This page is created to motivate and push serious  UPSC civil services aspirants to practise  answer writing  to improve their chances of getting good marks in the Mains exam. Every day  2 to 4 questions will be posted – framed or taken from previous years papers strictly based on the New Syllabus. You have to write your answers in the comment box at the bottom of the Post.

Dos and Don’ts

  • Carefully read the questions 2-3 times and frame a thoughtful answer in the mind first.
  • Write your answers in the comment box below by specifying the Question date and number.
  • Don’t copy from sources directly. If possible read some materials, take your time and then answer in your own words.
  • Stick to word limit even if you know lot about the topic.
  • Take only Half an hour to write both the answers. Don’t cheat.
  • Don’t worry about Grammar or Vocabulary much, and don’t hesitate – just answer. Aspirants/readers with better understanding will correct you.
  • If you get bad remarks, don’t worry. Next time write better. But NEVER quit.
  • Comment on others’ answers too – be nice, gentle, humble  and encouraging (This behaviour will fetch you 200+ in The Personality Test , trust me!)
  • Please don’t use abusive language – be constructive. If you can’t control the urge to use abusive language, please use your Facebook Wall for the purpose. You may get Likes there.
  • After answering the questions within half an hour, Please don’t stay on the page. Come back next morning and see if anyone has commented on your answers. This is to save your precious time.
  • Please spend one hour on reading others’ answers and contribute if someone has missed important points, or note down if someone has given better points than you.

Every day, questions will go online in the Evening.

PS: You may feel like just skipping this page, but try once. If questions asked are below your standard, please feel free to point it out. We will improve on it. We believe writing takes you to the Personality Test.  Why not give it a try? [No Name, No Fees, No Registration; Only Your Interest and Determination is Required – Once you start, don’t give up halfway as most of ‘them’ do]




  • Keerthi Narayan

    20th July 2013
    Question 1

    Edward Snowden, an intelligence analyst, working on contractual basis with the National Security Agency of the USA recently revealed that the USA has been spying on various nations of the world by secretly collecting information about patterns and manners of internet usage. This, he has said, that USA has been doing in the name of “its own” cyber security. The revealation has created shockwaves across the world. Many countries have expressed their shock and disapproval to such unacceptable acts of the USA. It is to be noted that the USA, till recently, has been complaining about hackers of China invading its cyber security. The revealation by Snowden has questioned the credibility of the USA’s accusations. Moreover, besides China, many nations of the Europe and the rest of the world which are in good diplomatic terms with the USA have expressed disapproval of such snooping acts.
    Besides the snooping acts accusation and its disapproval, the Snowden saga made more implications in the international arena. Snowden who may face trial in the USA for treason is currently seeking political asylum. Many countries in the fear of antogonising the US relationship has refused asylum to him. Few countries like Equador, Venezuela and Russia have told that they are ready to grant asylum.
    However, whether the Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy to the fore is a matter of question.

    The Snowden Saga has indeed raised questions about cyber security of developing nations. Countries like India have revealed Cyber Security -policy post Snowden revelations. However, the China- US diplomatic tussle over hacking, the Latin American countries’ taking a stand against the hegemony of the US or the Russian offering to Snowden are not new elements surfacing as a result of Snowden’s revealations. In fact there are underlying reasons for each.
    1. China’s growth as economic superpower even amidst tough economic conditions and its emergence as an alternative area of power to the West has been creating uneasiness in EU and in the US for quite few years

    2. The Latin American Opposition to the US is basically because of the socialist-capitalist ideological divide between them and the result of US hegemony in the South America

    3. Russia has historically been a potential alternative to US dominated world polity and has expressed itself this stand whenever situations necessitated it. A recent example is the vetoing of external military intervention in Syria in the US Security Council.

    So considering the past and the recent developments in world polity, we can conclude that the tensions in international diplomacy have been prevalent since few years and Snowden saga has not created anything new.

    2. The West Asia and the Northern african region has been a seething cauldron of politics since last 5 years. There have been civilian uprise, overthrowing of government, military takeovers etc. Tunisia, Libya and Egypt witnessed civilian uprisings. In Libya and Egypt, military dictatorships came to an end and other forms of government were experimented. Recently in Egypt the elected president Muhammad Morsy has been brought down and an interim govt is going to be formed. Turkey is witnessing civilian protests against a authoritarian though democratic government. Syria is undergoing a turmoil, armed conflict between the government forces and the rebels who want to ouster the Bashar al Assad government. Afghanistan is going to face elcetions in 2014. This is particularly significant considering the presence of fundamentalist Taliban and the recent US exit.

