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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 25

QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY – 25(13/08/2013)

1)“The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”. Critically evaluate.

2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

3) Impact of cryosphere on global climate. (100 words)

RESPONSES:

  1. lakshmi prasanna
    6 Votes

     

    3.Cryosphere is the area covered with solid water like snow and ice in polar region. They are major source of fresh water, serves as a shelter to many animals and for recreational activities. Cryosphre and climate influence each other. Cryosphere balance energy levels of planet as they can reflect more sunlight. Changing in global temperature causes melting of glaciers as in Arctic can influence climate by affecting air temperature, sea level rise, ocean currents and storms of different areas in the world. As the melting increases the river flow in summer will increase but later decreases as the glacier feeding river disappears, leading to drinking water crises. Cryosphere helps scientist in analyzing climatic conditions in the past and present days on examining drilled ice.

  2. tushar
    4 Votes

     

    2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    Non Aligned movement (NAM) which started in opposition to the division of world in two groups led by USA and USSR respectively was an effort by the member countries to resist the unjustified dominance of big and powerful blocs and stay independent. It gained considerable success in its efforts and was able to attract a number of nations who were not willing to join any military group but wanted to stay neutral.

    Post Cold war and disintegration of Soviet Union, many critics have raised doubts on the relevance of Non Aligned movement. They argue, that since the world is no longer divided into two groups, NAM
    should dissolve as the conditions which facilitated its emergence themselves cease to exist. However, it would be hasty step to dismiss the NAM. The conditions which were responsible for its birth still exist
    albeit in completely different forms.

    The international politics in not completely democratized. Very often we see a strong and powerful nation intimidating neighboring countries through its policies. The US policies towards Latin American countries, or the US naval blockade of Cuba, or Chinese territorial disputes with Vietnam or Phillipines provide ample evidence in this regard. NAM stands for democratizing the world order where every nation can maintain its strategic autonomy.

    Secondly, the world is still seeing an increase in arms race. The various arms treaty and nuclear proliferation relation treaties are unjust and favourable for the countries which already have access to lethal weapons. NAM as a group can raise its collective voice against this inequality.

    Thirdly, though colonialism is not directly evident it has not completely disappeared. It has changed it face and turned into economic colonialism. The unjust treaties in WTO, various trade barriers imposed by developed countries on the goods and services of developing countries is an example. The NAM countries, which mostly belong
    to the latter group can collectively counter the hegemony of these powerful nations in various world forums.

    Lastly, the NAM can strengthen world opinions on tackling issues like climate change, hunger, poverty, gender inequality which affect the third world countries the most. These issues pose serious challenge and require concerted actions by all the countries of the world. NAM can become a platform for mobilizing various nations towards removing these inequalities.

    • tushar
      1 Vote

       

      Insights,

      Please review.

      Thanks,
      Tushar

      • 3 Votes

         

        You have used 377 words. From this year you will be given enough space to write within given word limit (question cum answer sheets).

        You would have condensed first two paragraphs into one.

        In the second paragraph you mention ‘relevance’ – question is about the Aims of NAM in the post-cold war scenario.

        But, you have answered the question correctly thereafter.

        Mention of ‘strategic autonomy – only you have mentioned it out of all the answers. very good. It is important because of NAM 2.0 put forth by some ‘thinkers’ (Indian) which talks about ‘strategic autonomy to pursue developmental goals’ (this should be mentioned in one line as the question is not about India)

        You have nowhere used the word ‘Aim’ in your answer.(should have been there either in the introduction or conclusion)

        Otherwise, you have mentioned many relevant points. Please stick to word limit next time. :-)

      • Shweta
        Rate This Response!

         

        2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

        The end of the cold war era and the collapse of the Socialist block was touted by some as the end of the Non aligned movement whose primary objective at conception was to save the newly emerging nations from succumbing to the pressures of the Bipolar cold world order. However, NAM has retained and regained its significance in the post cold war world and has multifarious roles to play in the present context due to emerging global challenges.

        The fall of Soviet block and consequent emergence of US hegemony in world politics still poses a challenge to the NAM’s founding principle of democratization in International relations and establishment of a multipolar world. NAM has an important role to play in assuring the sovereignity and strategic autonomy of underdeveloped nations in world politics and against use of unilateral military actions by hegemonic powers.

        Secondly, NAM can provide a forum for leveraging on global issues of sustainable development, climate change, global warming etc while protecting the interests of developing nations and promoting the principle of CBDR.

        Thirdly, NAM has an important role to play in encouraging Universal Disarmament while ensuring access of nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes to the poor nations.It provides an important platform to deal with the threats to global security arising on account of Terrorism by promoting dialogue between peoples, culture and religions and encouraging mutual respect between them.

        Lastly, it can work towards promotion of a just and fair economic order which works to the benefit of rich and poor nations alike and tends to reduce disparities between them.

  3. 3 Votes

     

    Q. Impact of cryosphere on global climate. (100 words)
    Ans
    Cryosphere is that part of earth which is frozen either in the form of ice glaciers, sea ice or river ice or in the form of snow on mountains. Crysophere plays an important role in climate change through its feedback mechanism which can be both negative and positive. It consist of Whitish snow which has a high albedo which helps reflect back the warm sun rays thus preventing global warming. However, melting of Cryosphere in the Polar Regions have released vast amount of GHGs which were hitherto confined to frozen prefectures and it also increased the sea level thereby affecting the precipitation pattern and hydrological cycle and marine life which have its bearing on ecological balance and climate change.

  4. RV
    3 Votes

     

    Impact of cryosphere on global climate.
    Cryosphere includes the regions of the earth under frozen conditions including the polar caps , glaciers and ice sheets and all of them have a bearing on the global climate.
    Polar ice caps are one of the main reasons for albedo of the earth there by restricting the amount of insolation absorbed by the earth making it habitable.
    These regions are also source for the polar air masses which on meeting warm tropical air masses are responsible for frontogenesis and consequent precipitation in the polar and temperate latitudes.These bitterly cold airmasses create very cold conditions in regions of Canada, U.S. , Russia and China,
    The cold conditions developed by them also facilitate the generation of planetary winds called polar easterlies and the upper atmospheric polar night jet streams which contribute to dry stable weather conditions.

