Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge – Day – 30

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QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY – 30 (19/08/2013)

1) Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.

 2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.

3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.(100 words)

RESPONSES:

  1. abhishek
    3 Votes

     

    3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon
    *Intertropical convergence zone is the zone of conversion of the northeastern and southeastern tradewinds in a narrow zone near the equator i.e.in tropics.The ITCZ depending upon the location of the sun fluctuates above and below the equator.This fluctuation is more pronounced over land than over oceans.This is a zone of calmness over the seas and has been historically named as doldrums by the ancient sailors.
    Monsoon is the seasonal reversal of wind direction across the equator which cause torrential rains and thunderstroms in the south asian region.After the end of winter in the northern hemisphere the ITCZ has a tendency to shift northwards from the equator,this inturn causes the reversal of southeast trade winds direction which when crosses the equator starts flowing southwest because of the earth’s coriolis effect.This SW trade wind picks up heavy misture while flowing over the indian ocean and sheds them as Monsoon In indian sub continent and parts of south asia.This process continues till ITCZ shifts back southwards To the equator and beyond.

  2. 4 Votes

     

    3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.

    Ans- ITCZ can be defined as the region of convergence of north-east & south-east trade winds. This zone, that encircles the whole earth nearby the equator, changes its position throughout the year. While in summers, it shifts northward, whereas in winters, it shifts southward.

    As far as India is concerned, position of ITCZ lies along northern India while in winter, it shifts towards Indian ocean. Since, the monsoonal winds move toward the convergence point , this changing position of ITCZ is responsible for the monsoonal reversals.. Hence, in summer, it flows toward north India over rajasthan from Ocean, while in winters, the winds blow toward the convergence point over the Indian ocean.

  3. RV
    2 Votes

     

    3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.(100 words)

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) is the region where the North East Trade Winds and the South East Trade Winds converge at the doldrums.With the apparent migration of the sun the ITCZ shifts to the north or south.

    As per Flohn’s concept there is an exceptional bend of ITCZ over Indian landmass in the high sun season .Due to this shift the South East moisture lade trade winds of the southern hemisphere cross over the equator and under the influence of Coriolis force between 40-60 0 E longitude are deflected to the right into the Indian landmass as South West monsoons.
    This exceptional bend further acts as the boundary for the North East Trade Winds and the Sub tropical Jet and facilitates the genesis of the Tropical Easterly Jet which helps in the movement of the monsoons.

  4. RV
    1 Vote

     

    1) Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.

    Basholi Paintings are considered to be the first school of the Pahari (Miniature) Paintings which later evolved into a more profilic Kangra School of Painting. Both these schools originated at the foothills of the Himalayas in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh depict the religious beliefs, poetry , music and are deeply rooted in the feelings and experiences of the hillmen .

    The Basholi School has a distinctive style of using 2-Dimesnsional domain to avail greater space for detail. Love being the main theme of these paintings these are associated with vigorous , bold and imaginative artistic style with a vigorous use of primary colours. It has a distinctive , stylized facial construct with huge eyes and the use of raised drops of white paint to depict jewellery and beetle wings for emeralds in the paintings.

    The Guler School is considered to be the birthplace of Kangra paintings in many ways. The effect of the Bhakti movement and Jayadev’s Gita Govind established the theme of “ shringar” dealing with the love story of Radha Krishna at the heart of this school. The feminine figures are artistically and gracefully depicted in these paintings which celebrate the themes of life and love. The School has a distinctive style of using many shades of primary colours especially green to depict great sceneries , nocturnal scenes with elabaorate landscapes.These colours are made from vegetable and mineral extracts.

    Both these schools are greatly influenced by the Rajput School of paintings as Rajputs were the main patrons and these paintings are more of aristocratic art rather than folk art. This has had its effect with the lack of 3 dimensional depictions and absence of light and shadow effects in these paintings.

  5. lakshmi prasanna
    3 Votes

     

    “The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.