    Democracy is the form of government in which the people of the country are entrusted with the power to decide who should rule them. It also means the existence of political rights like right to peaceful protest, freedom of speech, right of peaceful assemble and a free press. Such democratic governments with all political rights ensured in letter and spirit have been examples of assuring the people a meaningful, rights-based, secure life even in multi-cultural, multiethnic and multilinguistic societies. Examples are South Africa, Brazil, India, France, United States.

    In case of WANA nations, a true democracy with assured fundamental political rights is the best way of giving a hope for peaceful existence. Though a few countries in the WANA region have democratically elected governments like Turkey, Syria, Afghanistan, the people of these countries are divided by religious schism, ideological divides etc. In many countries minorities are not given freedom to express their opinion. There is flagrant existence of fundamentalism, hegemony of the rulers over the ruled, crushing of freedom of press etc. Syria witnesses armed clashes between Shia and Sunni sects of Islam. Egypt is facing pro-Morsy and anti-Morsy clashes. Turkey’s Erdogan governament has been too harsh on civilians who claimed the right for free spaces in crowded cities, Afghanistan has been reeling under the frequent attacks of the FUndamentalist Taliban who are totally against women’s education, modernisation of country etc.

    Considering all these aspects, it would be right to say that the immediate requirement of th WANA nations is a ‘real’ democracy which ensures it citizens the choice of electing their rulers, basic politcal rights and freedom, watchful oppositions and a free press.

    • Keerthi Narayan,

      Congrats for taking the initiative. A few observations (please take them sportively):
      1) You were asked to write answer in 200 words – your both answers cross 400 words. You know the importance of sticking to word limit – it saves lot of time. In Mains GS writing more costs many marks – because in the end you don’t get time for answering easy questions.
      2) In both answers your depth of knowledge is reflected.
      3) In the first answer, as the question demanded ‘critical examination’ – you have done exactly that coming out with a good judgement which is original (that Snowden saga has not created anything new)
      4) Second answer could have been straight to the point.
      5) Please visit again and take the initiative.

  • Asha Goud

    Question 1 : 1) “The Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy”. Critically comment.

    Answer : Diplomatic relations between countries are largely based on the fundamental principle of respecting the sovereignty of nations and non interference. Nations reiterate their commitment towards creating a multipolar world and general wellbeing. However in the background nations maintain clandestine negotiations with other nations to protect encroachment to their authority. In a crisis like situation similar to the one that arose when an American national Edward Snowden released in public domain classified documents, diplomatic relations become vulnerable to pressures.

    Snowden episode challenged the American authority therefore granting an asylum to him would attract hostile future relations with America in future.

    The Snowden episode made very clear that in the current international environment nations are no longer free from diplomatic pressures in their decision making. Their decisions are no based solely on national laws. Powerful nations use their strong position to their advantage. The response of certain European nations is a sign of this.

    Also such situations bring to surface confrontational relations between nations. The divide between the USA and Latin American nations was clearly visible here.

    The use of pressure and confrontations is not healthy for maintaining peaceful and cordial relations in the world. Such practices can bring in tensions and further accentuate them leading to negative consequences for the world. Sovereignty of all nations should be respected.

    • Asha Goud

      Q) Is democracy a viable alternative form of government for some of the countries in the WANA region? Substantiate your answer in the light of recent developments in the region.
      Answer : The region of West Asia and North Africa is of huge geopolitical importance. This region is resource rich and strategically placed. The resource attracted the colonial rule in the region and colonial rule got replaced with authoritarian and dictatorial regimes. Essentially these regimes are exploitative in nature. The region has become a geopolitical playground of Western as well as Asian Countries.

      Few countries in the region like Tunisia, Egypt, Libya have experienced civil uprising largely led by the people, demanding a representative model of government. Countries like Syria, Turkey already have democracy in place, however here too people have come out on the streets demanding a “Functional Democracy.” People are demanding that politics in their country should not be influenced by external forces and should work for the betterment of their people. The civil movements has led to successful over throw of authoritarian rulers and Egypt, Libya, Tunisia have adopted a democratic set up.

      However recently the democratically elected President of Egypt has be removed with the intervention of military. The rebels in Syria have adopted violent means against the government. Such armed rebellion led to over throw of Muammar Qaddaffi in a violent clash. Democracy is a right of every citizen of the nation in WANA region but civil uprisings should not disrupt peace in the region and democratic form of government should be given enough time to stabilize.

