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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 26

QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY – 26 (14/08/2013)

1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words)

RESPONSES:

  1. 2 Votes

     

    3) Sea Floor Spreading

    Ans- Sea floor spreading is the phenomena of creation of Oceanic crust when the magma inside it wells up to fill the gap created by the separation of earth’s crust. It is significant is many respects.
    Firstly, it leads to creation of mid-oceanic ridges. Mid-Atlantic ridge & East pacific ridge are examples. Along the crest of volcanoes of the mid-oceanic ridge, water gets superheated & gushes out dissolving minerals of crust in itself. So, it acts as a mineral recharger. Moreover, this energy acts as a source for the deep sea creatures & hence their food chain due to unavailability of sunlight.
    Secondly, due to this, tectonic plates keep moving in opposite direction. According to an estimate the speed of movement is as high as 5cm/year. This acts as a factor of reshaping of continents too.
    Thirdly, It is responsible for mid-ocean earthquakes which result in devastating tsunamis. It calls for the need of monitoring of sea floor spreading.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      Hey Sagar , Sea floor spreading doesnot result in earthquakes. rather plate movement along a divergent boundary interaction lead to earthquake.
      Secondly if it is is mid ocean, how will it reshape continents. Rather you should say that it creates islands or continents like that of Hawai(Just change the word reshape)

      • Rate This Response!

         

        Hello Sahil, Sea floor spreading is all about oceanic plate movements due to upwelling of magma, aren’t they? Such oceanic plate movements may be responsible for earthquakes. Moreover, sea plates don’t move independently. They have effect on continental plates too. In fact, now it is believed that formation of today’s continents was a result of sea floor spreading.

        I you have further doubts, have a look at these-
        http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/eoc/teachers/t_tectonics/p_seafloorspreading.html
        http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/seafloor-spreading/?ar_a=1

        • Rate This Response!

           

          You are right. i am saying the same thing. divergent boundary movement leads to Earthquake and sea floor spreading. sea floor spreading does not directly cause EQ. further when they coincide with continental shelf, subduction takes place and it is a cyclic process. Formation of continent and reshaping of continent is all together different.

          • Rate This Response!

             

            Sahil i think i am getting confused here. Does divergent boundary movement leads to SFS or SFS is one of the reason of divergent boundary movement? As far as reshaping of continents are concerned have you gone through the links i have given? In the second link, it has specifically written that SFS is now thought for the reshaping of continents.

            • 1 Vote

               

              You both are getting confused here:

              Divergent boundary is the area between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. Through the gap created, magma from underneath lithosphere comes out and spreads out as lava beds – it is basaltic, highly dense rock material – that renews seafloor formation.

              It is a compensatory mechanism – at the convergent boundaries in the subduction zones, plates lose mass, and at divergent boundaries, which are also called as constructive boundaries, they gain it. It is a balancing act.

              Majority of divergent boundaries are found between between two oceanic continental plates that are moving apart. Tearing apart of plates occur and it leads to massive faults – and earthquakes. But all are submarine. Some divergent plates give rise to vulcanism/volcanism too – Iceland for example, they are Fissure volcanoes.

              But Tsunamis and major earthquakes take place at the convergent boundaries or destructive boundaries, which are the result of mainly ocean – continent plates collisions.

              Hawaii is not because of either divergent or convergent boundary movement, it is formed by Hotspot – a localized spots in the ocean which contain huge magma chambers, upon when plates move, such islands are formed. Galapagos is another example. Even Maldives.

              Plate movements have reshaped, redistributed continents. SFS is important in sea floor/ocean crust formation. Not continents.

            • Rate This Response!

               

              I said it is a cyclic process means continuous.

  2. sapana
    3 Votes

     

    3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words)

    As opposed to the prevailing concept of permanency of ocean floor, Harry Hess (1960), proposed that sea floor was mobile and hot magma rises up from the earth’s mantle by convection currents along the crest of the mid-oceanic ridges and moves away on either side in conveyor belt fashion and is finally lost in the oceanic trenches.
    The theory was based on the observation that nowhere the oceanic crust was older than 200 million years but landmasses were as old as the earth itself. Also rocks equidistant on either sides of the mid-oceanic ridges showed remarkable similarity.
    The support for the concept of sea floor spreading comes from the sequence of magnetic anomalies found on the ocean bottom. The spreading theory in turn is a major evidence and explanation for theory of plate tectonics.

  3. Vipul
    4 Votes

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    Answer :
    The National Movement imbibed a significant imprint on the minds of people about the conditions of the masses in India and generated political consciousness along with anger against the exploitative colonial rule . The Gandhian ideology made the beginning of the acceptance of masses instead of classes . Even many prominent sections of the society advocated the principles of socialism , humanism , equal rights , universal adult franchise etc , whether it may be the HSRA of revolutionaries or the resolutions of the Congress or the leftist wing like Forward Bloc .
    The Great depressions in capitalist countries added fuel to the fire , there were huge drop in production and rise of unemployment leading to conviction that the socialistic pattern as adopted by Soviet Union is the only way to universal welfare .
    Thus the leftist ideologies of Socialism and Economic Planning came into picture . Congress adopted the resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy . New socialist parties like Communist Party of India and Forward Bloc came into picture and everyone started to breath in the air with ideas of Marxism and welfarism mixed into it .
    The common points which everyone raised were about equal rights to all on the basis of natural law; improving the conditions of peasants, tenants & workers ; land reforms ;allowing formation of trade unions; nationalisation of key industries ; adopting universal adult franchise etc . Many platforms like student unions were formed and preached leftist ideologies as their main aims by defeating the notions of colonialism , imperialism , capitalism etc .
    These imprints continued after the independence and India became a socialist country with basic objective of welfare state . Fundamental Rights were enshrined in the constitution along with giving directive principles to stated which they have to keep in mind while making their policies . Equality became talk of the hour and many humanistic steps were taken in the direction of achieving the aims . These aims still continue to rule the politics and affect the society . Still the mantra of Aam Aadmi continues to swirl around the political thought .

