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SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A March 12, 2016

SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A March 12, 2016

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This is a new feature. As feedback from our side on your answers is missing, we thought of providing detailed synopsis of important Secure questions on daily basis so that you could revise our synopsis and compare it with your answers. We intend to post synopsis of Secure questions every next day of posting questions on website. 

You must write answers on your own and compare them with these synopses. If you depend on these synopses blindly, be sure of facing disaster in Mains. Until and unless you practice answer writing on your own, you will not improve in speed, content and writing skills. Keep separate notebooks for all GS papers and write your answers in them regularly. Now and then keep posting your answer on website too (Optional).  Some people have the tendency of copying content from others answers and pasting them in a document for each and every question. This might help in revision, but if you do not write on your own,  you can’t write a good answer in real exam. This is our experience at offline classes. We have seen many students who think they were regularly following Secure, yet fail to clear Mains. So, never give up writing. 

Also never give up reviewing others answers. You should review others answers to know different perspectives put forth by them, especially to opinion based questions. This effort by us should not lead to dependency on these synopses. This effort should be treated as complimentary to your ongoing writing practice and answer reviewing process. 

These synopses will be exhaustive – covering all the points demanded by question. We will not stick to word limit. You need to identify most important points and make sure these points are covered in your answer. Please remember that these are not ‘Model Answers’. These are just pointers for you to add extra points and to stick to demand of the question – which you might have missed while answering. 

As you might be aware of, this exercise requires lots of time and energy (10 Hours), that to do it on daily basis! Your cooperation is needed to sustain this feature.

Please provide your valuable feedback in the comment section to improve and sustain this initiative successfully. 


General Studies – 1;


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

1) Indian women’s games are rarely accorded same recognition and encouragement that’s given to men’s games. How and why should women’s games be popularised? Discuss. (200 Words)

The Hindu

How women’s games be popularized

  1. Generous sponsorships to women games and events to attract more women into sports.
  2. Making mandatory for sponsors to sign sponsorship agreement with both Men and Women teams as a single unit —- Equal sponsorship for women also
  3. Use of technology, better camera skills, media campaigns to promote women games to the level of male counter parts
  4. Include women player association in decision making (to prevent discrimination and negligent attitude towards women
  5. Popularization of women sports through National sports channels, encouraging the children to watch women sports (Good habit since early stage- Better results)
  6. Equal remuneration to men and women sportspersons – Attracts more women into the game – more competition – more game watchers – spinoff effect
  7. Establishment of sports infrastructure in throughout the country especially in rural and semi urban areas along with better training facilities for girls since childhood
  8. Stringent laws against harassment in sports facilities
  9. Introduction of shorter formats of games on the lines of T20 format in Cricket – To increase the interest, excitement among the audiences 

Why Women’s games should be popularized

  1. Better chance in Olympic medal tally – Archery (expert girls from Bhil tribe may be trained), Gymnastics (which does not need elaborate infrastructure, rural talent may be promoted – Sense of dignity and belongingness, motivation to rural girls).
  2. To transform home bound introvert women (due to patriarchal society) into a global extrovert and self confident woman (Due to wider exposure, competitive spirit, interaction with diverse groups)

This may have positive spill over effect in women entrepreneurship, women startups, women activism, contenting in election – Overall empowerment

  1. Women sportsperson carry social message far more persuasively and effectively in issues like Female foeticide, Polio campaigns, Swacch bharat abhiyaan, campaign to send the girls to schools than male counterparts. In addition they act as source of inspiration for young girls
  2. Widespread participation of women in sports promotes healthy lifestyle, reduces anxiety, depression, loneliness and associated mental anomalies – Healthier mother leads to healthy children – Healthy society – Demographic dividend can be reaped
  3. Right to equality, Prohibition of discrimination on the basis of gender, right to dignified life are enshrined in the constitution and must be promoted in every field, sports is not an exception
  4. To fight against Patriarchal mindset of the society and to demolish the myth of Women inferiority

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

2) What do you understand by rights-based discourse in development? Is India following this discourse? Critically examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu

What is right based discourse in development?

