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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 20

QUESTIONS ASKED – DAY-20 (08/08/2013)

1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for  India’s nuclear energy programme.

2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.



  1. 3 Votes


    1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.
    Ans- Regular nuclear power plants use U-235 as its fuel to generate electricity whereas fast breeder reactors use natural uranium (U-238), bombard it with fast neutrons to convert it into reactor grade neutron (U-235). Need for a fast breeder reactor arises because U-238 is abundant in nature but not U-235. So, in order to generate electricity, it is required to enrich U-238 with U-235. Not only uranium, but thorium & plutonium can also be used to generate nuclear fuel.
    India’s nuclear energy program is in a developing stage. The 3 stage nuclear energy program, as was proposed by Mr. bhabha, has reached upto its second stage. While in first stage, he proposed generation of electricity using natural uranium. In second stage, he had proposed generation of nuclear fuel using Thorium & plutomium through FBR. In last stage, we will generate electricity using thorium as a fuel.
    The huge importance given to thorium is due to large reserves found in monazite sands of southern states of TN etc. India will be self sufficient in the field of nuclear energy as there will be no need of nuclear fuel imports. In fact, by exporting thorium as a fuel, India can gain a lot of foreign reserve in future.
    Apart from this, breeder reactors use the spent up fuel of regular nuclear reactor to further generate fuel which can again generate power. This is a huge relief in the worry of disposal of nuclear waste as the waste will get reduced with reusal of fuel. Future prospects are very bright if we are able to use thorium as a fuel. Then, It can be used in our space programs too as the fuel will be abundant. Lesser geopoltical pressure will enable government to establish more & more nuclear power plants in the country that will eventually pull the country out of energy crisis.

    • Rate This Response!


      Nicely written.

      India’s progress so far in developing FBR should have been mentioned. India’s first Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Plutonium based, 500MWe) goes critical next month at Kalpakkam – a milestone towards energy security. Also, along with TN, Kerala and Odisha must be mentioned(Thorium deposits) – though it seems minor correction, Kerala has the highest deposits, so should be mentioned.

  2. Nikku
    6 Votes


    Q) What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    Ans) Indo-China relationship is characterized by cooperation, competition and conflict. While both the countries are in a constant state of competition, there are several avenues for them to cooperate and reap mutual benefits.
    With the western nation’s economy plumetting, it falls on India and China to engineer a recovery and lead the revival of world economy. While the current trade balance might be skewed heavily in favour of China, there is plenty of opportunity to cooperate in this domain.
    Both the countries are growing fast and need energy to pump this. Thus ensuring energy security and gaining access to the vast natural resources of Africa has been a priority for both nations. Instead of competing, there is more to gain from mutual cooperation here.
    The Sea lanes of communication are important to ensure the free flow of trade and cooperation is essential in ensuring their safety and combating maritime piracy.
    Organisation like BRICS have provided a forum that could draw a new world order. Although still not completely matured, India and China should cooperate in shiting the centre of geo-political power to the east and stand together to check US and western hegemony.
    Similar interest are also shared in respect to combatting climate change and advocating the doctrine of “common but differentiated responsibility”. The two must provide common leadership to the developing nations in securing a fair deal with the developed world.
    India and China, find them on the same side on numerous occasions in the WTO and Bretton Woods institutions. Their interests converge in enabling free and fair trade.
    China is a manufacturing hub, whereas India is a service hub. Both can learn from each other here as well.
    There is a need to have greater people to people exchange and strenthening of educational and cultural ties.
    The elephant and the dragon have several stage set to dance together. All that is needed is plitical will to make this happen.

  3. 3 Votes


    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    Ans- India & china not only share geographical boundaries but also imperialist history, a developing stance & more importanly a strategic position in global politics. All this opens up wide areas of cooperation between the two nations.
    First is education & research. With passage of time, both nations have emerged as an educational hub.Joining hands in this field will not only prove to be gainful for both of them, but will also help in improving relations by cultural sharing. Frequent tours, seminars, joint research institutes & universities will also attract student from all over asia & hence will help them in strenthening their position amongst asian neighbors.
    Second is exploration of minerals & rare earths. India & china are mutual competitors in this field, but if they join hands, they can fully control the market of rare earth which is gaining more & more importance day after day.
    Third is tourism. Buddhism is a unifying bond between the two nation. Not only India & China, but other buddhist nations of ASEAN should make up a tourism net that will attract tourists from all over the world & also will enable tourism in between them.
    The strategic position that is shared by India & china can be materialized only through mutual cooperation & understanding & will benefit both the nations in their development.