    • RV
      1 Vote

       

      Realized the answer become too technical hence this simplified version please give your thoughts !

      • RV
        3 Votes

         

        Cryosphere includes the regions of the earth under frozen conditions including the polar caps , glaciers and ice sheets .
        Polar ice caps are one of the main reasons for albedo of the earth there by restricting the amount of insolation absorbed by the earth making it habitable.
        These regions are also source for the polar air masses result in precipitation in the polar and temperate latitudes.They create very cold conditions in regions of Canada, U.S. , Russia and China.
        The bitterly cold conditions in Antartica produce the polar stratospheric clouds providing the conditions for ozone depletion.
        However due to global warming the melting polar caps have realeased large amounts of methane from the permafrost exacerbating the global warming situation.

        • Evika
          2 Votes

           

          I found the earlier answer more informative. In the revised version, you omitted the point on Polar Easterlies(which I missed in my answer to the question). They are important as they cause storms and rains in the mid-latitude region(parts of Russia, Canada, Australia, Argentina).

          • RV
            1 Vote

             

            Hello ! Thanx for pointing that out . Just that in 100 words it became difficult to include it all for instance the squall line and increases frequency of tornadoes in the region !

  5. 5 Votes

     

    Q. Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.
    Ans
    Non Alignment Treaty was the product of cold war rivalry which calls upon the nation not to associate themselves with any warring faction or state in order to avoid the rise of polarized world and seeks to establish an inclusive, independent world order which would respect the sovereign right of the nations. It was aimed at challenging the imperialism, colonialism, racism and an end to aggression, domination and interference in the domestic affairs of a country. However new challenges have risen after the end of cold war.
    There has been considerable rise in the hegemonic domination of Western nations in general in the past two centuries. The recent examples of toppling of various regimes in WANA region, unilateral sanctions on Iran, interference in geo-politic milieu of Asia, military support to rebels in Syria, aggressive drone strike which are against human rights, snooping over cyber space of a country and its diplomatic institution, rising china’s aggression in the region are some of untiring examples which undermine the sovereignty of a nation.
    Amidst all this, NAM has gained a pivotal role as a platform for raising concerns of the countries. Recently celebrated 50th anniversary of NAM reiterate its demand for an end to human rights violations, opposes western led sanctions against Iran, calls for a Syrian led political solution and promote a just and equitable environment without any racial discrimination in every sphere of social life. It also reiterates its demand for a consensus based solution to world problems like climate change, biodiversity conservation, poverty etc.
    Thus NAM has not lost its relevance due to rising intolerance among nations and is an effective platform for bringing nations together for establishing a multi polar world to achieve the aims and objectives of its charter and prevent any war like situation

    • Tejaswi
      1 Vote

       

      Hi..
      I felt u concentrated more on the NAM relevance in post-cold war rather than bringing its ‘Plausible aims’ as asked in question.
      Just what i felt, i might be wrong though,

      • 1 Vote

         

        Aims of an organisation defines its relevance. It’s post war relevance gains significance because of the objectives of the NAM itself. It has not outlived the time and space because its relevance has been growing which is defined by its aims.

    • 1 Vote

       

      Hi Sahil, in my opinion the question asks your perspective. Your answer would have been excellent for the question – ” is NAM relevant in the post cold war era”

      • 1 Vote

         

        Plausible aims in post cold war era is to establish a multi polar world order because of the growing interference by western countries and increasing racial discrimination. This is what i tried to write.
        In the third paragraph, i elaborate the aims of the Movement. which defines its relevance.
        But i will incorporate you point as well.
        Thank You

    • 1 Vote

       

      Hello Sahil. My comments-

      (1) You have written- “It was aimed at challenging the imperialism, colonialism, racism and an end to aggression, domination and interference in the domestic affairs of a country.” Can you explain how?
      (2) I concur with tejaswi’s comment.

      • 1 Vote

         

        On your first comment, the charter of NAM is based upon these principles and i condensed them in one line. Further sovereignty and imperialism stands opposite to each other. and the former is the mains objective of NA. I just searched Wiki and other sources.
        On your second comment, u may be right, as all are saying the same thing. But as i look into your answer , u did not include the recent developments(that happened in post cold war) that made NAM aims pertinent. hence there is a connectivity between NAM’s pertinence and its aims in the contemporary world.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      @ Insights : please review

      • 2 Votes

         

        The question demands your perspective on the probable aims of NAM in the post cold war world. In the post 1990 world of capitalism, globalization, terrorism, climate change, rising economic inequalities, resource scramble, warring nations, regional instabilities, arms race – what should be the Aims of NAM which has some of the poorest countries as its members, and which represents more than half of the planet’s population?

        You have explained what NAM is already doing but not given your own perspectives.

        It is good to say that NAM ‘calls for xyz’, ‘reiterates abc’ – but does the world care?

        In my opinion, first NAM should aim to become a working ‘organization’ with its own working constitution and authority. Basically, it should aim to become UN of developing countries with uniform representation in decision making powers unlike UNO. NAM needs spine first to set the world in order.

        NAM should should move from ‘strategic autonomy’ to ‘strategic advantage’ doctrine. In the present context, repelling attempt by economically powerful countries to achieve economic hegemony should be another aim – but how? by becoming a trade block in itself, by opening its own Bank etc.

        These opinion based questions are open in nature. Even if idealist, your own opinion matters. You can give some of the out-of-the box perspectives too.

        Your answer is not wrong, but it could have been original.

  6. 5 Votes

     

    3) Impact of cryosphere on global climate.

    Ans- Cryosphere is the frozen part of the earth consisting of glaciers, snow covered mountains, poles etc. Its impact on global climate can be enumerated as-

    (a) Being totally white, It reflects sunlight thereby regulating global temperature.
    (b) It acts as a sink of CO2 & other greenhouse gases like methane etc thereby controlling the global warming.
    (c) The melting of ice from glaciers & other parts of cryosphere change the saline concentration of oceans. It changes the thermo-haline circulation of global currents. It affects global weather.
    (d) Not directly, but acts as an indicator of changes in global climate. Research & monitoring of cryosphere gives the scientists an idea of the steps to be taken.
    (e) The poles that comprise a huge part of cryosphere, help in balancing the moment of inertia of earth. Melting ice may change the inertia thereby changing the rotational speed of earth. It will have far reaching global climatic consequences.