    Hence we can say that the deep pillars of welfarism and socialism stuck during the nationalist movement still stand firm and made a huge impact on Indian society and politics .
    2) Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

    Answer:
    Quit India movement came in the aftermath of many important events and concerns .Firstly the British Government still denied Indian ruled government and rights , even the Cripps Mission which came to advance the ongoing talks of transfer of power , was a failure . This created huge disappointment and frustration among the Indians.
    Secondly, the forces of Japanese aggression were marching towards India as they already had captured Malaya peninsula and reached Rangoon. So the apprehension mounted in the minds of the Indian leaders for the safety from that aggression. They feared that if steps are not taken right away then present exploitation may be taken over by nasty inhuman overexploitation of Nazism and fascism aggression.
    Thirdly , the already mounting of anger and voices of nationalism had reached its zenith , the capacity to sacrifice and take repression had taken place in masses and was growing by the day .

    So we can say that although Quit India Movement was inevitable and had long term causes , but still we can say that failure of Cripps mission and advent of aggression at the doors of India , triggered the Indian leaders and masses to launch Quit India . The famous slogan which was on everyone’s voice was “Do or Die “

    3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words)

    Answer : The phenomenon of divergence of plate boundaries in the ocean is commonly referred as Sea Floor Spreading. This process takes place only in the oceanic plate as there is thin lithosphere beneath ocean and high convection currents in the asthenosphere lead to divergence. The divergence leads to formation of ‘ridge’ and ‘rise’. The prominent and largest of ridge of the earth is Mid Atlantic Ridge, named Dolphin ridge in the north and Challenger Ridge in the south .The longest and largest rise is the East Pacific Rise. These formations are a result of rising crust material when the plates diverge. They also lead to formation of archipelagos .

    • Vipul
      1 Vote

       

      Please give your valuable views .
      Thank you

      • 1 Vote

         

        You crossed the world limit upto 400 words
        I think Gandhian Mention and explanation of national movement(explanation of left movement was required) is not required in the first line. The left ideology had its genesis way back in 1920 and it was working well during its first 10 years. As your answer implied, left ideology was the product of great depression of 1930 and got substantiated only after that. But remember Lahore, meerut, Kanur conspiracy cases, Worker strikes of 1925 etc
        No mention Of CPI the main party. Further last two paragraphs only talk about left ideology after independence not during national movement. You could have mentioned them in one line.

        • Vipul
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          Thank you sahil for your valuable views .
          The points which i want to make is conspiracy cases were not a direct result of left ideology. They were just a result of frustration and anger in the youth , which we also call as revolutionaries . The point of workers strike is accepted.
          And there is a mention of CPI but not elaborated it .

          And would request the views on other two questions as well .
          Thank you

      • Rate This Response!

         

        In the first question, you have used 386 words (limit is 250 words – please read the new instruction below the questions). Middle two paragraphs give the whole answer. Rest was not necessary. Also, there is no proper structure and flow – effect of left on politics and society is mixed. You would have mentioned effect on society first and then on politics.

        In the second question, your opinion is not clear.

        • Vipul
          Rate This Response!

           

          Thank you Insight !
          But is my content alright ? I will try to take care of the flow and structure .
          And please give your views on the third question

        • Shweta
          Rate This Response!

           

          Hi there! Please rate my responses as well. New to this forum and my first attempt this December. No experience of answer writing.
          Thanks.

          • Rate This Response!

             

            Shweta,

            You started your answer brilliantly by giving an excellent introduction. Even the second paragraph is good. But, in third paragraph, you are not answering the question. The question is about ‘During the National Movement’ -so latter half of your answer is not relevant (your focus is on post-independence India). After writing every paragraph, please read the question again and proceed. :-) I loved your introduction though.

      • Hri
        Rate This Response!

         

        I think you need to cover all the angles….. Regarding communist revolution… Youth taking communism…. Failure of gandhi methodology in first phase..

    • pavaniiit
      1 Vote

       

      Hi Vipul,
      For me your answer is one of best ,
      Language : excellent
      Introduction: bit lengthy, you could have come to point after one or 2 lines
      Conclusion: breath taking
      Flow of Answer : Very Lucid
      Structure of Answer : Impact of Russian Revolution could have been added because it surprised nationalist movements across colonies
      Length : If can concise these ideas in less words, it would be excellent

  4. RV
    2 Votes

     

    2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

    The August Revolution most famously known as the Quit India movement was formalised at Gowalia Tank , Bombay in 1942 in lieu of the failed talks with the Cripps Mission, the rising discontent among the people , rising prices , continued aggression of Japan and high handedness of the Government in dealing with this situation in Bengal and Orrisa.

    The movement was spontaneous when we consider the earlier movements where Gandhi had specified time and location of initiation of civil disobedience , his Dandi March, his ttack to be on Dharsana Salt works and had served an ultimatum to the viceroy in this regard. Although the Congress had been preparing for a mass struggle for long time since 1937 (the Congress 28 month rule was effectively used to mobilize support , Patel toured the country warning people of impending struggle) but in the Quit India there was no defined time line action plan as such .

    Mahatma Gandhi gave the mantra of do or die at his famous speech at Gowalia Tank and provided guidelines for students , army , lawyers , public servants and farmer and zamindar communities to be adhered to in the course of the movement.The leaders had openly declared that the movement would be spontaneous and the millions participating should work within the confines of these guidelines. The swooping of Congress leaders further added to the spontaneity of the movement as the masses undertook actions without guidance of their leaders and were brutally repressed in a short time.

  5. 3 Votes

     

    1) “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.
    Ans
    The left movement in India was both evolutionary and revolutionary. It was the product of Russian revolution that led to the creation of CPI by M.N.Roy. It was based on the ideology of socialism and communism which was not only embraced by political class but also took the shape of workers movement and changed the social milieu of the country.
    The initial phase of movement was marked by widespread conspiracy cases which created a wide popularity in different regions of the country leading to cropping up of new leaders in the countryside. It mobilized people for the creation of an economic just and political active popular base. The ideology of people oriented economic planning with defined goals was supported by political class and common man alike.
    Further the calls for nationalization of industries and organization of workers movements and peasants movements for their rights and creation of trade union was another fact that helped CPI gain clout over masses. The sudden increase in strike in factories for better working conditions, time and wages testifies the left movement’s national appeal. It provided political voice to workers through trade unions.
    On the political front, Many CPI joined the ranks of congress for acceleration of their socialist ideology on the national front. Its success can be gauged from the fact that after India’s independence, India opted for a socialist pattern of economy and state emerging as a welfare state.
    Left ideology has had great impact on revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Azad and Raj guru etc who through their militant’s works send shockwaves throughout the establishment and mobilized many others to take up arms against British imperialism.
    Thus, left ideology not only mobilized workers and peasants for their economic empowerment but also had a wide political followership.