      • Asha,

        Thanks for participating.
        1) You have stuck to the word limit. Congrats.
        2) First answer needed some depth regarding international uproar it initially caused.
        3) You have written awesome introduction for the second question.
        4) However, the question demanded you to take a stand and substantiate it – which is missing (read concluding statement)
        5) Keep up the good work!

        • Asha Goud

          Thank you Sir, I would improve next time.
          And i would admit that i did not stick to the half an hour for both answers. Would work on that.
          This answer writing challenge is a great initiative, eagerly waiting for more of these.


    20th July, 2013.
    1. Edward Snowden of USA National, a young aged employee of USA’s national security agency’s (NSA) program PRISM which is working with a aim of restricting terrorist activities on USA’s soil.
    But the said programme was derailed its objectives & caused to violation of human rights of its own people along with many other countries of the world, both developed & developing countries by secretly accessing private information of all countries people through their internet access accounts like Facebook, Google, yahoo,etc..
    This was exposed by Mr.Snowden and he feared the threat of USA, so he went to Hongkong. Later many Latin American countries like Equador, Bolivia, Venejuela, Nicaragua and Argentina came into picture which are invited asylum for Snowden and indirectly these countries shown their character against USA.
    When Snowden reached Mascow airport and stayed there, because there is no alter native route to Latin America or Iceland, because European countries are ready to grab him on orders of America. This shows once again cold war situation of USA lead NATO against Soviet lead eastern countries like china.
    Though Mr.Obama and Mr.Putin voiced their priorities of trade relationships and want to backside the issue of Snowden, the actual situations appears otherwise and it is truly brought the international differences in the light.

    2. WANA region countries consists of West Asia and North Africa Countries. The North African counties are Morocco from west to Sudan and Ethiopia in the south east, Turkey in the north area to Afghanistan in east part.
    These countries are geographically located at water scarcity zone and except few Arabian countries; many of these countries are suffering from poverty and unemployment from decades.
    One of the main reasons for this is ever levels of poverty due to lack of good governance. These countries are under dictatorship of various autocratic rulers since decades.
    The Arab spring which started in Tunisia in 2011, was spread to all surrounding countries of Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain, Sudan and Arabia as well.
    The wave of protests caused to dethrone all these autocratic rulers and the transition phase existed. The rebels are continuously trying to recapture and the struggle is still going on in many countries. But in this globalized world this is the only way for development, because without democracy, the right people will not be get the right social schemes because of widespread corruption. Democracy with good governance will address the issues of these countries which are suffering from at most poverty and unemployment

  • Biman Ghosh

    The much contentious “Snowdon Saga” starts with a revelation of a significant US surveillance program,named PRISM by Snowden, a US nationalist and a former employee of National Security Agency(NSA).
    Mr. Snowden has unleashed the covert US surveillance program,under which the US, mines user’s used data from all internet giants,like google,facebook,youtube,etc. without the prior consent of users.this has been seen by people as a gross breach of privacy of netizens by the US.this not only caused of discontent in US nationals but also across the world.While,the US see the entire issue as it’s internal matter and is upset over the concerns,shown by other countries,the anti-US countries envisaged this opportunity to unleash double standard of US policies and compared them with the “tooth of elephant”. Snowden revealed his identity from Hongkong,an administrative region of china,after fleeing from his own country.The US hostile countries,especially Latin america,Russia,China etc. have sought this opperunity as a major against the US,which is being touted as the savior of human rights and values for a long time. Now,Snowden has filed his political asylum in multiple countries,including India.this gave born a new stabilization factor in current diplomatic equations.some Latin Americans offered asylum to snowden,while some US pro countries rejected it immediately,such situations underlined the most sensitive diplomatic relations among the US-pro and the US-anti countries.India rejected it and shown a very pragmatic approach in entire story.

    • Mahendra,

      1) You have written very good introduction for the first answer.
      2) Your conclusion is original.
      3) Introduction for the second question is factual – your opinion is required there and in next paragraphs you have to substantiate it.
      4) Second question was asked in the light of overthrowing Democratic government by the military – so example of Egypt was needed.
      5) Please keep coming and participate.

  • Biman Ghosh

    Is democracy a viable alternative form of government for some of the countries in the WANA region? Substantiate your answer in the light of recent developments in the region.

    The West Asian and North African (WANA) countries are perhaps the most toughest region to administrate or govern in the world.the very reason lies in the nature of society,over present there.there is a huge bipolarity in the WANA countries, one is hardcore conservative Islamist and other one is liberal and desired to see their country in the queue of “Prosperous and peaceful” countries.Naturally,its often easy to see deadly clashes between them to takeover the power.both groups have their own philosophies and they want to impose these on country’s ideology and policies.

