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SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A March 17, 2016

SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A March 17, 2016

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This is a new feature. As feedback from our side on your answers is missing, we thought of providing detailed synopsis of important Secure questions on daily basis so that you could revise our synopsis and compare it with your answers. We intend to post synopsis of Secure questions every next day of posting questions on website. 

You must write answers on your own and compare them with these synopses. If you depend on these synopses blindly, be sure of facing disaster in Mains. Until and unless you practice answer writing on your own, you will not improve in speed, content and writing skills. Keep separate notebooks for all GS papers and write your answers in them regularly. Now and then keep posting your answer on website too (Optional).  Some people have the tendency of copying content from others answers and pasting them in a document for each and every question. This might help in revision, but if you do not write on your own,  you can’t write a good answer in real exam. This is our experience at offline classes. We have seen many students who think they were regularly following Secure, yet fail to clear Mains. So, never give up writing. 

Also never give up reviewing others answers. You should review others answers to know different perspectives put forth by them, especially to opinion based questions. This effort by us should not lead to dependency on these synopses. This effort should be treated as complimentary to your ongoing writing practice and answer reviewing process. 

These synopses will be exhaustive – covering all the points demanded by question. We will not stick to word limit. You need to identify most important points and make sure these points are covered in your answer. Please remember that these are not ‘Model Answers’. These are just pointers for you to add extra points and to stick to demand of the question – which you might have missed while answering. 

As you might be aware of, this exercise requires lots of time and energy (10 Hours), that to do it on daily basis! Your cooperation is needed to sustain this feature.

Please provide your valuable feedback in the comment section to improve and sustain this initiative successfully. 


General Studies – 1;


 

TopicRole of women; The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country

1) Discuss the contribution made by women in drafting the Constitution of India. (200 Words)

Livemint

Of the total 299 members of the assembly, 15 were women, left their mark on the making of the republic.

They used this platform to asserted their equality and crafting a politically balanced republic. 

AMMU SWAMINATHAN

Criticized the constitution as lengthy one and wanted a constitution to be of small volume shall enough to carry in pocket (friendly to common people)

In her debates and speeches she promoted and applauded equal rights given to Indian women by way of the constitution and expressed apprehension that whether it could bring real democracy to people.

ANNIE MASCARENE

Annie Mascarene’s speeches during the assembly debates reflected these issues: the need to find the right balance between power that would be given to the centre and to the provinces.

She emphasized that Centralization should be introduced at later stages, but not in the initial stages

BEGUM AIZAZ RASUL

Only muslim woman in the constituent assembly,

She moved several amendments for issues: like the need for ministers to hold office for a good period to get enough time to do work of real impact (She was in favor of Swiss method of single non transferrable vote)

She supported India’s membership to the Commonwealth, 

She opposed separate electorate and reservation for minorities.

Expressed concern over limitation put on fundamental rights.

 

DAKSHAYANI VELAYUDAN

A prominent dalit leader and first dalit woman to graduate in India. She wanted abolition of Untouchablility to be included in the constitution itself.

She opposed separate electorate and reservation for dalits ——- She wanted equality for dalits in all respects.

She advocated for abolition of forced labor or beggar and campaigned for decentralization

HANSA MEHTA

She opposed reservation for minorities, but, advocated reservation for Dalits due to historical injustice

Durgabai and Begum Aizaz

Advocated for non imposition of Hindi on non native speakers and promoted discussion on Independence of Judiciary

PURNIMA BANERJEE

Advocated  state’s control over religious instructions in schools so as to prevent imposition of religious ideals on Children. Supported progressive taxation and importance of giving separate identity to educational planning.

Advocated for humane treatment of arrested persons

RENUKA RAY

opposed to reservation of seats for women. Advocated for proper budget allocation for education


 

TopicSalient features of indian society; Social empowerment

2) In many parts of India, in the name of caste daylight murders are taking place. Why such atrocities take place despite having laws and institutions to prevent them? What solutions do you suggest to stop such incidents? Critically comment. (200 Words)

The Hindu

The Hindu

Why such atrocities take place despite laws?

Atrocities takes place because various factors, these include Economic, social, political and administrative factors.

Economic factors – Economic dependence of weaker sections on higher caste – Landless laborers depend on land lords – No economic avenues available to them in rural areas.

Social factors – Historical discrimination against Dalits, on the basis of caste system, on the notion of purity and pollution. Caste endogamy (marriage within caste).

If a Dalit, marries woman from other caste or wear clean clothes, imitate higher castes lifestyles, asserts constitutional right to equality —– they are readily opposed and suppressed by higher caste on the notion of Caste pride with shame less disregard for individual rights, with an anarchists notion of caste purity and pollution.