    • RV
      Rate This Response!

       

      Hi Sahil Can you plz clarify by Analyze do we necessarily need to substantiate the statement ?

      • Rate This Response!

         

        I think when one talk about analysing the impact of anything, it’s basic framework of action must be given.
        But You can also choose the other side, like it created a kind of social and political limbo in the country. But then how?

        • RV
          Rate This Response!

           

          I was also thinking on the lines that the promise shown by them in early 1930′s was gradually lost due to their constant challenge to the Congress on various grounds , their iron stand on issues . Basically their failures like in the beginning CPI , HSRA reated quite a flur amongst the youth but that impact was lost later !

  6. RV
    3 Votes

     

    3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words)

    Sea Floor Spreading is related to the Plate Tectonic theory which firmly establishes the divergence of the oceanic plates at plate boundaries leading to the formation of new crust on the ocean floor .

    The theory was firmly established by Harry Hess in his convective magma theory along with Fred Vine and Matthews’s observing magnetic anomaly on the ocean floor of the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    It is the primary causes for the formation of the mid oceanic ridges with mid-Atlantic Ridge being the most famous.Continuous expansion of oceanic floor also substantiates the movement of the continental crust.This results in compression , folding and faulting leading to volcanism , earthquake and mountain building at the plate boundaries.

  7. tushar
    4 Votes

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    Indian National Movement was affected by a lot of ideologies and it continued to evolve with time. The Left movement had a considerable impact on the Indian National movement and it succeeded to a great extent in imparting a pro-poor and pro-working class orientation to
    the movement.

    Starting in 30′s and 40′s. the Left movement was not a single cosolidated movement, but it manifested itself in the form of rise of many Workers and Peasant Party (WPPs) in various provinces. It led to the mobilization of workers and peasants and brought their problems in the national agenda. The emergence of various Kisan Sabhas throughout the country provides evidence in this regard.

    The Left movement also succeeded in influencing the Indian national Cognress (INC) leadership and its agenda.
    The adoption of Fundamental and Economic Rights in Karachi session, Faizpur session were reflection of growing relevance of socialistic ideas in INC. jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose were greatly influenced
    by these ideas. Rise of Congress Socialist Party to work for on socialist principles and influence INC was a step in this direction.

    However, there were various points of divergence especialy on the methods adopted for the revolution. Due to these disagreements the Left could not succeed in generating a mass following.
    The Left movement introduced the element of welfare of people and this belief got further reinforced when our Constitution makers included provisions like Directive Principles of State Policy to make India
    a welfare state.

    2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

    Its true that the Quit India Movement was started as a reaction to the sudden arrest of top leadership of Indian National Movement including Gandhiji, and the masses themselves took initiative to start the movement, it won’t be correct to state that the movement was entirely spontaneous.

    The stage for the movement had been prepared by the top leadership. Gandhiji was building the tempo for the movement for quite some time and preparing the masses to be ready for a movement. His mantra of ‘Do or Die’ given in Gowolia tank on the eve of the movement was to make the people ready for a coming movement.

    Additionally, Gandhiji’s launching of Individual Satyagraha movement was an effort to mobilize the masses who were otherwise disillusioned by the failure of Civil Disobedience movement. These movements were gradually preparing them for the big day.

    Also, even during the movement, the leadership was provided by various leaders like JayPrakash narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, who were out of prison and who operated underground to prevent arrest.

    The Quit India movement had definitely a degree of spontaneity which was greater than the previous movements. However, the movement was not entirely spontaneous and the groundwork for it had been done by the national leadership in the days preceding the movement.

  8. 2 Votes

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    Ans- Indian national movement being a broad based movement cannot be denied being affected by the leftists.

    There are many causes due to which the left ideologies developed during national movement.
    First is the crippling financial burden brought by WW-I which exposed the evils of imperialist domination.
    Second is the glory of new regime in USSR, which attracted the intellectuals in India.
    Third is Gandhiji’s movement which encompassed workers & peasants. This marked the beginning of their involvement in national political life.
    Fourth was the growing unemployment in educated youth who started losing faith in liberalism & adopting revolutionary socialist ideology.

    In spite of these reasons, it can’t be said that leftists were controlling the direction of flow of national movement. The Congress socialist party which worked as the left wing of congress do not enjoy much achievements on its part. Moreover, stance of leftists kept changing regarding participation in WW & other political developments.

    But the major effects that it had on the movement were-
    First, it led to the growth of trade unions leading to proper organisation of workers & improvement in their conditions.
    Second, it played an important role in spreading awareness among masses. National struggle became a true mass-based movement after that.
    Third, they were opposing partition of India. So, they constituted a major portion of people who wanted a united India.
    Fourthly, most of the violent revolutionary activities were the result of leftist ideology.

    So, the effects of left ideology were far reaching as far as national movement is concerned & its importance in shaping the struggle cannot be denied.

    • tushar
      Rate This Response!

       

      I feel that you deviated a bit. In the initial two paragraphs, you have elaborated the reasons for emergence of Left movement which I think is not required.

      >>Second, it played an important role in spreading awareness among masses. National struggle became a true mass-based movement after that.

      The national movement was a mass movement even before the emergence of Left movement (NCM, CDM etc).

    • 1 Vote

       

      The causes of left movement are not required. Brief mention would have been enough

      • Rate This Response!

         

        Thank you tushar & Sahil for your valuable suggestions. I have talked about the causes since i had to “analyze” that statement. I feel that it includes causes too.