  7. lakshmi prasanna
    2 Votes

     

    2.After centuries of British rule we got independence with powers to guide ourselves further. Among such challenges cold war is one. WW2 divided world into two parts one is US and the other is USSR. Now India needs to decide the one with whom it needs to join. Under leadership of Nehru it refused to join both sides and decided to remain as a peace loving country with sovereign foreign policy. This ideology led to the formation of NAM. In the post cold war scenario people questioned about the importance of NAM. With slight modification in its aims after Belgrade conference it remained to show good impact. In the present globalization era importance of NAM is seen as follows: It still means the same, maintaining independence in foreign policy, and maintaining the same for other countries also. Respect the other countries for their sovereignty in the internal affairs. Don’t dictate policies and impose ideas. So NAM stays as a philosophy for a while to come. India didn’t preach a philosophy of arming of the Libyan rebels when there was a UN resolution. But abstained maintaining the stance believing a military offensive is not a solution for a political problem. We maintain our ideology and say we are not to be pulled down by the pressures. May it be the Iran issue where we are being pressurized to react to the sanction policy on Iran, we refrain from doing so. And so to tell in the affairs to come whether it is ethnic conflicts, religious intolerance or mere misunderstandings

    • 1 Vote

       

      I think u explained NAM completely through India’s Perspective, It would be better if u cut India and Put NAM there.
      First Line was not required. on one hand you are talking about NAM’s relevance and its impact and also saying that NAM will remain a philosophy for a while. Paradoxical statements. Clarify. Thank You

      • lakshmi prasanna
        Rate This Response!

         

        starting lines i mentioned about India due to its role in originating and further spreading.(reasons)
        ya slightly deviated i need to replace india with NAM, thank u
        philosophy in the sense of it rules (ahimsa) not intervening into others issues and pertaining to its own national boundaries in this globalised world. which is often criticized as selfish philosophy. i hope u are clear

    • Rate This Response!

       

      Hi lakshmi. After reading your answer, my comments are-
      (1) The starting 7 lines could have been condensed into 2 lines. I feel that this much elabortation was not required.
      (2) In the last 9 lines you have shifted the focus entirely on Indian foreign policy. I think it was not required.

      • lakshmi prasanna
        Rate This Response!

         

        regarding 7 lines starting i mentioned about India due to its role in originating and further spreading.(reasons)
        9 lines; no sagar only in one place i have wrongly mentioned india ( ex;Libyan) rest all are purely related to NAM. (rules + examples related to every NAM member)
        thanks for detailed review i’ll develop it further

        • Sudha
          Rate This Response!

           

          you have deviated in the last part by explaining on what NAM exactly does but the question is your perspective on what could be the possible objectives of NAM in post cold war era.

  8. Anjali Motghare
    1 Vote

     

    Perestroika denotes a certain reforms applied in Soviet Union under Gorbachev rule to regenerate lost confidence in human being and to bring democratic reforms.

    After 1917 revolution soviet Union came into existence. Socialism established in the country and it brought message of liberty, equality, health and wealth for the oppressed nationalities.

    But as Lenin passed away Soviet Union turned into chaos and Stalin assuming dictatorship democratic principles completely lost. After Stalin’s death several reforms initiated by Khrushchev. Intellectual freedom and civil
    liberties were restored though true democracy was a distant dream. Soviet
    Communism failed to become powerful instrument of public welfare hence
    perestroika used by Gorbachev.

    Through perestroika he wanted to end rigidity and pave the way for economic, social,political, cultural and spiritual development of man.It was aimed at evolving a society whose essence would be glory and dignity of man.

    Gorbachev pleaded for open discussion over regional,economic,racial, social and environmental problems to ascertain peoples true views.And this necessitated glasnost means openness. It promoted open discussion to
    strengthen democratic forces. Glasnost and perestroika symbolized all round change. Political prisoners released, multy-party elections held, people allowed to make foreign trips and to migrate, bans on religios sects were lifted.

    Through perestroika welfare democratic principles introduced in Soviet Union which brought a lot of relief and change in peoples lives who had
    long been oppressed under government.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      You completely put his perestroika concept upside down. Structure is not good. The concept does not talk about environmental concerns and racial discrimination rather educational reform, creating gender sensitization and ofcourse political, economic and social reforms. You writing explains layman’s understanding(generalist ). You put some common ingredients of a revolution or reform movemment. :p
      Courtesy Source
      Wikipedia
      (Because even i have no understanding about the topic.)

      • Anjali Motghare
        Rate This Response!

         

        Sahil, in modern world history book I got this information, I didn’t refer wikipedia. If you know more, please through light on it.
        On structure i need to work a lot.

        • Rate This Response!

           

          Actually , i read it in Wikipedia. No exposure to any book. Moscow Scholar says perestroika has created environmental problems. It was not an issue. Yes u really need to improve on Your structure. Try to write points first and then condense them in Your answer That will help/

        • Rate This Response!

           

          There were no issues on environment and racial discrimination in USSR at that point of time. I searched a lot on net but didn’t find any.

        • Anjali Motghare
          Rate This Response!

           

          Insights I know i always keeps you asking for more favour, but please If you can throw light on today’s questions perestroika and NAM. I searched lot but didn’t find satisfying answers.

          • 1 Vote

             

            You have given very bad introduction again. This is because of not understanding the question properly.

            You should never use phrases like ‘ certain reforms’ that too in the first line – Perestroika has a definite meaning, and your phrasing sounds indifferent and casual. Avoid cliche such as ‘confidence in human being’ etc.

            Rest of the answer is irrelevant to the question asked.

            The statement was given by Gorbachev himself. What he meant was his reforms would free people and economy from the clutches of the ‘highly centralized political and economic command’ and ultimately give power to the hands of the people – a step towards decentralization and democratization. (which was radical at that time and for which USSR was institutionally not ready yet).

