1)Why is UNSC reforms needed? What are India’s concerns and views about it? Explain.
2)What is regionalism? Critically comment on its significance in India.
Regionalism is ideology which demands or craves for separate entity to particular region due to its distinctive culture or other reasons. Regionalism in India can be traced by the fact that India has 28 states and 7 union territories.In 1950′s first states were born on the linguistic basis when AP was born due to fast unto death by Potti. After that this phenomenon gains pace and many areas gained statehood.
India is home to diverse cultures and languages.Also due to vast expense of India there is need for smaller states so that government can implement its policies or decisions effectively. People of particular region has their own distinctive culture and languages, as long they felt proud of that it is normal but when their local political leaders begins to use that as excuse for separate state or autonomy to gain political advantage than it does some damage.Nationalism and regionalism is two separate things but when there is polluted atmosphere based on religion or political bifurcation of areas then they began to conflict.
Significance of Regionalism in India is immense due to the fact that India has – many religions, cultures, languages,ethnic groups, castes,different ideologies..etc.So there is need to maintain unity among them, so by decentralization or by creating new areas to safeguard their culture regionalism has played important role.Regional Parties can have confidence of people who belonged to their region and can contribute towards region’s progress.As long as there is positive motive behind the regionalism ideology in India no harm could be done to India’s integrity and unity.
Please tell my mistakes so that I can improve in those areas as I am a new player of UPSC. Thanks
UN officially established in 1945 with the aim to prevent future world war;
to provide a platform for dialog to resolve global and international conflict;
to facilitate cooperation in international law, internal security, economic
development social progress and human rights; and with the overaraching goal of ensuring world peace.
No institution claims to be perfect at any point of time and there is always room for improvement. The situations in world have been changed over a period of time. So to remain relevant to changing needs UN reforms are necessary.
Further there are institutional shortcomings in UN’s structure. The Security Council most powerful organ of UN have Unequal representation and functions in closed doors.
Its five permanent members dictate the rules of UN and carry on its business the way they like. UN is not a sovereign body, it doesn’t have its own finances and army. These hinders its functioning in impartial way.
India being the third largest contributor to UN’s peacekeeping missions supports enhanced role for the UN in development and development cooperation dialog. It wants UN to be guided by the principles of transparency, non discrimination, consensus.
With regard to the reforms in the Security Council India seeks for wider representation as present Security Council revolves around the industrialised nations while majority of the UN members belong to developing nations and hardly addresses their problems.
India favours an expanded but democratically constituted and a more representative Security Council which would enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy. It favours expansion of UNSC be based on agreed criteria rather than predetermined relations.
It wants expansion of both the permanent and non-permanent member categories,demographically and geographically represented.
India is instrumental in forming G4, with Brazil, Germany and Japan.
They demands permanent seat in Security Council for themselves. These countries also pushing for the inclusion of more countries in UNSC, based on two principal criteria: the contributions made by countries to maintaining international peace and security; and increased representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent categories. India feels it qualifies for the UNSC on both counts.
Apart from this India also putting effort to build consensus on UN reform through bilateral and multilateral dialogs with other countries,and most of the countries support India’s bid for permanent seat at UNSC.
Insight introduction is one paragraph, setting went wrong, I ‘ll take care of it in next answer, please check there is improvement or not?
Hi Anjali, the later part of answer is well written you have included all important points and also I can see you are incorporating all the suggestions made by Sir.
The introduction could have been shorter and more focused on UNSC. Sahil has written a good introduction to this answer.
1) Why is UNSC reforms needed? What are India’s concerns and views about it? Explain.
UNSC is the principle organ of United Nation Organisation and it has fifteen members: five permanent and 10 temporary. Its mandate is to establish international peace and security. Its power include, inter alia, establishment of peace keeping forces, passing of different resolutions and approving sanctions. The five permanent members wield the veto power regarding the action of United Nation.