    This was the statement made by Nehru regarding tribal inhabits in north east frontiers. Intension is to emphasis the impact of freedom struggle in raising national consciousness. As it failed to feel them as part of India and they are one among the India’s ethnic cultures.
    Before independence most of the north eastern part was under British control and they were undeveloped. It lost its connection with rest of India. People residing there were not much knowing about the freedom struggle. They use to hear about the rumors of freedom struggle and react in either ways that is positive and negative because they lack in knowledge that they are also Indians. After independence many Christian missionaries encouraged them in demanding separate nationality showing their cultural differences. But missionary’s tactics were successfully thrown out by the national leaders and made it part of India named the area as north east frontier agency. But still national consciousness was not observed due to language hurdles, ethnic difference, lack of connection with rest of India where food is supplied only through air, and illiteracy. Nehru’s influence provided them sixth schedule of india for preserving their culture and to remove people’s fears about extinction of their culture. The area was made an autonomous body administered by separate administrators with help of tribal commissions. Established schools, constructed roads for communication and tried to resolve all their problems for development.
    Steps like giving education in their tribal languages by using davanagari script are advisable. Better administration and communication is needed to encourage them to develop in their own lines. Environment to make bonds between them and other parts of India is urgent to make them psychologically Indians.

  6. vipul
    1 Vote

     

    2) The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.
    Pandit J. L. Nehru made the above statement when question of North –easte front’s integration in to the Union of India was brought in to discussion after the Independence. North eastern front was as diverse as whole of India put together. Majority of population in these regions were Tribals. They were hundreds of groups who spoke different languages & belonged to different cultural group.
    What put them apart from rest of the country’s tribal population was their relatively high degree of isolation over a long period. Under British rule, these areas were given special administrative status. British did not affect the socio-political structure & polices were formed to keep the non-tribal people from away from these regions. While British let the middle men , money lenders, non tribals etc. penetrate the tribal areas in rest of the India, their approach was totally different in NE India.
    British allowed Christian missionaries to enter these areas and open schools, churches & hospitals. Missionaries not only influenced the culture of local population in these regions but also kept the nationalist influence out of tribal area. Concept of India as ‘nation’ evolved during the phases of struggle for freedom. Struggle brought people from different regions, caste & class together to fight a common enemy, British Imperialism.
    But spirit of freedom struggle was not successful to bring the north east people under its influence. Tribals in north east could never experience the feeling of India as a nation. Only outsiders they had contacted over a course of time were British officials or missionaries workers.
    Degree of Isolation was the reason that Indian government took special measure when integrating north east front in Indian union. Majority of development policies were formed without disturbing the socio-cultural pattern in this region. Constitution’s sixth schedule also provided special autonomy in legislative &judicial matters to the regional councils & autonomous districts.

    3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.(100 words)
    ITCZ are the zones near equator where trade winds flowing from south west direction in Southern continent & trade winds from north east direction in northern continent converges. This Zone is also known as doldrums due to the absence of horizontal movement of air.
    Normally, Inter tropical zones are found on both sides of equator from 5 degree north to 5 degree south. But position of ITCZ is not permanent & It keeps changing throughout the year depending on land & ocean’s surface condition.
    Monsoon is the seasonal change in directions of winds. Monsoon patterns are found in different regions of the world like western Africa, Asia and Australia. Seasonal winds flowing from Bay of Bengal & Arabian Sea bring heavy rainfall in Indian subcontinent with in a span of one month (June-July).These seasonal winds are known as south western monsoon in India.
    Though the Monsoon is linked to the rains but there are dry phases too during monsoon period. Nearly 60 percent of India agriculture land is rain-fed. Considering monsoon’s influence on agriculture sector which employs nearly 50 % of country’s population, Monsoon are sometime referred as real Finance minister of India

  7. SREEJESH
    5 Votes

     

    3) Inter-tropical Convergence Zone And Monsoons.
    The North-Easterly and South-Easterly trade winds converge in a zone around Equator known as Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.During summer season these ITCZ moves towards Tropic of Cancer and extends further towards Himalayas.At the same time intense heating of land masses takes place all over India.This intense heating of land mass and movement of ITCZ creates a low pressure area over land.The South-Easterly winds under “coriolis” effect deflects South-West and along with it carry loads of moisture and starts flowing towards these low pressure areas.These winds are known as “Monsoon winds” and are responsible for bringing rainfall in South-East Asia and particularly in our country.
    During winters, the ITCZ moves towards south of Equator intense cooling of land masses results in high pressure area and North-East winds starts blowing over the land creating dry conditions in the sub-continent.

  8. Shubhangi
    2 Votes

     

    “The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.

    (Writing through mobile, so please forgive spelling mistakes if any.)