RBA in development is a right that originates from the human rights.

It explains that every person should benefit from the development process as a matter of human right.

RBA is an approach to development cooperation that includes

  1. The respect for human rights,
  2. Human dignity of the target community,
  3. Assistance to the vulnerable groups as a matter of right and
  4. Guarenteed ownership to the community in decision making, accountability and grievance redressal

RBA is not a single method for providing developmental schemes, but it itself is the process and the outcome of development.

Core principles RBA are :

  1. Explicit, accurate use of the international human rights framework.
  2. Empowerment as a precondition for effective participation – As a matter of right
  3. Participation in development decisions – As a matter of human right
  4. Non-discrimination and
  5. Accountability of duty-bearers to rights-holders.

Is India following the discourse?

Yes, Partially, India is following right based approach in developmental programmes. These include

Right to Information (Right to know information about government activities among others) which fixes accountability, brings transparency in governance)

{But, poor awareness among the masses, threat to RTI activists from mafia, businessmen, weak Whistleblower protection provisions are some of the negative points}

Right to Education under Article 21 A

Provide right based free education to all children from 6-14 years of age

{But, poor implementation of the provisions, Poor quality of education despite universal enrollment at primary level are negatives. Moreover, Right to middle level and higher education is not granted which is also one of the basic right}

Right to food through National food security act

{But, only cereals are provided through PDS system and in some cases coarse cereals – Quantity not sufficient. Moreover, Pulses, vegetable oil are not provided leading to virtually government sponsored malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency}

Right to Local self government – Through 73rd and 74th amendment act

{Fund, functions, functionaries are not devolved, leading to under capacity, lack of initiative, lack of funds to implement the programme. Without, effective accountability, LSG bodies are moving towards decentralized corruption}

Right to employment through MGNREGA

Demand driven guaranteed unskilled employment to rural people

{Diversion, nexus between Govt. officials and contractors, panchayat official leads to leakages. In addition to that, guaranteed employement is only for unskilled labor limited 100 days per family. Hence, families have to perpetually depend on Govt. for employment since, the jobs are unskilled}

But, there is shift in government approach now, towards development schemes towards demand based investments like Atal Pension Yojana, NPS and other new insurance schemes, more damaging here is that investment must come from people not from the government.


 

TopicIndian Constitution- significant provisions and basic structure. 

3) The bans such as women’s entry into temples involve notions and norms which directly clash with ideas of modernity and are also incompatible with rights enshrined in the Constitution. Why do you think, despite functioning judiciary and democratic institutions, such practices continue unabated? How can such practices be stopped? Critically comment. (200 Words)

EPW

Why such practices continue unabated?

  1. Patriarchal society – Perception of superiority of males, impurity of females (due to menstruation, Patriarchal society promoted through Later vedic texts, Puranas, Brahmanas etc.
  2. Age old tradition – Established cultural notions and norms – Since, medieval period, male priests are heading the temple offerings and practice of prohibition of entry of women to temples —- It is unquestionably continued since then, strengthening this custom as a tradition
  3. Religious fundamentalism centre stage in place of liberal religious ideology – Orthodox ideology is taking centre stage due to better organization and appeal to emotional chord — No voice for liberal religious ideologues
  4. Social reformers of the stature of Raja ram mohan Roy, Chaitanya Mahaprahu, I.C.Vidyasagar, Jyothiba Phlule, Narayana Guru are lacking after Independent India, hence despite modernization we could not achieve equal status to women
  5. Lack of political will – to enforce strict regulation on the temple authorities and to act against orthodox elements due to fear of losing vote bank and elections. 

How can such practice be stopped?