    • Rate This Response!


      You have missed important areas of mutual cooperation: Climate change, Energy Security, combating terrorism, striving towards reducing economic inequalities in the region, maintaining/providing global economic stability, cooperation in the multilateral fora – ex, announcement of BRICS development Bank(as an alternative to WB and IMF) etc.

  4. Nikku
    1 Vote


    1) Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.

    The regular nuclear power plants use enriched uranium for power generation i.e the naturally occuring U-238 with greater concentration of U-235. ALongside, generating energy the U-238 is also converted to Plutonium-239.
    Wheras in a fast breeder reactor, Plutonium-239 is used as a fuel along with naturally occuring Uranium. While Plutonium generates energy it also converts U-238 into more Plutonium-239.
    The entire strategy of India’s nuclear energy is based on the three stage plan of Homi Bhaba.
    India is not very rich in Uranium and even lesser in enriched Uranium. Thus the country needed an alternate fuel. Thorium seemed to fit the bill as it was widely available in Monazite sand of Kerala and the country possesed almost 30% of the world’s reserves.
    However Thorium was not readily fissible, but had the potential to be converted to a fissile isotope of Uranium ( U-233). But this process of conversion needed some other fissile material like Plutonium-239.
    Thus, the First stage was conceived to use the naturally occuring Uranium in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor to generate sufficient Plutonium-239 that could be used in the second stage.
    The second stage envisioned the use of Plutonium-239 along with natural Uranium to generate more of Plutonium-239 and energy.
    When sufficient Plutonium-239 had been generated, it was proposed to introduce Thorium into the cycle so that it could be irradiated to U-233 and thus provide energy security to the Nation for centuries.
    Thus the first two stages are crtical to the success of India’s nuclear energy programme as they provide the eddfice for the thrid and final stages.
    Besides quenching the country’s thrist for energy, the success of the plan could help India share it’s methodoloygy with 3rd world energy starved country and help them attain self sufficiency.

    • Amudhan
      Rate This Response!


      Hey Nikku
      Your answer shows a very sound understanding of the techinical process however the questions asks us to ‘comment’ on FBR in relation to our nuclear program which should be the Main body of the essay rather than at the end.
      otherwise it was good

  5. 1 Vote


    1) Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.
    India follows a 3 tier program for its nuclear energy development as envisaged in the vision of Dr. Homi Bhabha. That includes normal water heater reactors at the first stage, fast breeder reactor at the second and subsequently thorium based reactor. The first two stages have been completed and third stage is in the process of development.
    Fast Breeder reactor produces the same kind of fissile material as it burns. It uses Pu as a fuel and reproduces more Pu than it consumes by converting non fissionable U 238 that predominates in natural Uranium ore. Further they do not require the use of moderator to slow down nuclear reactors and therefore radioactive waste is also less. While in case of regular nuclear reactors, natural uranium enriched with U 235 is used as a fuel for generation of electricity. There is a requirement to moderator for controlled fission reaction and produces large amount of radioactive waste.
    The production of nuclear energy through FBR is necessary for the energy security of the country. With the fast depleting non conventional sources of energy, nuclear energy is the only way to bypass huge energy demand of the economy. Secondly, India is not a signatory of NPT and there has been strong opposition from various quarters and organizations like NSG, Wassener allies. They oppose any move for exporting enriched uranium to India until it signs the treaty. This led to an embargo on the import of fissile material from Australia, Japan etc.
    As India is self sufficient in production of U 238 and more sites are excavated, FBR can be a boon which uses non fissionable material for the production of nuclear energy. This will not jeopardize India’s security concerns with regard to Nuclear Proliferation Treaty.

    • Rate This Response!


      Dear insight,
      i think the question does not demand us to consider thorium based nuclear reactor. it simply ask for the difference between FBR and normal nuclear reactors and the significance of FBR in nuclear energy program. The most imp. significance is that it provides an opportunity to India to reduce its dependence on import of uranium from other countries and India can abstain itself from the pressure of NSG and NPT.

      • 1 Vote


        Ya you are right Considering first half of he question. The second half should be explained from India’s perspective, so importance of thorium should be stressed.

    • Amudhan
      Rate This Response!