    Indian freedom struggle was a mass movement to liberate India from the exploitative rule of British. Liberating force for this came from various ideological basis such as revolutionary nationalism, Gandhin non violence,satyagrah, swaraj and Nehruvian socialism. Indian National Congress was the main organ to unleash this liberating force to masses to ensure their wider participation. But despite the presence of Indian national movement in India and abroad, it failed to mainstream the tribal people of North East india. There were several reasons for such failure. First, tribals of NE inhabited remote and isolated areas which were difficult to approach to ensure their participation. Second, tribals of NE were different from rest of the country culturally and racially. Third, British initially followed the policy of non interference in tribal areas and introduced land reforms and infrastructure projects at later stage. So tribal people realised the exploitative nature of British very late. And last, even many Indians left no opportunity to exploit tribals of NE as moneylender and land encroachers.

    Due to twin exploitation- by British and by some greedy Indians, tribals remained against both. Various tribal movements such as Garo movement, Kuki movement and Khasi movement not only aimed at british but also at greedy Indian zamindar and moneylenders. These tribal movements were never aimed at removing British rule but only to restore earlier social order as they failed to realise that the root cause of their exploitation was in British rule. And various liberating forces of independence including congress failed to develop this vision in tribal groups of North-East.

  9. RV
    1 Vote

     

    The above given statement by Pandit Nehru establishes this notion of the segregation of the Tribal areas from the influence of the national movement.

    However the NorthEast stayed aloof of such developments due to non intrusive policies of the British . No one but the missionaries were allowed to venture into these areas . For tribals in other regions their socio-political structure , their dependence on forests for their livelihood , their ancient practices of agriculture , were all destroyed once the market forces entered the other tribal regions and religious beliefs and superstitions were constantly being challenged by the non tribal communities they came in contact with .

    The missionaries in North East tried to influence their socio-religious beliefs and at the same time imparted anti-India feelings to the tribals and kept them cocooned away from the ensuing freedom struggle. The difficult terrain of the region also restricted the benefits of new modes of communication. At the same time modern education though limited along with the increased communications in rest of India through newspapers , railways brought in new rationalist , humanist and nationalist ideas to the people. This made them realize root cause of their exploitation which was resisted through the various peasant and tribal struggles which progressively was streamlined into the national movement.

    Post Independence Nehru along with Elwin sought to end this isolation through Special provisions including the Sixth Schedule , establishment of Tribal Autonomous Regions , grating of special powers to President and Governor to safeguard the tribal interests , reservation in the administrative and political domain.

    However the region has a long history of secessionist movements which have continued unabated to the present day and in light of these the recent amendments like PESA act, Skill Development Programme aim to further empower the people at the grass roots level to terminate the problem once and for all.

  10. Hasan
    2 Votes

     

    2-The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.
    Indian freedom struggle was one of the most important and unique freedom movement.Our forefathers who have sacrificed for us to make this country abode of freedom of conscience,human rights and an example of development which was not there at the time of British rule.Freedom struggle was started with great zeal in the year 1857 and even before that and every community have sacrifice their beloved sons and daughters .
    But we are not able to develop the Ramrajya or Utopian system of governance which our forefathers have planned for us.We are not able to create equality and inclusive development.
    Because of many reasons areas which were away from center of industries remained backward.People,specially tribals who have their own culture and language could not come up from the vicious cycle of poverty…Jharkhand,Orissa,chattishgarh,west bengal.North east ares are example of this.Not only in terms of development of industry but also in education,employment and freedom of thoughts . Poverty backwardness,superstitions,child labour,female infanticide,child marriage have engulfed them.
    Result of all this has made people to respond not rationally for their needs..Rise of violent movement like naxalism and maoist is result of this lack of this development.
    But the picture is not gloomy still there is hope .As the present rate of growth causing to send its fruits in these ares as well.We can hope the in near future we ll be able to fulfill desire of our forefathers.