            Here, you have to evaluate the validity of the statement. Question assumes that you already know about Perestroika, so details about how and when it was implemented, historical context are unnecessary.

            You should just evaluate whether did Perestroika really make people the masters of their country. You know the answer for this question which is NO. Just focus on it and give your thoughts. :-)

            Think over question many times and also keep looking at the question till you finish your answer. It helps a lot in keeping you on track.

  9. Evika
    3 Votes

     

    1)“The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”. Critically evaluate.

    Perestroika, meaning Restructuring, was a famous political and economic system introduced in the Soviet Union by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. It had a huge impact not only in the political, economic and social spheres, but it also proved lucky for the underground rock band musicians of the time who received an opportunity to perform live, a feat they couldn’t have dreamt of a few years ago.

    In order to draw out the essence of Perestroika, we look at the events that followed Gorbachev’s assumption of office.

    The first thing that General Secretary Gorbachev announced at the plenary assembly in April 1985 was providing a much delayed scientific and technical boost. It provided every Soviet family with a separate apartment. The people liked it a lot. The following year, Gorbachev, in an attempt to give the society a human face rather than build on communism, called up Andrei Sakharov(Soviet’s version of Chen Guangcheng), a human rights activist under house arrest, to resume his patriotic activity. Ban over publication of the books like George Orwell’s Animal Farm and 1984, was lifted. Sensational movies like ‘Repentance’ were shown to people and magazines with sensational materials and advocacy pieces were distributed. The whole country reiterated the tune ‘Winds of Change’ by Kino’s band(you tube link:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbHsxrYzdIg. It has some Superb hand gesturing). The period was marked with the appearance of aerobics, a leisure activity famous among Soviet ladies.

    However, amidst all the rejoicing and merry making, Perestroika completely changed the meaning of freedom for the people of USSR. So, even though it though it was introduced in both the communist countries of the USSR and China, under different names, it had disparate effects on the respective economies.

    Therefore, I do not completely agree with the given topic ‘The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters ‘. In the USSR, perestroika was implemented along with glasnost policies, which provided freedom and fooled the populace into believing that they were the masters of the country by bringing in sudden and drastic changes in their lifestyles, as mentioned above. It eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In contrast, the economic reform in China, which was similar in essence to that in the Soviet Union, was confined under authoritarian rule and suppression of political dissidents, did not make its citizens masters of the country.

    3) Impact of cryosphere on global climate.

    Cryosphere refers to the areas of snow and ice, where water is available in form of frozen solid for at least a major part of the year. It may occur either on land( continental ice sheets of Greenland) or in water(frozen parts of ocean in polar regions).

    The components of cryosphere play an important role in the Earth’s climate. Snow and ice reflect heat from the sun, helping in regulating Earth’s temperature. Secondly, they house a bio-diversity which is largely undiscovered yet. Although they are concentrated in the polar region, elements of the cryosphere exist at nearly all latitudes, which make them useful indicators of global climate change. Due to the uninhabited environment, these regions are sensitive to climate changes, and serve as research labs for scientists.

    The importance of cryosphere can be better judged by various cryospheric science missions undertaken by the US government like ‘Operation Ice Bridge’(for air borne survey of polar regions) and launch of ICESAT series of satellites. The Ministry of Earth Sciences, in India, has expressed its vision of extending scientific and technical support in the polar regions in the draft 12th Five Year Plan.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      First Answer. Crossed word limit upto 400 words. Though answer is very good. Cut short the elaboration part of reforms introduced and give a brief about them
      Second Question(190 words), Last paragraph was not required at all. How they are useful indicator(explained only about albedo and biodiversity)- Sink house of GHGs and melting effect missing

      • Evika
        Rate This Response!

         

        Second answer:
        Hey Sahil. Thanks for pointing that out. I checked, you have included the Arctic methane release concept in your answer.
        But only recently I had read a news article which says the concept is misleading. Sure, methane is released from the prefectures but its a local effect with a small release leading to warming spread over the globe. Also, the claim that the methane may suddenly escape(like farting 50 billion tons of the Arctic seafloor) has been declared impossible. So I safely ignored it.
        For indicators I used albedo, biodiversity and research concepts and missed out on Polar Easterlies and saline concentration of oceans.
        Further suggestions are most welcome.

        • Rate This Response!

           

          i did not mention methane specifically. Various gases like CO2 as also frozen in those permafrost belts.
          By the way, i do not know about the report. thank you for updating me.

    • 1 Vote

       

      Too long answer. Since i don’t know much about the topic i can’t comment on it. But one question- why so much emphasis on rock music? Are you a die-hard fan or was it really that much revolutionary that it deserves mention at two places in an answer (along with youtube link :P )

      • Evika
        Rate This Response!

         

        Hello Sagar. Yes I am a fan. :)
        I found the music aspect revolutionary because prior to Perestroika most of the rock musicians were poor and had to take an official job of security guard, military service, student as per Soviet laws.(Like John Keating in Dead Poets Society :P ) And soon after Gorbachev became the leader, these bands reached their height of popularity. This improved their social status.
        Write-up went too long. I will keep it in mind while answering the next time. Thanks again! :)

    • Rate This Response!

       

      In second question, you have again crossed the word limit. Question asks how it affects global climate, but your answer is basically about its overall importance. Structuring is very good, though :)

  10. 2 Votes

     

    2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    Ans- NAM was started during cold war period by the nations who wanted to remain apart from the bipolarity of the world created by US & USSR. They chose a midway amongst the two. In post-cold war period when USSR has already disintegrated, there have been apprehensions regarding purpose of existence of NAM. The plausible aims of NAM can be given as-

    (a) Now the world order has changed from bipolar to unipolar having US as the only pole. Non alignment still keeps a meaning in this scenario.
    (b) With the rise of other powers like China & European nations, the chances of creation of a multi-polar world in near future can’t be negated. So, the circumstances under whice NAM was created may return back.
    (c) Paralysis of UN was also one purpose of creation of NAM due to presence of US & USSR in its permanent members. This situation is more or less the same today.
    (d) NAM is more about the principles on which the nations stand. The principles are non-aligned foriegn policy, no participation in military alliances etc These principles do not change with time.
    (e) Apart from sharing common principles, it has become the source of economic, social & political cooperation for the developing nations.