      Hey Sahil
      i have a few creservations
      1)The NSG waiver allows countries to exports Uranium to India. I have a attached a Reuters article to support the claim.
      2) could you give me sources for “embargo on the import of fissile material from Australia, Japan”

      • Rate This Response!


        Many countries in NSG including China are opposing the move to export enriched uranium to India. Further Japan is reluctant to deploy its nuclear equipment to India through US. The signing of nuclear pact between india and US opened the gate for other countries to revoke the ban of export of fissile material to India. However still there is not much headway progress in the initiative.
        Second, if countries would supply India the required enriched fissile material, India would have to open its nuclear reactors to international scrutiny. I addition to that, many strong lobbies are still asking India to sign NPT which is against India’s security interest as Pakistan is also not a signatory.
        In Your second question, m not saying that there is complete ban or embargo on import of Uranium, it is just that in the past decades there has not been much progress in this sphere.
        I just want to conclude that FBR are better as it does not require India to get mired in international nuclear politics and help the production and reproduction of fissile material (through the breeding of fissile pu 239). Further thorium based reactors may, in the future, provide the required energy security as India is self sufficient in thorium. But that is still a dream in the pipeline.

  6. 3 Votes


    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    India and china have emerged as new leaders of developing and underdeveloped world in the past two decades due to their strong economic strength and core competence in various sectors. This led to competition and cooperation between the two at regional and international forums. Despite contentious regional issues both share similar view and strategic interest in international geo politics due to similar historical imperialist background and demographic profile.
    Many areas like climate change provide a platform for both to uphold the principle of Kyoto protocol and common but differential treatment to preserve the interest of second and third world countries. The conservation of biodiversity is another forum in which both can cooperate to press for better fund allocation from developed world.
    On economic side, both share a common view for the transformation and reform of world’s finance institutions which are currently polarized towards west. Further both being stakeholders in BRICS and its idea of development bank, there is a need for greater cooperation. Both can assist each other in WTO negotiation and bring consensus on Doha Development Round.
    Political sphere calls upon both to combat terrorism at regional and international level, strengthening Afghanistan to bring normalcy in South Asia, reiterating their demand for a Syrian led political transition in order to avoid blood bath, and opposing any western led sanctions on Iran and provide a window of consensus through UN. Further in order to avoid any war like situation in Asia with US pivot, both needs to bring a consensual roadmap for better geo politics.
    Despite some challenges on border issues and trade disparity, there is much scope for India and China to cooperate in political, social, economic, environment front in world diplomacy.

  7. Ananya Basu
    2 Votes


    1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.
    -In the age of industrial and economic revolution ,each nation is competing to be the best. Nuclear energy programmes is the fastest way to achieve and maintain it. Nuclear reactors bring about a controlled chain reaction and the available energy is used for power generation. Hence the more power a country has, the more it’s development without depending on other countries.
    Nuclear reactor is a proven source of clean, abundant energy. Besides, since energy is obtained by fission, it is a renewable source of energy. A fission reaction is a process by which a nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. When a uranium nucleus splits into two, it produces two neutrons that can be used to initiate a nuclear reaction . Neutrons produced by fission have high energy and move extremely fast. Due to this a chain reaction takes place in the reactor and energy obtained is used for power generation. A liquid or gas moderator(water or helium) cools the neutrons to optimum energies for optimum fission.
    A breeder reactor is a type of nuclear specifically designed to create more fissile material (nuclear fuel) than it consumes. It was considered a good option until the fissile material created was uranium. Natural uranium consists primarily of U238, which does not fission readily, and U235, which does. Although the U235 does most of the fissioning, more than 90 percent of the atoms in the fuel are U238, potential neutron capture targets and future plutonium atoms. A nuclear reactor can derive a significant amount of energy from such plutonium fission. But because this plutonium fissions, it reduces the amount that is left in the fuel. To maximize plutonium production, therefore, a reactor must create as much plutonium as possible while minimizing the amount that splits. A breeder reactor thus creates more fuel ,however it a concerning because the plutonium can be used to make nuclear weapons.
    India should weigh the pros and cons of nuclear reactors before coming to any conclusion. Though they significantly contribute to growth and development ,it’s hazards shouldn’t be ignored. Strikes of people near Kudankulam NPP shouldn’t be blindly dismissed as they are really worried after the Fukushima NPP accident in Japan. They should be educated and taken into confidence as they deserve to know the merits and demerits of nuclear energy. After all , the price we pay for security is insecurity.