    Before “Arab Spring”,most of WANA countries used to be under dictatorship of a cruel ruler,who ran country on his interests,suppress oppositions and caused to be violent community clashes.”Arab-Spring” brought a ray of hope by ousting such rulers.even in some countries,democracy also had been established but as above said,the intense of bipolarity was much larger then the sentiments of nationalist.in countries,like Egypt,Afghanistan,etc.where the abolishing of irrational government signaled for a fair rule.But the failure of Mursy’s government in Egypt and the Karzai’s government in Afghanisthan crushed people’s hope drastically.with a crawling economy and suffered communistic polity,they are still struggling with their handicapped democracy.for a part of population,religious beliefs are supreme nad they will not allow any government to breach the Islamist law for sake of any issue,while other part is die hard willing to see their political and economy freedom at any cost,be it violent deadly clashes they don’t care.in such crucial situations,democracy alone cannot bring peace and stability in these countries.along with democracy,they need the strong will to change the scenario of their own country.they must come up with the feeling of unity and nation’s love.

    • Biman,

      1) You have written good answers for both the questions but you need to split them into paragraphs.
      2) 2-3 sentences paragraph improves readability.
      3) Thanks for taking part in this writing challenge. Keep coming.

      • Biman Ghosh

        THANK YOU SIR!..i really facing paucity of words to explain your initiative..its more than a boon for poor students,like us,who are not able to afford the mountainous fees structures of IAS coaching inst…hats off to you!!..hope fr more answer writing guidelines from INSIGHTS!

        • Thanks Biman, I am glad you are taking part and it’s useful for you. 🙂


    “The Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy”. Critically comment.(20 JULY 2013 Q-1)
    Edward Snowden the infrastructure employee of NSA has disclosed the of survelliance project of US which is named as PRISM. US has clarified that it was undergoing to combat terrorist activities across the world.
    This survelliance of world network by the US and breaking out their official and private content without any information is not justified.US front on terrorism on the cost of the privacies of whole world is not balancing.If really they have concern about terrorism they mustnegotiate it a multinational dialouge rather then taking it alone.Ceasing one crime by doing many crimes is not a balancing task.
    The terrorism is still a major challenge to world inspite of these survelliances so the intention of US through this project is still uncertain.Russia has take anti US stand whereas India shown a middle ground approach with the lack of information.The inclusion of China,Japan and other countries in the debate will surely demarcate the world in two sides with growing tension.
    Hence the survelliance has brought the tension again on geopolitical hot bed and it has raised questions on the intra security of networks of the nations.

    Is democracy a viable alternative form of government for some of the countries in the WANA region? Substantiate your answer in the light of recent developments in the region.(20 july Q-2)
    The WANA region consist of west asia and north africa region with major countries of the region are Afghanistan,Syria,UAE,Pakistan,Egypt,Iran,Iraq etc.Most of the countries of this region are suffering from internal turmoil and disturabances with the resulting drop down of economy and prosperity.The nuclear insecurtiy of Iran,NATO withdrawal in Afghanistan,polictical turmoil in Egypt and violence in syria.
    Most of the countries have autocratic rule or military rule and the suffering of people is on worse day by day.These countries should seek lesson from the rest world countries where similar situation was dominant in past 40-50 year like India and china.The democracy is only suitable and viable form of goverment which can lead the country toward prosperity.The inclusion of peaople in the decision making process will save their interest.so there must be inclusion of every front of the society through democratic goverment to make the nation a welfare state in short span of time.
    There should be ideal of democratic governance in the countries and all the major decision must include the interest of their nation.The nation must have social growth as its first priority not the economic growth.Only democratic goverment has capacity to lead the development by taking all fronts of society together. Hence the democratic form of goverment is the only a alternative for the WANA region countries.

    • Nitish,

      Thanks for taking part. Second answer is very well written. Splitting into many paragraphs would improve readability. 🙂

  • manish

    Question 1 – 20 July 2013
    “The Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy”. Critically comment.

    Answer – The word “Information” itself a very critical and sensitive one and if the information is about personal and International matters, especially if information is about Economy of the country, it is matter of concern .

    Snowden, the whistleblower in the USA’s national security agency (NSA), has revealed the methods how the government of USA is continuously snooping International arena and also it’s citizen not from few days back but since the formation of NSA. Earlier it was done through the ECHELON program , few country was partner in it. NSA, through Internet Corporation for assigned names and numbers (ICANN) – the only hub in controlling internet servers, is being collecting data of all the routes – Asia, Africa, south America. Among the different countries, USA’s mostly eyed on – India, China, Russia, Arab countries. These country are currently using the server facilities of big giants like – Microsoft, yahoo etc. , which is under the control of American government. The Snowden revelation’s has created panic among the country who are depend on these giant server for their day to day life.

