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Insights Daily Current Events, February 10, 2014

By- DEEPA M

February 10,2014.

National News-  

Development of Buddhism Tourism

  • The ministry of tourism attempts to identify integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage, and culture including Buddhist tourism in partnership with states, private sector, other agencies. Ministry of tourism identified three circuits to be developed as Buddhist circuits in the country.
  • While identifying the designated circuits efforts have been made to plug infrastructure gaps like rail/road linkages and provide better amenities to tourists.
  • A loan agreement with Japan international cooperation agency for phase II of Ajanta Ellora conservation a tourism development project signed in 2003.

Deep Sea Exploration Ship of GSI 

  • Geological Survey of India (GSI) has procured an Oceanographic Research Vessel (ORV) named R.V. Samudra Ratnakar.
  • R.V. Samudra Ratnakar is a multi-disciplinary research vessel with state-of-the-art equipments for undertaking sea bed geological, geophysical and geochemical mapping and exploration of offshore mineral resources within Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India and beyond.
  • The data generated will create a national database in field of geological oceanography and offshore mineral resources. 
  • The research vessel is fitted with modern multi-channel seismic system which records bottom simulating reflections, which is one of the manifestations of occurrence of gas hydrate below the sea bed. Further, seabed surface manifestation of gas hydrate like pock marks, cold seep etc. can be identified by the use of synthetic aperture sonar, remotely operated vehicle etc. installed on board in this vessel. 

Research vessel

  • A research vessel (RV or R/V) is a ship designed and equipped to carry out research at sea. Research vessels carry out a number of roles.
  • Some of these roles can be combined into a single vessel, others require a dedicated vessel. Due to the demanding nature of the work, research vessels are often constructed around an icebreaker hull, allowing them to operate in polar waters.
  • Some other notable early research vessels were HMS BeagleRV CalypsoHMS ChallengerUSFC Albatross, and the Enduranceand Terra Nova.

 

Hydrographic survey

  • A hydrographic survey ship is a vessel designed to conduct hydrographic research and surveyNautical charts are produced from this information to ensure safe navigation by military and civilian shipping.
  • Hydrographic survey vessels also conduct seismic surveys of the seabed and the underlying geology. Apart from producing the charts, this information is useful for detecting geological features which are likely to bear oil or gas.
  • These vessels usually mount equipment on a towed structure, for example, air cannons, used to generate a high pressure shock wave to sound the strata beneath the seabed, or mounted on the keel, for example, a depth sounder.
  • In practice, hydrographic survey vessels are often equipped to perform multiple roles. Some function also as oceanographic research ships. Naval hydrographic survey vessels often do naval research, for example, on submarine detection.
  • An example of a hydrographic survey vessel is CCGS Frederick G. Creed. For an example of the employment of a survey ship seeHMS Hydra.
  • Oceanographic research vessels carry out research on the physicalchemical and biological characteristics of water, theatmosphere and climate, and to these ends carry equipment for collecting water samples from a range of depths, including the deep seas, as well as equipment for the hydrographic sounding of the seabed, along with numerous other environmental sensors.
  • These vessels often also carry scientific divers and unmanned underwater vehicles. Since the requirements of both oceanographic and hydrographic research are very different from those of fisheries research, these boats often fulfil dual roles.
  • An example of an oceanographic research vessel is NOAAS Ronald H. Brown.
  • fisheries research vessel (FRV) requires platforms which are capable of towing different types of fishing nets, collecting plankton or water samples from a range of depths, and carrying acoustic fish-finding equipment.
  • Fisheries research vessels are often designed and built along the same lines as a large fishing vessel, but with space given over to laboratories and equipment storage, as opposed to storage of the catch.
  • An example of a fisheries research vessel is FRV Scotia.
  • Naval research vessels investigate naval concerns, such as submarine and mine detection, sonar and weapon trialling.
  • An example of a naval research vessel is the Planet of the German Navy.
  • Polar research vessels are constructed around an icebreaker hull, allowing them to operate in polar waters.
  • These boats usually have dual roles, particularly in the Antarctic where they function also as polar replenishment and supply vessels to the Antarctic research bases.
  • An example of a polar research vessel is USCGC Polar Star.
  • Oil exploration is performed in a number of ways, one of the most common being mobile drilling platforms or ships that are moved from area to area as needed to drill into the seabed to find out what deposits may or may not lie beneath it.

Oceanographic research

  • Oceanographic research vessels carry out research on the physicalchemical and biological characteristics of water, theatmosphere and climate, and to these ends carry equipment for collecting water samples from a range of depths, including the deep seas, as well as equipment for the hydrographic sounding of the seabed, along with numerous other environmental sensors.
  • These vessels often also carry scientific divers and unmanned underwater vehicles. Since the requirements of both oceanographic and hydrographic research are very different from those of fisheries research, these boats often fulfil dual roles.
  • An example of an oceanographic research vessel is NOAAS Ronald H. Brown.
  • fisheries research vessel (FRV) requires platforms which are capable of towing different types of fishing nets, collecting plankton or water samples from a range of depths, and carrying acoustic fish-finding equipment.
  • Fisheries research vessels are often designed and built along the same lines as a large fishing vessel, but with space given over to laboratories and equipment storage, as opposed to storage of the catch.
  • An example of a fisheries research vessel is FRV Scotia.
  • Naval research vessels investigate naval concerns, such as submarine and mine detection, sonar and weapon trialling.
  • An example of a naval research vessel is the Planet of the German Navy.
  • Polar research vessels are constructed around an icebreaker hull, allowing them to operate in polar waters.
  • These boats usually have dual roles, particularly in the Antarctic where they function also as polar replenishment and supply vessels to the Antarctic research bases.
  • An example of a polar research vessel is USCGC Polar Star.
  • Oil exploration is performed in a number of ways, one of the most common being mobile drilling platforms or ships that are moved from area to area as needed to drill into the seabed to find out what deposits may or may not lie beneath it.

Economics

Informal Employment

  • 8% of India’s labour force gets minimum wages, employment benefits, safe working condition and leave benefits.
  • India’s economically questionable employee benefits regime means that the take home salary of someone earning Rs 55000 per month is 9% less than gross salary while the take home salary of person who earns 5500 a month is 49% less than their gross salary.
  • India will benefit more from fixing the current regressive benefits regime, which requires 6 times greater deductions for a person earning a 10 time lower salary is not competitive has ensured that 100% of net job creation since 1991 has taken place in informal sector.
  • Increase in Formal employment growth shall be with 5 changes in following-
  1. Mandatory 12% employee provident fund contribution must be abolished. Poor management and harassment by EPFO created more orphan accounts.
  2. Employee pension scheme must be scrapped and shall have choices for other EPS schemes.
  3. Employees must have option between EFPO and the national pension scheme.
  4. Employees must be allowed to choose between the employee’s state insurance corporation and health insurance.
  5. Five-year limit or gratuity must be removed.

 

  • Increasing formal job creation is India’s biggest challenge and right direction would be to fix employment benefits regime.