 

Political factors – Local political leaders supports caste with higher numerical strength and clout in cast related matters due to vote bank politics. This provide free hand to indulge cast based crimes.

Administrative reasons – Loyalty of police personnel to their respective castes – In caste conflicts, police personnel tend to support the powerful group – Non registration of FIR in atrocity cases.

Delayed justice – Prolonged judicial process, embolden

Lack of enforcing judicial directives – SC Directive in lata singh Case – to ensure safety to couples resorting to inter caste marriages

 

Solutions

  1. Stringent norms to enforce SC, ST Prevention of atrocities act with accountability of police for not enforcing the legislation in true spirit
  2. Disqualification of MP, MLA and elected leaders under representation of People act, if they indulge or instigates such violence
  3. Strengthening the powers of National commission for SC and ST, NHRC, SHRC to protect the interest of the oppressed classes
  4. Moral education on equality, Human rights, compassion, liberty and dignity of life since childhood to develop egalitarian mindset
  5. Awareness generation
  6. Promotion of Dalit leaders in local self government institutions
  7. Representation for Dalit and oppressed classes in Police force and other key administrative positions
  8. Sensitization programmes

General Studies – 2


Topic:Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to health

3) India’s potential for medical tourism is well known, yet certain policies of the government and other factors are not allowing the sector to realize its full potential. Examine the constraints and  measures needed to address them. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

Problems with the visa system

  1. Waiting periods for the grant of visas are long,
  2. the physical presence of patients is required at embassies, and
  3. there are restrictions on multiple-entry medical visas
  4. Lack of quality assurance through Accreditation and standardization system to rate the medical services – Lack of clarity – No attraction
  5. Infrastructure bottlenecks – Lack of proper connectivity to and from Airports, Raliway stations and road network
  6. Lack of marketing strategies – Unable to project our strengths and also unable to defend negative publicity like NDM super bug issue, antibiotic resistance, negative publicity regarding cleanliness
  7. Lengthy and cumbersome visa clearance system
  8. No independent regulator and Poor grievance redressal system
  9. Menace of middlemen and travel agents who exploit the tourists – Creates negative publicity
  10. Competition from ASEAN countries like Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines
  11. Single window system for all medical tourism related queries for ease of doing business

 

 

Measures to address the constraints

  1. Streamlining the medical visa process and extending eTV (e-tourist visa) to medical tourists”
  2. Reduce transaction cost for M visa to make it self enforcing.
  3. Aggressive marketing campaign of Treat in India on the lines of Make in India, projection of uniqueness like heritage and traditional services like AYUSH.
  4. Ranking and accreditation of hospitals, grievance redressal cell, independent regulator to address the concern and issue regulation to provide healthy environment.
  5. Visa on arrival for Medical tourists
  6. Integration of Medical treatment with wellness tourism like community organic farming, workshops on traditional arts, crafts and weaving. Yoga sessions, aromatherapy, naturopathy etc as integrated services ——– Provides edge to win against competitors

 

Topic:India and its neighborhood- relations

4) Recently Myanmar witnessed establishment of new government that is most democratic administration since 1962 when the military seized power. What are the opportunities and challenges that the new government faces? How can India lend its hand to the new government? Examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Opportunities

  1. To transform Myanmar into peaceful society – With democratic functioning, Consensus and negotiation with Ethinic minorities like Kachin tribes, Kokang rebels ——- Brings peace and triggers development
  2. Lifting of economic sanction from US and EU —- Provide chance to bring development and to promote industry, export and new ventures. New, services, job creation, infrastructure – Quality life
  3. Fresh reconstruction of society on genuine democratic setup – Great chance to implement real democracy
  4. Chance to address the issue Rohingya tribes and their acceptance into society
  5. Joint infrastructure projects like Kaladan project, BCIM corridor – Win win situation
  6. To move away from the influence of China and to engage with other world leaders like India, US, EU, etc.

Challenges

  1. 25% of seats in both houses reserved for Military representatives – Great unity among democratic leaders to bring constitutional amendments and other legislations – Hence, consensus and common ground with military junta is essential at the same time maintaining the democratic character
  2. After effects of Economic sanctions from USA and western countries on the country are still lingering in the form of poor capital formation, poor infrastructure, weak business and industry, poor exports and institutions. Hence, to reform and improvise the situation in a daunting task
  3. Separatist movement by Ethnic minorities (20 of them) and their violent struggle – is a big challenge. Need to bring them into democratic fold
  4. Drug mafia, Illegal arms smuggling, alternate economy and their nexus with politicians and Bureaucrats is a big challenge. Need systemic approach to this problem

