Posted on August 16, 2013 by INSIGHTSInsights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 27QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY – 27 (15/08/2013)1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.3) Role of NCW in India (100 words)RESPONSES: neerajAugust 15, 2013 at 11:49 am2 Votes Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?Equality of opportunity is enshrined in Article 16 of the Indian Constitution. It prohibits all kind of discrimination and provides equal opportunity in matter of employment etc. But there are many backward castes and tribes, who have been oppressed for a long time. They have not been provided proper education. Low living standard, low social status, poor economic condiions are common among them. Even if they are allowed to compete on an equal basis, they might not be able to increase their social and economic status. So we need laws to bring them to a platform where they become socially, politically and economically equal.Also we have minorities, whose rights can be dominated by the majority group. A country with 80% hindus can easily form a govt, which can suck the life out of them. Examples are Jews in Germany during World War 2, Muslims in Palestine etc.Also women form a socially disadvantaged group. They have been dominated by men since time immemorial. They have been relegated to a position of homemakers and have been confined to the purdah of the home. They have no economic stability and no say in the decisions of the household matters. Also they have been physically abused and mentally tortured. Rape cases have been frequent. Female fetecide is rampant.Differently abled people form around 1.2% of our countries population. The society has shunned them and they are totally dependent on the mercy of their relatives. Disability is looked down upon as sins of the past life.So to provide these disadvantaged group a respectable life, the government must intervene and take affirmative actions to provide them with equal opportunity.ReplyEvikaAugust 15, 2013 at 7:20 pmRate This Response! Good work. Small correction: ‘Shia’ Muslims in Palestine form a minority. Otherwise, the people there are predominantly muslim.ReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 8:08 pmRate This Response! Your answer is mainly tilted towards India. Unless it is very good. Write in global context and mention India in sub text.ReplyEvikaAugust 15, 2013 at 12:10 pm4 Votes 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhi dreamt of Enlightened Anarchy that he wished to realize through a Gram Swaraj. It meant a village self sufficient in food and clothing and inter-dependent for other needs. Gandhian idea of a village community was that of a non-violent, non-exploitative and non-competitive social order on the ideals on RamRaj. He propagated the idea of a democratic stateless society with plain living and high thinking. This required continuous effort to be independent of both foreign control and a centralized national. Gandhi sought for a direct, participatory democracy, operating in a tier structure from the base village level tier upward through the district and state levels to the national level. He wanted political and economic decentralization. Men should work in communities small enough to permit of genuine self-government and the assumption of personal responsibilities. According to Gandhi, the larger a democracy grows, the less becomes the rule of the people and the smaller is the say of individuals and localized groups in dealing with their own destinies. This development model, according to Gandhiji’s Hind Swaraj, required educating the masses in the sense of empowering and mobilizing the people and making them capable enough to resist authority when abused. These ideas may have sounded utopian at the time of Indian independence, but today they need to be implemented in their true spirit because of the growing rural distress and migration to cities. There is a need for devolution of both financial and economic power to the local bodies or PRIs.Kindly review. They are proving very useful for me. Happy Independence Day!ReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 2:16 pmRate This Response! Hey, i think (not sure) your “scrutiny” of Gandhian ideals is only limited to last 2 paragraphs or 2 lines. All other data is factual about what Gandhi ji said or contemplated. After every paragraph, you could mention about the progress on those fronts. Though answer is very good.but u answered what is Gandhian idea.ReplyEvikaAugust 15, 2013 at 5:05 pm2 Votes Okay. Revised answer: 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhi dreamt of Enlightened Anarchy that he wished to realize through a Gram Swaraj. It meant a village self sufficient in food and clothing and inter-dependent for other needs. He sought for a direct, participatory democracy, operating in a tier structure from the base village level tier upward through the district and state levels to the national level. He wanted political and economic decentralization.By providing the citizens a greater voice in determination of policies, local government encourages further involvement of the people. It is less time consuming in passing legislations and hence can devote more attention to problems. It enables people to have access to resources and ensures that the benefits reach to the legitimate clients.While decentralised government has many benefits, there is a need to reconsider whether we merely have exaggerated expectations towards it. In Indian villages there is an absence of legal awareness. They are full of traditional prejudices due to the long historical background of non-participation. Under these circumstances, the vested interests might influence the proceedings against the real interest of the community.The first step towards self-governance was taken in 1992, by providing Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies a constitutional status. Next we need institutions like schools and cooperative societies to take part in its meetings to safeguard interests of the community and spread awareness about it among people. Social auditing of these bodies could ensure transparency in administration.Gandhiji’s ideas may have sounded utopian at the time of Indian independence, but today they need to be implemented in their true spirit. We can help build his Ramraj by a change in attitude of the people. Only then can we judge whether Gandhian idea of village community was indeed ideal or not.ReplypavaniiitAugust 15, 2013 at 7:47 pmRate This Response! Hi Evika, Your answer is good in content but it failed to satisfy demand of Question. Answer should be addressed that why village community is ideal unity of self governance. For that you have have to substantiate two type of arguments first is why villages are ideal unit and second is why larger units such as state and countries are not ideal for self governance.ReplySudhaAugust 15, 2013 at 12:17 pm5 Votes 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words)India being a traditionally male dominated society, certain steps were needed to eliminate social deprivation to improve the condition of women. Hence National Commission of Women was set up on January 1992 with a chair person and 5 other members to reduce the crimes against women, safeguard them and improve their living conditions. The commission amended many existing acts and proposed new bills to empower and educate women, free women from the social clutches and litigate funds to raise their socio-economic status. NCW regularly reports to Union Government on the improvement trends and effectiveness of their measures. It was consulted before enacting any laws related to women. Though NCW does many commendable works its powers are limited and needs improvement.ReplySudhaAugust 15, 2013 at 12:18 pmRate This Response! Please give in your thoughts about the answerReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 2:31 pmRate This Response! minor mistakes 1. It was not set up to reduce crimes against women directly( only provides assistance) 2. Do not amend existing laws but proposes amendments 3. Education of women is not included. There is difference between awareness and education(According to me) i think this close monitored feedback is enoughu can refer to this link http://ncw.nic.in/frmABTMandate.aspxReplySudhaAugust 15, 2013 at 3:55 pmRate This Response! Thanks Sahil. Yes will make a note.ReplysapanaAugust 15, 2013 at 9:34 pmRate This Response! You need not to include introduction in a 100 word question. First line was not required. Also would agree with what Sahil said.ReplySudhaAugust 15, 2013 at 11:00 pmRate This Response! Thanks Sapana. Will try to improve ReplyAmudhanAugust 15, 2013 at 12:55 pm1 Vote Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self-governance? The basis of good governance is a responsive, accountable and participative government based on the principles of maximizing liberty and social equality. The village community possesses all of the above factors and subscribes to the central tenants of Non-violence and decentralization of Gandhian democracy. In a democratic system village level institutions are vehicles of good governance and in Gandhiji’s view were that individual freedom could only be maintained in autonomous, self-reliant units that require and promote participation of everyone. It avoids any centralizing tendency which is a