  1. Widespread awareness regarding gender equality even in the realm of religion.

(We worship with equal respect and reverence, female deities like Durga, Amba, Vaishnodevi, Chamundeshwari, Saraswathi, Lakshmi, St.Mary are all worshipped without discrimination for greater good – Why there is discrimination against women to enter temple)

  1. Education on Gender equality since early stage through moral education and other educational initiatives – To prepare gender friendly future generation
  2. Research work on ancient texts which substantiates the equal rights t women- It provides a solid backing and legitimacy to the arguments of liberal ideologues
  3. Political will needed to enforce strict legislation
  4. Creation of rational society with scientific temper as mentioned in the constitution
  5. Sensitization campaign by providing the long history of departure from orthodox religious practices like Sati system, Devadasi system etc.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) What is an amendment to the Motion of Thanks on the President’s Address? Why is it resorted to? Give examples and examine significance of this amendment. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Amendment to motion of Thanks on President’s address

The President’s speech is a statement of the legislative and policy achievements of the government during the preceding year and gives a broad indication of the agenda for the year ahead.

Motion of Thanks is a discussion on the Presidential Address to both houses after the general election or at the beginning of budget Session as per Art 87.

If the opposition disagree with any part of the speech, amendments can be moved.   Amendments may refer to matters contained in the Address as well as to matters, in the opinion of the member, the Address has failed to mention. 

Examples

  1. In 2015, it was amended on the issue of black money
  2. This year the amendment focused on legislation passed by BJP in Rajasthan and Haryana limiting the rights of citizens to contest panchayat elections.
  3. Before this, three times amendments were moved during Indira Gandhi, V.P. Singh and Atal Bihari Vajpayee tenure.
  • Indira Gandhi tenure,1980 on the issue of engineering defections.
  • P.Singh government, 1989, when six amendments — including on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute and the India-Sri Lanka accord — were approved.
  • Vajapeyee government 2001, when the House adopted an amendment on the sale of a public sector undertaking, Balco, to a private company. 

Reasons and significance of amendment

It provides the forum for the opposition to,

  1. Convey the dissatisfaction against the government policies, legislations and regulations
  2. To highlight the issues of social importance which was not in the radar of government
  3. To enforce moral accountability on the ruling party against their inaction, mal administration and inefficiencies

 

TopicBilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 

5) Discuss the potential, opportunities and nature of relationship between India and Mexico. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

Potential and Opportunities:-
Energy Security :-
  • Mexico is a natural gateway for India into Latin America which provides atleast 16% of india’s crude oil import and a home to a potential market of 525 million people that includes three G-20 economies.
International Forums:-
  • The Latin American region is undertaking interesting projects like the Pacific Alliance, an integration initiative between Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Peru.India is already involved with the Pacific Alliance as an observer.
Business:-
  •  Approximately 60 Indian companies, mainly from the automotive, pharma and IT sectors, have invested in Mexico and have benefited from its position as part of two economic blocs.
  • it is the largest Latin American investor in India, with an influx of almost $1 billion during the last six years, comprising several Mexican companies that have made India their home in sectors such as auto-parts and entertainment.
Past experiences:-
  • India can gain experiences for its “Make in India” from Mexico’s “Made in Mexico” campaign to become a world-renowned manufacturing hub.
Trade:-
  • Bilateral Trade has shown a sharp increase of about 30% in the recent years with India being their 3rd largest importer of crude oil. Export items from Mexico include crude oil, chemicals, fertilizers, automobiles etc. While India’s exports comprises of textiles, pharmaceuticals, softwares etc. 
Science and Technology:-
  • Both countries also have a stimulating scientific and technological relationship, dating back to 1975. There is active cooperation in the fields of biotechnology and health, seismology, solar energy and water resources. 
  • Mexican space agencies have held a productive dialogue and are beginning to work on disaster management techniques to be used during geological phenomena like cyclones, floods and earthquakes. 
People to people contact:-
  • New era of our partnership, people-to-people contact should be even stronger.
Tourism:-
  • as one of the most powerful tools for building bridges and as an engine of development. Last year, Mexico  received more than 52,000 Indian visitors, a 52 per cent increase since 2013, 
FOOD SECURITY:
  • It was a Mexican wheat variety(sonora) that helped in solving the food grain crisis in India after independence.
CULTURAL TIES:
  • Sun worship was a common aspect between the two countries .Mexico and India have unique culture and there is an ingrained respect among both parties for each other. exchanges and orientations should be promoted.
Nature:-
  • In 1947, Mexico became the first Latin American nation to recognize the independence of India from the United Kingdom .
  • The relation between the two countries has always been distinguished by friendliness and cooperation with a general agreement over global issues.
  • Both have democracy and cordial relation with each other. They have 7 billion dollar trade.
  • However, Mexico is member of group, which opposes india’s bid for permanent seat in UNSC.
Mexico is important country for india’s’ look West policy ‘. Friendly relation between two countries will develop business, cultural interaction and tourism.

