Insights Daily Current Events, 24 December 2014
IITH working hard to make 5G dream come true
Students and academia of the IITH are immersed in developing 5G cellular wireless communication technology, which would be on a par with global standards.
- The indigenous development of technology could be of immense value to India in view of the low cost of development coupled with high performance possibilities.
About the proposed system:
- The proposed architecture for 5G is Cloud Radio Access Network (CRAN) under which a central cloud (server) would be established at a convenient location where it is easy to handle.
- It would be connected with large number of low-power Remote Radio Headends (RRHs) through fibre optics.
- These RRHs can be fitted at any place without much expenditure as it was expected to cost about Rs. 5,000 each and supposed to cover about 20 km distance. These RRHs are lost cost, low power consuming and offer high capacity.
- This system offers convergence of cellular, WiFi, sensors, Machine to Machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (inter communication and data transfer between embedded systems without human intervention) on single platform – cloud.
- This technology will offer lot of advantages like establishing communication networks in remote areas with less cost and accessing data very fast without a fraction of interruption. The wireless sensors that would be established under this system with easy to communicate can be crucial in developing smart cities. This will be much in use once the broadband optical fibre network was established both in rural and urban areas.
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) also known as Tactile Internet denotes the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards.
Sources: The Hindu, Wiki.
Arms treaty comes into force today
A treaty laying down international rules for the $85 billion dollar global arms trade came into force on Wednesday with campaigners vowing to make sure it is strictly implemented.
- The U.S. — by far the world’s largest arms producer and exporter — has signed the treaty, but has yet to ratify it.
- Other key exporters such as France, Britain and Germany have ratified the charter and pledged to adhere to its strict criteria aimed at cutting off weapons supplies to human rights violators worldwide.
- It is the first major arms accord since the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) is a multilateral, legally-binding agreement that establishes common standards for the international trade of conventional weapons and seeks to reduce the illicit arms trade.
Aim of the Treaty: The treaty aims to reduce human suffering caused by illegal and irresponsible arms transfers, improve regional security and stability, as well as to promote accountability and transparency by state parties concerning transfers of conventional arms.
- On 2 April 2013, the UN General Assembly adopted the ATT.
- A total of 130 countries have signed the treaty and 60 have ratified it, including Israel. China and Russia have yet to sign on.
- The arms trade treaty is predicated upon a hypothesis that the illicit trade in small arms is a large and serious problem requiring global action through the UN.
- The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs claimed the treaty would not: interfere with domestic arms commerce or the right to bear arms in its member states; ban the export of any type of weapon; harm the legitimate right to self-defence; or undermine national arms regulation standards already in place. Advocates of the treaty say that it only pertains to international arms trade, and would have no effect on current domestic laws.
- Over thirty states have objected to various parts of the ATT during negotiations, the majority of which held strong concerns about the implications for national sovereignty.
What the Arms Trade Treaty Does:
- The Arms Trade Treaty requires all states-parties to adopt basic regulations and approval processes for the flow of weapons across international borders, establishes common international standards that must be met before arms exports are authorized, and requires annual reporting of imports and exports to a treaty secretariat.
- Prohibits arms transfer authorizations to states if the transfer would violate obligations under measures adopted by the United Nations Security Council.
- Requires states to assess the potential that the arms exported would contribute to or undermine peace and security.
- Requires that states “establish and maintain a national control system to regulate the export of ammunition/munitions fired, launched or delivered by” the conventional arms.
- Requires each state to take the appropriate measures, pursuant to its national laws, to regulate brokering taking place under its jurisdiction” of conventional arms.
- Requires each state to take measures to prevent diversion of conventional arms.
- Requires each state to submit annually to the treaty secretariat a report of the preceding year’s “authorized or actual export and imports of conventional arms.
Sources: The Hindu, Wiki, ATT.org.
Control on DOPE Menace
The Minister of State for Youth Affairs and Sports has said that from January, 2011 to 18th December, 2014, a total 16,249 dope samples were collected by National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA), out of which sanctions were imposed in 471 cases of anti-doping rules violations in accordance with NADA Anti-Doping Rules 2010.
The Government has repeatedly announced zero tolerance for violators of the anti-doping regulations. Government and National Anti-Doping Agency are working towards “Dope Free” Sports in the country to create a clean and healthy environment for sports in India. Main steps taken in this regard are as follows:-
- NADA is conducting dope tests during in-competition and out-of-competition on sportspersons and action is taken in case of NADA rule violations.
- NADA has conducted numerous workshops, educational and awareness programmes about the prohibited substances and methods in sports across the country for sports persons, young athletes, coaches and supporting staff.
- In the fight against doping, NADA has initiated anti-called doping campaign “Programme for Education and Awareness on Anti Doping in Sports” (PEADS) involving all the stakeholders across the country.
- NADA has been putting up posters and banners during sports events for enhancing awareness in this regard.
- NADA is coordinating with CBSE schools and School Games Federation of India both at National and Regional levels for programs regarding anti-doping measures through sport events organized by the Federations.
- Keeping special focus on rural sports centers, various Anti-Doping awareness Symposia and workshops have been conducted in the Sports Authority of India Training Centres in rural areas
National Capital Territory of Delhi Laws (Special Provisions) Amendment Bill, 2014 passed by Parliament
The National Capital Territory of Delhi Laws (Special Provisions) Amendment Bill, 2014 has been passed by Parliament.
About the Bill:
- The Bill seeks to extend the validity of the National Capital Territory of Delhi Laws (Special Provisions) Second Act, 2011 upto 2017.
- As per the provisions, orderly arrangements has to be made for relocation or rehabilitation of slum dwellers and Jhuggi-Jhopri clusters; regulation of street vendors; regularization of unauthorized colonies, village abadi areas and their extensions and existing farm houses; regularization of schools, dispensaries, religious and cultural institutions, storages, warehouses and godowns built on agricultural land; redevelopment of existing godown clusters and building regulations for Special Areas.
- The objective of the extension of time is not only to protect certain forms of unauthorized developments from punitive action in the National Capital Territory of Delhi but also to provide for opportunity to the Government agencies to finalize the norms, policy guidelines and feasible strategies as well as the orderly implementation of the plan in this regard.
- The Bill seeks orderly arrangements pursuant to guidelines and regulations for regularization of unauthorized colonies, village abadi areas (including urban villages) and their extensions.