product of violence. It is important to note that Gandhi did not value modernization in the industrial sense but rather focused on quality of life and spiritual pursuits therefore an environment conducive was found in the villages. Gandhiji argued that in a democracy power flowed from the people and therefore they must hold significant decision making power in the economic and political front themselves. The village community as a unit of Self-governance allows for non-violence and decentralization allowing for ‘true democracy’ with high levels of participation and accountability to emerge and entrench itself in a nation.ReplyAsha GoudAugust 15, 2013 at 11:53 pmRate This Response! Hi Amudhan. you have assumed in your answer that village level governance is the best way of governance but did not provide any substantial explaination why you are support it.ReplyAmudhanAugust 15, 2013 at 12:56 pm1 Vote Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Equality opportunity is only Just in an equal society. It has been observed that equality of opportunity will perpetuate social inequalities if chosen to be the sole determinants of achieving public office. India, with its constitutional goals such as equality, justice (social, political and economic) requires affirmative action as a means of progress towards the achievement of our constitutional goals and gives advantages to individuals who are deemed to be socially and educationally backward to achieve equality within society. Justice is the most persuasive of arguments towards affirmative action. It can be in the form of distributive or restorative justice. Distributive justice is based on the notion that public offices are public goods and must be distributed to different sections while not allowing any particular section to corner them. Restorative justice focuses on affirmative action as a compensatory means for past injustices and concomitant current disadvantages. Equality of Opportunity is an instrumentality towards the achievement broader constitutional goals and not an absolute value as highlighted in article 16 of the constitution however either is affirmative action. Once it is reasonably known that a certain section of the population no longer faces disadvantages then affirmative action will no longer be enjoyed by them. Affirmative action is a response to the implementation of values in a pragmatic and prudent manner to achieve principles such as social justice. Therefore it is a vital part of Equality of Opportunity.ReplySudhaAugust 15, 2013 at 11:05 pmRate This Response! Its more from Indian perspective. Can make it more generalized.ReplyNikkuAugust 15, 2013 at 1:14 pm1 Vote 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? “Affirmative action” aka “positive discrimination” implies giving certain priviliges to the marginalised to enable them to garner equal opportunities and help them integrate deeply with the mainstream. With a long history of discrimination, oppression and exploitation it was felt that in order for a more just society, the state needs to intervene and provide opportunities to the down trodden to enable them to improve their status and standard of living. In India, affirmative action is practiced w.r.t to women, children, socially backward classes, senior citizens. The doctrine of positive discrimination follows from the philosphy that “unequals can not be treated equally”. Since the marginalized do not start from the same level as the the higher ups, it falls on the society and the state to help them in their quest for a better life. Another rationale is that economic status soon uplifts social status, and it was felt that once the SC/STs/OBC are educated and are able to make a decent living it would get reflected in their equalt treatment in the society as well. Although, there have been legislation banning the practice of social discrimination, but ground realities do not completely reflect these. Thus it is only via an increase in awareness and better sensitisation that we could aim at coming up with a more equal society. In a society like ours that has been rigidly divided for centruies, those at the bottom of the social pyramid have been devoid of equal opportunities because of the difference in their education, health, nutrition standards and culture. With their daily battle for earning sufficient to feed themselves, they are left with little time to plan for their future and therefore it falls on us to provide for relaxation in certain norms to allow them entry into the main lane. In the absence of affirmative action, those at the top would continue remain at the top and those at the bottom would be perpetuated into a life of misery as had been the case till independence. Affirmative action has helped socially backward classes gain the much needed self respect and provided impetus in their journey towards equality.ReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 2:04 pm6 Votes Q) Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Ans Affirmative action is the positive discrimination which is based on the premise that only like should be treated alike. This is part and parcel of every society which is mainly riddled with racial discrimination, caste biases, economic inequality or any other physical inability. It is significant in bringing a sense of equality, freedom and security to underrepresented and marginalized sections of the society. Various countries including India Constitution provides for affirmation in cases of employment, education and business activity. These actions are required to lift disadvantaged out of poverty, increase their enrolment in schools and colleges and provide employment to create a social just nation in which every section of the society is represented. Protagonists argue that in countries like India it is necessary to avoid any unforeseen revolution and polarized mobilization like caste movement, apartheid movements. Because of historical oppression and disadvantage of being born in lower strata of society, various caste groups were not represented in decision making process, economic sphere. This could lead to social turmoil if positive discrimination is not shown. Further affirmative actions promote a pluralization of culture and vulcanization of plurals and avoid situations when one dominant group exploits other groups. It helps in maintaining gender equity in the society and also provide a disabled friendly environment to the physically challenged to leverage their productive labour. Hence, affirmative action is not only necessary for empowerment of disadvantaged sections but also is necessary for the evolution of a plural, participative and representative nation state driven by the principle of equality fraternity, equity and empowermentReplypavaniiitAugust 15, 2013 at 7:50 pmRate This Response! Nice Sahil, your answer is well balanced and addressing the question judiciouslyReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 7:55 pmRate This Response! Thank You ReplyAnjali MotghareAugust 15, 2013 at 10:56 pmRate This Response! Very good answer Sahil.ReplySudhaAugust 15, 2013 at 11:08 pmRate This Response! Clear, balanced and precise answer.ReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 2:07 pm3 Votes Q) Role of NCW in India (100 words) Ans National Commission for Women was constituted by GoI in 1992 and it is a statutory body which coordinates all the problems and issues related to Indian women whether domestic or abroad. It provides assistance to women in civil cases like domestic violence etc and criminal cases through conciliation and mediation. It carries out awareness campaign and disseminates constitutional and legal rights for emancipation and empowerment of women. It also assists NGO’s working in areas relating to women to bring about a convergence of strategy and reviews their functioning. It brings harmonization between Government departments, NGO’s, civil society on various policy issues. In the wake of increased violence against women in form of rapes, domestic violence, acid attacks etc, NCW’s mandate stands to be augmented.ReplyEvikaAugust 15, 2013 at 6:12 pmRate This Response! Shouldn’t the merits and failures of NCW be balanced? Its just my opinion.ReplySahil GargAugust 15, 2013 at 7:54 pmRate This Response! I think the question is very specific and factual- role of NCW. Merits and failures would be included if the question is about – 1. Analyse the role of NCW. 2.To what extent NCW achieved its mandate 3. Examine the role of NCW. The question does not demand, in any way, your opinion about the topic or future aspect of the NCWReplytusharAugust 15, 2013 at 2:40 pm2 Votes 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?