    So, we can see that even in post-cold war era, NAM has not lost its plausibility & still keeps a value which it had during the period of bipolarity.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      Good answer Sagar.
      Leaving aside this question,Though it is relevant. don’t you thing that it is unable to achieve most of its objective. Like it opposes any country specific sanctions but still most of its members severely cut short their oil demand from Iran. It has been strong on words but Weak on Action.?
      Even India is collaborating with Japan and Australia in a tripple alliance(2+2 dialogue) so as to contain china. Though China is also aggressive but India have no right to confront China in South China Sea. Would that not amount to alignment with South Asian Nation.
      Just a General Question.

      • Rate This Response!

         

        Yes you have a valid point. In my view the main cause behind its failure is the lack of enforcement powers. It is an informal structure of cooperation without any permanent secretariat so there is no obligations in strictly legal terms to adhere to any policies or allegiances but only that member states should support each other under the principles of non-alignment.

        • lakshmi prasanna
          Rate This Response!

           

          according to me it serves has a cause to abstain voting irrespective of how critical the situation is.

      • lakshmi prasanna
        Rate This Response!

         

        sahil don’t u think that china is trying to dominate in south china sea to become supreme power for which it is to intervening in the territories of Vietnam and Philippines. more over in Vietnam we have direct business deals for oil and also it requested for support. so we are intervening. but not like china we are constructing ports randomly in pak, srilanka, Maldives. don’t forget string of pearls. continent ally it is superior but not through maritime so it is strengthening muscles. we have to retaliate it. strategy needed no ahimsa hahaha

        • Rate This Response!

           

          Lakshmi,
          an eye for an eye will make the whole world blind. You are talking about the economic integration which is a necessaity of globalised world. But it would be wrong to say that India, which is one of the founder member of MAN is undermining the same principles it enacted 50 years back. Secondly string of pearls in not officially recognized by Chinese government. There are ways to solve problems through diplomatic cables. Alignment is no panacea. Today India will help america to contain China. tomorrow America will fund Pakistan to destabilize India. further with the global warming China will not depend much on Indian Ocean.

          • lakshmi prasanna
            Rate This Response!

             

            sahil ur right but even if we bind to the rules, all these happened and happens this is what credited our nation as a soft nation to be frank inability to tackle the situation. our good nature should not turn as a weak point.take example of ashoka though he turned towards dhamma religion he didn’t stop retaliating against his opponents he himself participated in many wars. even Buddha restricted entry of kings into Buddhism as many of their subjects are depending on him. so he is bound to protect them. pls this is not an argument try to think in this lines and construct ur own ideas. thank u

            • Rate This Response!

               

              first of all, if India is not a soft power, it should confront China on the outstanding border issue and retaliate to the continuous violations of ceasefire of pakistan. Getting into groups to bark the Dragon which no change its image as a soft power. Ashoka and contemporary India should not be compared. He was an astute, brave and assertive ruler, not a petty political entity that will undermine national interest for self gratification. He fought at individual level and without support most of the times. there is a difference between alliance and individual defense

  11. Siddhesh Singh
    2 Votes

     

    2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    Ans. Firstly to say NAM was made specifically for Cold war will severely limit its scope. And hence calling for its relevance post cold was shows people take NAM in narrow sense it was formed for newly decolonized country to raise their voice when they dont wanted to join any bloc.

    PM I K Gujaral had already in 1990 told the importance of NAM. The first thing it can do is to expand and stengthen the south-south cooperation. With no major west country dominates NAM it can easily become the voice of South and poor countries.

    Secondly it can encourage the settlement of peace process out of West dominated UN. With major social troubles are in South nations it can provide an outstanding platform for settlement.

    Thirdly even if in near future China becomes one super power and world politics moves towards bipolarity, it will be an excellent platform for making world multi polar and its relevance which was (in narrow sense) was in cold war era can again be revived.

    Lastly it can act as opposite to UN since it is not confined to any region it can effectively criticise the policies of UN and can further increase the democratisation of UN security council.

    To conclude there are a lot of problems in front of NAM to focus on instead of dwelling into debate about its relevance. It would be nice if NAM sticks to the principle to which it was formed i.e. for a stable world order.

  12. RV
    1 Vote

     

    Non-Alignment Movement , a brainchild of Nehru along with 4 other world leaders was established by the Belgrade Charter. It’s objective was to maintain sovereignty and independence of decision-making when the world was bifurcated between the Warsaw and NATO blocks.
    However in recent times developed nations consider it to have been buried under the rubble of the Berlin Wall and a relict of the cold war period. These views however are myopic viewed through the lenses of hegemony of the North Block.
    NAM was principally formed to promote universal peace and development and not just the ending of the cold war something that still largely evades the world.With the advent of neo-colonialism and neo-imperialism with unilateral intervention in countries like Yugoslavia,Afghanistan , Iraq , Libya and now maybe Syria , NAM stands as the only major opposition to these actions. Tehran and Venezuela the current and next chair of NAM are seen as U.S. detractors mainly due to their resistance to U.S arm twisting policies .Ban Ki-moon India’s stand to attend the Tehran meet despite U.S. pressure along with so many other countries undermines the legitimacy of the sanctions on Tehran.
    On the economic front the G-77 is essentially a complement of NAM and its stand on Domestic industry protection by tariffs and others raised at International Forums essentially protects the south block countries from the hegemony of North. Unified NAM provides the only voice against the continuous tussle over intellectual property rights , domination of world institutions like World Bank and IMF by the West and their increasingly discriminatory nuclear policies.
    The achievements of NAM to push for a New International Economic Order (NIEO)and New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) and their active cooperation on host of environmental , energy, terrorism and other global issues showcase their relevance in times to come .

