1)Discuss the triggers for rapid Industrialization process in Western Europe and its growth during the nineteenth century.
2)Explain the factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.
In the later half of 18th century changes intorduced in the industrial life by machine age due to scientific inventions which led to rapid industrialization in western Europe. First of all it started in England and then gradually spread to other parts of world
Industrial Revolution triggered by the following reasons:
Increase in population led to increase in demand for various goods and prices increased. This motivated the British manufacturers to augment production and introduce various improvements. Also more population increased the labour power .
With the certain changes in agricultural practices British peoples produced surplus food which they sold to industries and made good income.
It provided food to the the population in industrial sector; more income increased peoples purchasing power, so they might buy good produced by industries. Rich landlords invested in industries and provided sufficient capital; Agricultural labourers joined industries and supplied labour requirements of industries.
Overseas trade helped in many ways to bring industrial revolution. Profit from overseas trade acted as essential capital for agriculture,
mine technology and industrial development. In the 19th century European countries established colonies in most part of the world.Colonies supplied raw material required to industries and provided ready market for manufactured good.
The development of transport proved very advantageous in intensifying the process of industrialization. Rapid movement of goods increased trade and so demand for goods.
Demand for more goods provided motto to produce more and find various means to augment production for more profit which led to rapid industrialization .
Q Discuss the triggers for rapid Industrialization process in Western Europe and its growth during the nineteenth century.
Industrialization is defined as a process in which a predominantly agrarian economy is transformed into a machine based industrial economy. The industrial revolution took place in England in particular and west Europe in general for the simple reason that pre requisites to industrial revolution were present there. The triggers were:
1. Capital: It is the main requirement for purchasing land, machinery, raw material etc. Large savings by manufacturers and traders and plunder from colonies abroad was re invested in machinery and capital formation and expansion
2. Techniques: There has been invention of new technology and funds were mobilized for research and development of more machines and improving the efficacy of older ones.
3. Availability of cheap labour and workers which were hitherto poor agricultural peasants and slaves from colonies filled the need for unskilled human resource. This led to their exploitation and acceleration of wealth production in the factories.
4. Western Europe was endowed with riches of natural resources like coal for production of power and iron for production of machinery.
5. New modes of transport like inland waterways, road network, ports and railway broke the hitherto isolation of far flung areas and also helped in transportation of raw material to the factories.
6. The colonies provided the market base for the machine based products through disproportionate tariff policy
The emphasis for rapid industrialization was also provided through the ideological support from the growth of philosophy of capitalism and rise of protestant ethics, new modes of education and science. The Calvinists and protestants receiving institutional support imbibed the value of material asceticism, entrepreneurship, law, discipline which had significant impact on the industrialization as a process.
Q : factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.
The software industries made foray into India during the late 1980′s when the groundwork for liberalisation of Indian economy was being done. The growth of this industry has been phenomenal, but have their strong presence only in places like Banglore, Chennai and Hyderabad. Oflate, the industry has been spreading to other places and contributing to the economic development of those regions. Their locational factors include a combination of skilled manpower, good infrastucture and enabling environment like Tax concessions and educational places promoting and having science and research facilities. This combination of factors were available in States of AndhraPradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Also these states formulated policies that further promoted these factors and thus became an Hub for Software industries. Bangalore, with the presence of defence and space research establishments naturally became the first choice for these software firms.
Today, software industries employ a large number of skilled men and is seen as a promising sector for employment. Other states have also started taking steps to attract the software companies and hence we are able to witness the distribution of these companies throughout India, though at varying levels.Creating more knowledge centres and offering technical education to the youth will make a large number of people employable in this sector and further help in sustaining India’s position as software capital of the world.
To Insights :
Accidently posted my answer for ‘factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.’ in feedback box! Be kind enough to post that in the answers column.
Yup, I already posted on main comment section. Thanks for taking part.
Thank you! Nice initiative
Q. Explain the factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.
The growth story of India is based on evolution of India as an international hub in the field of software development, consultation and export, information technology and other business process outsourcing. Therefore it is important to understand the factors responsible for the location of such huge base of software industries which have changed the overall spectrum of economy.
