QUESTIONS ASKED – DAY-3 (22/07/2013)
1) During the Indian national movement for freedom, constructive work played an important role in Gandhian strategy. Discuss its nature and outcome.
2) “She is a goddess to millions yet helpless on the streets. The solution is in the mindset not laws”. Discuss.
Gandhian constructive programme was the mantra of socio-economic development. In his view India’s greatest curse was poverty and hunger. To combat this he evolved the constructive programme, originally addressed to the members of Indian national congress. This programme otherwise callad construction of purnaswaraj or complete independence by truthful and non violent means.
Constructive work played an important role in the Gandhian strategy. It played a crucial role during the passive phase in filling the political space left vacant by the withdrawal of mass movements. It provided an alternative of continuous and effective work. Parliamentary and intellectual work could be done by relatively few, constructive work could involve millions.
From the nineteen twenties until his death in 1948, Gandhiji gradually shifted the emphasis of his work from non-violent resistance to constructive schemes for the welfare of all. The constructive programme focused upon constructive ways of rebuilding a demoralized society.
The constructive programme includes nurturing communal unity, abolishing untouchability, fostering adult education, systematic improvement of village, upliftment of the peasant, development of Non-violent labour unions, promotion of cottage and small scale industries,eradication of social evils.,prohibition of alcohol.,promotion of khadi,promotion of basic education,upliftment of women,promotion of education in health and hygiene,propagation of rastrabhasa,treatment of lepers.
Gandhiji devised his constructive programme and setup a number of constructive work organizations. From this created the capacity to offer non-violent resistance called non-cooperation and civil disobedience. This work would raise the statusof people and bring home to them the power of non-violent social change for the ending of exploitation. The outcome of this programme involves for revival of cottage and village industries, All India Village industries was formed, untouchability has been abolished by law after independence, women of India participated in satyagraha, harijanas and adivasis joined in freedom struggle etc. The constructive programmes if carried out in the right direction, Gandhiji believed would result in the ideal Sarvodaya Samaj.
The word “Culture” is derived from Latin word cult meaning – cultivating and refining – cultivating and refining a thing to such an extent that its end product brings admiration and respect. It’s Hindi word “Sanskriti” which is derived from word kriti meaning – to do. “Kriti” leads to formation of 3 word “Prakriti” – basic matter, Sanskriti – refined matter and Vikriti – modified matter.
Today, our society is modified and bringing “Vikriti” of minds than Sanskriti. This is the Vikriti which are establishing their feet in the society and are looking at woman as an asset rather than as goddess. Looking at the root level why our society is being modified – reason –
a) Poverty – Family are helpless to nurture culture and provide good education (what is right and what is wrong)
b) Violence – A child who has brought up in the environment where he only learnt violence, he is liable to see violence in future and will commit crime.
c) Westernization – The effect of other culture which is mingling with out culture.
Taking consideration of above point, government of India has introduced many Laws to curb crime against women. Infact there are statutory bodies – National commission for women, Ministry of women and children development has come with many strict laws and rules but still they are ineffective. Focus should be to eradicate the crime not the criminal, and that could not be done by laws. Even Supreme court of India in the special case of “Delhi Gang Rape” has ruled out reducing the age of juvenile, which has sent clear message that by only reducing age will not solve the problem.
Solution lies on nurturing the basic matter to make it Sanskriti. It is the responsibility of society how and in which environment a born child is taking shape.
During the Indian national movement different ideologies like socialist, communist, moderates, extremist developed. One among these was the Gandhian Ideology. Gandhian Ideology gave preference to connect with the masses and work towards a united society.
Gandhiji after his return from South Africa took up fight for the rights of peasants, workers who were until now neglected. Gandhiji developed a non violent method of struggle, Satyagrah. Gandhiji always stayed connected to the masses and worked with the masses.