‘Affirmative action’ refers to additional benefits/advantages given to a weaker section of society vis-a-vis the more powerful ones. It does not go against the principle of equality. In fact it is an essential ingredient for it.Equal opportunity means that every one gets the same treatment and nobody is denied certain rights one is entitled for. Also no one is given extra favour. However, the precondition for this is that all the people should be on the same level and no inequalities of any sort exist between them. In real world, this is seldom the case.Its the reality of life that historically certain people/communities are better placed in comparison to other sections of society. Thus they have a clear advantage over other people and in absence of any ‘affirmative action’ available for the disadvantaged group, they would most likely emerge as beneficiaries. This kills the very principle of equality itself.Secondly, presence of ‘affirmative action’ instils confidence in the disadvantaged groups that they have a fair chance in the competition. This ensures that they have faith in the system and feel to be a part of it. Absence of such actions would breed feeling of alienation among the left out groups.Lastly, this ensures that there is no monopoly of a single dominant group on the resources of the society or nation. Such a state is essential for the growth of a society and more importantly the development of a democracy.The importance of ‘affirmative actions’ was well realized by the makers of constitution when they provided for provisions for reservations for educationally and socially backward sections of the society. Also, the principles of revenue sharing by Finance Commission are guided by this philosophy in order to ensure that certain backward states get more revenue for their development.2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhiji favored a bottom up model of self governance. In his model, each village was to act as a self-reliant unit capable of fulfilling all its needs without depending on anyone else. This was regarded by him as a way to bring prosperity to the nation.This model makes the people the makers of their own destiny. It plays a great role in empowering the masses, making them capable of taking decisions which affect their life. This model, Gandhiji argued, would be the real ‘Swaraj’ for the masses.If we minutely examine this model, we find that it is very effective for solving a lot of problems which face the nation. Around two-third of the country resides in the villages. Most of the problems like poverty, high maternal mortality rate, malnourishment, illiteracy, etc affect the people of villages the most. A model which empowers the villages will definitely solve a lot of these problems.In addition the problems of migration of rural male due to lack of opportunities in villages and the challenges of unplanned urbanization will also be solved with this approach.However, this idea attaches lesser importance to the need of interdependence among different units. In the era of globalization when we are faced with the challenges of economic competition, terrorism, threat to security, we must look for greater interdependence. Also, the holistic approach is missing in this model which is essential for sustainable growth.Thus, what we require is the mix of both – self governance in the villages as well as growing interdependence between different units. The importance of this approach is evident from the shift in strategy of Planning commision which is giving more importance to decentralization now.3) Role of NCW in India (100 words)National commission of women was established with the aim of promoting the interests of the women. Its goal is to establish better environment for the women in the society and suggest recommendations for strong legal framework conducive for the women folks.However, the past experience tells a lot of shortcomings present in NCW. It has failed to be an effective platform for providing justice to the women. The commission requires more teeth to efectively deal with cases of injustice.There is a need for the selection procedure to be more efficient so that the members are sensitized to the problems of women.ReplytusharAugust 15, 2013 at 2:45 pmRate This Response! Insights,Please review the answers.Thanks, tusharReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 10:31 amRate This Response! I don’t think affirmative action is ‘additional benefit’ – it is the measure towards correction of historical injustices instead. In third paragraph instead of ‘Its the reality of life’, it should have been ‘reality of societies/nations’.Both answers are good.ReplytusharAugust 16, 2013 at 11:28 amRate This Response! Thanks for the review and suggestions!ReplyNikkuAugust 15, 2013 at 2:48 pm4 Votes 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance. Gandhian idea of small, more or less self sufficient village republics interlinked with one another had several merits, but was a bit romantic. Given the huge geographical diversity, the problems of each region differed and thus merit regional and local solution rather than a central solution. Thus decentralization was critical for better governance. Gandhian philosophy was against heavy industries and adoption of technology as they were seen to be anti-thetical to the Indian conditions and were believed to be job killers. Rather small cottage industries were advocated as it was felt that they would provide employment and are a better solution to Indian problems. There was deep resentment against the cities which were seen to be symbols of Imperialism and thus there was a greater affinity towards developing villages, rather than cities. Despite several decades of independence, the proportion of population living in Villages is still more than 50% and Agriculture still sustains more than half of our population, thus the importance of Village in India’s development story needs no underlining. However, a unilateral strategy of focusing only on villages also has its own disadvantages. No country wanting to develop itself can choose to stay away from technology. The subtly inward looking approach of despising technology can not yield dividend in the era of globalization when the entire world is being knit into one global economic village. The need thus is to adopt the forward looking, creative ideas from Gandhian ideology and integrate them with the general macro policy.ReplyNikkuAugust 15, 2013 at 2:56 pmRate This Response! Insights, Please review.ReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 10:26 amRate This Response! Very good answer. You have ‘examined’ the question as required, not just answered it.ReplyAmudhanAugust 16, 2013 at 11:30 amRate This Response! well done Nikku, great answerReplyShwetaAugust 16, 2013 at 3:32 pmRate This Response! Aptly answered.ReplyRVAugust 15, 2013 at 4:01 pm1 Vote 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?Affirmative Action pertains Article 16(1) and 16 (4) enables the State to discriminate(positively) between sections of the society in order to provide them with an equality of opportunity in exercising their political , social and economic rights as envisaged by the Preamble .The constitution makers were of the view that the marginalized , oppressed sections of the society who were treated as untouchables , reduced to living corpses deprived of education , skills and economic benefits due to casteism and colonialism deserved equal opportunities. They provided the scope of Affirmative action for such backward , depressed classes of the ‘Adivasis’ and ‘Dalits’ for a period of 10 years to regains their honour and rightful position in a free India. Later the ruling party added Backward and other Backward categories and the period has been extended many times ever since.Reservation became one of the methods employed by the political class to not create a level playing field for all but also to address the inequality that had crept into the system . They also hoped for better services for the marginalized sections of the society since they would be ruled by their own knowing their background and ground conditions. Hence a system of redistributing economic and political power came into being which was very important for the true realization of the Fundamental Rights of every individual.With the advent of PRI’s now women who are one of the worst suffers of deprivation of rights too have been empowered and provided with equality of opportunity .ReplyRVAugust 15, 2013 at 4:02 pm2 Votes 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words)The National Commision for Women is a statutory body established in 1992. It is include in its mandate to review constitutional and legal safeguards for women and also recommend policies to Government .It has improved the socio-economic position of women by conducting rights awareness programmes , establishing Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats , Complaints and Counselling Cell and the pro-women amendments to the Hindu Marriage Act, Domestic Violence Act and others.There is a need to provide financial and legal autonomy to the institute as it has been reduced to a recommendatory institute . Moreover it has become the ballpark of retired civil servants and people with political affluence and hence a selection committee on lines of NHRC must be incorporated to improve the efficiency and effectivity.ReplyEvikaAugust 15, 2013 at 6:00 pmRate This Response! Well composed RV while adhering to the word limit!ReplyRVAugust 15, 2013 at 7:43 pmRate This Response! Thanks Evika ReplyneerajAugust 15, 2013 at 4:54 pm1 Vote Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.70% of India lives in villages. Without the development and proper use of such huge population, the idea of prosperous India cannot be realised. Gandhi understood this concept and wanted villages as a self governing independent units.Gandhi’s belief of village swaraj was that of a complete republic independent in its own for food and clothing. He believed in decentralisation of power to the villages.He felt that every village is either better or worse off other villages. Also