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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge – Day -12

QUESTIONS ASKED- DAY-12 (31/07/2013)

1) When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.

2)Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.


  1. K Partha
    4 Votes

    Communist thought in India has its roots in Marxist-Leninist ideology. The Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917 had its impact in India. The Indian Communist party was established in 1924 and worked in close co-operation with other communist movements guided by Comintern. It was able to make inroads into the worker bodies and its activities intensified.

    In 1930’s it aligned itself with the national movement. As CPI was banned many communists joined congress and formed socialist party within congress (CSP).

    The Communists didn’t participate in Quit India Movement and during WW2 established control over AITUC..

    With the shift of the Nehru Govt to Soviet Union the CPI underwent a gradual change: from revolutionary strategy to parliamentary strategy .The 1957 Lok Sabha elections saw victory of CPI in Kerala.

    The 60’s saw division within the communist ranks which led to a split: CPI and CPI (M). CPI remained closer to Soviet while CPI (M) to China though the latter distance itself from it.

    In later years CPI came to be associated with the Congress, the failures and laurels of CPI counted along with that of congress. CPI(M) became popular among rural and urban poor and was successful in forming Governments in West Bengal and Kerala.

    With the disintegration of soviet there was gradual decline of CPI. The opening up of Indian Economy in the 90s seemed like the death knell for the communists. The CPI(M) lost in kerala as well as West Bengal in 2011.

    But in the wake of neo-liberalization it has been observed that there has been a great increase in economic disparities leading to unrest. This sense of relative deprivation is not good in the long turn for the healthy running of a democracy. It is in this situation that the role of communists (prevention of capitalist-monopoly, disapproving the dominating role of MNCs, seeking to strengthen socialist measures, demanding social security legislation for peasants and workers) becomes even more significant.

    • Kirthi
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      With the disintegration of soviet there was gradual decline of CPI. The opening up of Indian Economy in the 90s seemed like the death knell for the communists. The CPI(M) lost in kerala as well as West Bengal in 2011.

      – I feel you should have included CPI(M) 3 time victory in Tripura, narrow win in Kerala etc. cause with the continuation of the previous line,it gave a feeling that you seemed to indicate there is no support to CPI(M)/its political future at all.
      But particularly liked the concluding para.

    • Rate This Response!

      Your answer is very good. You would have condensed it further (though difficult).

  2. 1 Vote

    1) When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.
    MDG 5 is one of the millennium development goal ,relating to improvement of maternal health, to be achieved by nations across the globe. It calls upon the states to reduce maternal mortality and increase the child birth attended by health care professionals.
    In lieu of its commitment towards these goals , GoI enacted various programmes like Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram which provides medical and economic intervention for both the lactating and pregnant women and Janani Surakhsha Yojna which advocate for free health services and in hospital delivery of the women. Others programs like ICDS seek to allay nutritional deficiency syndrome for pregnant women and talks about immunization program. Further ASHA and ANM have been used to create both awareness about the need for healthy mothers, transition period of atleast 2 years between child birth and door to door delivery to medical services.
    Both private sector and government went an extra mile with flexi maternity leave for working women for upto 6 months.
    Inspite of all these efforts, India is far away from its goal of bringing out MMR to 100 till 2015 and counts a whooping MMR of 212 till 2012. This can be attributed not only economic reasons which are impediment to avail private services but also to social prejudices which are
    1. The birth of girl child is considered inauspicious leading to abortions which often endanger the life of a woman.
    2. Further, girls are often married off in an early stage making them vulnerable to diseases, mortality and morbidity during pregnancy. They do not have the strength to bear child at that early stage.
    3. The pregnant women is required to have maxima rest in final stages of her incubation period but due to patriarchal setup many women are forced to work in household and render their services to male counterpart.

    • Anjali Motghare
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      Good answer. you could have added Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana, Janani Suraksha Yojana and Private Sector MSD’s programme which launced in UP, Rajasthan, Jharkhand.

      • Rate This Response!

        Thank you Anjali.
        I have added Janani Suraksha Yojna as a thread in my answer.I donot know much about private sector contribution except leave benefits. What is MSD?

    • ajay ahlawat
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      You cam also include the point. There is a very less role of women in family planning, main at the will of a male.