  9. Amudhan
    1 Vote

     

    Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?
    The quit India movement in comparison to the other 2 major movements lacked central leadership and the issuance of instruction was absent. However, even in CDM the most structured of Gandhian movements, there was considerable scope for decentralization and spontaneity by the local leaders. They had great leeway in implementation regarding the form of opposition provided to the British. It was not a spontaneous movement however it, in consideration of British suppression of political activity, was adapted to suit their temporal needs.
    As such the QIM received broad objectives of complete independence for the people to achieve and had been in preparation since 1937, slowly building momentum but controlled by the central leadership. It operated within the ‘do or Die’ Mantra stated by Gandhi. The rise of Parallel governments was a unique feature of the movement and was inline with the objectives.
    The Circumstance dictated such spontaneity from the people and was not peculiar to the QIM. It was present to lesser extent in national level movements however due to circumstance the QIM had the greatest measure of decentralization. With regards to the ‘revolution’, QIM was instrumental in the independence of the nation but a more accurate statement would refer to the crystallization of Swaraj with in the leadership and the people of India.

  10. Amudhan
    1 Vote

     

    “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.
    The left wing broadly divided into Marxists and socialists has an impact in Indian society and politics but never achieved primacy over the centrist tendencies of the congress. The impact of the left is greater upon politics giving the congress a strong left orientation and succeeded in integrating itself to influence a majority of decisions made. Nehru and Bose were elected leader in 1936-39 and the plan to constitute a planning commission and the economic policy adopted in Faizapur has significant leftist elements. Within the political realm the socialist has far greater acceptance and the Marxists tended to isolate themselves unable to influence policy due to their uncompromising ideology. Furthermore there were many factions unable to coordinate effectively CSP and CPI, the Nehru-Bose divide and post-1939 divergence between Bose and the CSP.
    However the Left led to the realization that even though imperialist exploited India, its poverty and misery has contribution from own socio-economic structures and cultural heritage. It had greater success in organizing trade unions and established the All India Trade Union Congress. During the Meerut conspiracy case the Marxist ideologies were propagated extensively allowing for greater penetration within society. Marxist ideologies also influenced extremists such as Bhagat singh and Chandra Sekhar Azad.
    Upon independence India operated a mixed economic model and had significant leftist influences however it was neither completely communist not without its elements. Therefore the influence of the Left is partial.

  11. 3 Votes

     

    3) Sea Floor spreading (100 words)
    Ans
    Sea Floor Spreading is the creation of new oceanic crust when large slabs of earth’s crust split apart. It is the product of divergent boundary interaction between two plates leading to motion of these plates in opposite direction. This leads to eruption of molten lava beneath the earth’s crust which solidifies on the ocean surface creating a new layer of ocean floor. Continuous spreading may result in the formation of ridge in the middle of the ocean.
    In addition to that, Sea floor spreading brings in the required mineral from beneath the earth to surface and help in formation of new islands over a long period of time. They are characterized by weak faults and movement along these faults lead to frequent earthquake.

  12. Rate This Response!

     

    2) Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?
    Ans
    After the failure of Cripps Mission, there was a sense of resentment among all sections of society. Congress felt betrayed due to British apathy towards its demand for a constituent assembly and the coming attack of Japanese on the east coast. Congress was left to nothing but to pass a resolution for demanding complete independence from British yoke and leave India in god’s hand.
    Though congress opted for a planned movement, the sudden arrest of its leaders including Gandhi Ji the very next day of resolution changed the character of the mobilization from a movement to a revolution. The violence was the result of continuous apathy of the British during world war which led to eruption and public outcry after the arrest of Congress leaders. This completely led to a standstill and people come out in support without any centralized leadership of congress. There was a sudden surge in the violence and destruction leading to damage of the public buildings. There was complete breakdown of administration machinery at various regional centers. There was a disruption in the communication lines of government. Various secret radio stations were started to disseminate the idea of movement which has gained a revolutionary zeal leading to arrest of thousands of people.
    The continuous repression of the people after NCM and CDM without any heed to their demand against the war issues coupled with the arrest of their leaders is the main reason for the movement turning out to be a revolution.

  13. Sudha
    Rate This Response!

     

    2) Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

    The debate that Quit India Movement was a spontaneous revolution or not has been in history for long and I agree that it is a spontaneous revolution of huge distressed masses for freedom but the spontaneity itself is sanctioned by the INC.

    Resolution to start Quit India Movement has been among the congress leaders from the outset of Second World War and became widely recognised during August 1942 due to the discontent of leaders from the British attitude. The demoralised masses, rising prices, British withdrawal from colonized countries leaving behind suppressed home people were all reasons for the outcry.

    Even before the movement was launched by INC, all important congress leaders were arrested by the British Government leading to the outburst of violence in many parts of the country by masses. Gandhi himself dint condemn the violence as he believed that the violence was a result of poor British attitude.
    Gandhiji went for a fast in Jail which kindled the spirits of huge masses against British rule and led many people to fight against British Government with Gandhiji’s words of “Do or Die” as the and became leaders for themselves with the true spirit of complete independence.

    Many Parallel Government were formed, underground operations launched against British Government, communication linkages were broken, peasants, workers, youths from colleges and schools, women from both rural and urban areas protested against imperialist colonial rule and even Zamindars rendered their support.

    All these uprisings were spontaneous as preached by Gandhi to fight for freedom until last breathe even when no leaders were allowed to lead the masses. The movement was a huge success in bringing all the people together for complete freedom.

    3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words)
    Sea floor spreading is the process of creation of new rocks in the mid oceanic ridges through the divergence of tectonic plates. The difference in the age of rocks is due to this process as old rocks move outwards to give room for new rocks formed through the cooling of molten magma emerged from the mantle through tectonic process. The formation of new water bodies, continental land and rift valleys are all reasoned through sea floor spreading. Thus, disproving the old concept of continental drift theory, sea floor spreading formed the foundation of plate tectonics which explains the reason for earthquakes, volcanoes and many naturally occurring events including continent formation.

    • Sudha
      Rate This Response!

       

      Insights: Tried to improve from your previous comments. Please review and suggest more improvements.

      @Others: Please give in your feedback to improve

      • Rate This Response!