social construct of each village was different. So, a decentralised village would be able to better look after its needs and aspirations.He was opposed to the idea of industrialisation. He felt that industrialisation would help a few get rich at the expense of the rest. So, he suggested cottage industry which is labor intensive and would provide job to the craftsmen of handicraft industry.He also felt that each village should be self sufficient in food and clothing. For this he proposed that firstly the land should go for production of food and clothing. After that the land should go for recreation activities and if any left would go to produce cash crops. In this way every village will be economically self sufficient.To realise these dreams, 73rd Constitutional amendment was passed. It provided for decentralisation of power to the villages and strives for creation of self sufficient village units.Prosperity of each man leads to prosperity of the nation but not vice versa. This can be achieved through the idea of self governing village units.ReplyRVAugust 15, 2013 at 5:13 pm1 Vote To decrease the inequalities that had crept in and provide for socio-economic development for all Gandhi envisaged the vision of “ Gram Swaraj”.By this thought every village is a self sufficient , independent unit barely depending on external influences for anything. He believed in the idea tha individual is the architect of his own government and hence established Panchayat system for each of the villages . The Panchayats directly elected by the people were endowed with all the powers of Legislature , Executive and the Judiciary. The villages were to a strict policy of compulsory rotation of village guards among all the members . He also believed in the idea of Trusteeship where the most capable person oversaw the resources for the benefit of all.Gandhi was deeply influenced by the principles of Tolstoy , Henry Thoreau and the economic principles of John Ruskin . Gandhi believed that no amount of socialism can take away the evils of capitalism .He was abhorrent of the heavy industries that believed in “mass production” rather than “production by the masses” .He believed they would plunder the village economy , social fabric and the pristine environment and push the villages into the vicious cycle of poverty and unemployment.Instead he suggested spinning wheel which he preferred over the handloom, growing of crops , cattle rearing to make village self sufficient economies. He preached Sarvodaya and Antyodaya by which minimum basic necessities must be available to all the members of the village which could only be achieved in a self sufficient economy not one based on capitalism.He believed only when people depended on products from outside do the politicians and middlemen step in and deprive people of essential items for personal benefits.ReplyEvikaAugust 15, 2013 at 5:51 pm1 Vote 3. Role of NCW in India (100 words)NCW is an autonomous statutory body under the Ministry of WCD. It advises the government on all policies affecting women and exercises the powers of civil court to investigate any matter or inquiring into any complaint. The NCW has played a significant role in empowering women through the establishment of Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats in different parts of the country and making provisions for the PNDT Act 1994. The Commission arranges several workshops and meetings regarding the gender awareness among the Indian citizens as well as against increasing cases of female foeticide. However, a Parliamentary Committee has recently slammed NCW for not playing a proactive role in safeguarding the rights of women. It needs to widen its scope beyond the present set of activities from merely providing reliefs to the victim to focusing on prohibiting crime through active policing and other women oriented initiatives.ReplyvipulAugust 15, 2013 at 5:58 pm1 Vote Role of NCW in India (100 words)Women in Indian society have been deprived of their basic rights for centuries.Since Independence,successive governments have implemented laws to empower the women socially,politically& economically and to remove the traditional bias. National commission for Women was setup as a statutory body in 1992 to further improve the status of women in our society.NCW reviews the existing safeguard mechanism provided under the law & constitution & recommends amendments if any there is any shortcoming .It also advises government on policy matters related to women.NCW conducts the seminar,workshops to spread the awareness among women about their legal right & awareness among public about the evils against women in our society. NCW assists women in their redressal of grievances and also facilitates speedy justice by organizing Parivarik Mahila lok adalats.NCW also undertakes research programs to study the impediments in women advancement and suggests way to improve the representation of women in all spheres .ReplyveerAugust 15, 2013 at 6:06 pm1 Vote Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance? ans. Ideals of democracy like decentralised institutions through village self governance were one of the main idea which nurtured by them ,even we accepted it to our constitution.To make realise public the idea of Community responsibility ,Was one of the reason behind this ideology.From ancient till britishers came ,self governance was one of the prominent feature of indian society which in turn strengthened its ideals,cultural values,governance at grassroot level. Acc.to Gandhi,villagers are the one who determines the faith of a nation’s economy,socirty So they have to be given right to rule themselves for best outcome. But,equally they said that transparency and accountability should be held by upper institutions ,otherwise mischiefs like over authorianism may brush its essence.ReplyAnjali MotghareAugust 15, 2013 at 6:22 pm1 Vote National Women Commission set up by an Act of Parliament, reviews Constitutional and legal Safeguards for women, recommends remedial legislative measures, facilitates redressal of grievances and advise govt on policies affecting women. It took up cause of child marriage, sponsored legal awareness programme and reviewed laws such ac Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, PNDT Act 1994, Indian Penal Code 1860 and organised various gender awareness campaigns. But as we see Women have been always at recieving end,in matters of violence,expected that NCW should play more pro-active role in womens struggle. Apart from providing relief to the victim, NCW need to focus on to prevent crime itself at possible level by creating band of active volunteers and helplines at various levels of society.Replylakshmi prasannaAugust 15, 2013 at 6:22 pm1 Vote 2.Gandhi’s idea of self governance through village communities is a well visioned thought. After years of his death still his thoughts are alive in the form of chipko movement against forest destruction by villages and Balawantrai Mehta committee’s recommendation for transfer of powers to panchayat for community development. In addition to this village schools, sustainable farming and forestry, traditional healing etc reveals Gandhi’s impact in present globalized conditions.Gandhi’s thoughts most of the time concentrated on village communities has he believed that every Panchayat addresses the needs education of boys and girls in its village, its sanitation, its medical needs, the upkeep and cleanliness of village wells or ponds, the uplift of and the daily wants of the so-called untouchables. He said it also should resolve local disputes. He fought against replacement of village jobs by industries and goods coming out of it. As this is replacing traditional ways of cooking and making the people prey to poverty. Instead he encouraged village industries connected to local markets which can empower poor as well as women. He tried to remove disparities between rich and poor. He started sarvodaya movement saying welfare for all. He is also responsible to incorporate article 40 in DPSP. Government made 73rd amendment to Constitution providing panchyats on condition of regular term elections without fail.Lack of complete decentralization present days people are still illiterate, lacking self control , unemployment, migration towards cities are observed. To curb this again government took schemes like MGNREGA, indra awas yojana, pradanamantri gram sadak yojana, national social assistance etc in the lines of Gandhi ideology. Therefore Gandhi’s idea of village communities is ideal for self governanceReplypavaniiitAugust 15, 2013 at 6:47 pm1 Vote Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?