  13. Sudha
    1 Vote

     

    2) Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    The end of Second World War led to the rise of two super powers, USA and USSR resulting in a Cold War. This was the period of Bipolar regime when all the countries were expected to take a side. But few of the developing countries of Asia, Africa & Latin America took a third stand of Non-Alignment by not joining either of the super powers thereby leading to the formation of Non-Aligned Movement.

    Enhancing world peace and following an autonomic foreign policy were the key objectives of NAM. Though NAM faced criticism from the beginning, the end of cold war with the dissolution of Soviet Union raised an ambiguity of the mere motto of existence of NAM. But does the end of Cold War led to the dissolution of NATO? A mere NO. Similarly NAM continued by shifting its focus on new areas which required concentration and which UN couldn’t ensure.

    The key objective of NAM in the post cold war period would be on ending the Unipolar nature of USA with a multipolar regime with NAM as a major contributor. The other possible objectives would be on global disarmament, reducing global terrorism, environmental protection, economic growth of developing and under developed countries of NAM, North-South Cooperation.

    Globalisation and Liberalisation led to the increased rich-poor divide which WTO failed to address. The emergence of new issues on the international agenda required the leadership of middle power and NAM satisfies the purpose. Hence, the post cold war era instead of driving out the NAM gained its overall position and objectives with a new dimension.

    3) Impact of cryosphere on global climate. (100 words)

    Cryosphere refers to the portion of Earth’s surface where water exists in solid state. Cryosphere influences the surface temperature, moisture flux, clouds, circulation of oceans and atmosphere, sea level, storm direction and precipitation with which it influences the global climate. The high albedo of snow keeps the temperature low and prevents the Earth’s surface from overheating balancing the climate. In turn cryosphere expands during winter with increased snow fall. Global warming results in snow melt and melting of snow emits green house gases and decreased reflective capacity of the earth results in further warming. Hence, cryosphere directly influences the present and future global climate.

    • Sudha
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      Please review :)

      • Asha Goud
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        Hi Sudha.
        I liked your answer but i would also give some inputs. :)
        i think in the first answer the focus should have been the principles and aims of NAM and how they are relevant today. The 3rd para could have been bit more elaborated upon as it included all major points.

      • Sudha
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        Insights Please review and can you please elaborate a bit on the other question.

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          Sudha,

          When opinion based questions are asked, it is better to begin your answer immediately with a crisp introduction that too when there is a word limit.

          First two paragraphs are spent on explaining about NAM and its principles. Instead, in the introduction itself you should give an indication of your perspective about the question. You have done that in the third paragraph.

          Question asks your perspective about the plausible aims of NAM in the post cold war era, so better to start answer directly from here – post cold war. (In essay we can afford to give a detailed introduction, not here)

          Have a look at this article: http://www.business-standard.com/article/opinion/shyam-saran-an-india-allying-with-none-112032100104_1.html (it is about Indian perspective, but it applies to other member countries too)

          Example of last year’s NAM conference in Iran and how NAM supported Iran’s efforts to develop ‘peaceful’ nuclear ability in spite of US opposition should have been good. (some current events should be linked to this kind of answers).

          For other question please see my comment above (to Anjali Motghare’s answer).

          Good going. Keep it up :-)

          • Sudha
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            Thank you Insights. ya I will make a note of giving short introductions to opinion based questions assuming those things are already known and will give more importance to personal views and current events. Yes I should try answering an essay :) Have read your previous comment. Thank you so much for the information.

  14. neeraj
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    “The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”. Critically evaluate.
    Perestroika was a policy of Gorbachev for restructuring of the political, social and economic system. The restructuring involved a greater democratisation of the soviet union’s political system, a system where multiple persons could stand for a political post and the people will have a right to choose among the contestants but under one party system. The policy’s aim was to introduce the concept of the people and not the state being the masters of themselves.

    But the policy instead of giving a mandate for a union helped fuel the ideas of nationalism among the member states which was seething for quite a long time. These states which inspite of a state controlled economy, were in a much poor state as compared to the western world of democracy. Gorbachev’s liberal policy helped these seething aspirations to take shape. The Baltic countries like latvia, lithuania and estonia raised call for independence. Perestroika was in full swing. People were taking control of their own countries. The glasnost policy also played a vital role. The voices of the people were not muzzled like they were done before. People were able to raise their demands. Miners went on strike and their demands were met. The oppression of the previous regimes were brought to light due to glasnost policy. The people felt that their future was not safe with the state.

    The policy of perestroika got out of control and soviet union was divided. Inspite of this, it brought a radical change in the restructuring of social, economic and political structure. It helped people realise that they were the masters and state was there to promote their well being. This brought end to Stanalist way of the State.

  15. neeraj
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    Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    NAM was started by developing countries in the backdrop of cold war era in 1950s. NAMs criteria for admitting a new member has not changed after the end of cold war. This has made the developed western world to deride NAM as a “relic of cold war”.

    But NAM was founded on sound principle of sovereignity of nation, non interference, independence, no interference , fairness, and peaceful settlement of disputes. These principles are still relevant today. In a world dominated by the western world lead by the USA, it is very important for a developing nation like ours to not be an agent of these countries and be able to make independent decision in international matters, which would serve our purpose to the full extent. We have shown some spine by taking independent decision in case of admission of Palestine in UN, Iran nuclear crisis and human right violation in Sri Lanka.
    Also, India has been a leader for the developing world. It has time and again proved that it supports the issues related to underdeveloped world, be it the issue of IPR in case of generic medicine or the case of protectionist attitude of the developed world towards its agriculture, or cases related to environment.

    India also has to look after its strategic sphere. It has to look after its security issues keeping in view its rogue neighbours like China and Pakistan. A recent example is buying the Rafale fighter planes and not bowing to US and UK pressures.

    Also movement of labour in international market is another issue to be tackled. The Non Agricultural Market Access is another issue to be discussed.

    Thus NAM policy is very important not only for India but any other developing nation.

  16. Tejaswi
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    Q. Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    Non-alignment Movement, was started by countries who wants to assert their freedom to choose their foreign policy, by not joining either clubs of the then bi-polar world. With the disintegration of soviet block, many questioned its relevance. But with changed times comes the new challenges, and NAM still has a role to play in world politics.