  3. rahul aggarwal
    3 Votes

    2)MDG 5
    According to MDG5 India has to REDUCE ITS MMR by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 .As per the estimates by WHO,UNICEF and world bank India requires to reduce its MMR from 600 in 1990 to 150 per 100000 live births in 2015.

    As per the latest estimates released by the office of RGI ,the MMR in India stands at 212 per 100000 live births during 2007-09

    Various steps have been taken to improve the situation of maternal health:

    a)JANANI SURAKSHA YOJANA :It provides cash benefits to the mother.

    b)JANANI SISHU SURAKSHA KARYAKARAM:which provides free entitlements to pregnant women including C-section,drugs,free transportation to health institutions and free diet during stay.

    c)the name based mother and child tracking system established to record every pregnant women and child to ensure full ante-natal check ups.

    d)ADOLESCENT SEXUAL REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH strategy for promotion of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls.

    ASHA,ANM play a very important part to successfully implement these strategies so there is aneed to improve their skills and training.

    In India apart from economic aspects ,sociological aspects are also hindering India’s efforts.Some of them are:

    a)Early child marriage is the biggest problem.Adolescent mothers form a big part of maternal deaths.

    b)Lack of use of contraceptives and planning for child birth and spacing between child birth.

    c)Lack of social status enjoyed by women due to which in backward areas they don’t have a say to decide the time for child birth.

    Thus efforts are required both on economic and social front to tackle this problem of maternal health.Educated people ,civil society grops and media can play a significant role yo improve the situation.

    • Anjali Motghare
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      Hi, Rahul , you completely missed private sector initiative.

      • rahul aggarwal
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        Thankyou Anjali, for your suggestion.I also felt private sector is missing from my answer.

  4. riddhu
    1 Vote

    To Insights,
    Sir pls give your views on how development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization especially in the light of creation of separate Telangana and its effect on Indian polity and other such movements.Thanks a lot for this site its of a great help.

    • 4 Votes


      The question demanded ‘critical comment’ from you on the statement given in the question i.e,

      “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”

      When you are asked to comment, you are specifically required to give your own opinion based on your critical observation of the statement. You may find fault in the statement, or you may just concur completely – but you have to register your opinion.

      In this question, you don’t have to agree completely to what the statement is saying.

      First, the first reorganization of states was not completely peaceful (the statement says it was).

      Secondly, is really development taking precedence over language in deciding the formation of new states?

      There are other factors also involved apart from development.

      Important is culture. The plea for creation of Bodoland, Gorkhaland and Coorg are more rooted on the need for cultural identity than development. Coorg is a well to do region and has its own language too.

      Creation of Jharkhand and Chattisgarh were also based on regional tribal identity and the point to be noted is they were formed out of then two most backward states.(regional imbalance was not the sole criteria)

      In the case of Telangana and Vidharbha, both have suffered from regional inequalities. Also, Telangana has its own dialect and cultural identity when it comes to folklore, food, dress etc. Some also felt these were invaded by the dominant coastal culture.

      Uttarkhand was a genuine case where the region was highly neglected and people had to travel from hilly regions to distant Lucknow even for petty needs.

      For this question one can conclude that, though lack of development and regional inequality is an issue in the formation of new states, there are also elements of cultural, political aspirations and perception of ease of administration and governance that are determining the formation of new states.

      • Asha Goud
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        Sir can you please help a little bit on the second answer. About communism, its growth and post liberalisation relevance.
        Thank you.

        • Rate This Response!


          I asked this question because it is mentioned in the syllabus (Evolution of communism GS-I)

          This question should be answered in a neutral tone – one should mention both good and the bad Communism has been to India.
          (I may cross word limit – because I want to stress some important points)

          The 1917 Russian Revolution and the formation of Comintern in 1919 gave impetus to the formation of communist movement in India.

          Communists took part in early revolutionary and worker mobilization activities during freedom struggle. To stem the growth of communism the British jailed many leaders under conspiracy cases, such as Meerut conspiracy case. (See Anjali’s answer for more on it)

          Communists didn’t participate in 1930 civil disobedience movement as all its leaders were jailed and later in 1942 Communists stayed away from Quit India movement because they wanted to support Allied Force’s war efforts.