General Studies – 3


Topic: Environmental pollution

6) What do you understand by the the polluter-pays principle (PPP)? Critically discuss how is this principle interpreted and practiced in India. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Reference

Polluter Pays Principle(PPP) means that the polluter is liable to pay compensation to those affected. It aims at determining how the costs of pollution prevention and control must be allocated and efficient use of resources. Its objectives are Promoting economic efficiency,social justics,harmonization of international environmental policies.
The principle is seen in the larger context of the link between environmental law and socio-economic policies of a country since if the government undertakes the task of cleaning the environment, taxpayers money will be involved in cleaning the pollution caused by few. Also, this principle promotes sustainable development as it acts as a negative feedback mechanism upon the polluter.
Practice of this principle in India has been seen in the following –
  • Constitutional provisions – Art 21 of the Constitution has been interpreted to include right to clean environment, while Art 48A and Art 51A(g) charges the State and individual with environment protection
  • Judicial interpretation – In Vellore Citizen’s Case PPP was considered as a component of environmental law while in Environment Civil Liability Case(2013), Madras HC implemented it while reopening a copper plant
  • Legislations –The Water Act, Air Act and Environment Protection Act contain provision of PPP as interpreted by SC while Forest Conservation Act(1980) provides for Compensatory Forestry
  • Proactive nature of government institutions in monitoring the damages done to the environment.For instance National Green Tribunal imposed 5 crore fine in Delhi for the damage done to the Yamuna flood plain in the organisation of world culture festival.
  • It was due to the fact that the Nuclear companies were earlier not willing to Invest in India because of unlimited liability.
Problems:
  • Identifying who is a polluter – this is the biggest challenge for any government as it is difficult to define a polluter whether the industries that produce goods or the citizens that consume these goods.
  • Rational disinterest – common man has a fear to sue a company, as he is of the opinion that he gets entangled in legal disputes for many years and of course this fear is a proven fact. example – bhopal gas tragedy.
  • compensation is very meagre – often, this compensation is claimed by certain groups who are directly affected. 
  • problems in assessment of damages- this often leads to poor compensation.
  • injurer may not be able to pay high amount of damages- this is the biggest challenge to impose hefty fines on the culprits. one way to remedy this is to have an insurance cover for the damages caused by the companies or individuals.
  •  India isn’t a strict imposer of PPP because it may hamper its trade and development.
Thus scientific methods to determine costs of damage, to adjust incentives to promote environmental protection , and a fine balance between development and environment should be struck.