During the Non cooperation movement he called for boycott of foreign goods and called people to take up khadi and spinning. He took up cause of the muslims during Khilafat and urged for shunning the religion based divide among people. During 1933-34 he took up the cause of untouchables and propagated the removal untouchability.
All these ideals were together Gandhian ideology that unity among the masses. Serving the downtrodden, helping the poor, upliftment of the status of women, spread of education etc. These ideals were taken up by the no-changers, and they conducted such constructive work on large scale at the ground level.
The leaders and masses were brought closer to each other which led to spread of ideas of freedom, unity, brotherhood, democracy and it led to formation of a stronger and more united society. Large scale participation of the masses was witnessed during non cooperation, civil disobedience, quit India movement, and it can be largely attributed to the constructive work done at ground levels.
Along the side of Non Cooperation movement Gandhiji launched the constructive program. His aim was to make people emotionally stronger and aware about their rights. Gandhiji’s strategy was of satyagraha nearly passive resistance, for that one needs to be strong withing to face any adversities without enmity towards opponent. So on the constructive side he urged people to develop spirit of discipline and self-sacrifice. With that he wanted to make people economically independent, so he asked people to set up spinning hand weaving and use of Swadeshi goods. This is the first phase and in second phase after Civil Disobedient movement, he mainly focused his constructive work on the upliftment of harijans.
Gandhiji’s constructive programme ushered enthusiasm in people. In the silent phase of national movement it prepared people for the next movement. It improved economic standard of people made women economically independent. People started using swadeshi goods so it helped Indian industry grow. In the second phase it helped in making harijans aware of their rights.
The Indian National Movement can be clearly distinguished into 3 phases. The Moderate, The Extremist and the Gandhian phase. Of the 3, it was during the Gandhian phase that it reached its mass character, widespread outreach and brought common people into the struggle. The Gandhian phase was so successful because of crucial strategies like non violent satyagraha and constructive work amidst the rural folk.
Gandhiji clearly understood the nature of mass movements. He said by their nature itself, mass movements are not possible to sustain for prolonged periods. People’s ability to sacrifice and undergo repression are not unlimited. Hence to keep up the spirits of the people and to keep the lamp of nationalistic sense glowing during the non-struggle years, he suggested constructive work among the masses.
During the times of freedom struggle, there were lots of social problems in the Indian society like poverty, untouchability, child marriage, gender inequality. Gandhiji advised that Congress should take up such constructive work amidst the masses which would help in overcoming these social problems and use such opportunities to infuse nationalistic spirit among the masses. He taught people the use of the spinning wheel or Charka and helped them to make money from handwoven cloth. He campaigned against gender inequality. He toured the country and brought in awareness about the inhuman practice of untouchability.
The strategy of constructive work yielded fruitful results. It served both the purposes. While keeping the masses engaged in constructive work during non-struggle phases of the national movement, it also brought in significant changes in the social problems addressing. Particularly, Women of the country became politically aware, participated in the national movement events widely. Though significant change was not seen in eradicating untouchability, the inhumaneness of the social evil was realised by the untouchables themselves and other sections of the society. Above all, the strategy of constructive work brought in rural folk into large numbers into the national movement and gave it a true mass character
The statement reflects the paradox pervading the Indian society. In India, on one hand, feminity and womenness are worshipped in the form of women goddesses, sacred rivers are given feminine names, on the other hand, the real women who come down to the streets as a part of their daily life undergo physical and mental abuse.
Worshipping womenhood, sanctifying a women’s various stages of life like attaining puberty, marriage, attaining motherhood through various rituals are part of Indian culture. Indians have been worshipping mother goddesses since time immemorial. However, there is a marked difference about how Indians view a women as a society and as an Individual. As a society she is revered, considered as a symbol of fertility. But as an individual male, an Indian man’s way of seeing a women on the street, a co-worker and a film actress are not so decent.