  8. sai
    Rate This Response!


    sir, thank you for such a wonderful initiative. This is one of the most useful forum of all the available ones. Right now I am not able to participate in answer writing as i don’t have enough understanding of the topics. Soon i would be able to do so. But i am following the posts regularly.
    I would like to ask you
    1. If answers, by all members of each day, can be made available to download as a pdf? so that they can be printed and revised later.
    2. If you can spend time on writing your thoughts on each question? it will really enrich our understanding

    • Rate This Response!



      Thanks a lot. Though you are short of understanding about some topics, you can still participate by going through materials on net. Try it once. :-)

      1) After 30 days, I will publish articles as PDF by putting best answers on top. If you have observed, all answers are already available here.

      2) I thought of writing model answers, but it is not a good idea. The major intention is to generate ideas and content – not feed it. Some people may differ in their opinions also. I will give my honest feedback only if someone seeks it or when I see someone has missed important points. Thanks :-)

      Looking forward to read your answers soon. Start from tomorrow itself.

      • sai
        Rate This Response!


        Thank you for your encouragement and I respect your views. Yes i will try soon may not be from tomorrow. :(

  9. Ananya Basu
    3 Votes


    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    The areas of co-operation for the neighbouring countries india and china can be many yet not devoid of many problems. Our relationship with china dates back to historical times and the silk route is a testimony to it. But we can’t say so as china claimed it’s power over the south china sea citing historical references.
    However for two countries vying for regional supremacy in south east asia, tensions are abound.
    The areas for co-operation can be trade, respect for each other’s territorial extent,non-invasionist policies, respect for other’s culture and traditional integrity. Merely saying “hindi-chini bhai bhai “ is not enough. Despite being larger in size,china often acts like a small brother to tolerant India. Carrying peace talks on one hand and threatening to close the chicken neck corridor(siliguri) is not good for maintaining regional peace. Similarly to help Pakistan just to contain india or showing Arunachal Pradesh as a part of china are not healthy ways to deal with india for being pro US.
    With the look east policy of the US, the pivot of power is shifting to the such a scenario when there is cut throat competition for power and oil reserves,india and china should stand together than against. It is high time to be tolerant towards each other and create their own niche in the world economy.

  10. VIPUL
    1 Vote


    Nuclear energy is produced due to the fission reaction of U235 atom.
    During fission, U235 atom splits in to two smaller nuclei and small mass is converted in to enrgy.
    Fission process releases enormous amount of energy & 3 neutrons.Neutron released during fission reacts with another
    U235 atom and chain reaction starts thereafter.If Chain reaction is completed in a controlled
    environment ,energy thus released can be utlised for commercial purposes as well.

    Regular nuclear reactor:
    Naturally found uranium is U238 (an isotope of u235) which has only 0.7 % of U235 by weight.
    U238 found naturally is enriched to increase the percentage of U235 to 3-4 percent, before being used in Normal reactos.
    At present in india ,most of the nuclear reactors are PHWR (Pressurized Heavy water reactor).In normal reactors, neutrons
    released during fission reaction are slowed down using moderator.Slowed down neutron are called thermal neutron.
    Thermal neutron reacts with u235 atoms more efficiently and chain reaction is continue.

    Fast breeder reactor:
    Fast Neutrons released after fissions are captured by U238 and it converts it in to Plutonium 239.
    This plutonium isotope can be reprocessed and used as more reactor fuel. Reactors can be designed to maximize plutonium production,
    and in some cases they can actually produce more fuel than they consume.That is the reason
    such reactors are called breeder reactors.

    Nuclear program in India:

    Nuclear program in India was started under the guidance of Visionary, Dr Homi Jehnagir Baba way back in 1950s.
    We have acheived the prowess in nuclear technology over a period of time.But limited availability of natural
    uranium in India is still the biggest challenge for future nuclear policies.At present,nuclear power contribution is
    miniscule in India’s total power supply.

    Fast breeder reactors offer an opprtunity to use the reprocessed fuel as extra fuel.Fast breeder reactors are not without concerns.
    To extract the plutonium, the fuel must be reprocessed that can create more radioactive waste and potentially high radiations.
    prototype fast breeder reactors at Kalpakkam is alomst ready to contribute towards the development of country.