(250) Inequality in a society can be classified in terms of access to three type of capitals. First is economic capital, second is cultural capital and third is Sociological capital. Access to opportunities is based on access to these three type of capitals. There is inherent maladjustment in distribution of these capitals in society. In rich and poor there is maladjustment of economic capital, in Cast hierarchy there is uneven distribution of sociological capital. So there is difference of access to opportunity based on how one already have contacts, social status, economic status and access to education and health.Affirmative actions are set of measures which bring unequal’s on equal level, Which try to bridge gap in access to education, health, economic resources.Inequality is a natural phenomenon but by affirmative action’s we can bring equality in the society. Historically we can see that most of privileged section of society try to maintain status quo, either in 18th Century European society (classes) or 20th Century Indian society (Cast Hierarchy), It is Affirmative action which try to break those status quo to bring new social order.India and Pakistan Started from same point and both had Secularism in their respective constitutions but due to Affirmative action’s of state, Minority in India feel far safer than in Pakistan.Thus inequality is natural tendency, it is upon us weather we aggravate it or bring equality through Affirmative actionsReplyvipulAugust 15, 2013 at 7:04 pm2 Votes Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Affirmative actions (positive discrimination) refers to policies and provisions which are needed to improve the representation of the underrepresented section of society in various spheres like education,employment and governance.In any society,a section of population has better access to resources as compare to rest of the population.e .When such an in-equal society arrange itself as a democratic nation.This privileged section is favorable to dominate the society in all spheres of life.Equality in opportunity will not work in a society that has been unequal for centuries.Under such circumstances,affirmative actions takes the utmost importance for the longevity & maintaining the internal security of the nations.Now,the section of society who has been deprived of resources & dignity for centuries look at such a democratic arrangement as an opportunity to overcome their past & rewrite the future in their own terms.But deprivation of centuries can not overcome in span of decades.To bring this depressed section of society in the mainstream at faster rate,requires certain provisions in terms of reservations in jobs & governance,financial aids & minimum guaranteed allocation of resources out of government expenditures .In context of India several affirmative action have been taken to improve the representation of scheduled caste ,scheduled tribes ,Women and other minorities in spheres of governance,education,jobs etc.We still have miles to cover in this arena.Affirmative action are the temporary measures which are needed to bring different section of society on a common runway from where they can take off in flight of equality of opportunity.ReplypavaniiitAugust 15, 2013 at 7:36 pm1 Vote Question: Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance. Answer Gandhian Idea Of Gram Swaraj is deeply rooted in Ancient Indian gram Panchayat system, in which all local decisions are taken locally. Gandhian philosophy of self governance is not anarchism or absence of order but it is presence of highest order from within the individual. Gram Swaraj principle found place in directive principles of state policy as well as Later in 73rd constitutional amendment which contributed significant step toward grassroots democracy and decentralisation of power. Rural self governance is system of self rule which is based on the philosophy that locals understand their problems better then people sitting somewhere else. More over its decisions are based on consensus of the people who are going to follow it, so there is always greater tendency to follow them. Apart from that it involves efforts of all the people which bring social cohesion and unity to tackle some problems. Gandhiji was not proponent of this Idea but they popularised this idea, and according them real democracy can only be achieved when we can bring people in decision making. this philosophy at best can be applicable at village level as a unit only. For lager community like state or country this form of direct democracy is not possible so for these larger units representative form of democracy is prescribed but at village level we can rope in each individual in self governance without much constraints.Based on this principle 73rd amendment in constitution was passed and now gram panchayats are one of most important unit of implementation of decision making. Hivre bajar Village of Maharstra is one of example that how self governance can transform a impowershed village into self sufficient and developed village. Similarly success story Ralegaon Siddhi and many other villages proves that self governance at village level can transform villages significantly.However, there are few problems which need to tackle while implementing rural governance, Illiteracy and ignorance can lead to perpetuation of feudal and outdated mentality. more over traditionally dominating groups within rural society can monopolise decision making. Despite these short comings we can Autonomy and Decentralisation as envisioned by Mahatma Gandhi if implemented properly. With spread of new values along with autonomy we can achieve twin objectives of self governance as well modernization in society.ReplypavaniiitAugust 15, 2013 at 7:39 pmRate This Response! Dear Insight Please provide Feed back on this answerReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 10:17 amRate This Response! There are few repetitions. Also, you should focus on basic tenets of Gandhain idea of Gram Swaraj in each paragraph. There is still lot of scope for improvement. ReplyAjoyAugust 15, 2013 at 7:54 pm1 Vote Date-15/08/2013 (1) Equality of opportunity is one of the bases of democratic society. With addition of affirmative action, it is added a socialistic flavor. Affirmative action is to be given in comprehensive manner i.e from employment opportunity to access to social affairs. Affirmative action in case of equal opportunity is most relevant in the unequal society on the basis of financial capability and caste. It becomes more relevant in developing even in underdeveloped countries. In Indian Constitution, it has been given a significant importance as mentioned in art 14 for ‘equal protection of law’, in art 15 with special provision for women, children, SC, ST and other weaker sections for the access of public property and in art 16 for SC, ST and other weaker section for public employment. Equal protection of law is a concept taken from US constitution. It refers ‘equal to be treated equally and unequal, unequally’ and this phrase interprets significantly the importance of affirmative action. Comparison can be done when all are in equal level. In our society, few are getting access of every modern technology when few are struggling for food. So in this unequal society, it becomes imperative to take affirmative action through ‘reservation’ policy. In India, there are so many places in rural areas where elite section deprive the poor in access of water, temple, social gathering on the basis of caste. So abolish this inequality, special provision becomes mandatory for minor and weaker sections. Through affirmative action an egalitarian society can be made. Without this, it is not possible to improve the social and financial condition of downtrodden people who are neglected in every step of life. From Vivekananda to Gandhi, every one told of an equal society. One of the bases of Gandhiji’s freedom struggle was upliftment of untouchables which has been given expression by Ambedkar in our Constitution.So, state’s intervention through affirmative action in equality of opportunity makes it more people centric and more democratic.VipulAugust 15, 2013 at 8:26 pmRate This Response! 1) Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?Ans : The provision of equal opportunity is the backbone of democracy . The uniform distribution of resources , freedom of life and liberty , and no discrimination in imparting justice and opportunity is the fundamental aspect on which our ideals stand, thus making our democracy vibrant . Affirmative action in this field is important because of various reasons. The primary reason is that if everyone in our country is not provided with same attention then the huge burden of population will become a burden for us , rather than an asset . Then giving equal representation and voice to everyone empowers the people at large and helps in keeping a check on malpractices in the country. Then as the wider the gap between rich and poor will become , it will lead to social tensions , economic burdens , large migrations and will not lead us in removing mass scale poverty and underemployment . We need to ensure that the development which aspire is Inclusive. The practices of nepotism , elitism , red tapism etc will have to be checked to cater equal opportunity . Our functioning needs to be transparent and open thus promoting equity Thus the implementation and monitoring of efficient dispersal of equal opportunity is an imperative affirmative action. 