    The country like India – in which various ministries even Prime Minister Office are using these server for transfer of various sensitive information – is worried over the snooping program of USA. This program not only capable to made economic disaster in the nation but also able to create tension between or among the countries by manipulating various policies of the concerned nation.

    As the Internet communication evolved, need is arrived – how much a nation is secure? Depending on the foreign services doesn’t mean that one has got permission for snooping. Even, snooping on citizen of USA is violation of law.

    • Manish,

      1) Factually completely correct, but dynamics of ‘international diplomacy’ is missing.
      2) Thanks for taking part. I wish you would answer the other question too 🙂

  • Asha Goud

    Sir, we have to write our answers for today here itself?

    • Yes 🙂 I will delete yesterday’s answers. You can access them in page named ‘ARCHIVES’.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    Keerthi Narayan

    1. Both in absolute and relative terms, the growth of the indian economic class during the colonial period was subtantial. In absolute terms, from the period between 1910-1947 the share of Indian enterpises in the domestic economy was around 70%, which is a significant achievement. In relative terms with the colonial capitalists, this is a further big achievement as Indian enterprises received no support from the colonial government, not to mention the Government’s favourable inclination towards British capitalists.

    This considerable achievement of the Indian enterprises gain more significance because, unlike the growth of domestic enterprises in other colonial countries, the Indian enterprise’s growth was not because of its pro-imperialist character. In fact, it would be right to say that it achieved this growth despite being against imperialism.
    In 1927 the Federal Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry was started by Indian Industrialists like JRD Tata, GD Birla, Purushottamdas Thakurdas, Jamnalal Dwarkadas etc. It functioned as an institution which served as a lobby for securing the interests of Indian capitalists. However, it did not act as a subservient to the colonial governement in any way. In fact, it too opposite stands against the government in many instances. One such example is its opposition to the Public Safety Bill.

    The Indian capitalists achieved substantial growth mainly by means of import substitution, carving out a place for themselves in the domestic indusrty and edging out British capitalists where they could.

    Thus it is evident that though the Indian capitalists and enterprises were not socialistic, they were definitely not subsevient to imperialistic policies and their colonial masters. The growth they achieved during the 1st hald of the 20th century is mainly because of their entrepreunership skills, indigenous growth and a united network.

    2. India and Japan have maintained cordial relations in the past. Japan has assisted India in the infrastructure sector substantially and India’s consumers have created a good market for Japanese enterprises. India’s PM visited Japan in May 2013 and a strategic dialogue between the two countries followed. They discussed about economic integration, nuclear cooperation, maritime security etc. Observers believe that growing ties between India and Japan shows increasing importance of India in Asia Pacific region. However, it is not exactly as it is because of the following observations:

    1. The Nuclear Cooperation proposed between India and Japan is to be seen in the light of post Fukushima scenario in Japan. Japanese enterprises of Nuclear energy are looking for new markets as there is stiff resistance to Nuclear energy in Japan. It is not exactly to strengthen ties with India

    2. The China-Japan tussle over the Senkaku islands is hovering since last year. India in spite of being a prominent actor in Asian politics has not taken a solid stand in the issue. Even regarding China’s aggressive claims in South China sea where India has stakes in petroleum exploration, India has not taken a tough stand stating international seas are to be governed by UNCLOS and not by traditional claims.

    3. India itself witnessed Chinese agression recently in its Daulat Begi sector of Jammu and Kasmir. After a two week drama, the militaries of both sides went back to maintaining status quo.

    In 2011, India and Japan signed a Comprehensive EconomicPartnership Agreement. Even then trade balance between India and Japan is mainly inclined towards Japan. Moreover, India’s volume of trade with China is more than that of Japan

    In the view of above arguments, we can conclusively say that though India Japan relations are reaching a new scale and are expected to benefit both countries, it does not mark the ascend of India to a major player in Asian Politics. Asian politics is still being dominated by China.