  11. lakshmi prasanna
    1 Vote


    2.India and china international cooperation and friendly consultations was strengthened on controversial issue and disagreements in exchanges. It is evident from cooperation in WTO, Doha round; climate change at the world level appointed joint cooperation commission and improved trade targets.
    India and china has historical relations through silk route. India was the first non communist country in recognising PRC and 16th country in establishing diplomatic relations. Both expounded panchasheel. But 1962 war deteriorated relations on both sides. In 1978 again officially trade was resumed. In 2003 first bilateral relationship document at highest level was signed. Their cooperation includes; multilateral cooperation in BRICS, BASIC, SCO, G20, during the Copenhagen climate change summit good cooperation was witnessed, to increase bilateral trade to $100 bn by 2015,banking, cultural cooperation, student exchange, tourism, infrastructure development, S&T agreements, pharmaceutical companies, economic policy research and development, cooperation in IT sector etc. 2011 considered as year of India china exchange. They also work jointly in curbing terrorism, drug traffic and maritime problems.
    Despite of all these cooperation’s, differences also exist in border sharing, trans border rivers, china dumping goods, insurgence of china soldiers into India, granting visas to Kashmir’s, supporting Arunachal Pradesh for independence, strengthening Pakistan against India, affecting our relations with Africa, exploration of India in south china sea with support of Vietnam.
    Recent visit of Indian defence minister to china for two days discussed on improving trust defence cooperation, and possibility of introducing an additional route for the Kailash Mansarovar yatra.
    Therefore fields in which cooperation can be impacted include S&T, banking, trade etc. people to people exchange is in great need. High level visits between governments for improving trust.

    • 2 Votes


      hi lakshmi,
      The second last paragraph was not required. Rather, i think, you should have explained briefly about the areas of cooperation on international front. The recent visit of chinese premier was to promoting regional goodwill in areas of border, trade and transnational river issue. They are not related to international cooperation. Most of the things you mentioned are the review of india-china local issue. What is take of both countries, standing together, in international diplomacy???

      • lakshmi prasanna
        1 Vote


        when they can settle their disputes then only they can strengthen cooperation. if locally they are not well how can we expect better coordination in international level. so strong cooperation comes on better diplomatic relations locally so i mentioned it.

        • 2 Votes


          u are right lakshmi that settlement of outstanding disputes are necessary for cooperation but this is not the demand of the question. It asks, what are the areas of cooperation only. you can mention disputes in one line.

          • lakshmi prasanna
            Rate This Response!


            i think indirectly question means it sahil. when the two rivals are cooperating each other then it automatically demands reasons for it, which is nothing but china changed its policy towards India.

        • Rate This Response!


          As Sahil said, that paragraph was not needed. What you are saying above would have itself made a good conclusion. You have excellently covered many points. Again, you should organize them well. If you read your answer again, conclusion though is valid when seen in isolation, is not related to the body of your answer. I totally agree to what you have said above -”so strong cooperation comes on better diplomatic relations locally” – just it would have been good if it was part of your answer.

          • lakshmi prasanna
            Rate This Response!


            thanks sir, for giving opportunity to do mistakes and learn from it. i am trying to clarify my doubts on doing mistakes. thanks once again.

  12. Ashish Mandal
    2 Votes


    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    Ans. India and China being two emerging economies with huge market potential have much to offer in international arena. Following are the areas where India and china could cooperate :-

    a) After cold war world has become unipolar and in order to minimise hegemony of USA which often is against interests of developing world. Together India and China can aim for a multipolar world by cooperating in various international and regional fora like IMF reforms etc.

    b) Cooperation in order to suit interests of developing world at WTO which often works against the interests of developing world under developed nations dictat.

    c) In order to maintain peace and security in Indian Ocean by protecting sea lines of communication especially against piracy and maritime threat, Sino-China cooperation is must .

    d) World peace is always at stake due to various threats like climate change, terrorism (religious, cyber), territorial conflicts etc. Both India and china can help resolve or mitigate such issues.

    e) Future Arctic melt due to global warming have much to offer, together India and china can put pressure to declare it as global commons.

    f) In Afghanistan, together by increased investments and cooperation in security both can help in creating peaceful in south central Asian region. Same hold true for middle east and north Africa.

    g) In Africa together India and China can help in upliftment of Africa by cooperating in trade, commerce, aid and security.

    h) There is much to offer for BRICS to international arena which again can be a success by Sino-China cooperation.

    To conclude, India and China cooperation is not only necessary but essential for world peace as well as prosperity.

  13. Vijay Pateriya
    2 Votes


    QUES. Briefly explain how FBRs differ from Regular Nuclear Power Reactors?comment briefly on their significance for India’s Nuclear energy programme.

