PASSAGE – 5 Mins
In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist, multinational comparison of women’s electoral participation ever to use election data and survey data together. His study analyzed women’s patterns of voting, political candidacy, and political activism in four European countries during the first half of the twentieth century. Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote) and were slightly more conservative.
Duverger’s work set an early standard for the sensitive analysis of women’s electoral activities. Moreover, to Duverger’s credit, he placed his findings in the context of many of the historical processes that had shaped these activities. However, since these contexts have changed over time, Duverger’s approach has proved more durable than his actual findings. In addition, Duverger’s discussion of his findings was hampered by his failure to consider certain specific factors important to women’s electoral participation at the time he collected his data: the influence of political regimes, the effects of economic factors, and the ramifications of political and social relations between women and men. Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach ‘to the multinational study of women’s political participation.
Questions 1-6 refer to the passage above.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) evaluate a research study
(B) summarize the history of a research area
(C) report new research findings
(D) reinterpret old research findings
(E) reconcile conflicting research findings
2. According to the passage, Duverger’s study was unique in 1955 in that it
(A) included both election data and survey data
(B) gathered data from sources never before used in political studies
(C) included an analysis of historical processes
(D) examined the influence on voting behavior of the relationships between women and men
(E) analyzed not only voting and political candidacy but also other political activities
3. Which of the following characteristics of a country is most clearly an example of a factor that Duverger, as described in the passage, failed to consider in his study?
(A) A large population
(B) A predominantly Protestant population
(C) A predominantly urban population
(D) A one-party government
(E) Location in the heart of Europe
4. The author implies that Duverger’s actual findings are
(A) limited because they focus on only four countries
(B) inaccurate in their description of the four countries in the early 1950’s
(C) out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today
(D) flawed because they are based on unsound data
(E) biased by Duverger’s political beliefs
5. The passage implies that, in comparing four European countries, Duverger found that the voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women
(A) were most politically active
(B) ran for office most often
(C) held the most conservative political views
(D) had the most egalitarian relations with men
(E) had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time
6. The author implies that some behavioralist research involving the multinational study of women’s political participation that followed Duverger’s study did which of the following?
(A) Ignored Duverger’s approach
(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in Duverger’s study
(C) Focused on political activism
(D) Focused on the influences of political regimes
(E) Focused on the political and social relations between women and men
SOLUTIONS – DAY -7
1 – ( C ); 2 – ( D ); 3- (D ); 4- ( A); 5 – (E )
1. a. M is between N and L at equal distance and L is in 5th floor. Hence M should be either in floor 3 or 4
2. d. If N is on 1st floor M would be in floor 3. And from condition Q is on a higher floor than O it’s always on floor higher than 3.
3. d. If O and Q are in adjacent floor none of a, b and c is right hence d
4. d. Q can be on 6th floor hence O can be on floor 1 or 2