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Ans : Gandhian ideology of village community emphasises on self sufficiency . It believes that industrialisation should be in direction of making village community self reliant and sustainable. It promotes the expansion and revival of traditional cottage and handicrafts industry. Hence we can say that it leads a way in self government by lowest unit of the country . It says that power should evolve from bottom level and the development needs to be bottom-up rather than other way round. Gandhiji was in favour of giving the real authority of taking decisions about their area and problems to the villagers rather than to bureaucracy to states. Gandhian philosophy is beneficial for the economy because it will lead to uniform and overall development of all regions of the country . It aims at providing employment to each and every person of the village in the community participation and local works . Village community will lead to social , economic and political empowerment as the real demands will be heard and actual results at the lowest point will be ensured . It will help in making development sustainable as this idea promotes the concept of eco-manures and thus reducing the pollution and soil degradation being caused now . All these are the basis of a socialistic society which aims at equal resource mobilisation and inclusive development . These can be very well served by the gandhian idea of village community and can be an ideal unit of self governance .3) Role of NCW in India (100 words)Ans : The national commission of women was setup in 1992 as a statutory body for women . Its main mandate is to empower women and give them voice . It deals with various atrocities which are being met on the women and helping them by ensuring justice . As we have seen from the past so many centuries that women have been suppressed and exploited by various means such as dowry , home violence , unequal opportunity and unjust means . The NCW is legislated to action against such incidents and giving the women their deserved status and value in the society.ReplyVipulAugust 15, 2013 at 8:27 pmRate This Response! Insights and dear friends please give your suggestions and valuable viewsReplylakshmi prasannaAugust 15, 2013 at 8:34 pmRate This Response! Dr B R Ambedhkar the chief architect of constitution of India ensured affirmative action was constitutionally mandatory to compensate historical wrongs like discriminating people based on caste through unaccountability.The AA in India is primarily based on caste system although in certain cases for women. To achieve equality in opportunities government is implementing quotas in government jobs, higher education, political reservations. The importance of AA can be rationalized based on the contemporary India’s latest comprehensive studies: social discrimination in the form of advanced unaccountability on mixing with present socio economic conditions is evident in Gujarat says Navsarjan in2010. Economic discrimination like difference in wages, access to education, discrimination by teachers in schools, personalized recruitment etc by Nambisan 2007.Reasons for failures are absence of monitoring systems, no penalties for evading AA, no supplementary measures to improve skills etc So to avoid this discrimination government should address the loopholes persisting in provisions, monitoring and penalty on failing is mandatory. In addition to this government should come up with land reforms, expansion of non farm employment to empower backward families. In addition to the present AA program me supplementary program-mes like counseling students and other measures to lower dropouts before completion of course is needed. All these measures are cost oriented but growing talented human resource will take part in growing Indian economyReplysapthagiriAugust 15, 2013 at 8:39 pm6 Votes Q1. Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? 1. The state of Indian society: Indian society is characterized by high degree of structural inequality characterized by the caste system, ascribed by birth. The downtrodden section of the society has been ostracized and there arises a need for the state to take affirmative action to correct this structural anomaly. 2. Failure of growth to trickle down: Only the educated upper class could reap the benefits of the top down growth imbibed by the Nehru mahalanobis strategy. Reservation for SC/STs did not spread entirely over them but by and large created a creamy layer and elite among them. So still state needs to play an affirmative role in that way. 3. To prevent further discrimination: 60 years post constitution, India can boast of achieving political democracy but social and economic democracy is still out of reach. Socially caste system is still maintained by endogamy and indirect discrimination. To break these traditional rules an affirmative action to enhance the stature of downtrodden is much needed. 4. Powerless nature of downtrodden people: Unlike the educated elite, the downtrodden people are predominantly uneducated with no internal guidance. So only a proper legal framework via affirmative action can ensure they reap benefits. Without affirmative action it would be unjust to ask the downtrodden people to compete with already settled elite. So there is a pressing need for the state to affirmatively act on this issue to treat “like people like and unlike people unlike”. Q2. Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance. 1. Gandhian view on village republic: Gandhi envisaged an idea of village republic with full powers independent of others in their vital needs and inter dependent in case there is a necessity. Gandhi proposed his village based model, a bottom up approach as an alternative to Westminster model in which villages elect their representative and these representatives elect a national leader. 2. Merits 1. A smaller administrative unit promotes fast decision making. 2. The value of democracy felt by the people is inversely proportional to the distance between the people and the power centre. Village as a unit of self governance bring decision making near to the people itself. 3. It promotes consensus decision making. 4. It can demand more acceptance from the people rather than a centralized decision. 5. People will have more say in their affairs. 3. Limitations: 1. Interdependence only for necessary needs and independence in case of basic needs may promote village to prioritise their localized interests first instead of national interests. 2. Many villages may not have the sufficient resources to satisfy their basic needs. Other villages may deny their resources to these villages. 3. Villages predominantly are guided by traditional values. “villages are den of localism, communalism” – Dr.B.R.Ambedkar. So villages may tend to maintain their social status quo. 4. A centralized decision making is necessary in case of emergency situations which village self governance cannot afford to. Gandhian idea of village republics per se is not suitable to the current set up. But gandhian values of cooperative growth and participatory grass root democracy is very much relevant and has been incorporated in the current local government set up of 73rd amendment act.ReplyRVAugust 16, 2013 at 6:41 amRate This Response! Great Answer on the Affirmative Action ! you should have given an intro though be4 your points ReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 10:09 amRate This Response! Introduction is necessary in the first answer. All points are very good. Try to write them in paragraphs instead of enumerating them.ReplyAjoyAugust 16, 2013 at 3:56 pmRate This Response! Good answer.Replylakshmi prasannaAugust 15, 2013 at 9:10 pm1 Vote National Commission for Women a statutory body under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990. Commission’s mandatory includes safeguard of rights of women granted by the constitution and laws, study problems faced by women in the current day and make recommendations to eradicate these problems, evaluating the status of Indian women from time to time and funding and fighting cases related to women’s rights violations Functions of the Commission are Counseling- investigating, monitoring and helping in filing FIR Legal- recommendations on legal amendments proposed, new laws and bills proposed, and court interventions Research- monitoring the atrocities against women and educating them through seminars and workshopsReplyAsha GoudAugust 15, 2013 at 9:27 pm1 Vote Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.A: Gandhiji’s idea of developing village as a unit of self governance is based on his idea of Swaraj, Swadeshi, Trusteeship, Democracy, Non violence. He had developed these ideas to put forward his belief in village level governance and its sustainability. He had all his life worked among the village people and he was dismayed by the plight the villages were demoted to by the exploitation by British colonial rule. Gandhiji was also aware of the impact of industrialization on Indian society. According to Gandhi ji real democracy initiates from below, where the weakest should have same opportunity as the strongest. Therefore Democracy should be achieved by non violent means, as use of force implies authoritarianism. Gandhi ji was against industrialization, and capitalism as it would create pockets of development and result in widespread inequality and exclusion in society. He believed Swaraj can be achieved only when each individual has the freedom from exploitation, access to basic necessities, economic and political equality. Governance power should be devolved at village level to enable villages to act as mini republic. At village level it is easier to ensure cooperation, accountability, participation in governance effectively. He believed each village unit is capable of achieving self sufficiency. Instead of developing industries Gandhi ji emphasized on developing village level co operatives, thus ensuring economic equality. To emphasize village level decentralization he said ‘ if village perishes, India will perish.’ReplyAnjali