    • 1) Again answer 1 has 270+ words and answer 2 has 350+ words – though answers contain all valid points, it is important to stick to word limit as it saves lot of time. Hope you take it positively.
      2) First answer is very good. But you should have emphasized more on why it grew and how it opposed colonialism (good point is given by Anjali below); mention of evolution of economic class as a political entity, their support of Gandhiji and Congress, Bombay Plan, funding national movement etc.
      3) second answer, point 1 is wrong – long before Fukushima, not Japan, India itself tried to convince Japan to sign civilian nuclear pact (after 2005 Indo-US), but Japanese parties opposed it. Even now they are opposed, but Shinzo Abe is said to friend of India, so he is pushing for a nuclear deal. It would benefit India more than Japan.
      2) Joe Biden who is in India, will be giving a talk on India’s importance in the Asia Pacific region.
      3) India is the largest ‘democracy’ in the region – from Japan to Australia, everyone wants India in the region – for trade and strategic reasons.
      4) It is India which is cautious, but certainly, its importance is on the rise in the region because of its economy and democratic credentials.

      • Keerthi Narayan

        About point no.2: Business class support to national movement, Bombay plan etc came to my mind. However, I thought it would be better not to mention those points as they would be irrelevant to the question’s context. The question is about the growth of Indian economic class in spite of colonialism, so it would be unnecessary to involve its association/relationship with the national movement.

        About the second question, I would like to know the difference between “critically examine” “critically comment” and “critically analyse”. How different should be the answers in viewpoint in these 3 cases?

        • Biman Ghosh

          “critically examine” refers to inspect the issue very closely,conclusion is must in such questions.””critically comment” urge to comment on the significance of issue, associated be it negative or positive,but aspirants r advised to keep their comment a absolute balance between both.

        • 1) The question demands both ‘in spite of’ and ‘in opposition to’ – so the support of economic class to the national movement should be emphasized as it shows they were opposed to colonialism.

          2) Critically Analyze, Critically Examine are the common phrases we encounter in Mains questions. There is a fine difference between them.
          Critically:, Critically means making a careful, unbiased, fair judgement about the good and bad qualities of something.
          Examine : it is a careful study (inspection/observation) of something trying to know if there is anything wrong and find the cause of the problem.
          Analyze: to examine methodically the structure or nature of something by separating it into parts and studying their relationship. When you are asked to analyze, you have to examine each part of the problem. It is a broader term than ‘Examine’.
          Now, when you are asked to,
          critically examine: you are asked to make a fair judgement by observing or inspecting both good and bad qualities, and find their causes.
          Example: “In the context of the growing demands for the ban of endosulfan in the country,’critically examine‘ the issues involved.What, in your view, should be done in the matter?” (2012, Paper-I)
          Here, you need to carefully judge whether ban on endosulfan is justified. Both good and bad of endosulfan use and its ban. After observing the problem, find the cause and offer solution.
          Critically Analyze:
          You need to judge based on the examination of all parts of the question/problem.
          Example: “Analyze critically the ‘interlinkages’ between the Convention on Biodiversity and FAO treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.”
          As analysis involves separating something into parts and examining their relationship, the question directly demands the same. Observe the word ‘interlinkages’. So, first examine CBD and FAO treaties separately, then observe if both are in harmony with each other or there is any conflict between them (they are in harmony). Then conclude your answer with your fair judgement.

          • Anjali Motghare

            Thanks a lot sir. You have explained with examples so difference between examine and analyse is clear.

          • Keerthi Narayan

            Ok. Will practice this henceforth. Thank You.

      • Pallavi

        Thanks for analysis
        Its very easy to waver in subject questions like this. Its important that candidate should stick to the crux of the question and gives facts to support his answer than vague emotions

  • Asha Goud

    Q 1 “The growth of the Indian economic class in the colonial period was substantial that too in spite of and in opposition to colonialism” Comment.
    Colonialism has an exploitative nature. Extracting resources of the country for the benefit of the mother country.
    Colonial government doesn’t allow its subjects to use the structures and institutions for their advantage and growth. As in case of India we have seen earlier the East India Company and later the British Government kept trade within its control. Indian crafts were subjected to competition from subsidized products from Britain on the one hand and heavy duties were levied on Indian products when exported.
    Even in such guarded economic structure certain class of Indians was able to make their place, like zamindars, high officers in civil services, traders, mill and factory owners etc. These people who were allowed grow along with colonial system were some who ensured their growth supported colonial government and others ensured not being antagonistic to colonial interest.
    Names of entrepreneurs like Jamnalal Bajaj, G D Birla, Ambalal Sarabhai is taken with immense respect for their contribution in creating a place for themselves even in the highly rigid and exploitative colonial government. Through cooperative effort, persuasion and innovation they were able to strengthen their position and later even held strong anti imperialistic stand against exploitation of India.
    The presence of colonial government did not allow the Indian economic Class to grow to its true potential, so Indian economic class did grow however its growth was checked and not allowed to flourish.