          Communists worked for agrarian reforms and were instrumental in Tebhaga movement.

          In post independence India, Communist party of India actively participated in democratic process. It formed governments in Kerala and West Bengal in 1960s. In 1964 the party split into CPI and CPM, latter supported Chinese communism and looked at Indian democracy as sham whereas CPI leaned towards Russian communism and renounced any further armed struggles.

          In 1967, at Naxalbari, a village in North Bengal, anti-landlord armed rebellion took place and it came to be known as Naxal movement. Later Naxals formed their onw communist outfit called Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). This movement strongly advocates armed struggle and has grown into biggest internal security threat to India in recent times.

          Post reforms era, the importance of Communist parties actually grew in India. They won more seats in the General elections and came close to form their own government in 1996. later in 2004 they were part of the government.

          Communists have strengthened democracy in India -governments in Kerala, Tripura and West Bengal have registered large voter turn outs. Kerala and West Bengal have robust Panchayat Raj systems in the country.

          Their opposition to capitalism though founded on ideology, their governments have not abandoned them entirely. But Nandigram and Singur incidents in West Bengal showed that unless agrarian and worker reforms were in place, capitalism experiments would fail.

          Because of increasing economic inequality, abuse of worker rights, rising tide of communalism, Communism is still relevant today, only if every faction in them participate peacefully and strengthen the democratic process.

      • riddhu
        1 Vote

        Great. Clarified so many concepts. One more request it will be very nice if your view on each question is provided following day because many times we students feel that we have answered nicely but the reality turns out to be different.Thanks again for your benevolent work.

      • Anjali Motghare
        Rate This Response!

        Excellent Points given by you. thanks insight.

  5. Abhishek Sharma
    2 Votes

    MDG 5 is about improving maternal health. It has two components :
    a) Reducing maternal mortality by three quarters, and
    b) Improving acess to reproductive health.
    To achieve this goal the government fas initiated few measures among which NRHM and Janani Suraksha Yojna are important.

  6. Asha Goud
    4 Votes

    Q When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.

    A: The Millennium Development Goals (MDG)adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000 unanimously aims at improving basic human development indicators ranging from poverty, education, health and environment.

    MDG 5 is improving Maternal health by taking actions to reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by 75% of its value in 2000. The MDGs require a country specific solutions where developing countries are provided with financial support along with guidance by developed countries and international organizations.

    In India Government has initiated programs with general focus on health in addition to giving specific focus to maternal health. ASHAs under the NHRM work at the village level spreading awareness about various importance issues relating to pregnancy like regular health check ups, institutional delivery, post delivery care and also use of contraceptives. Janani Suraksha Yojana is a program specific to maternal health, promoting institutional delivery. It also has provision of cash incentive, transport facility and post delivery check ups.
    India has a MDG of reducing MMR to 109 per 100,000 live births. In 2010, MMR was 210. A slow decrease in MMR has been recorded. In India the position of women in the society is very weak specially in rural areas. Families do not consider it important to take pregnant women for health check ups from time to time. Absence of roads, transport facility and a health centre in vicinity add to the problems.

    Therefore it is important that Government takes the help of NGOs, PRIs and other stakeholders to spread awareness about Maternal health and related issues.

    • Rate This Response!

      Hi Asha.
      I think your answer lack the sociological prejudices that are hampering the maternal health. Absence of road , transport facilities are infrastructural and economic constraints. Further though families do not take their pregnant women for health checkups, there are human capability in the form of ASHA and ANM which provide door to door services and enumerate various vulnerable women who need special care. ASHA and ANM have been instrumental in bringing many women under the ambit of primary health care centres.

    • rahul aggarwal
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      Hi Asha,you have missed the second part of the question which talks about sociological aspect.