MotghareAugust 15, 2013 at 10:48 pmRate This Response! Asha question asks examine, you described in all.ReplyAsha GoudAugust 16, 2013 at 12:09 amRate This Response! Yes Anjali. I got your point. I simply described village level governance as conceptualized by Gandhi ji . I read your answer and i now know whats missing in mine. Thanks. ReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 10:00 amRate This Response! Nice introduction. You would have given a logical flow from this good introduction by first explaining about Swaraj, then Swadeshi, Trusteeship, decentralization in each small paragraph and then concluded it. ReplyAsha GoudAugust 15, 2013 at 9:38 pm1 Vote Role of NCW in India (100 words) A: National Commission for Women is a statutory body under the Government of India to provide women a forum for representation on issues related to exploitation, discrimination, abuse and also make recommendation on women empowerment. NCW helps women in their grievance redressal by providing them counseling and legal assistance on receiving a complain or NCW can take a case suo moto as well. The cases can be related to physical abuse, dowry, rape, work place exploitation, discrimination etc. NCW also works in co operation with NGO and organization that work for women empowerment. It conducts seminars and workshops to create awareness among people on issues relating to women. NCW reports and recommendations are instrumental in government policy makingShwetaAugust 15, 2013 at 10:16 pm2 Votes 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhi’s utopia for “Gram Swaraj” or “Village republics” envisaged villages as self-reliant, self-sustaining units of governance working independently while remaining networked with each other in a larger framework. It was in Gandhi’s words the form of “truly participative democracy” wherein “the individual acts as the architect of his own government”.For a democracy to be truly representative of the needs of its society it has to work in a “bottom up” approach, wherein policies and programmes are formulated at the village level by a council of five or Panchayat. The Panchayat is to converge within itself the legislative, judicial as well as executive responsibilities.He emphasized on carrying out of various economic activities by co-operativization, stressing on the importance of traditional, indigenous activities based on utilisation of the local resources. According to Gandhi each village has its own peculiar problems which can only be addressed efficiently by a decentralised polity working at the grassroots level and not in a centralised system.The Panchayat system working from the village level upto the district, state and national levels are the most appropriate instruments of ushering social and economic change by including all stakeholders in the process of decision making and policy-formulation.The significance of the concept was well realised in post independence years, when the government through 93rd constitutional amendment institutionalised the 3-tier Panchayati Raj system of a decentralised democracy. However, to enable these institutions to work effectively, as envisaged by Gandhi, sufficient economic and political powers must be devolved to them.ReplyAsha GoudAugust 16, 2013 at 12:26 amRate This Response! Very nice answer Shweta.ReplyAnjali MotghareAugust 15, 2013 at 10:46 pm2 Votes Gandhiji’s idea of village community was a part of his Sarvodaya where mass of people manage their affairs without depending on state.In Gandhiji’s scheme, village panchayat consisted of all the able youths from all caste and society. It was to be granted a crucial role in policy making. Village Panchayat was to look after the economy of the vallage and its natural resources.Development subject like education, health and sanitation were to be under its governance.Gandhiji wanted to build self sufficient village economy without much dependence on the urban economy. In my opinion his idea of youth participation will result in more active role of youth in development and will help to eliminate caste discrimination. If most of the functions are performed by village panchayats then it will lead to timely delivery of services. If village economy is self sufficient then people will not migrate to urban center in search of better means of life. Along with these advantages it has many shortcomings such as, Standards of living wouldn’t have improved much. With changing time people’s needs are growing and its not possible to manufacture all those things within villages technically and economically. Fulfilling varied needs is also challenging.Urban spaces provide many advantages like technological advancement, enhanced connectivity and communication channels and skill development opportunities. In modern world cities also act as knowldege creation and dissemination centres.Gandhiji himself realised that some of his ideas were not adoptable with changing time so he modified them at later stage of his life. Ideas which were relevant were incorporated as Panchayati Raj in governance after independence.ReplyAsha GoudAugust 16, 2013 at 12:20 amRate This Response! Hi Anjali. Did Gandhi ji modify his idea of rural self governance?ReplyAnjali MotghareAugust 16, 2013 at 10:40 amRate This Response! Gandhiji, allowed small scale industries and technological advancement.ReplylrlevinAugust 15, 2013 at 11:19 pm3 Votes 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) Established as a statutory body in 1992, National Commission for Women has been playing a vital role in improving the status of women in Indian Society. In keeping with its mandate, NCW has reviewed and helped amending laws like Dowry prohibition Act,1961, India Penal Code, 1860, PNDT Act,1994,etc. It has helped in empowerment of women in economic and social spheres by its campaigns against child marriage, female foeticide, violence and atrocities against women, getting speedy justice (litigation funding) and redressal for grieved women (national and international), inducing awareness of women’s rights, etc. In a nut shell, NCW acts a facilitator for Women development.ReplysapanaAugust 15, 2013 at 11:33 pm1 Vote 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words)The National Commission for women was setup as a statutory body under the NCW Act, 1990 with the mandate to review constitutional and legal safeguards for women, recommend remedial legislative measures, facilitate redressal of grievances and advise government on all policy matters affecting women.The commission is empowered to look into complaints and take suo moto notice of matters relating to women. It organizes countrywide campaigns, workshops and consultations for protection of women’s right and for promoting their welfare and development. Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats are conducted for speedy delivery of justice. The commission also provides pre-litigation services and family dispute counselling.Recent NCW has been criticized for not being pro-active enough.ReplysapanaAugust 15, 2013 at 11:37 pmRate This Response! It is ‘recently’ in the last line.ReplyvipulAugust 16, 2013 at 12:01 amRate This Response! Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance. Gandhi Ji believed that India would attain the complete freedom when all of its people could control their destiny with their own efforts.Gandhi ji stressed that democracy could not be run by few men sitting at the center but it had to worked by people working at the lowest village level .Gandhi ji had his reservations against the centralized planning.He emphasized that problems faced by each villages community were different.These problems demanded different approaches.Under such circumstances ,centralized planning was expected to be a fruitless exercise.Gandhi Ji said that India lived in its villages and country could not boast of development If villages were not part of it.Gandhi Ji ‘s idea of village Swaraj was that villages would be self reliant,self governed & self sustained.Villages would be able to fulfill their vital needs (food,cloth,education,water resources ,legal rights,governance etc) themselves and would be dependent on other neighbors for their wider requirements.Government of the would be elected by villagers on the basis of universal adult franchise.The India of Gandhi Ji’s dream was a federation of villages.Gandhi Ji emphasized that development of lowest in society,quality of life should be the parameters of actual development.73rd & 74th constitution amendments have paved the way for realization of Gandhi’dream of India.Replyekta yadavAugust 16, 2013 at 12:15 am2 Votes 1. Why is affirmative action important in provision of equal opportunity?Affirmative action is the positive discrimination done by the state in favour of weaker sections of the society. In this hetrogenous world, each society is dominated by certain groups of people. Due to various historical reasons, there are certain portions of a society that are economically weak, politically under-represented, sociologically dominated by the majority groups.For example, it is a world-wide known phenomenon of patriarchal society present in almost all countries, due to which women are less empowered and thus face numerous problems. In case of India, being a secular country and a tolerant society, there are a number of religions that constitute minority groups. Safeguarding the interests of all is very important for