         

        Sudha,

        Very good introduction ans answer. But, there should have been more emphasis on how Congress and Gandhiji prepared the ground for this ‘short and swift’ movement to substantiate your view in the introduction that Congress ‘sanctioned’ this spontaneity.

        I think fourth paragraph was not needed.

        Otherwise, answer is very good. :-)

  14. Evika
    Rate This Response!

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    The story of India’s struggle for independence would be incomplete without acknowledging the contribution of the Left in it and the impact it had on Indian society and politics. Started by leaders like A.K.Dutt and Aurobindo Ghosh, in Bengal, Lala Lajpat, in Punjab and Bal Gangadhar in Maharashtra, it was carried forward by SV Deshpande and MNRoy until we gained independence from the 200 years long British rule.

    The leftists introduced radical thoughts into the Indian society which helped transform their orthodox thinking. It was their diligence that helped abolish evil practices like Sati and child marriage and promote women education. Radical socialists were amongst the first to call for outright Indian independence from Britain.

    They reached wider sections of people in India and abroad. Rabindranath Tagore wrote patriotic songs and short stories in local language. MNRoy helped organize workers and peasant revolutions from within the congress which led to Meerut Conspiracy Case in 1929 which ultimately led to consolidation of different sections of society. It helped transform a political movement into a national struggle.

    Leftists were trendsetters. AKDutt set strong base for Swadeshi Movement and confirmed that the final battle for freedom had began even while the moderates kept faith in British. They tried to get in greater military help from abroad. Ghadar movement by SSBhakra in SanFrancisco, Yugantra Party led by JNMukherjee tried to build international relations and Rashbehari Bose fled to Japan to send arms back to India. These were our first steps towards globalizing after colonialisation.

    Lastly, through their belief in self governance and swadeshi industries and underground movements they helped keep the fire among India’s youth burning even while the national leaders were in jails after every major mass movement.

    • Anjali Motghare
      1 Vote

       

      Evika how Aurbindo Tilak were communist or socialist ?. That time this ideology was not in use in India.

      • Evika
        Rate This Response!

         

        Hi Anjali.
        Aurobindo Ghosh was an extremist. Leftism means seeking equality of outcome and this is what he was fighting for. In fact when he was in Alipore Jail, he found Aurovile there whose sole purpose was to create a place on Earth where no nation could claim its sole property, a place where every human being could live freely as citizens of the world(basically no stratification).(Recently there was a news item related to ‘citizens of the world’ about Garry Davis as well which was what Aurobindo had thought of then.)
        Likewise, Tilak was also a far leftist.

        • Evika
          Rate This Response!

           

          I checked the answers given for the question. My interpretation of the question was wrong. I took Left to mean Leftist ideology and I guess Insights means the Leftist movement in the sense of Marxism which was started with the formation of CPI towards the end of 1920s.
          Hope that I wont repeat the same in exam. :-|

  15. pavaniiit
    2 Votes

     

    During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.
    Success of Russian revolution inspired Indian Leaders for similar Revolution as well as to develop a socialistic and egalitarian society based on equality. These ideals later incorporated in national movement both inside congress as well outside congress. Karachi Declaration of right in 1931 congress’ Karachi session is such an example. Left movement succeeded in gradual tilting nationalist movement toward socialistic notion and which was clearly visible in Indian constitution as well as Pattern of economic development post independence.
    Left movement in India can be classified into two categories one is within congress and other is outside congress. Faction outside congress lead of Revolutionary thinker M.N. Roy campaigned for Socialistic society. But they were successful in providing alternative forum of Peasants and Congress but their Role in World war 2, in which they supported Britisers against Congress, made them highly unpopular and thus unable to leave much impact on Indian society.
    But the movement within congress which lead by Non other than Future Prime minister Jawahar lal Nehru and Subhash Chandra bosh leave highest impact on Indian nationalist movement as well as post independence society. Karachi declaration was one the major success of leftist within congress, which declared socialism is aim of nationalist movement.

    Leftist tried to reform congress from within, in constitutional assembly also equality declared fundamental right along with freedom. Economic planning based on Five year plan which was borrowed from socialistic pattern of Economy.

    But growing influence of Leftist in Congress alarmed rightist and lead to struggle and culminated into resignation of Subash chandra Bosh from Congress. On the other hand leftist provided leadership in Quit India movement, when all prominent leaders were arrested.
    Thus left movement not only provided ideological understanding of Future state during nationalist movement but also prepared them for a equal and egalitarian society.

    • Evika
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      Points well laid. But even if the typos are ignored, the sentence structures are incomprehensible. Like ‘leftist tried to reform congress from within, in constitutional assembly also equality declared fundamental right along with freedom.’

  16. abilash
    4 Votes

     

    1.The leftist movement in India evolved from the disenchantment of the people with the congress owing to the abrupt ending of Non co-operation movement. Inspired by the Bolshevik ideas of Russian revolution, they sought to emulate in India a radical movement that knit socio-economic emancipation of the oppressed with the goals of political freedom.
    The communist party of india, formed in 1925 worked with the Congress and other radical organizations to build a mass based organization. The early communists thereby focused on organizing peasants and workers into parties like Worker’s Peasants party. By 1927 the trade union movement had begun to gain traction. The revolutionary terrorist movement drawing inspiration from communism envisioned a society based on equality of man along with political freedom.
    The left ideology however really gained prominence after the Great Depression when Congress stalwarts like Nehru and Bose vehemently campaigned to tilt the congress from its centrist stance to the left. They brought the idea of social and economic transformation of masses to political mainstream by advocating measures like reduction of rent, abolition of landlordism, fixing tenures and wages for labourers, women’s liberation, and opposition to caste inequality. The Karachi resolution of 1931 on fundamental rights, establishment of national planning committee, the pro peasant and worker legislations by provincial governments were all steps in this direction.
    Thus the left movement with its emphasis on socio-economic equality helped in building a radical mass movement for political freedom and influenced policies to be largely oriented towards socialism.

    • abilash
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      Dear INSIGHTS, kindly review. This is my first attempt at writing an answer.