    3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon

    India is a country dependent on monsoon for agricullture. Monsoon in itself a complex system of seasonal winds. Intertropical convergence zone is one of the factor responsible for the reversal of direction of winds. Intertropical convergence zone is low pressure area or trough.In the month of june this low pressure area developed near Tibetan pleateau. So wind Blows from both side to converge in this trough .When winds blows from sea to land it picks moisture .which cause further rainfall in India .Monsoon winds on reaching Indian territories divide itself into two parts one is of Arabian sea branch and other is of gulf of Bengal branch.These two monsoon ‘s branch cause heavy rainfall in India from June to september. India agriculture is heavily dependent on this monsoon

  11. Evika
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    1)Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.
    Basohli and Kangra schools of art are famous for their miniature style. The former was the first school of Pahari paintings, which later developed into Kangra School by mid 18th century.
    Distinctive features of Basohli are the enthusiastic use of primary colors and an unusual facial formula that is oval in shape with a receding forehead and large expressive eyes like lotus petals. Some paintings have a single subject placed separately into a square frame that depicts an understanding of space sense. The paintings emphasize folk art. The school developed under Raja Kripal Pal.
    Kangra School gives attention to details and is characterized by convoluted landscape filled with blossoming plants, creepers, leafless trees and rivulets. The paintings are huge with countless figures showing diversity of subject matter. They use fresh and cool colors made of mineral and vegetable extracts.
    With the eclipse of Mughal art during Aurangzeb’s rule, Rajput kings sheltered artists from Mughal court and hence these paintings are an amalgamation of Rajput and Mughal paintings. The male and female costumes, in particular, reflect Mughal style. They also have an influence of Rajasthani paintings especially in those expressing different moods of Radha-Krishna.

  12. Evika
    1 Vote

     

    2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.

    Due to the geographical isolation of the North-East region, there is an absence of its cultural and psychological integration with the mainland India. Even today many sections of population struggle for their freedom from India.
    Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru had tried to emphasize this seclusion and isolation of the NE through the above lines.
    The liberating force that helped in our independence could not solve the economic problems of NE and they still remain backward inspite of having abundant natural resources.
    The British had drawn an Inner Line beyond which only missionaries were allowed to travel. This contributed to the psychological separateness of the tribal. They encouraged tea plantations at the cost of other industries. Post independence, communications were disrupted when the Chittagong port was handed over to Pakistan. There is a lack of market accessibility, labour mobility, migration related issues, social exclusion and concentration of industries in certain parts of Assam. There have been frequent clashes in the region and AFSPA only shows the government’s inability to solve the problem with political measures.
    However, in the last 3 years, due to frequent Chinese incursions, all-weather roads are being constructed in the region. ASIDE scheme has been launched for providing central assistance to develop infrastructure facilities. NERLP project has been started with an objective to improve the livelihood, particularly of women, unemployed youth and disadvantaged sections of NE region.

    • Evika
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      Insights, with reference to your enlightening ‘tips for writing better answers in UPSC’ article, does ‘comment ‘mean giving a one sided view on the topic? So is the last paragraph i wrote not required?

      • Rate This Response!

         

        Evika,

        Comment doesn’t mean one sided opinion or a view – it depends on the nature of question. In the above question, you can take only one sided opinion for which you get plenty of evidences to strengthen your arguments.

        The final paragraph, in my opinion, is not relevant to the question. The context of the statement (given by Nehru) is the process of consolidation of India as a nation immediately after the independence. So, you should comment on how and why NE remained isolated because of British policies in spite of nationwide opinion against the British rule. (check page 142, India Since Independence – Bipan Chandra)

  13. Rate This Response!

     

    2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.

    India’s freedom struggle was a mass movt. Every class of society and every region contributed and strengthen the movement. But few regions of British India and its tribal population was out of that movt. They are tribal population of N-E India. But the failure to join the mass movt was not from their side. It was the failure of circumstances prevailing I British India and The failure of our nationalist leadership.

    British policy towards N-E tribal population was of noninterference in their matter by other population. Land reform was also initiated. But their plight did reduce. On the other hand , few Indian zamindars also did not loose the opportunity to exploit them. For them, there was no difference between British and Indian elite class. They could not understand the root cause of their plight was British imperialism. Whatever movt they initiated like Garo, Kuki were against British as well as Indian zamindars.

    They were racially and ethnically different from Indians. They were also in distance from main stream population. These factors keep aloof the nationalist leaders from those population. Nationalism could not spread among them. They could not be part of India as a nation.

    Their neutrality in Indian freedom struggle still felt when few ethnic groups show their tendency to go out of India. Indian Govt. has given those regions special status in schedule six but at the same time has taken repressive measures to curb anti-Indian tendency. It is our failure, failure of our Govt. that Govt. could not make them understand they are the part of India, they are also Indian.