    The plausible aims of NAM in post-cold war could be:
    1. To work for better representation and democracy in the working of international financial institutions like IMF and world bank, to protect the economic and developmental interests of third world countries
    2. To provide a leadership to the developing countries and Least developed countries and work for better bargain in the climate change negotiations
    3. With the Veto nations often de-railing the peace process of UN in their vested interests (as happening in Syria), NAM should work dynamically to set in the reform process of UNSC composition for a better and balanced representation.
    4. With the ever-going arm race in the world, NAM collectively could serve as a platform to work for the peaceful negotiations of the many standing conflicts between different countries of the world.
    5. NAM countries with mutual cooperation can aim at curbing the menace of terrorism, especially state sponsored by putting pressure on the irresponsible countries through international diplomacy.

    Bi-polarity might have ended, but the urge of dominance and discrimination by the supposedly superpowers still remains, which requires NAM to work more dynamically and pragmatically to espouse the cause of third world countries on the global stage.

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      Hi Tejaswi. My comments to your answer-

      (1) The aims that you have enumerated present a view as if NAM = UN of developing countries. It is not so. It lacks any enforcement instrument. Moreover, all developing nations are not part of NAM.
      (2) NAM is first an ideology & then a group of nations following that ideology. So, the aims of the group focuses more or less around this ideology only.

  17. Asha Goud
    1 Vote

     

    “The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”. Critically evaluate.

    A: Michael Gorbachev appointed as general secretary of communist party in Soviet Union in 1985. At that time the Soviet economy was undergoing a very bad phase and Gorbachev initiated reform process. The Perestroika and Glasnost are the two major policies adopted by Gorbachev intending to introduce reform in the social, economic and political front. Perestroika stands for restructuring. Glasnost stands for openness. The reforms also included democratization of the political structure.
    It is important to study the background of the reform process.
    The vastness of Soviet empire had always made it very difficult to be administered. There were more than 100 ethnic groups living in USSR, divided into 15 republics and forced to live together. This resulted emergence of ethnic conflicts. Also the Baltic region remained in a state of perpetual unrest and demands of independence grew during the 1980s. The control these ethnic unrest and demand for independence military was used. Such brutal use of force on its own people and complete neglect of their demands diminished the trust of the people in the authorities. The economy under Communist control was not performing well. People were increasingly dissatisfied with low living standards.
    Therefore when Gorbachev came to power he found the economy in shambles and a government that had lost all moral support from the people. Therefore he adopted a liberalized approach and initiated the reforms. Political reform provided basic rights to the people like right to vote, right to speech, right to strike.
    However due to presence of conservatives the structure essentially remained centralized. The Communist Politburo and General Secretary remained most powerful and appointed not elected. The reform process was directed from the top rather than driven by the bottom as a result reforms failed miserably.

    Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    A: NAM was conceptualized during the cold war era to ensure that the newly independent nations do not get trapped in the cold war power struggle. The NAM countries did not align themselves with any power bloc and were against imperialism, colonialism and all forms foreign aggression on sovereignty of a nation. NAM aimed at establishing a democratic framework at global level. It was based on the principles of cooperation and mutual development all nations.
    NAM has always been linked to Cold war era and its relevance is therefore questioned in the post cold war scenario. The present global environment is characterized by spread of capitalism and related process of neo-colonialism. The capitalist countries are spreading their influence on the under developed countries leading to their exploitation. Therefore the founding principles of NAM are still relevant such as maintaining sovereignty of nations and establishing equitable world order. NAM should realign its policy not against any power but in favor of development of underdeveloped countries.
    NAM is focusing on attaining South-South cooperation on the issues concerning developing countries like globalization, trade, climate change, development. At present the membership of NAM stands at 120 and these countries also are UN members. The goal of NAM of establishing world peace and security and a democratic global structure is in consonance with goal of UN. Therefore the NAM countries should work together at UN and build up consensus on issues pertaining to the developing countries.

  18. neeraj
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    Impact of cryosphere on global climate.
    Cryosphere is frozen ice on surface of the earth as in antartica, arctic, glaciers in ocean and permafrost.
    Melting of cryonosphere has a damaging effect on the global climate. Melting of crynosphere increases global temperature by firstly, reflecting less sunlight due to exposed earth/rock in the arctics and antarctics and its subsequent feedback effect and secondly by releasing greenhouse gases due to thawing of frozen permafrost.
    Also,melting of ice increases the sea level of the oceans therby engulfing the coastal areas.

  19. Keerthi Narayan
    3 Votes

     

    Perestroika is one of the key principles of Mikhail Gorbachev, the former Soviet President who aimed to reform the USSR’s Stalinist communism and make a more humane, people responsive socialism as state policy.

    Soviet Russia after the World War saw the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushev and Brezhnev. All these leaders were advocates of a communist state characterised by nationalisation of all public assets and high centralisation. There was very little room for private initiatives. The state’s major expenditure was for defence and people welfare oriented schemes were not given enough resources. There was heavy state control of the press and freedom of speech was not guaranteed. Goods for day to day consumption of people were not easily available. In sum, for about half a century, the Soviet people saw no significant improvement in the standard of living. In addition to that free expression and culture were not available as reqired in a free society.

    Mikhail Gorbachev was more of a humanist. His aim was not to overthrow communism, but to reform the Stalinist way of communism. Hence, he proposed principles like Glasnost and Perestroika meaning openness and socio-economic reform respectively. The primary aim of these principles is to give the people of Russia the feel of free living, which has been denied all these years due to a heavily centralised state control. During his reign, theatre and music were allowed to flourish, critics of the former govts, who had been jailed were set free, the press was given a free hand to criticise the state’s actions. Gorbachev had planned to restucture the economy and society in a more people responsive way.

    However, Gorbachev himself could not control the reforms he triggered. Criticism against communism became uncontrolled and people ultimately staged demonstration, strikes and agitations leading to the collapse of communism. Perestroika never achieved its aim of giving power to the Soviet people’s hands.