Human resource is one of the main factors for the development and sizeable increase in the software industry. The fact that India has a young demographic dividend has changed the geography of industry in the world. Availability of cheap world class software experts and core competence of India in software related products is the main reason that most of the countries are looking towards India. Secondly, information industry craves for a better communication infrastructure like telecom, better internet connectivity, fast satellite communication etc. All these pre requisites are available in India.
Further as software has wide ranging application in the field of defense, satellite communication, telecom, and cyber security, and South India is home to most of the institutions related to these sectors, most companies are looking forward towards this region.
India has a favourable, free and reliable market looking for better and innovative software. With the rise of the information society wanting services at the door step and government offering public service delivery through software programs, there has been ever increasing establishment of industries in the sector.
The distribution of software industries was mainly confined to southern India in the initial stages but with the ever increasing demand for better services through better software products, there has been mushrooming of new industries in many towns of north India as well. The software industry is poised to become all pervasive in the near future.
sahil if u don’t mine can u suggest sources or links related to this
thanks in advance
good morning lakshmi,
well i did not relied on any source for this question. It was mainly based on speculation and my subjective understanding. When i saw this question, even i wondered what should i write on software industries. they can be established any where. i searched the net but did not find any relevant link or source.
i too tried to find some relevant source for the topic and found this document.
however Sahil is correct that we have to answer this one mostly based on our understanding.
hope u find it useful.
The following blog post clearly explains how south india became an IT hub. A classic example of how important govt policies play a role in development of an industry.http://www.zoho.com/general/blog/why-it-happened-in-southern-india-an-unorthodox-explanation.html
thanks a lot
thanks ahsa it is useful
industrialism is period of social amd economic chnge that trnsforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. It is part of wide modernisation process, where social chnge and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large scale energy and metallurgy production.
Industrialization also introduces a form of philosphical xhange where people obtain a diff attitude toward the perception of natural and a socilogical process of rationalisation.
Industrial revolution was period in the late 18th nd 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing and transportation has a profound effect an socioeconomic and cultural condition in britain and subsequently spread throughout europe and north america and eventually the world, a process that continues an industrialization. The onset of industrial revolutiin marked a major turning point in human social history, comparable to the invention of farming or the rise of 1st city state.
8 main clauses lead to industrial revolution are……
i… AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION ….. welthy landowness bought village farmers land and made them tenant farmers to made them more to the country. The landowners made more efficent crops which led to less starvation, less people dying,.
ii… POPULATION BOOM ….. since there was more food going around less people died of starvation and people could have more babies which creating population boom.
iii…. NATURAL RESOURCES….. natural resouces made possible for factories to attain energy trains to run and for industries to growth.
iv… NEW TECHNOLOGIES…. scientists knew that industrialization bring wealth so they shifted there research on new technologies that would help the proceed of industrialization.
v…. NEW TRANSPORT SYSTEM ….. new transport system allow cheaper and easier way for people to ship their goods.
vi… RURAL AND URBAN MIGRATION …. since travel was become cheap , farmers decided to move to cities for job.
vii,. MONEY=CAPITAL=POWER… since everyone wanted the newer goods its inc the wealth and this lead to powerful people than it was earlier
Q Discuss the triggers for rapid Industrialization process in Western Europe and its growth during the nineteenth century.
A: Industrialisation is process of transformation of economy from agrarian to industrial. It also involves a change in social structure of the society with increase in urban population. Production levels increase due to increase in efficiency and production is no longer at subsistence level.
Industrialisation initiated in the second half of 18th century in Britain following availability of favorable conditions. During the period Britain experienced a phase of agriculture revolution and increase in agricultural productivity.
Therefore less labour could feed more people. Population also increased as a result people migrated to cities in search of employment. Therefore labour was available. British traders and merchants were making profits from trading with colonies and they had the capital required for investment in manufacturing units.
The colonies provided a source of raw material and also a market for manufactured goods. However the most important factor that initiated industrialization was a series of inventions like Power loom in textile industry, Steam engine, blast furnace that uses coal as fuel. Availability of all these factors together triggered industrialization.
In the Western Europe on the main land industrialization did not spread at the same time and same pace as it did in Britain. It was only after the 1830s industrialization was able to stabilize in the region. The favorable factors were absent there. During later 18th and early 19th century Western Europe was experiencing revolutions like the French revolution and Napoleonic wars. Also Western Europe did not have ready available capital and market for its goods.