  7. Nirmal Singh
    1 Vote

    The communism has its origin in 1920s with the formation of CPI by MN Roy.The communist movement grew out of economic causes and targeted the propertied classes whether British or Indian. After Independence the growth is particularly driven by Land reforms and class struggle,.Later in 1960 it splits into CPI(M) which took violent overtone in the form of naxalism while other preferred democracy.
    After 1991 India opened its economy.The need for reforms in the wake of globalization became inevitable.The government eased its control by disinvestments ,FDI ,Free Trade and Privatization.Although it created prosperity ,yet it failed to trickle down to marginalized sections of society and instead created classes by huge asymmetries in income level.In this context the relevance of communism can’t be disputed.
    India is a welfare state.A large fraction of society is still underdeveloped and require state assistance.Further the
    government as a trustee of natural resources which are public assets need more state control to prevent exploitation of these as recently happened in coal gate and RIL case.Moreover there are critical sectors like agriculture which need to be protected from free market
    The present state of country suggest that reforms should be complemented with state regulations in public interest

  8. Anjali Motghare
    2 Votes

    Communism grown in India after Soviet revolution. M.N.Roy formed Communist Party of India in 1920. There were efforts to organise people on Communist lines, first with the help of world Comintern but it failed, comrades were arrested as they entered India and charged with
    treason against Emperor. It gained momentum after support of British wing of Communist Party take task into their hands. There were three trials Peshawar Conspiracy, Kanpur Conspiracy and Meerut Conspiracy, which helped CPI to gain some sympathy from people, even Congress
    leadership supported it. Emminet leader plead the trials on behalf of Communist Comrades. In thirties CPI gained some ground but in forties it completely lost as it supported British against 1942 QIM and as it put 17 Nation plan in front of Cabinet Mission. By taking inspiration from CPI there were many minor communist parties formed in India like Forward Block of SubhashChandra Bose, Revolutionary CSP, Bolshevik Party of India and the like.
    In 1964 there arose differences within CPI over Sino-Soviet Border issue and split occurred and CPI(M) took birth. Till then to now CPI losing ground to CPI(M). After liberalization India opened up reforms but it doesn’t affected much to communist ideology. Both CPI and CPI (M) are still a national parties. In 2004 elections CPI(M) had 43 MP’s and CPI 10. Due to leadership deficiency both reduced to CPI(M)16 and CPI 4 seats in 2009 elections. Communist ideology doesn’t declined, but the ineffective government in Kerala and West Bengal lost to other parties. In Tripura three Consecutive win of CPI(M) suggest ideology is still relevant where it delivers.
    If both CPI and CPI(M) bring relevant changes in Party structure and if lead by prominent leader then they can gain ground again. As we see post reform period gap between reach and poor is increasing, so communist ideology can take root in India.

  9. cppcontrol
    Rate This Response!

    When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.

    MDG is a visionary document with explicit result oriented approach to deal with the specific issues like hunger, poverty, infant and maternal mortality, prevention of spread of HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria and education for all children by the year 2015 along with gender equality and sustainable development. MDG5 specifically deals with maternal mortality ratio and proportion of births attended by skilled health professionals. India’s aim to reduce MMR to 109 per 100000 live births by 2015 is still a challenge which is presently is at 252 per 100000 live births.

    Government schemes like NRHM, ICDS, Janani suraksha yojana has massive inputs in this regards. NRHM deals with improving the overall health services in the rural areas with easy and affordable access to health services, infrastructure development, additional health personal etc. Jannani Suraksha yojana provides for additional cash benefits for the pregnant women. Private sector on the other hand has provided technological help with regards to information and communication.

    Poverty and lack of proper information of the rural people are major reasons for India’s failure to meet the target. Proper drinking water supply and toilets are not available in rural households. Patriarchal society with gender inequality are few factors which adversely impact MMR. The birth of a girl child is seen as a burden in the society. Thus sociological factors impact our pledge to reduce MMR.

    However, with rise in literacy rate and poverty the people would tend to become more aware of the issue. So schemes like SSA are a must and retention of girl child in school along with reduction of child girl marriage would lead to an improved environment in this regard. Institutions like PRI would have to play an important role in this effect. NGOs and SHG along with dedicated health workers like AHSA, ANMs play the most crucial role in reducing MMR in our country.

    • Rate This Response!

      i think the question does not demand the further steps needed to improve maternal health. Poverty is one reason but the government is providing many benefits in the form of nutritional and economic support. Drinking water and sanitation cannot be considered as sociological stigmas faced by society

  10. Rate This Response!

    Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.

    Communism played an important role during the pre independence period in India. The CPI was formed after the triumphed of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Bose were inspired by the socialist ideas. However, communists integrated into mainstream nationalist Congress to fight the British and formed the congress socialist party.