    Energy or Power is the lifeline for development of any Nation.With increasing requirements for energy as a result of rapid industrialization,energy sustainability is becoming a challenge task for Nations.In this crave for enegy security ,nuclear power offers a viable option.Nuclear Power Generation uses nuclear fission as a process whereby one giant nuclei gets fissioned into smaller nuclei and in the process lost mass converting into useful energy.Nuclear power reactors are the structures which allows the process to be carried out in a controlled manner.These requires U-235 as fuel but as U-235 is limited in nature hence everyday new improved versions of these reactors are developed. FBR is one which is promising alternative with lots of advantages over regular reactors.
    Regular reactors uses U-235 as fissionable material,because of scarce U-235 in nature it is necessary to use it efficiently thus they uses moderators to slow down neutrons hence making them more efficient at extracting energy.In the process,radioactive waste is generated.With the advancement in R&D,FBRs came to the stage.these replaces U-235 with U-238 which is readily available in nature moreover they produce Pu-239 which can be reprocessed to be used as a fuel hence decreasing the fuel requirement.Also in these FBRs actinides wastes particularly plutonium and minor actinides are reduced .In addition these reactors uses fast neutrons thus no need of moderators.Cited above are beneficials of FBRs over normal reactors.
    India with world’s largest Thorium reserves hopes a lot from FBRs which can convert Thorium into useful U-233 which is even better than U-235.India’s BHAVINI is almost on the verge of completing its first FBR at Kalpakkam,Tamilnadu.Further India plans to build 6 more FBRs over next 15 years.
    Although Nuclear technology offers a lot but it is not without evils Nuclear waste is one of the biggest problem owing to it many nations like UK,France has stopped there reactors.Today only India,Japan,Russia and China have operational FBRs.
    Radiation exposure is also a problem.So in the future more R&D is to be carried in order to make it a safe and solid waste free,less polluting and efficient form of Energy generation.

    • Amudhan
      1 Vote


      Hey Vijay

      really liked that you brought the Kalpakkan reactor into your answer.
      i have a few reservations regarding your penultimate paragraph.
      France, UK shut down their reactors since it was no longer economically feasible. By the end of the 80′s vast amount of Uranium-238 (and 235) were found ending fears that we would run out. Which was the motivation for developing for DEVEloping FBR’s in the first place.

      • Vijay Pateriya
        Rate This Response!


        Thanks Amudhan for correcting it if I was at wrong but as per my reading i got that point that radiation and nuclear waste problem was an issue regarding their closure in the mentioned countries.
        but really thanks for correction hopes your further support.

        • Vijay Pateriya
          Rate This Response!


          sir, i need your feedback….. waiting

          • Rate This Response!



            First you have written it in 347 words (limit is 250 words).

            Few observations:

            First two lines would have made an introduction. Third line starts with a different idea, so it should be next paragraph.

            Second, in your second paragraph you have repetition. You would have just directly talked about breeder reactors.

            Third, you mentioned FBRs generate fast neutrons – you would have just added ‘that is why these reactors are called as Fast Breeder Reactors’(from layman’s perspective)

            Fourth, as Amudhan pointed out, actually FBRs reduce nuclear waste, so that point is not relevant.

            Your conclusion is wrong in the context of the question. Always, conclusion should logically follow the body of your answer. Here it should be about FBR and India. Ideally, it should have talked about India’s nuclear commerce, energy security, self reliance for fuel etc. (I agree that points you have mentioned in last two paragraphs are valid, but have a look at the question again – they are not required here)

            Keep writing. :-)

            • Vijay Pateriya
              Rate This Response!


              a lot of thanks for reviewing and pointing out the faults.
              i will try to improve.
              thanks again sir.