Therefore industrialization initiated in Britain in later 18th century but it could spread to the western Europe only after the region stabilized in 19th century.
Q Explain the factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.
A: In India the birth of IT industry is marked by coming of Tata Consultancy Services. Government also realized the importance of IT industry and supported the young industry with favorable policies. IT industry includes hardware, software, BPO, networking and realted services. Software industry boom was experienced in India largely after the LPG reforms.
India had become a favorable destination chosen by MNCs for availing software development and related services. The most important reason for favoring India is huge availability of English speaking young population that is ready to work at low wages compared to developed countries, therefore increasing profits. Also government of India adopted policies favorable to development of software industries like the development of Software Technology Parks (STP) in major cities, that provides ready to plug IT and telecom infrastructure, single window clearance, incentives under export-import policy.
It has been noticed that software industries are not evenly spread across the country. Few cities have emerged as Software industry hubs like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi, Pune, and Mumbai. Initially metro cities were selected for the development of STP because of relatively well developed infrastructure and availability of English speaking middle class population, also preference of MNCs to work in an urbanized environment. The governments of states like Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Maharastra gauged the importance of the industry as software industry is not capital intensive, it can provide employment to young population and attract MNCs that are ready to invest. Governments therefore developed communication infrastructure in these cities also many engineering colleges came up where software industries are present.
Therefore two important factors required for development of software industry is availability of skilled work force and well developed infrastructure. Also very important is the political support for availing industry friendly policies
Software industry includes business for developmemt, maintainence and publication of software that are using dif business models, mainly either “license/ maintainance based”or ” cloud based”. The induarty also includes software services such as training, documentation and consulting.
Software industry expanded in the early 1960 almost immediately after cimputers were 1st sold in mass produced quantities. Firms such as computer science coorporation found in 1959 start to grows.
The computer / hardware makers started bundling operating systems software and programming enviromental with their materials.
Industry expanded greatly with rise of the personal comouter i.ePC in mid 1970s which brought computing to the desktop of office worker. In early year 21st century another successful business model has arisen for hosted softward called software-as-a-service or Saas.
Factor may be placed into 3 basic categories are natural advantage, acquired advantage and govt advantage.
Factord can se listed as follo i.e cost , closness to a raw material, closness to a source of power, closeness to a market, closeness to an educated working force, closeness to a method of trnsprt, govt intervention in a suitable climate in a stable political , health facility. Those factor factor which effect the distributiin of the software industries are selectiin of channel, organisatiin object and nature and extent of market .
Meeta Vinay Myskar
Industrialization is a process by which non industrial primary agrarian economy transforms into economy of manufacturing goods and services. It was a long, slow process of change, beginning obscurely in England, then spreading to other European countries. It brought series of changes in methods of manufacture, production and distribution of products.
Factors that led to 19th century industrial revolution
• Favorable political and economic conditions with stable govt. secured investments, improved trade and banking systems
• Agricultural revolution due to invention of drill, crop rotation, wooden plough etc led to surplus of food, raw materials etc
• Population boom with abundant semi skilled labor, emerging entrepreneurs, bankers etc
• Favorable natural environment – abundant natural resources like coal and iron, ideal moist climate for cotton textiles etc
• Major innovations in various fields led to both rise in production and also demand.
o Bessemer process (1898) for large scale steel manufacturing
o Steam engine (James Watt) replaced hitherto used horse and water power
o For textile industry – Flying shuttle (John Kay), Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves), Arkwright’s Water Frame, Crompton’s Spinning mule, Howe’s sewing machine, roller printing etc
o Submarine (Holland), rubber vulcanization, cycles, photography, cinematography, Portland cement, food preservation, electrical appliances like incandescent bulb, artificial heaters, etc
• Urbanization increased due to new factory system replacing the household industry. Capitalists built mills and recruited laborers, who settled around factories.
• Transport improved – construction of pucca roads, canals, railways, ports, steam ships etc made transport cheaper and quicker. It also connected the hitherto isolated interior areas.
• Graham Bell’s Telephone, Samuel Morse’s telegraph, Marconi’s wireless etc improved means of communication augmented the spread of industrialization from England to other European countries.
Thus, rapid industrialization in 19th century was a result of industrial, technological, demographic, economic and scientific progress.