    Post independence, the CPI was soon split with a section aligning with CPI(M). Faction of CPI(M) followed a revolutionary path in the 70’s and formed the CPI(Maoists). The former two sections entered the mainstream politics of India while the latter followed an armed struggle. This section has active support from China.

    Post liberalization saw a dramatic rise in the economic activity in this country which led to growth and development. However, many tribal regions in Chhattisgarh, MP, Jharkhand, AP has not seen this growth. In fact, these tribal regions are the most underdeveloped in the country. CPI(Maoists) or the Naxalites have seen this disparity and have continued their armed struggle against the administrative machinery. With support from the masses, the Naxalists have threatened to overthrow the government inflicting heavy causalities. The problem has been the most crucial with regards to internal security of the country.

    Poverty and underdevelopment are the major causes of the growth of the naxalites. Proper developmental schemes to eradicate poverty, hunger, education, infrastructure, employment opportunities,land rights, inclusion of these people in the mainstream along with talks with the leaders of the group can help reduce their grievances. A holistic approach in resolving the problems related to these people is needed at this juncture. However, armed struggle by the naxalites killing hundred of innocents can never be justified and the state should be engaged in dialogues as early as possible.

  11. NB
    Rate This Response!

    Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.

    Growth of communism in India can be traced back to freedom struggle in India. Bolshevik movement in Russia was inspiration to various groups to form communist party. One of the earliest founder of communist party was MN Roy during 1920s. From 1935 communist party was working within Congress. But later during World War II they separated and joined Britishers in their war against Nazi.

    After Independence initially party took to violent recourse as it believed that India has not achieved true independence, however it was crushed and later on communist party abandoned violence in 1951. However in 1964, ideological rift between China and soviet Union led to split of party . Pro Soviet faction was CPI and opponents formed CPI(M).

    Liberalization is antithesis to Communist ideology, which believes on classless society and socialism as a means to solution to problems of countries. Communist influence in India is restricted to few states in India. However it is noteworthy that where ever communists are ruling they are not completely committed to strict communist ideology. In current era liberalization and market model is practiced by communist ruled state as well. This is the practical reality today. Further it would not be justified to say that communism has completely lost relevance today because communism as ideology always have concern for weaker and poor section of society. This has been amply observed in various national issues where communist parties bring forth problems of poor section of society. These healthy debate give rise to enlightened and enriching democracy.

  12. NB
    Rate This Response!

    Sociological aspect of MMR in India

    1. Still faith and trust in modern day medical treatment has not come in certain areas because of backwardness, lack of education and awareness.

    2. Societal backwardness of women, still women has no autonomy on her body. High dominance of male in taking decision about women. This lead to delays and timely check up is not done.

    13. Sahil Garg
    Q. Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.
    Communist genesis in India dates back to late 1920s after Russian revolution of 1917. M.N.Roy, a staunch communist was instrumental in evolution of communist and socialist ideology in India. This led to emergence of new leaders like Dange, Singravellu chettiar, Nalini gupta at regional and national level accelerating socialist agenda.
    However its gaining influence led British to declare it a banned outfit. This led the communist ideologues to get into the ranks of Congress in the form of CPI & CSP and later on various blocs developed. They resisted any kind of piece meal approach of the British and organized industrial strikes, Workers and Peasants conferences & developed a blue print for socialist society based upon transfer of all power to people, economic activities to be planned and controlled by state, nationalization of industries, redistribution of land.
    After independence, India opted for socialist agenda as a Directive Principle. The initial period was marked by imminent factionalism between communist party which led to its split. After LPG, CPI as a political outfit started losing its sheen. There has been disintegration of communism as a political ideology and as a party. However, there has been considerable rise in the demand for a new socialist and communist agenda that should balance both growth which is a capitalist imperative and welfare and equitable, inclusive development which is communism prerogative. This has been manifested in the form of grass root mobilization, resistance to different mining , nuclear projects and hydropower plants. New socialist agenda is also expressed in the form of trade union strike against disinvestment of PSE like NLC or resistance from labour unions in maruti plant.
    In conclusion it can be advocated that character of communism has changed from ideology based to need based and it is less organized and more revolutionary and parochial.