  14. vipul
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    Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.

    Basholi and Kangra school of painting belong to Pahari school of painting. Pahari school of painting took its origin in Himalayan Kingdoms.This style of painting covered the regions of present day Jammu & kashmir,Himachal & Uttrakhand.

    Basholi is located in Jammu and Kashmir.This place was known for its palaces and miniature painting of Basholi style. Basholi is considered as first school of Pahari style of painting.
    Main features of Basholi style are:
    Use of striking color
    Painting in primary color red,blue,yellow
    Red borders,bold lines & rich symbols
    Large expressive eyes
    Most popular themes of painting come from Gita Govinda,Ragamala,Rasmanjari

    Kangra school of painting was evolved in first half of 18th century.Kangra is more evolved form of Basholi style of paintings. Kashmiri painters trained in Mughal art took shelter in court of Raja of Guler during this period.These painters got influenced by the local artist & surrounding atmosphere of hills and adopted a unique style of painting.
    Main features of Kangra style are:

    Miniature painting
    Themes based on love and life of Krishna,bhagvad purana,Gita Govinda
    Depiction of springs ,rivers,trees,birds,landscapes
    Beautiful depiction of female figures
    Use of natural colours

    Influences from other art forms

    Developed in 18th centuries,Pahari school of painting is considered as legacy of Rajasthani style.There is a faint influence of Mughal painting as well.For ex. Hindu characters in paintings have been shown in Mughal costumes
    Parameters used to depict the sentiments are same as in Rajasthani style
    Use of colours and folk art was predominant in Basholi style like the Mewar style.
    Themes like Radha-Krishna,Gita Govinda etc was also prevalent in Rajasthani style of painting
    use of colors and beautiful depiction of female figures particularly noticeable in the Kangra style was same as in Bundi and Kishangarh styles

  15. Manish
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    3) Intertropical convergence zone and monsoon

    Near the equator (5 degree N to 5 degree S), warm air rises and colder air moves beneath it. As the warm air rises it forms huge clouds and thunderstorms over the ocean, an area called ITCZ. It is the zone along which trade wind systems of northern and southern hemispheres.
    The location of ITCZ zone greatly affect the rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in wet and dry sessions as against cold and warm session of higher altitude.
    The movement of ITCZ over ocean is constrained by the distribution of the ocean temperatures but over land is movers back and forth across the equator following sun’s zenith point
    During northern summer, ITCZ moved northwards and asian continent is warmer than adjacent ocean. Thus warm continental air rises and air is drawn from ocean towards land. This is the time of southwest monsoon (May to Sept.). The reverse is true during northern winter when the air flow is from land to the ocean.
    In summary, location of ITCZ affects the precipitation in equatorial regions and influence the monsoon winds of nearby latitudes (30N to 30S)

  16. Rate This Response!

     

    2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India. This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”. Comment.

    Ans- This statement was made by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru just after India achieved independence to emphasize on the importance of bringing frontier people of tribal areas into the mainstream of indian life.

    As far as this statement is concerned, the declaration of essence of freedom struggle as the unleashing of a liberating force is a bit overgeneralization.
    During freedom struggle, a number of forces were working in India & each of them had their own different motive.
    While congress initially wanted political sovereignity which, later on, turned to purna swaraj.
    Muslim league, on the other hand, was only focussed on the muslim empowerment & wanted to achieve this by any means. Liberation of muslims was their only aim.
    Princely states can be kept out of this purview, since they were busy in saving their provinces only.
    The group of english educated Indians & businessmen wanted british dominion as they were enjoying it.
    Peasants & laborers were interested only in the end to exploitation. Eventually they realised that it can be achieved only through Swaraj.
    So, it would not be totally right to call this a liberating force.

    Another point stated is that frontier tribal people were totally unaffected by the freedom struggle. This statement is true for some of the tribal areas but can’t be generalized to all of them.
    A number of uprisings did happen in tribal areas. Santhal uprising, Koli uprising, Bhil uprising, Pagal panthis & Faraizi’s revolts etc. Most of them were against zamindars & oppressive policies. Being only localised in nature, they failed to make any substantial changes. Their aim was liberation from oppression, not british rule.
    But these were a handful of tribes. As far as other tribes are concerned, they were totally unaware of national affairs. Britishers also ignored them due living in difficult terrains, not so productive for economy, added burden on administration etc.