India’s role

  1. Service sector and BPO – being a leader, India can assist to develop service Industry with the help of Industry collaboration (ASSOCHOM, NASSOCOM and their counter parts)
  2. Agriculture – Can help Myanmar to adopt modern agriculture technologies to suit their conditions with the help of ICAR and other premier Indian institutions
  3. Establishment of Democratic institutions – India, being diverse country, succeeded in taking all the groups together. Valuable source to Myanmar to develop democratic institutions like Parliament, state legislature, ULB, PRI,
  4. Establishment of Independent institutions – Election commission, CAG, UPSC can be replicated in Myanmar to deliver independent functions
  5. Progressive legislation and best practices – SHG, RTI, RTE, Food security mission provides valuable lesson to Myanmar

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Infrastructure – waterways;

5) In the light of the National Waterways Bill, 2015, discuss the potential of waterways, challenges in using them and measures required to address these challenges. (200 Words)

Business Standard

Despite the logistics Sector and transport in india is dominated by road and rail so far,the benefits of waterways cannot be overlooked.The national waterways bill also ensures that..
Potential of waterways:
  • Water highways are cheaper than road and rail to develop and maintain. The cargo conveyance cost, too, is lower because of minimal energy requirements,fuel efficient which makes them more environment friendly
  • Problem of land-acquisition as observed in road-rail is prevented
  • Easier to obtain funding from international financial institutions like ADB, IBRD etc. which are inclined towards environment-friendly projects
  • potential to use 14,500 navigable water ways, currently India is using less than 5000 that too with not full capacity
  • Many countries in Europe and elsewhere carry over 40 per cent of their passenger and freight traffic through water. But in India this proportion is only 3.5 per cent.
  • it can also give a boost to tourism.
  • Linkages between port to waterways will help in trade facilitation and industrial growth
  • large and wide rivers available in India esp. Northern India and potential to ease pressure on roads and railways.
Challenges:-
  • Indian water channels do not have adequate width,depth and air clearance to be operational year round and carry heavy loads.Silting is a problem.
  • Many rivers are seasonal especially water flow declines after Monsoon.
  • Heavy investment will be needed also to procure equipment, including dredgers, shipping vessels and barges of different sizes.
  • Even though under Union List, States may file complaints under environmental factors, inter-State sharing of benefits etc.
  • Riverine ecosystems may be affected due to oil-spills, noise pollution etc.
  • water highways will require more river ports with their support infrastructure – road and rail connections, warehouses and other services.Slow movement and high initial infrastructural costs may question the economic viability of the project
Suggestions:
  • Setting up a Waterways Disputes council in the lines of Inter-State Water Disputes Council for expediting conflict-resolution
  • government has indicated that it will explore multiple sources of finance, including market borrowings and tapping the National Clean Energy Fund and the Central Roads Fund.
  • Private participation in infrastructure is needed – but will be possible only if such ventures become economically viable. For this, they will require adequate and assured two-way traffic.
  • the traffic in bulk goods, such as coal, minerals, foodgrain, fertiliser and similar other commodities is often unidirectional, compelling the vessels to return empty or under-loaded. This aspect will need to be weighed and addressed.
  • Linking Waterways development with Sagarmala project, PMGSY etc. and including designs into the Draft Civil Aviation Policy to ensure development of multi-modal transport systems.Waterways Bill seeks to create 101 national water highways, in addition to the existing five national and a few other smaller water corridors.
  • River linking project and water dispute solution is also needed for smooth working of Waterways.

 

TopicInfrastructure – energy

6) What are the criticisms made against the Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana (Uday)? Are the valid? Examine. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

Uday was launched to turn around power distribution companies which are generally inefficient state government monopolies that are struggling financially. The agreement commits them to replacing 50 per cent of discom debt with state government bonds (state development loans, SDLs) in the current financial year and a further 25 per cent in the coming financial year.However Critics have conveyed some concerns with the scheme.
Criticisms and their validity:-
  • Since the yields from SDLs have increased, the market is willing to lend to the government at higher rates thus widening this “yield gap”( expensive credit for states). This criticism is not valid because even discom debt was implicitly guaranteed by the state government, hence the blended borrowing costs should remain unchanged.Moreover market has not been differentiating between UDAY related states and others, hence when market stabilises, yield gap will fall.
  • More recently, as state governments have tried to raise funds by selling Uday bonds, they have been blamed by some for creating a shortage of funds for other borrowers.this is not justified as this whole process is just debt replacement where the banks that had earlier lent to the discoms get their money back, and are then free to lend in the economy, or even buy SDLs from the market. Even the non-banking companies that receive the proceeds of these SDLs may deploy them in bank bonds and these funds thus enter the market again.
  • There will be liquidity tightness. The main cause of liquidity crunch is a pick up in bank credit growth as a result of economic recovery taking place and not due to increase in SDL.
  • Even without SDLs to discoms, state to center debt ratio is more than 60% which will further increase after UDAY. This criticism is valid and state to centre debt ratio may increase. A better planned borrowing calendar is needed without issuance of more bonds at the beginning of the fiscal year to prevent crowding out of market later in the year.
  • It is argued that since these are state government controlled, problems may arise. This is partially true and the state government needs to work towards transformative operational improvement and better management of discoms.
Under Uday, states have committed to transformative operational improvements in the next three-four years. The political will to raise tariffs and improve billing and collection is likely to be tested. But technological improvements, like in metering and feeder line separation, should help and the merging of discom losses with fiscal deficits a few years down the line should improve the success rate. 