In recent times, there has been demands by various nations for a more transparent, representative and efficient functioning of UNSC. Many other questioned to the legitimacy of the veto power retained by P 5. It has been contended that there is concentration of power in the inner wheel of UN and any resolution can be vetoed by those members according to their own interest. Further, it does not represent the changed geo political equations in international order and does not promote the interest of certain countries which have gained special economic and political potential. Different groupings like G4 comprising of Germany, India, Brazil and Japan have been formed for accelerating the process of UN reforms and promote each other bid for permanent membership. The reform calls upon the UN to incorporate atleast one permanent member from Africa as no member of the continent is currently represented in the permanent body of the UNSC.
India concerns are with the aforesaid problems faced by UN. India considers itself as one of the emerging global power and contributes about 16% to world population. Interest and voices of new emerging power must be incorporated for making UN more participative and democratic. Further there is a need for structural change in the Veto holding power of UN members. India views the problem with a pragmatic solution by going for reforms of the council by increasing strength both of permanent and temporary members with India as one of the permanent members
2) What is regionalism? Critically comment on its significance in India.
Regionalism is an ideology driven by pursuing for gaining the territorial rights or acceleration of interest of a specific region. Regionalism in India is a product of multiple factors and has great significance in its politico-social sphere as India is a diverse country and every region has a unique culture, language, history etc.
Regionalism in early 1950s to 1960s questioned to the power of centre, mobilizing masses to go for secession. Starting from Tamilian movement to Khalistan movement all started with regional aspirations which got converged into nationalist aspirations. It has led to imminent split of the nation. It glorified certain matters related to water dispute, classical status of a language, questioned the presence of other linguistic groups in a particular region who have visible domination in employment and education.
However, on the positive side regionalism has given way to decline of uni-party system providing space for coalition politics. It has given way to balanced centre state relations and is used as a mechanism to accelerate development programme in backward region.
In a nutshell, meaning of regionalism and its outcome represent the ever changing nature of grammar of politics in India. It was restricted to small states but later glorifying regional pride, sons of the soil movement is getting momentum in different parts of the country. Local population in a territory is looking into its comparative disadvantage as against outsiders and institutionalization of exodus as a process of ethnic separation is challenging the pluralist, democratic and equalitarian ideologies glorified by Indian Constitution. Therefore biggest threat to persistence of India as a Union of States is the divisive and pathological form of regionalism getting momentum in Indian society today.
World War second lead to creation of United Nation for maintenance of peace and stability in the world. UNSC is one of the six principal organs of United Nation. There are five permanent members.Although dynamics of World polity has changes but there has been no change in structure and functioning of UNSC.
Primarily UNSC reformed is required because of following :
1. Composition of permanent members and non- permanent members do not reflect the world reality today.
2. Geopolitics have completely changed, therefore it must be more representative and democratic body.
3.Working and functioning of UNSC has not been transparent.
Structural and functional reform will reflect new reality of world. India has been vociferous about UNSC reform. It stresses on expanding permanent members and non permanent members. One of the role of UNSC is deploying of peacekeeping mission and India has one of the largest contribution and therefore thinks that it need to be part of permanent members. Further India being second most populous country and 10th largest economy having liberal democracy rightly deserves more active role in world decision making which impacts larger humanity.
Human being have strong carving of identity. This identity can be expressed into various forms may be it is associated with nation,state,caste,religion and region. Regionalism is therefore outpouring of human beings where they associate their identity with certain region where they reside. There can be various reasons for such an identity viz cultural, historical and also developmental.
As democratic experiments unfolded in our country many regional aspirations started getting expressed. Significance of such regional aspirations led to creation of linguistic based states having their own cultural identity.Aspiration of regionalism is key aspect of unity and diversity of India. Further nation would not mean negation of region.
Regionalism has increased democratic polity and helped in bringing governance more closer to people. India responded to tensions and challenges arsing out of regionalism by creating more states and by giving
special powers under constitution. India has realized that best way to respond to regionalism is through democratic negotiation and not by suppression.
However, recently regionalism has been fueled for benefit of party politics. This kind of regionalism undermines unity of country. Divide and rule cannot be policy which our political parties can adopt. Therefore regional aspirations are good as far as they keep balance of unity and diversity of India.