  14. Amudhan
    1 Vote


    Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment on their Significance towards India’s Nuclear Energy Program?
    Normal Nuclear reactor converts U-235 into radioactive material and fissile Pu-239 whereas FBR’s use Pu-239 as fuel along with U-238, during the fission reaction in the FBR U-238 converts into additional Pu-239. FBR reactors have more nuclear fuel at the end of the reaction cycle than the start.
    Stage 1 of the nuclear program involved using U-235 as fuel in a heavy water reactor. Pu-239, which is the byproduct of stage one will be used in FBR reactors for stage 2 of the program. When Sufficient quantities of Pu-239 is stockpiled we can use the Pu-239 nuclear reaction to convert Thorium into the U-233 which an artificial fissile material, which is Stage 3 of the Program.
    India has one the largest reserves of Thorium in the world and Thorium based reaction are far superior to FBR due Thorium’s greater atomic stability. India’s nuclear program is a sequential process where one stage must be successfully completed before initiating the next. Therefore stage 2 is a critical component and a perhaps the hardest stage due to difficulties with ‘doubling time’ of Pu-239 in FBR reactors which decreases our stockpiling abilities.
    With India-US civil nuclear agreement the importance of this stage has declined due to market access to U-235 from Australia, and availability of new technology due to the NSG waiver. These options however carry the risk of compromising India’s Energy security which was and is a fundamental aspect of our Nuclear Program and any decisions must not compromise this.

  15. Biman Ghosh
    2 Votes


    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.

    India and China have enshrined as the two most significant countries not only in Asia,but in world too.midst the current scenario of the world(,Euro debt,slowdown of US economy,Kyoto2,etc)India-China have a very large field of scope for cooperation.such fields of scope can be discussed under following subheads:

    *IN REVIVING WORLD ECONOMY-China and India has grown very firstly and still have one of the highest growth rates.Euro zone debt and slowdown of US economy has appalling effects over world economy.India-China economic cooperation can revive world economy up to greater extent.their fair cooperation can be proved as a “stimulus package” for Euro zone and growth engine for world economy.

    *COUNTER TERRORISM AND WORLD PEACE: there must be anticipation of massive violence in Afghanistan in post 2014 US-exit.India and China have greater roles there to bring peace and counter terrorism attacks.their cooperation will be proved as a boon for Afghanistan.

    *TOWARDS MDGs-There is a substantial part of world population living in these two developing countries.India- China can adhere to great co-operation and endeavors to fulfill these MDGs. These two countries have immense potential to achieve the MDGs and hence it will be resulted the overall achievement of MDGs in the world.

    *ENVIRONMENT CONCERNS AND POLLUTION- India and China are among the countries,which emit a substantial part of global pollutants,like Co2.No2 etc.also these two countries are in industrial transition phase so,they polluting the environment substantially.they can form a framework together and can work towards the less pollution.its one of the largest fields,where the cooperation between both countries will drag the pollution level down immediately.

    India and China with impressive cooperation can help the world to tackle the major challenges, it is facing.they have very much potential to bring peace,prosperity and sustainable growth across the world.

  16. Amudhan
    1 Vote


    What are the Areas of Co-operation for India and China in the International Arena? Discuss
    India and China are large and populous developing countries. They require and aspire towards development and Security and it is on this plank that they co-operate internationally on strategic issues.
    India and China co-ordinated in the UNFCC to make Equity on Emissions as one of its fundamental values, ensuring that both countries are not unduly burdened by meeting climate change objective when pressing matter such as poverty need to be tackled.
    Security is another area of co-operation especially in Afghanistan. The SCO is expected to be a key player in the region in post-US Afghanistan. India is worried about the rise of Terrorism once US troops pull out and China is worried about the influx of Narcotics and increased rebellions in its Xinjiang province. Both Countries have a lot to gain from a stable Afghanistan.
    Bilateral Issues have been a serious hindrance to the development of strategic initiatives such as the South China Sea, Border Dispute and troop movements beyond the border facilitate distrust. However the potential for India-strategic co-operation is vast. These areas include Co-operation in the UN in matters of Geo-strategic importance, promoting regional stability, ensuring that the artic remains a commons and if necessary provide strategic limitation to the US tilt towards Asia.

  17. Nirmal Singh
    2 Votes


    Often referred as political and economic rivals, not so good relations of China and India has silver lining too especially when it comes to international forums.
    On economic front, Issue of farm subsidies given fresh life by G-33 recently, unfair tariff and non tariff barriers imposed by Developed countries at WTO are areas of mutual interests. The recent regional FTA proposed by Japan which will comprise China, India, S.Korea and Japan is a welcome step. Cooperation through BRICS and recently mooted BRICS Bank at Durban summit is another progressive act of cooperation.
    At strategic level, The security of Malacca strait is important for both China and India as majority of Oil imports and trade with rest of world occurs through it, although both are suspicious of one another yet forms an area of convergence .Another important area is Afghanistan security where both have heavily invested with important Pipelines. Recent turmoil in Syria and Egypt are also important considering fact that both countries have substantial Diaspora there. Further India supports BRICS position of non intervention in Syria in agreement with China. Further India bid for SCO can ensure further closeness on issue of Terrorism.
    Talks on Climate change seem to be the most important area of cooperation at international forums. Leading developing countries both have expressed concerns over inability of developed countries to provide funding and technology and have been vocal about their attempts to dilute responsibilities. Recent gain of observer status at arctic council will give stake in decision making over global warming issue and research to both.
    Although mutual rivalry at multiple fronts has created more gaps than bridges yet the sphere of cooperation cannot be held hostage to short term issues. The urgent need is to leverage common strengths to create win -win situation for both in the long term.