Laws cannot be effective in curbing those acts which are taken as ‘normal’ and ‘casual’ by the underlying mindset. Hence, more importance should be given in changing the attitude that takes women for granted. Such change in mindset should be brought in in the family and in the schools, the basic premises of teaching morality. When this is achieved, stringent laws combined with good policing can bring in safety and peace to the millions of women in India.
the above comment fully describes the importance of a girl,her helplessness and the change that could improve her image in the society.
In this the girl has been compared with the goddess,the one who have given birth to humans just as mother do.
Despite of this similarity,both are seen with different perspectives.Where a goddess is being worshipped in all houses and streets,a girl is always dominated and humilated by man in houses and seen with bed intentions on the streets,where she seems to be helpless.
The fault of this discrimination is of our society.people of India have mindset that Indian society is a man dominated society.So to bring change in society,one has to change his mind,no laws can do anything and then an equal status will be achieved by a woman.
Britain,that ruled and exploited economically India for over 200 years is twenty times smaller than India and ten times lesser in population compared to India.It could be possible only,due to very success of their notorious “Divide and Rule” policy.They succeeded in their policies year by year resulted deteriorating economic and political situations of India day by day.The British govt used the significant “vacant unity space” among the people as their handy tool to consolidate their cruel rule for over the centuries in subcontinent
Gandhiji is among the ones,who recognised earlier the mind of Britishers behind their policies.He held the lackness in unity among Indian people as the success of British regime.
He knew very well that,its well aware mammoth Indian mass,which will do his job to expel Britishers from Indian subcontinent.he also got the point,that his task is only to construct a well informative and aware masses,which are aware about their rights,about their freedom and ultimately, about the “game-plan” of the Britishers to keep them apart from their brothers and prevent their unity,which was inevitable for getting freedom.
Gandhi threw his entire energy to crate masses and induct them into movements against British rule.he was well familiar about the power of mass based movements.This was an important characteristic of Indian national movements,led by Gandhiji.
he fell in full swing to educate people about the exploitation being done by the British rulers and it’s consequences.he also emphasised on community and religions unity People also learnt well by the magnificent Gandhian ideas and lectures and gave reply positively.they flooded in streets with a ultimate goal – “to get freedom at any cost”.
British rulers left no stone unturn to suppress movements,but it was too late for them.it was not possible for them to suppress such large scale mass movements with determined nationalism attitude.Frequent mass based movements weakened the foreign regime and compelled them to flee from country.ultimately,they understood that Indian people is not in mood to tolerate them anymore. Gandhiji was done with his job and resulting we got our Independence in 1947.
Its nothing more than hypocrisy,that one side we organise most of our Pujas as “Goddess pujas” with utmost majesty and holiness and on the other side our police stations flooded with hundreds of women harassment cases everyday.sometimes it create major disputes over some mere “obscene paintings” of goddess,while we make women feel obscene by our offences against them and force them raise their voice to be ensure their safety in public domain.Its most unfortunate and frustated to see growing crimes against the women day by day.
Recent trend of growing crimes against women compelled our lawmakers to enact strict laws agains offenders of such crimes.But it seems that,its hardly going to grag down the figure of crimes against the women.Because the roots of such gravious crimes lies in the mindset of our society.
Its clear by the research that,a such offender hardly think about the consequences of his heinous acts.he simply goes to commit,what he had in his mind.and generally,it has been seen that he had enough reasons to back his wrong doings.his mind retains the ambiguous reasons in support of his acts.such attitudes rare not sudden product of his mind,instead such thoughts develop over the period of time.Pornography,religious thoughts,conservative outlook towards women,lackness of proper education,etc. are a few of such factors to influence and motivate a man towards such crimes
considering such a large population of our country,it would be futile to impose more strict punishments in IPC,rather than to culminate moral values about women and their majesty in the generations.once we are done to cultivate moral values in our generation,it would help people to change their mentality towards women.they would start to pay more respect to women,whom they see as their ideal and offer pray with immense holiness in life in form of various “Goddess”.