    Q 2) ” The changing bilateral equations between India and Japan reflects the increasing importance of India to the Asia-Pacific region”. Critically Analyze.
    India Japan relations have reached new heights at the moment. The relation has a strong economic as well as strategic dimension. Japan’s economy is at low and PM Shinzo Abe looks at India as a market for export of technology and infrastructure. At the same time India Japan partnership has developed further with the growing gulf between Japan and China. This reflects the importance of India for Japan has grown in the current scenario.
    However in the South Asian region India has a long history of its importance. The Indian Ocean is an important trade route and considered as energy corridor for the South East Asian countries as it serves as route for oil from the Gulf. India maintains maritime security cooperation with South Asian nations. India has strong economic and trade relations with ASEAN and avenues for further cooperation are being explored. Also India contributes towards regional development and maritime security in cooperation with small island nations in the Indian Ocean. This shows a multidimensional role of India in the region.
    Also India maintains healthy relations with the USA which is a major player in the Pacific region. Japan also has strong relations with USA. Together with Japan and USA, India has ensured its position in the Pacific.
    Therefore the growing India Japan relations have only further increased the already important position that India held in the Asia Pacific region.

  • Anjali Motghare

    comment on Kirti’s answer.
    Colonial rule was mainly focused on making India subservient to their needs so always they protected their interests with certain checks and balances. Indian capitalists growth was substantial because after 1905 swadeshi movement which is launched against colonial rule provided a opportunity which is augmented by World War II crisis of shortage of common goods.

    After China India is the emerging power in Asia Pacific region, Japan is looking towards India as it needs India’s market to spur its economy and to contain China India is only option with it. Growing India Japan relations prove the significance of India’s importance in the Asia-Pacific region.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      Thank you..! I should have given reason for its growth during the period, yes..!

      I too, at first instance, thought of writing a pro-India answer. However, after seeing the words “Critically analyse”, I thought of and structured my answer in critical tone. I have a question too. I would like to know the difference between “critically examine” “critically comment” and “critically analyse”. How different should be the answers in viewpoint in these 3 cases?

      • Anjali Motghare

        critically means in depth, examine means explain and then conclude, comment means just put your points and analyse means looking at pro and cons and inferring their relevance to point given

    • Keerthi Narayan

      Sorry.. This is a reply to Insight’s comment and not to Anjali’s. (No deleting comments option.. please note insights)


    21 July, 2013
    1. Colonialism in India lasts about two centuries with an aim of economic prosperity of British. As soon as the British entered in to India, they started to make alliances with week rulers and with big zamindars to set up their factories and settled gradually. In later periods, British starts to exploit the economy of India, who are mainly targeting the agricultural class and poor people.
    Economic classes of India acted as break waters for looting of British. Because of this advantage British not much harmed these people even though they voiced against them for some times. More over Economic classes are hugely benefitted with British inputs like education, English and western technology to Indian capitalists.
    Economic classes are the only people of India who have access to education in colonial period. Education helps them to better understand the policies and outer world. It also helps them to get some noble positions in British Empire.
    In early periods, British encouraged zamindars and these zamindars pays fixed sum to British, though they collect huge and exorbitant rents from poor peasants.
    In this way the economic classes of India are quite prosper in colonial period.

    2. India and Japan had traditional friendship since long in terms of historical, cultural, economical and in military as well. Except very few years in different periods, the relationship with Japan was always stable.
    With growing globalisation and trade wars, India’s position became so critical in many corners. In this crucial period the relationship with a country like Japan is so important in both strategic point of view as well as in economical point also.
    India an Japan both facing different type of problems at a single location of South China Sea. While Japan tries to strengthen its sovereignty over Senkaku Islands, India tries to secure its energy interests in hydrocarbons of South China Sea. In both the cases China is bitterly opposing and making its claims.
    In economic point of view Japan aid to India is biggest among all and it is in continuous process. The capital inflows from Japan companies are also not in negligible position and it is very important in Indian point of view. The Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement with Japan also ready to yield its results.
    All these will position in India in a game changing position in Asia pacific region. The size of the economies of these two countries also makes some interest notes to many countries.


    Thank you sir for this type of opportunity for us. Actually as you asked 200 words, so in mains it can fetch as 15 to 16 marks questions. So I put my self 8 minutes to each answer on a work book and strictly adhered to it.

    • Mahendra,

      That is the spirit. This will really help you in mains. Try to answer every day. If you guys want I can give feedback on your answers. I actually want discussion between participants and readers. Please keep writing. 🙂

      • mahendra

        thank you very much sir..