I have a doubt how can Regionalism lead to increased democratic polity and bringing governance close to people.
I have posted my handwritten answer for question 2 here
Please share your views
Nice structure and flow
The reforms in international governance is a long pending issue. The need for ‘Global Perestroika’ is more felt in UNSC .This is for a number of reasons.
The context in which UNSC was formed is different now. World has undergone massive change. Economic prowess and military superiority are new mantra .New players with strong credentials have emerged namely India, Brazil, S.Africa. Presence of countries like France and Britain shows affection for legacy not reality and need to go away
Secondly The UNSC is the major decision body for international affairs and there is strong deficit for Representation. The west seems to have share of pie with no representation for Africa, Latin America. Asia has only one considering its size. The majority of decisions taken are on Third world countries.
The reforms are more urgent for India. It feels there are enough reasons to prove its credentials .It is on the verge of becoming third largest economic power. It has formed multilateral groups like IBSA for the same. It remained one of the important aspect of bilateral relations .India is pursuing this agenda relentlessly to gain international support. There are concerns about lack of consensus on India credentials in spite of its strategic and economic growth. Another issue is unwarranted opposition from countries like China, and swing Pakistan countries, Italy and Gulf countries. There is no unity among developing countries unlike issues like climate change and MDGs and are more concerned about their own credentials.
The issue needs more urgency in the context of increasing globalization and imperialist wars one country waging on another.The UNSC restructuring seems to be the only to correct aberrations of Old World order
United national security council (UNSC) is the principle organ of united nation organisation and it has 15 member among which 5 are permanent and 10 are temporary. Its form to establish international peace and security. Its power include, estalishment of peace keeping forces, passing of diff resolution and approch sanctiins. 5 permanent member made a rule of UN and carry business the way they like.UN is not a sovereign body, its doesnt have its own finance and army.
World war 2nd leads to creation of united nation for maintainance of peace and stability in the world.
India joimed the UN in 1945 and is the 3rd largest and a regular constant contributor of troops to united natiin peace keeping missions. India has been selected 7 times to the UN security council. Most recently India was elected to serve in UNSC from 2011 to 2012 as it had received 187 of the 190 total votes.
India consider itself as one of the emerging global power and contributes about 16% to world population, interst and voice of new emerging power must be incorporated for making UN more participation and democratic.
India being 2nd most population country and 10th largest economy having liberal democracy rightly deserves more active role in world decision making which impacts large humanity.
Regionalism is a political ideology that focused on the intersts of a particular region or group of regions whether traditional
Or formal . Regionalists aim at inc their region influence and political power, either through movement for limited form of autonomy or through stronger measures for a greter degree of autonomy.
Regionalism developes into a serious thread to the national unity if politicians dont go beyond their reginal loyalty and claims to stand only for their interest if regionalism is to be regarded as an unhealthy phenomenon , decentralization too would be ojectionable which offcourse its not.
In a democracy ideological options are open in the sense that any individual or gp can adopt any ideology, provided of course it is within the legal framework. In fact it has been decline of the party system im recent yr that has inflated the role of regionalism in the country. Regionalism startimg from Tamilian movement to khalistan movement all started with regional aspirants which got converged into nationalist aspirants. It has lead to imminent split of the nation.
India is the large contry having continental dimensioms and comprising no fewer than 28 states and 7 union territories. Its a multi-racial, multilingual nation. In principle regionalism need not be regarded as an unhealthy or anti national phenomenon unleaa it takes a militant, aggressive turn and encourages the growth of secesaionalist tendencies.
Its not a new phenomenon , in fact the fillip given to regionalism by the emergence of the Telegu desam party in andra pradesh in 3982 has a historical community. The growth of this trend can be traced back to the fast upto death by Srivamular over the demand for the creation of andra pradesh which set in motion the reorganisation of state along linguistic lines in 1956.
Causes of the growth of regionalism is prolonged maladministration and neglect of an area or state by the central govt. There has been creeping disillustration,ent against central rule. Regional symbols, regional culture, history and in many cases a common language all promotes regionalism.