Topicissues relating to intellectual property rights.

7) What do you understand by geographical indications’ (GIs)? One of the objectives of the “Make in India” programme is to improve and protect the Indian intellectual property (IP) regime. How can GI aid the programme? Discuss its potential and measures needed to strengthen GI regime. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Geographical indications indicate goods as originating in a specific geographical region, the characteristics, qualities or reputation thereof essentially attributable to such region. GI-branded goods possess a recall value amongst consumers who essentially attribute these characteristics, qualities or reputation to such geographical origin like Scotch Whisky from Scotland,Darjelling tea etc..
GI and Make in India:
  •  GI-branded goods can be made 100 per cent in India without the need for any foreign direct investment (FDI) and that they can promote socio-economic development of the respective regions . GIs are perhaps the most ideal IP rights to foster and realise a programme like Make in India.
Potential of Geographical Indications:
  • GIs support and protect local production
  • generate local employment and are mostly untouched by industrialisation, originating in villages or small towns.
  • Since consistent quality is a must in GI-branded goods, and often cements itself as a consumer recollection point, producers are expected to diligently follow specific production methods which leads to better quality control.
  • Many European GIs have also successfully built up ancillary industries like tourism and lodging in the respective regions, enabling visitors to get a first-hand experience of the manufacturing process and absorb the history thereof. Such ancillary industries aid in the socio-economic development of the region in the long run.
  • Can boost exports.
  • Sense of identity imbibes satisfaction curbing R-U migration.
Measures needed to strengthen GI:
  • current Indian legal framework for GIs needs to be strengthened to address quality control and consumer expectations by insisting on multi-layered quality control systems as a precondition for registration.
  • give a competitive advantage to producers and enable consumers to make more informed choices by providing clear information on origin-specific products and their characteristics. 
  • important issues faced by GI producer bodies like market access and funding for enforcement and marketing need to be addressed
  • Correcting the definition of ‘producer’ under the GI Act, which is currently ambiguous and can mean either local manufacturer, retailer or dealer.
Still a greenhorn in GI protection, India must hand-hold producer bodies, look at successful models elsewhere and mould these to suit the ground realities of protection and enforcement in a developing country.

General Studies – 4


Topic:Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration

8) “Both the houses of Indian Parliament now have a permanent standing committee on ethics. While their job is to oversee moral & ethical conduct of the members, these committees have fallen short of global standards both in scope & work.” Discuss. (200 Words)

Reference

Business Standard

Parliamentarians are supposed to uphold the highest morals and values in their conduct both inside and outside of legislatures to build public trust and confidence in the work of legislatures.  But unethical behaviour like misconduct with the public, using foul (unparliamentary!) language  on the floor, indulging in corruption, favouritism and nepotism etc.. have brought the Permanent standing committee on Ethics to the forefront.
Ethics committees functions to uphold the standards of the Parliament. Its functions are:
  • To formulate a Code of Conduct for members and suggest amendments to it from time to time.
  • To oversee the moral and ethical conduct of the Members
  • To examine the cases referred to it with reference to ethical and other misconduct of the Members
However, the functioning of these committees is laudatory when compared to global standards:
Where does India lag:-
  •  One of the major shortcomings of Lok Sabha is the failure to mandate and maintain MPs register of financial interest. This violates the principles of transparency and accountability
  • Failed in checking the behaviour of members as they indulged in oral abuse using offensive language or entering into physical fight in the recent past .
  • Potential conflicts of interest remain hidden from public scrutiny and often may influence legislation and policy.
  • While the Rajya Sabha does provide for the maintenance of members register of interest, it mandates disclosure only in five categories as opposed to global standards of at least ten. Besides, the registry is not open to public by default.
  • There is poor data management and disclosure or that no complaints have been made to the ethics committees nor have cases been taken up suo motu.
Suggestions:-
  • Need of independent commissioner or any other body that looks into complaints and investigates as in other mature democracies
  • Ethics committee should be given the power to fine heavily on members violating it.