  20. katniss
    1 Vote

     

    Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was a baby of Bandung conference of 1955 which was held in the context of the cold war between the two super powers, the US and the USSR. The founding fathers included then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Indonesian president Sukarno, Egyptian president Nasser, Ghana president Nkrumah, erstwhile Yugoslavian president Tito. The principles of NAM were independent policy based on peaceful coexistence and non alignment and solidarity with the former colonies in the context of cold war politics.
    The West considers NAM irrelevant in the post cold war era and calls it a “relic of the cold war”. However, NAM meant much more than not being aligned to any of the super powers. Even from its beginning, it was considered as the voice for former colonies and poor nations against the domination of the rich countries. The presence of almost all of its 120 members and UN secretary general in its Tehran summit in 2012 speaks of its continuing relevance.
    NAM should re-orient its objectives so as to meet the aspirations of the members in the new era of uni-polarity or the domination of the West. The solidarity within NAM provides strength to its members. It should stand up for the independence of its member countries in the eve of western domination. It should address other concerns of the poor and developing countries including global terrorism, energy, technology transfer, climate change, health facilities, poverty eradication and intellectual property rights. Thus NAM, being the largest international organization of the developing countries, continues to see its role as a voice of member countries in the current era of neo-colonialism or uni-polar world.

  21. ashu1989
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    hi everybody, i am just a beginner and hoping for some constructive critcism to keep me focussed in a long journey of civil services 2014..this is my first article ever in my life..may english rip..

  22. Meeta Vinay Myskar
    1 Vote

     

    Q1. “the essence of perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters’. Critically evaluate.

    Russia in 1970s was suffering from stagnation, deteriorating economic conditions with increasing shortage of food, goods – inspite of liberal imports, inflation, federal deficits, unemployment, foreign debt etc. It was then (1985) Mikhail Gorbachev took over Russian administration. His rule saw another revolution, for which change was necessary and achieved through programs of Glasnost (openness), Perestroika (revive) & Democratizatisiya (democracy).

    Peristroika literally means to restructure, revive and reform; aims to make socialism efficient in meeting its citizen’s basic needs. It is restructuring political and economic systems. It allowed rejection of totalitarianism; freedom of speech, assembly, religion and movement; and political and economic pluralism

    Gorbachev changed the meaning of freedom from following Lenin / Stalin views to escaping all constraints. He even ceased persecution of religion and also allowed publishing of previously banned books like Animal Farm, Doctor Zhivago etc.

    Political reforms established Demokratizatisiya i.e. introduction of multi candidate (not multi party) elections – to rejuvenate politcs with progressive personnel who would carry out his institutional and policy reforms.

    Economic reforms aimed mainly to end Stalinist centrally planned economy and establish ‘Privatizing and marketing Socialism’ – reducing the role of planners in decision making and replacing state owned enterprises with private and cooperative decision making. Gorbachev encouraged social (private) ownership of enterprises and means of production and cooperative management of economy. Better socialist system of production and distribution organized to directly satisfy the economic demands and human needs.

    Despite its criticism for leading to breakup of USSR in 1991, its true essence was for the people to feel they were country’s masters – owning the means of production and economy.

  23. Meeta Vinay Myskar
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    Q3 – Impact of Cryosphere on global climate

    Cryosphere (Greek – Cryos = cold, frost, ice and Sphaira = globe, ball) collectively describes portions of earth’s surface where water is in solid form – example – glaciers, ice caps, snow cover etc.

    Cryosphere is an integral part of global climate system with important linkages and feedbacks generated through its influence on surface energy (heat) and moisture fluxes, clouds, precipitation, hydrology, atmosphere, oceanic circulation etc. It is strongly influenced by temperature, solar radiation, precipitation and in turn influences each of these.

    Its physical properties like crystal structure, density etc affect heat and water transfer. It acts as an insulator, preventing large energy loss in winters. Its high latent heat of fusion retards warming in summer.

  24. kalyani
    1 Vote

     

    The term perestroika means restructuring and the term is associated with Michael Gorbachev and Soviet Union. Following the world war the condition of Soviet Union was critical like other countries. Economy was at its negative growth. Unemployment and poverty prevailed everywhere. They did not have any freedom of speech and expression. Rulers were completely aloof from the masses. As soon as Michael Gorbachev assumed power he seems like completely out of box. He get along directly with the people, he talked with them about their problems, a phenomenon, which is the first in the history of Soviet Union. He demolished the invisible wall that kept aloof the rulers from the masses. Since Gorbachev came from a peasantry background and young, people expected a lot. He also succeeded in easing the tension of cold war by developing a friendship with America, Britain and other countries. People felt like they got promotion from their slave life to master life. But he could not tackle the root problems of the people. Slowly people began to realize the fact that they are the masters of a country where country not even exist. From that realization many protests broke out in many parts of Soviet Union to materialize their dream of creating a country of their own. It started from the coal workers. Then it spread to other spheres of life. Finally it led to the collapse of Soviet Union into 15 countries. Perestroika found a place in the history like Utopianism.

  25. Shweta
    1 Vote

     

    2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

    The end of the cold war era and the collapse of the Socialist block was touted by some as the end of the Non aligned movement whose primary objective at conception was to save the newly emerging nations from succumbing to the pressures of the Bipolar cold world order. However, NAM has retained and regained its significance in the post cold war world and has multifarious roles to play in the present context due to emerging global challenges.

    The fall of Soviet block and consequent emergence of US hegemony in world politics still poses a challenge to the NAM’s founding principle of democratization in International relations and establishment of a multipolar world. NAM has an important role to play in assuring the sovereignity and strategic autonomy of underdeveloped nations in world politics and against use of unilateral military actions by hegemonic powers.

    Secondly, NAM can provide a forum for leveraging on global issues of sustainable development, climate change, global warming etc while protecting the interests of developing nations and promoting the principle of CBDR.

    Thirdly, NAM has an important role to play in encouraging Universal Disarmament while ensuring access of nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes to the poor nations.It provides an important platform to deal with the threats to global security arising on account of Terrorism by promoting dialogue between peoples, culture and religions and encouraging mutual respect between them.

    Lastly, it can work towards promotion of a just and fair economic order which works to the benefit of rich and poor nations alike and tends to reduce disparities between them.