats and their audit should not be misused.
- digital communication advancements may be introduced to capture the actual participation of women in Panchayat activities by counting their attendance and their vote share in passing a decision in the Panchayat.
- Model panchayat bill 2007 has been in limbo for long..some clarity on it needs to be ensured soon.
Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
5) In recent years, India is trying to overcome its defensive foreign policy stance and position itself as future global power. In your opinion, what challenges – especially at foreign policy level – should India overcome to become global superpower? Discuss. (200 Words)
- India will have to reform its economy, strengthen its state capacity and elevate the levels of rationalization across state and society writ large so that it may be able to effectively produce those military instruments that increase its security and influence in international politics.
- Concerted marketization thus holds the promise of improving India’s trend growth rates, enabling appropriate redistribution when desirable and empowering the state with the resources necessary to accomplish its international goals.
- Strong economic ties,more linkages with developing countries
making BRICS,IBSA to work on a common agenda at international platforms.
- creating an economic robust market.
- India needs to deepen its relationship with west asian and gulf countries for that and also diversify her own traditional sources of energy like solar energy.
Permanent seat in United nations security council which can significantly elevate the global recognition of India and can influence global events.
Relations with neighbours:-
- Although India expands her influence in south asia,managing the uncertainties with immediate neighbours and solution of border disputes with pakistan,bangladesh,china is a very great challenge for the india’s foreign policy.
Mistrust in SAARC countries:-
- India’s large economy than the other south asian countries and the fear that India’s giant economy will grasp their economic system engaging its economic diplomacy and soft power to engage with these countries is a challenge.
- Chinese economic,security and political clout in regions of ASEAN,SAARC poses a challenge for india’s foreign policy.
Making NAM relevant:
- making it relevant than it was ever before and the conducting summits of NAM 2.0 regularly with international partiicipation is a challenge.
Military strength:-to be a global super power India needs to have a strong military.indeginesation of defence and not relying on other countries for defence equipment.
- Ensuring the security of sea lines of communication is vital for the continued economic well being of the region.
- India sits astride crucial sea lanes of communication across the Indian Ocean, through which almost 60,000 ships carry merchandise and energy from the Gulf to East Asia every year.
peace and stability:
- threat is compounded today given the possibility of intersection between terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
- Instability and centrifugal forces such as those arising from religious extremism and terrorism in our neighbourhood can and do threaten our own security and development.
India being the weak link:
- Although contemporary projections of global growth out to 2050 suggest that India will become a true pole by then, they also conclude that it will remain the weakest of the principal entities China, US, the European Union and India dominating the international system at that time.
- Quality of life of Indian citizens and say at the global level about environmental issues.
- Ensuring food security is another challenge that we share with the global community. While India is self-sufficient, but we do need to improve our productivity further and improve the incomes of our rural population.
- large segments of the intellectual, bureaucratic and political classes are still fundamentally insecure about their country’s capacity to engage with the world on its own terms. This is partly a legacy of colonialism and partly a consequence of India’s persisting material weaknesses in international politics.
General Studies – 3
Topic: Latest developments in technology
- Bioprinting Tissues and Organs:
- Organ transplant surgery involves the often difficult task of finding a donor who is a tissue match and is also expensive.
- This problem could likely be eliminated by using cells taken from the organ transplant patient’s own body to build a replacement organ.This would minimize the risk of tissue rejection, as well as the need to take lifelong immunosuppressants
- Customized Implants and Prostheses:
- 3D printing has been used successfully in the health care sector to make both standard and complex customized prosthetic limbs and surgical implants, sometimes within 24 hours.This approach has been used to fabricate dental, spinal, and hip implants.
- 3D printing has already had a transformative effect on hearing aid manufacturing.Today, 99% of hearing aids that fit into the ear are custom-made using 3D printing
- complicated surgeries:
- 3D-printed neuroanatomical models can be particularly helpful to neurosurgeons by providing a representation of some of the most complicated structures in the human body like cranial nerves, vessels, cerebral structures, and skull architecture which are difficult to be interpreted based solely on radiographic 2D images
- Also heart and blood vessels are being printed and are to be tested.the doctors get a clear idea and practise before going for the actual surgery.
Custom 3D-Printed Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Devices
Complex drug manufacturing processes could also be standardized through use of 3D printing to make them simpler and more viable
Personalized 3D-printed drugs may particularly benefit patients who use medications with narrow therapeutic indices.Pharmacists could analyze a patient’s pharmacogenetic profile and determine an optimal medication dose.
Patients who have multiple chronic diseases could have their medications printed in one multidose form that is fabricated at the point of care.Providing patients with an accurate, personalized dose of multiple medications in a single tablet could potentially improve patient compliance.
- Cancer studies:
- China and US have printed models of cancerous tumours to aid discovery of new anti drugs and to better understand how these tumours develop.
- world-first marathon surgery removing cancer-riddled vertebrae and successfully replacing them with a 3D-printed body part.-australia
- Synthetic Skin:
- skin is 3D printed straight onto the wounds of burn victims.With the ability to scan a wound the printer can then fabricate the appropriate number of skin layers to fill the wound.
- Surgical equipment:
- University of British Columbia won a prestigious award for their engineering and 3D printing of a new and extremely effective type of surgical smoke evacuator.
- Other surgical tools that have been 3D printed include forceps, hemostats, scalpel handles and clamps – and best of all, they come out of the printer sterile and cost a tenth as much as the stainless steel equivalent.
- Reconstructive surgery:
- Damaged body parts, like a nose or an ear, can be rebuilt in a computer 3D model.
- Stem cells:
- .stem cells are being bioprinted in several university research labs. Stem cell printing was the precursor to printing other kinds of tissues, and could eventually lead to printing cells directly into parts of the body.
- reduction in usage of fossil fuels:
- shipping costs huge amount of fuel and money.
- 3D printing is already helping to cut back on shipments as it is showing great promise in terms of fulfilling a local manufacturing model, whereby products are produced on demand in the place where they are needed — eliminating huge inventories and unsustainable logistics for shipping high volumes of products around the world.
- Airbus as an example of how 3D printing enables lightweighting. Airbus’ 3D-printed titanium cabin bracket makes the aircraft more economical to operate; it reduces fuel consumption and related emissions.
- create a handheld sponge-like structure that could help in mitigating pollution
Far Less Waste:
First, it’s more efficient in terms of material consumption. While traditional manufacturing methods employ subtractive manufacturing, which starts with more materials than needed to product products, 3D printing is additive manufacturing.
- 3D printing can potentially reduce manufacturing costs by $170 billion to $593 billion, energy use by 2.54–9.30 exajoules (EJ) and CO2 emissions by 130.5 to 525.5 metric tons by 2025
Wide spread recycling at our fingertips:
- Plastics, as well as eventually metals and other materials can be ground up and turned into filament for 3D printers.Basically anyone with the proper tools can throw a used plastic bottle into a machine, and after a few steps turn that into any of tens of millions of different items
General Studies – 4
Topic: Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions;
7) A captured man-eater tiger was captured and kept in a zoo. The tiger which was famous among visitors, was shown exemplary sympathy and based on court order, was re-released to the wild. The tiger had eaten three humans in the past. Wildlife experts opine that the tiger is not a typical man-eater – which are usually frail and old. It is a healthy tiger capable of hunting wild prey and now has got taste of humans.