      • pavaniiit
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        Hi Abilash,
        I am also new to this blog, I found your answer very interesting, and it is excellent first attempt. I will try to figure out few thing, i hope you will work upon them
        Few suggestions :
        1. keep your paragraph length small to enhance readability.
        2. Do not deviate from demand of question, question was asked about impact of Left movement but more of answer was focus on evolution of leftist movement.
        Please review my answer as well , looking forward for your reply
        Thanks

        • abilash
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          @pavaniiit
          Thanks for the review. In my view left impact on politics and society are
          1)organising the peasants and workers.
          2)radicalising the mass movement, revolutionaries popularising the need for equality
          3)combining political freedom with socio-economic freedom and making it a policy of the Congress
          4)correcting the inequality between landlords and farmers, emphasis on women and human rights
          This is what is at the heart of left ethos and this is what it brought to the movement.
          In your answer you have only mentioned it very sparingly. You have focussed on the structure of left movement, impact of left on congress(rightly so but a bit too wordy)
          eulogising jargons like “future PM”. if youcan include more pointswithin limit.
          P.S: seems ur a strong congressman at heart.LOL.

          • abilash
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            i meant i avoid those jargons

            • Rate This Response!

               

              Left movement was not evolved due to failure of NCM(1922). Rather it was evolved in Tashkent in 1920. Though in India it is contested as 1925. In initial period , it did not work with the congress rather had a very fractured evolution due to conspiracy cases and banning by British. After that they joined the ranks of Congress and worked within.

      • Rate This Response!

         

        Abilash,

        Very good answer for a first timer! :-) Just structure it well. All points are there in the answer. Keep writing. Attempt all the questions.

  17. pavaniiit
    3 Votes

     

    Sea floor spreading is a tactonical phenomenon which causes creation and destruction of continental plate.
    This phenomenon explains age of sea floor vis a vis age of continents. According to this concept from mid oceanic ridges sea floor spread toward continents and extra portion submerge into continental plate thus form Subduction boundary.
    Same age of both the sides of mid oceanic ridges support this theory. Moreover when we move toward mid oceanic ridges we find younger rooks compared to previous location. This clearly indicates that near mid oceanic ridges there is creation of floor and near continental boundary there is destruction of plate.

  18. Anjali Motghare
    3 Votes

     

    Left movement grown out of political and economical conditions prevailing
    in India towards end of fist Worl’d War and extricably got entwined with national movement.It developed in India and in two streams socialist and communist.

    Three conspiracy trials Kanpur, Meerut, Peshwar made communists martyr’s and gained sympathy of nationalist and peoples for their anti-British stand. Congress members successfully opposed Public Safety Bill which was directed against communists

    Following communist movement four Workers’ and Peasants’ parties organised in Bengal, UP, Bombay and Punjab. All India Workers’ and Peasants’ Party came into existence to put their grievances in front of govt.
    All India Trade Union aligned itself on socialist principle to champion workers’ cause.

    Nehru was himself influenced by Socialist thought and constituted a Planning Committee in 1928 with himself as a chairman.

    In 1934 Congress Socialist Party formed within Congress and started
    influencing Congress and national movement. In 1936 Congress held its
    session in Faizpur a rural area where large number of peasants participated
    and first time it included economic rights in its declaration.

    It was because of CSP’s pressure Congress Election Manifesto of
    1936 contained a programme for the removal of socio-economic grievances of the people.

    In 1938 S.C.Bose founded Forward Block whose aim was to establish swaraj not for the classes but for the masses. During INA trials rallies were held in all parts of the countries in support of convicts.

    Left movement succeeded in India influnecing society and politics as
    peasants and worker got united on national level to demand their rights
    and participated in national movement. National Congress supported workers union and peasants movement and included their grievances in national programme.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      Good introduction but bad choice of words. The word ‘extricably’ is not in usage, it is a wrong form of ‘extricable’. I think you meant inextricably. Though, grammar is immaterial here, we should remember that examiners are learned persons and use of wrong words that too in the introduction might not go well with them. Try to use simple words instead. Rest of the answer is good.

  19. sapana
    3 Votes

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    The second decade of twentieth century saw the arrival and diffusion of left ideology in Indian political scene. The influences were both within and outside the congress.Within the congress the socialistic thinking was represented by the works of Bose and Nehru. A new orientation which can easily be discerned is the change in outlook towards the freedom struggle. The socialists pitched not just for a struggle against imperialism but also against internal class oppression by capitalists and landowners.

    The growing clout of communist like M.N.Roy on international horizon further helped socialism spread its wings far and wide. Student associations started preaching left ideologies. Youth congress were organised all over India. The search for radical solutions for political, economic and social problems started taking root.

    One major impact of the socialistic orientation was the rising struggle of the working class. The communists provided an able leadership for the rapid growth of trade unionism. All India Trade Union Congress led from the front. Strikes of Kharagpur railway workshop and Bombay textile mill were unprecedented in the workers participation. The left was at its pinnacle in late 20s and early 30s and it didn’t spare the revolutionary movement which started to take a socialistic turn. From now onward all the policies of congress and significant others definitely had a socialistic undertone. Even after independence the socialistic principles were incorporated in the Constitution of India. India opted to become a welfare state. Socialistic ideals finds mention along with the Gandhian principles in the DPSP.

    However one thing is pretty clear the the left ideology always played a second fiddle to the centrist tendencies of congress during the Indian national movement on both social and political fronts.

  20. Evika
    1 Vote

     

    3. Sea Floor Spreading
    The concept of Sea floor spreading explains the dynamic nature of the Earth’s crust. It is a form of tectonic activity in which the slabs of rock, that form a part of crust, move away from each other beneath the ocean floor. This results in hot magma oozing out of the surface. It is then cooled by seawater. This rock forms a new part of crust, which overtime pushes the older ones further away creating new bodies of water and continents. The Red Sea was created in this manner as the African plate and the Arabian plate tear away from each other.