Topic: Economics of animal rearing

7) It is said that Aquaculture, along with crop production and dairy and livestock farming, has an important role to play in  ensuring nutrition and food security. Discuss its potential, especially in India. (200 Words)

Down to Earth

Increasing importance of aquaculture along with livestock and dairy farming, crop farming can be explained as:
  • Fish has an important role to play in nutrition and food security. Fish is ‘nature’s superfood’, an important source of proteins and healthy fats, a unique source of essential nutrients, including long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, iodine, vitamin D, and calcium
  • Consumption of fish is the key to good health. It is especially crucial for women during pregnancy and lactation.The nutrients in fish promote optimal brain development, regulate the immune system and build healthy bones.
  • Food Security :- 
    • fish waste and losses, reducing which can meet our growing food security needs.
    • Aquaponics is receiving increasing attention as a viable method for providing fish protein, vegetables and profits to families and small communities
    • Around 200 million people globally rely on fisheries either directly or indirectly for their livelihoods.
    • the need to build resilience along the seafood-value chain in view of climate change and extreme weather events.
    • aquaculture’s highest growth rates have recently been in Africa and south and central Americas, where its marginal contribution to food security can be higher than elsewhere due to the fact that per-capita consumption of fish in these regions has traditionally been low.
Potential in India:
  • vibrancy of the sector can be visualized by the 11–fold increase that India achieved in fish production in just six decades, i.e. from 0.75 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 9.6 million tonnes during 2012–13. This resulted in an unparalleled average annual growth rate of over 4.5 percent over the years which has placed the country on the forefront of global fish production, only after China.
  • Besides meeting the domestic needs, the dependence of over 14.5 million people on fisheries activities for their livelihood and foreign exchange earnings to the tune of US$ 3.51 billion (2012–13) from fish and fisheries products, amply justifies the importance of the sector on the country’s economy and in livelihood security.
  • As the second largest country in aquaculture production, the share of inland fisheries and aquaculture has gone up from 46 percent in the 1980s to over 85 percent in recent years in total fish production.
  • Huge coast line and Inland water – India is gifted with huge cast line and varieties of fish agriculture can be evolved along this coast line. On the other hand, Inland water fisheries is also in demand, India has huge network of rivers, streams,estuaries backwater etc.
  •  Sufficient demographic dividend- The aquaculture sector can offer gainful employment to rural dwellers, and particularly rural youth, who could work in the sector rather than migrate to urban areas or abroad in search of work.
  • Technological advancement- This can help to breed various species, fisheries agriculture pattern. Technology and Research and development in this sector is also necessary in context of climate change and increasing population.
  • Food Processing Industry- India is focusing to boost it’s food processing industry, it can provide backward and forward linkages for Fisheries sector.
  • India also have some unique species of fisheries like Prawns, which are in high demand in global market.
  • It will help a great deal in reducing gender discrimination as women are heavily involved in this sector

 

General Studies – 4


Topic: Quality of service delivery

8) Service delivery is key to the development of rural regions. Which are the key policy areas that government can address to improve service delivery in rural areas? Discuss. (200 Words)

OECD

A developed rural region which has access to basic facilities required for a human is the best indication of the prosperity of a country .The path to development is Service delivery and the areas a government should take care for improving is discussed below :
  • The first aspect is of government going to the countryside to understand the aspirations and problems of the rural masses which can help in addressing the bottlenecks in service delivery by maximum SOCIAL INCLUSION.
  • The second aspect is of encompassing the local leaders in policy formation and implementation , which will help improve ACCOUNTABILITY thereby raise the standards in service delivery.
  • The third aspect of improving service delivery is by OPENNESS , in making all the challenges involved in the public domain for frequent suggestions from the citizens to help correct any flaw while delivering as well as giving an opportunity for the government in raising funds from the Samaritans in times of shortage of money.
  • policy makers need to develop empathy with the problems of rural population.They need to show the aptitude to recognise the strengths and flaws bestowed upon the area by its geography to design proper channel of service delivery.
  • Compassion towards the marginalised should drive the service delivery to make them not only passive recipients but an equal partners to attain twin objectives of equity and efficiency.
  • To bring out inter regional equity,building forward linkages with urban areas is necessary
  • engaging with the local level leaders to enhance their capacity building and achieve goals of inclusive governance.
  • Tolerance towards the social differences and measures to bring about harmony by taking sensitivities of people shall provide conducive atmosphere for innovations.
A comprehensive participation between the government and the citizens is the need of the hour to enhance the quality of service to the common man .