its own integrity.To provide the deprived groups a level playing field, a society needs catalysts or accelerators. Leaving them on their own would make the situation worse. It is not in the interest of a nation. It may threaten the integrity of the nation in the long run.However, affirmative actions policies have generated political debates. some people consider it as reverse discrimination. But leaving a substantial section of society backward, it would be a wastage of human resource. So it is important to provide the least advantaged section of society equal opportunities and chances to develop and empower themselves economically, sociologically as well as politicaly.ReplyektaAugust 16, 2013 at 10:32 am1 Vote hello everyone, I am a new comer here and I found this exercise of answer writing very useful. Thankyou INSIGHTS. This is the first time I am writing answer on insights. Kindly give your valuable remarks so that I can improve my answers. I shall be thankful to you all.ReplyvipulAugust 16, 2013 at 9:46 am2 Votes Que: Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? Quit India movement in 1942 was more spontaneous in comparison to earlier movements.For example,Gandhi Ji himself launched the Civil disobedience movement by Dandi march & breaking the salt law.Generally, congress used to draft the program guide lines for the movement and left the implementation of program to lower level congress committees.In 1942,failure of Cripps Mission had convinced the Indian leaders Nehru & Gandhi Ji that British were unwilling to come to any honorable settlement soon.Discontent among the people was rising.Nehru & Gandhi believed the need for an struggle. But they did not want to put a threat to British Anti-fascist struggle.Congress passed a resolution in August 1942 that time might come when it might not be possible to issue instruction and people participating in movement would have to function for themselves.In case of Quit India,Congress was still framing the program guidelines when government arrested the prominent leaders and movement was instantaneously launched by people in response to that.Though the reaction of public was spontaneous but congress had been working among the people for movement since 1937.Regions of Eastern Up & Bihar where congress had been working at grass root level since 1937,were the most active regions in the movement. In Bardouli, Sardar Patel had been telling people that a movement was impending & they should be prepared for it.Participation of Women groups led by Sucheta Kriplani,Usha Mehta,Arun Asaf Ali etc. & youths had been unprecedented.Common people of country had demonstrated the un-parallel heroism despite facing the most brutal repression of British rule.Congress had been successful to work at ground level to bring confidence in people to sustain the movement on their own.Nirmal SinghAugust 16, 2013 at 10:40 am2 Votes ‘Affirmative action’ refers to policies that take into account factors like religion, sex or caste. India is home to a diverse number of religions and castes among intra-religions along with gender disparities. Such asymmetries at social level create distortions denying these groups of equal opportunities. Indian constitution aptly recognizing these concerns provided for special provisions for a number of reasons. For e.g. there are special provisions for reservations in public employment and legislatures. First, the idea of social justice and inclusive development can only be realized by providing equal grounds. The historic injustice to these sections can only be undone by more inclusive policies with special provisions. Second, the moral grounds further supports the same .It is obligation on nation part and a natural human right inalienable to people. Failure to recognize these will put legitimacy of state under doubt. Third, the true democracy requires condition of equal representation which means giving voice to the marginalised ones and those in minorities. It must be mentioned here that constitution forbids any discrimination on grounds of sex, religion and caste only. The key word here is ‘only’. The state has to prove ‘lack of representation’ and adequate ‘backwardness’. Fourth, there is need to protect culture and languages to maintain the hallmark of India-‘its diversity’. To realize the ideals of secular, socialist and democratic state it is imperative to give force to these provisions. These are ends in themselves and vision of our forefathers.ReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 4:38 pmRate This Response! This is not your best Nirmal. It is very generalized.ReplyNirmal SinghAugust 16, 2013 at 10:41 am4 Votes Mahatma Gandhi favoured village as an ideal unit of self governance recognizing its historical success and latent potential during freedom struggle. It seems to be a suitable alternative tool for empowerment of people. The advantage of its closeness to people and its awareness of local needs further strengthen its case. It is easy to administer and has customized solutions specific to community. The decentralized decision making, more accountability and direct democracy can be realized easily. It is more close to the concept of natural state. But there are certain concerns too. The even distribution of resources and lack of any centralized system to address the same should not be overlooked. Such uneven distribution will further fuel disputes between independent units and cause asymmetric development. The social and economic development will be constrained owing to lack of institutional homogeneity and expertise which otherwise can be complimentary in unitary system. It must be recognized that one important cause for subjection of India to British rule was lack of unity. Such threat is more imminent in today’s world where nations are impinging on other’s sovereignty. Further it is highly impracticable owing to large number of villages and their vague delineation of boundaries. The most pragmatic path would be a unitary system with provisions of devolution of power to villages as already been done although not satisfactory Such system will provide much needed resilience, integrity and balanced prospects for social and economic development.ReplyNirmal SinghAugust 16, 2013 at 10:54 amRate This Response! Sir you have mentioned ‘examine’ in question.I have tried to get its and other’s meaning from one of your post but didn’t get it .Can you explain its meaning in this question context.I have tried to infer its meaning and answered accordinglyReplyINSIGHTSAugust 16, 2013 at 5:08 pmRate This Response! You have tried to ‘examine’ but not completely. Gandhian idea of Gram swaraj is not enunciated by you. The idea of establishing such a self-reliant, self-suffiieint, decentralized, democratic units of village republics was to establish peace and non-violence everywhere.If in a village where every one worked and earned their bread by means of trusteeship and cooperativization and lived in peace, there won’t be any threat to diversity, instead peace would permeate to other places. Though Utopian it may seem, if all villages lived in harmony why would anyone attack each other?Why I am saying this is, in your answer, you said British occupied India because of lack of unity – but between whom? it is not because of lack of unity between villages, but because of lack of unity between rulers that India became a colony of the British.It is just a thought – giving you the essence of Gandhian idea behind Gram Swaraj. Well, when you are asked to ‘examine’, you have to probe deeper into the question and come up with a balanced view.ShwetaAugust 15, 2013 at 8:48 pm3 Votes 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?In a country with a large section of population which has been oppressed on the premises of caste, sex etc, it was felt necessary to bring in some measures to undo some of the historical wrongs. It is with this bonafide notion of achieving equality that the framers of our constitution while envisaging “Equality of opputunity to all” (Art 16) made certain provisions for affirmative action in the form of reservations in jobs and education for the socially and economically backward classes of citizens.The reservations policy ensures that these underprivileged sections of society have access to the hitherto elusive opportunities for education in higher institutions, posts in government jobs and seats in legislatures. Considering that SCs, STs and OBCs have lacked access to resources historically, it provides the latter with a chance to be a part of the progressive democracy’s policy making apparatus. It enables the “have-nots” to compete with the so called “haves” on an equal footing. Moreover, it prevents the usurpation of all political, educational and employment oppurtunities by the advantaged sections.Keeping in view the lowly status of women in India’s patriarchal society, steps are needed to ensure their equality with the other other sex. Reservation of seats in PRIs and Urban local bodies (93rd amendment) was a step forward in this direction and further provision for reservation for women in legislatures would do much justice to the cause of women’s empowerment.However, care should be taken to prevent “affirmative action” turning into “reverse discrimination” or misuse of reservations as a tool for vote bank politics, because this would fail to acheive the objective of equality while contrarily perpetuating inequality.