  21. neeraj
    3 Votes

     

    “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    Jawahar lal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose were among the notable leaders of congress party who were highly influenced by the leftist thoughts. Also, they became president of Indian National Congress and had considerable influence on working of the party. Nehru nominated three leftist leaders to his working committee. Also, the left commanded one-third of the votes in All-India Congress commitees. The twin aim of the left parties to transforming congress on ideological sense and organisational change(replacement of top congress leaders by left leaders) gave a leftist pull to the congress party. The leftist impact was seen on resolutions of the Fundamental rights and Economic policy passed at Karachi Session.

    Social impacts on Indian society are reflected in the organization of the workers and peasants.The formation of Communist Party of India at Kanpur in 1925 was also done.The communist orgainsed peasants and workers parties and worked through them. Labour Kisan Party of India, and workers’ and Peasants’ party were some of them. The press coverage of Merrut conspiracy case popularised the leftist view to the common man. The revolutionary terrorists like Chandra Shekhar Ajad and Bhagat singh was also turned to socialism.

  22. athi
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    Sea floor spreading is a process of plate tectonics.It happens when slabs of earth crust diverged apart and magma fills the portion between.Hot magma is cooled by the sea water.New crusts are formed as a result of sea floor spreading.Rift valleys are the product of this process. East pacific rise is the active site of sea floor spreading.it disapproves the theory of continental shift.

  23. Asha Goud
    1 Vote

     

    “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    A: The ideology of socialism reached India after the success of Russian revolution in 1917. It was fully developed only after the formation of Communist Party of India in 1925 and the Congress Socialist Party in 1934. The socialist and communist together gave a social and economic perspective to Indian National Movement that was hitherto focused on achieving political independence. The important leaders supporting socialist ideology within congress were Jawaharlal Nehru and Subash Chandra Bose.
    Congress was reluctant to include issues related to industrial workers and peasants fearing development of a class struggle that might weaken freedom struggle. The demands put forward by Congress were related to more political representation and participation in governance.
    Trade union and Peasant movements grew rapidly due to spread of socialist ideology. Demands were raised for establishing an Egalitarian and just society. Workers and Peasants Party was organized by the communist working within Congress and organized major workers and peasant movements. The 1937 election manifesto of Congress was mostly designed by the socialists was focused on ending exploitation of the labour class and establishing an equitable society. In the provinces where Congress came to power in 1937 elections it focused on land reforms and adopted a pro labor stand. In addition Congress government paid attention to certain social reforms like upliftment of untouchable and welfare measures like providing access to basic necessities to all like water, sanitation, roads, hospitals etc to all.
    Other major impacts were the adoption of resolution of Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy at Karachi Session and the formation of National Planning Committee in 1938. Therefore the development of left wing brought a radical shift
    in the in the Indian National Movement.

    Sea Floor spreading (100 words)
    A: A Theory developed by Hess based on detailed analysis of the Mid Oceanic Ridges (MOR) and Marginal Trenches. Hess observed there are constant volcanic eruptions at the MOR and the rocks near the MOR are of very recent origin as compared to the one located at the trenches on the margin of oceans. Based on these observations Hess put forward his hypothesis that the ocean surface is constantly being generated at the MOR due to volcanic eruptions and destroyed at the trenches. Therefore even though the ocean floor is spreading it does not cause to shrinking else where.
    The Sea floor spreading process is very instrumental in explaining the theory on plate tectonics that explains the distribution of volcanoes and seismic zones on the earth surface.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      Good answers Asha :-) In the second one, you need to focus on ‘what is it?’ and ‘What is its significance?’ aspects(you have given significance). Also, to technical questions, try to answer from lay reader’s perspective.:-) Good going!

      • Asha Goud
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        Thank you Sir for the review. I was waiting for one since long :)
        I read the answers given by other aspirants here and i am able to learn a lot and find what is missing in my answers.

  24. Nikku
    Rate This Response!

     

    2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

    Of all the National movement launched during the independence struggle, the Quit India movement was probably the most dynamic, disjointed and decentralized in terms of leadership. While it was spontaneous to a great degree, classifying it as a revolution would be a slight exaggeration as despite all the enthusiasm and patriotism it did not culminate into a fundamental change in terms of the power or constitutional institution, although it did provide a solid ground for the same.

    Another aspect to note is the sustained groundwork that had been done by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Gandhi that helped provide the localized leadership and invigorated the patriotic and nationalistic sentiments.

    Gandhi’s strategy of individual satyagraha and his slogan of ‘do or die’ had prepared the masses for one final struggle where freedom was valued more than life. It was this homework that crystallized into the huge outpouring of masses despite lack of a central leadership during the Quit India movement. Thus the movement was not “completely spontaneous”, although the degree of spontaneity was unprecedented.

    It is also argued that the spontaneous nature of the movement proved to be one of it’s weakness, as the incoherent local efforts were brutally crushed by the British police and military.

    The revolution that could not be achieved by the spontaneity of the Quit India was later negotiated in-camera under the hood of a trilateral arrangement between the Congress, British govt and the Muslim league.

  25. neeraj
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    Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?

    Quit India movement, also known as August revolution was a mass movement launched in August 1942 without any formal announcement by AICC in protest against arrest of their leaders. It prima facie looks as a spontaneous revolution, but on closer examination one finds that the ground work for the revolution was prepared since 1937. Gandhiji has been postponing the revolution for an opportune moment. Also, ground work was on its. Congress has been ideologically, politically and organisationally preparing for the movement since long time. Congress Socialists in poona were providing training to volunteers. National leaders have been travelling and preparing people for struggle. The ministers in the govt were also doing good work and had added to the prestige of the congress party. Individual civil disobedience movement had been organised. Mobilisation of masses in UP and Bihar has been going on for quite some time. These helped the people to be organised for a mass movement.

    Also on 8th August, just before the start of the movement, Gandhiji has addressed a mass rally and has asked the people to participate in the upcoming movement. He had given them a slogan of “Do or Die” in this speech. The AICC has in its resolution passed on 8th August told people that under present scenario, a time may come when to give instruction for the movement may not be possible and when such time comes every one should participate in the movement and be their own leaders. Every Indian who desires freedom and strives for it must be his own guide.

    Thus even though the movement after the arrest of top leaders seems spontaneous was a result of constant efforts and former groundwork laid by the congress party.