  18. Rate This Response!


    For those who are not clear with differences between Breeder Reactors and normal reactors –

  19. simran
    1 Vote


    Russian revolution was 1st successful socialist revolution which changed the course of the world history decades.The Czars in Russia ruled in a highly autocratic manner. they believed in the Divine theory of kingship.Govt was not only despotic but also inefficient and weak. common people didnt enjoy the freedom of expression nor they were allowed to hold meetings or organise themselves. Russian bureaucracy was incompetent, corrupt and dishonest. Neither farmer not workers had any meaningful place in the society. There was a wide spread dissatisfaction among non-Russian. The liberals and radical ideas of the west penetrated into the country in a way or the other and gave birth to an intellectual ferment.In the last quarter of the 19th century the intellectuals started spreading their ideas to the peasants through a movement k/s ” going to the people”.
    During last decade of the 19th century there was a rapid spread of socialist ideology in Russia. Participation of Russia in the 1st world war proved fatal and brought about the final collapse of the Russia autocracy. This spirit of change was dampened which sets the stage of nihilism
    Nihilism was a youth movement a philosophical tendency and revolutionary impulse. It has new approaches to aesthetic, criticism and ethics.It was also a contradiction between studied materialism and desire to annihilate the social order. Nihilism effect is traceable through the history of Anardism through the function and modern practice of terrorism & through philosophical trends from destrction to existentialism.
    Irish nationalism in late 18th century inspired by french revolution demanded self govt and autonomy from british parliament particularly ponying law which allowed british to rule ireland.
    The socio religious reforms movement of 19th century triggers the resolution of the Indian national consciousness. The Indian nationalist movement was the political expression of rational and religious uproar and social and economic develop.
    Indian nationalistic movements with the goals of autonomy and self rule were the circumstance which lead to the unification or the division of a place were alike. The catalysts for nationalism based on the corruption or in effectiveness of a govt on its subjects.
    Indian nationalistic movements for independence were a direct reaction to imperialism. India had experienced long periods of imperialism.which programmed nationalistic movement rose up in an attempt to throw out foreign influence and gain independence.

  20. simran
    1 Vote


    Both are nuclear reactors i.e , FBR (fast breeder reactors) and regular nuclear power. The difference is in the overall sophistication of the technologies involved.
    Generation II and generation III nuclear reactor used low or unenriched uranium and produce high level radioactive waste than remains dangerous for many many years.
    Breeder reactors are the next generation. These are supposed to “burn” the uranium fuel hunger and break it into different isotopes which can also be burned. This extends the life of the fuel inc power output and creates a waste product that is far less dangerous than previous generation reactors.
    India follows 3 stages program for it nuclear energy development under Dr. Homi Bhabha . Stage 1st and 2nd has been completed and 3rd stage is in the process of development.
    1st stage :: pressurized heavy water reactor
    2nd stage:: fast breeder reactor
    3rd stage:: thorium based reactor or an advance nuclear power system involves a self sustaining series of thorium 232-uranium-233 fueled reactors.
    India has an active development program featuring both fast and terminal breeder reactors. India’s 1st 40mwt fast breeder test reactor(FBTR) attained critical on 18 oct,1985.
    At the present the scientist of Indira Gandhi center for Atomic Research (IGCAR) one of the nuclear R&D institution of INDIA, are engaged in the constructional of another FBR 5000mwt prototype FBR with plans to build more apart of its 3 stage nuclear power programme.
    India has the capacity to use thorium cycle based processes to extract nuclear fuel. This is of special to the Indian Nuclear Power Generation strategy as India has one of the world’s largest reserves of thorium, which could provide power for more than 10000 yr and perhaps as long as 60000 years

    • simran
      1 Vote


      kindly help me by point out my mistakes…. i know still i have done many mistakes but plz guide me regarding where i m lacking now … plz help meeee…
      Thank u