  26. Anand Kumar
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    Sea floor spreading is a phenomena that occurs along the divergent boundaries.It is also a constructive process with respect to the earth’s crust.Occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes is an accompanied feature.It gives rise to eruption of basaltic lava which in turn results into ridges and island arcs.The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a standing example.The islands however get eroded with time and submerge under the ocean water surface.It is an obstruction to the ship movement.Great evidence is found for the sea floor divergence by checking the age of the rocks formed nearby.Lastly,it is a natural process and is a part of ongoing evolution of the earth.

  27. Nikku
    Rate This Response!

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    The period after 1920s was one marked by proliferation of the left ideology throughout the world, and India was no exception.
    The left had a marked impact on Indian politics and society and the movement had taken institutional form as early as 1920 under the leadership of MN Roy.
    On the political front, the Left operated both within and outside congress. Within congress, it was able to influence the ideological thought framework of the party and this was echoed in the incorporation of fundamental rights, economic rights, a planning commission etc.
    Two of the more popular congress leaders during this era, Nehru and Bose both had a left bias.
    Outside the congress, the left impact can be seen in the mushrooming of various Kisan sabhas, worker movements, strikes etc. The meerut conspiracy being a major watershed.
    Even the revolutionaries were impacted, and we can see a major influence of left goals in the changed goals of the HRSA under the leadership of Bhagat Singh and Azad.
    These political impacts also translated into social impacts. On the social front, the leftists helped in identifying the huge social cleavages that existed in the society and secured that the nationalist movement, besides targeting imperialism, also had social equity as one of its agenda.
    The areas where leftist were active saw an improvement in the conditions of the peasant and workers ( tebhaga movement in Bengal, telangana movement in Hyderabad etc) as they helped these classes bargain better terms.
    However, the various schisms in the parties and lack of consensus in the leadership ensured that the movement remained fragmented and could not evolve a unitary leadership. There was also local variation in the depth of impact with some regions being more impacted than others.
    Thus the Indian movement remained largely center oriented under the leadership of congress although with a significant left undertone.

  28. neeraj
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    Sea floor spreading is a process of increase in sea floor. This phenomena takes place near mid oceanic ridges. These mid oceanic ridges are area of tectonic activity. The diverging plates causes a fissure to be opened. The hot lava comes out of these ridges and is spread on the sea floor. Thus, older rocks are found away from the ridges and younger rocks are formed near the mouth of the ridges.

  29. Anjali Motghare
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    In the backdrop of failure of Cripps Mission Congress was
    planning for nation wide movement which reflected in Gandhiji’s
    speeches at various occasions but before it chalk out a strategy
    all important leaders locked up in jail and people reacted
    spontaneously on their own way to throw away British Govt.

    Though Quit India resolution called for a ‘mass struggle on
    non-violent lines on the widest possible scale’, it was remarkable
    vague about the details of coming movement.

    As there were no national leader and no strategy, over a period of
    time the movement witnessed different trend in different regions .
    Its urban phase included hartals strikes and clashes with the police
    and army in most cities.In the countryside militant student destroyed
    a communications on a massive scale and led a veritable peasants movement. Number of local ‘National Governments’ installed in Karnataka, Maharashtra,UP, Bihar, Orissa.

    The movement was carried by different groups in different way
    demonstrations and strikes in urban areas, peasant movement in villages
    and sabotage activities by student groups, educated youth turned into a terrorist activities directed against communications and police and army installations, occasionally they rose to the guerrilla war also.

    Movement also witnessed regional variations in the form of extent and nature. Punjab and even Congress province N.W.F.P were not much disturbed. Main storm centers were Bihar, UP, Midnapur, Orissa and Maharashtra Karnataka.

    Most formidable was peasants upsurge but once the faith has been shattered by repression by govt it tended to melt away in the absence of concrete programmes.

    Quit India Movement surpassed all previous movement led by Congress
    but in absence of common strategy, proper planning, and spontaneous reaction of people it was brutally suppresses by British Govt. In spite of that it was able to make realise British that they have few days left to hold on India.

  30. Shweta
    1 Vote

     

    1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”. Analyze.

    The Indian national movement from the very beginning of its course adopted a pro-poor orientation, however, it was only during 1920s and 1930s with the emergence of a Left wing in the Congress inspired by the worldwide events (ie Russian Revolution(1917), the Great Depression in capitalist economies counterposing the growth of USSR (1930s), the anti-fascist movement the world over and success of Soviet five year plans) that a socialist paradigm for India’s freedom and its development began to be articulated.

    During 1920s-30s Congress increasingly came under the influence of Socialist ideas propounded by Pt Nehru and SC Bose and more so with the birth of CSP and CPI. The Congress resolutions at Karachi, lucknow and Faizpur sessions (1931 and 1936), election manifestoes (1936-7 and 1945-46), formation of National planning Commitee (1938) and radical socio-economic programmes of Congress ministries (1937-39) were its clear manifestations. Moreover, Gandhiji’s shift towards socialist ideas was also visible during 1930s as evident from his stand on radical agrarian concept of “land to the tiller”.

    The impact of left ideology post-independence was reflected by the inclusion of the Fundamental rights and Directive Principles in the Constitution. The socialist welfare agenda was carried forth under the prime-ministership of JL Nehru and Indira Gandhi by aggressively pursuing pro-peasant land reforms, nationalization of key industries and banks and licensing controls over private sector. Also the trade union and peasant movements that emerged before independence continue to be a major influence on indian society and politics till day.

    Even after adoption of economic reforms of 1990s the governmant policies and programmes continue to be geared towards welfare of poor and vulnerable sections of society.

    • 1 Vote

       

      Shweta,

      You started your answer brilliantly by giving an excellent introduction. Even the second paragraph is good. But, in third paragraph, you are not answering the question. The question is about ‘During the National Movement’ -so latter half of your answer is not relevant (your focus is on post-independence India). After writing every paragraph, please read the question again and proceed. :-) I loved your introduction though.

      • Shweta
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        Insights

        Thanks for your valuable feedback. Perhaps i misinterpreted the question as follows ” The impact of left ideology on indian society and politics from the begining till day”. Will surely take care to avoid so next time. Thanks.