  • Casio Karan

    Let’s start off by consulting the map . Japan and India lie along a vast outer maritime crescent enclosing continental East Asia. That external position, plus the long lines of communication connecting the two countries and the potentially contested terrain lying in between. india and japan underscored their commitment to freedom of navigation and unimpeded commerce, as well as agreeing to promote cooperation on maritime issues.
    The recent 20-day standoff between Chinese and Indian soldiers and japan’s and china’s ships clustering around a series of disputed islands only brought India and Japan closer in bilateral ties.
    Most significant, there is new seriousness in Indian foreign policy toward the larger Asian region, India has been hesitant in engaging Japan for fear of upsetting China. New Delhi is slowly shedding this ambivalence, and Japan has been one of the strongest votaries of a tighter Delhi-Tokyo embrace.

    Recently New Delhi announced that Japan is a “natural and indispensable partner” for cooperation in the Indo-Pacific and emphasized India and Japan’s “shared commitment to the ideals of democracy, peace and freedom
    New Delhi and Tokyo not only agreed to institutionalize and increase the frequency of joint naval exercises, but also Japan would offer its advanced seaplane US-2 to India. A joint working group has been set up to decide terms of cooperation.
    In 1967 Japan voluntarily relinquished international trade in defence equipment under the “Three Principles on Arms Exports.” Relaxation of these norms has been slow in coming and, India could become the second country after the U.S. to gain from this. Moreover Japan doesn’t enjoy decisive hegemony over north East Asia or say Asia pacific altogether.
    This state of affairs only bring India in to a new stage of Asia pacific where New Delhi was a bit taken aback after Beijing denounced plans by an Indian Company to develop oil fields in the south china sea.

  • Biman Ghosh

    Amid the growing turbulence in Asia-Pacific region,especially in China sea and Indian Ocean Region(IOR),India and Japan headed to significant coalition bilaterally.China’s assertive claims over disputed region adds fuel in fire and makes wary to some Asian giants,including Japan,South Korea,etc.Japan envisages India as a key trustful partner to counter China’s irrational behavior over the Asia-Pacific.Japan knows it very well,that it is India who can play a massive role to secure Japanese interests in east china sea.India has been playing a significant role to constrain growing Chinese power with it’s successful “Look-east Policy” for a long time.In other words,India’s emerging as a key player in Asia -Pacific maritime region fueled Japan to tie its bilateral treaties with India.

    Though Indian Economic growth rate has decreased in a very short span and rupee is still struggling with its volatility,yet Indian economy is one of the largest strong economies in Asia with its mammoth domestic savings.It’s market still remains the apple of eyes of developed nations.India also has a great reputation in “ASEAN” on economic issues.India also invested a substantial pie in ASEAN,which enables her to access the high potential market of ASEAN.More significantly,India also have Free Trade Agreement(FTAs) with most south Asians. Recognizing the importance of Indian economic power,the Japanese was fast to establish CEPA with Indian govt.Japan also try to make greater access to Indian market as well as in other Asian nations through India.the growing bilateral ties with Japan,more or less signals that Asia Pacific region has die need of Indian role to play out.

    • Very good answer 🙂 Good argument.

    • Sathyananda Moodya R

      Good one.

  • navodit verma

    japanese prime minister shinzo abe has revived the samurai spirit again by extending hands towards india for friendship. recently he invited indian prime minister to visit japan. many agreements were made such as defense cooperation, joint naval exercise , reviving civil nuclear cooperation programme, mumbai metro project etc.also japan has promised to develop infrastructure in india.
    this clearly infers that asia pacific region including japan is giving importance to india. this may be due to various reasons
    1. non peaceful rise of china in asia is seen as disturbance of balance of power in asia, further china -japan terrorial disputes has compelled tokyo to confront beijing’s millitary assertiveness.
    2. china’s illegitimate claims over south china sea .
    3. the strategic location of india in indian ocean is one of the factors.
    4. india is also seen as a country for investments in infrastructure , rails,
    road etc.
    india has been for long following ” CHINA -FIRST ” policy, but it is not bringing the positive results. depsang valley incursion was a good example for this. more ever if we see the 4th angle, china is pushing up for economic corridor through pok with pakistan despite india’s concerns.
    india must consolidate its relationship with other countries in pacific asia and south asia . it will consolidate india’s position in asia .also it will boost economic development in india.
    further india should also try to make cordial relations with china because going very fast with japan can provoke china.india is still having weaker border infrastructure and also having huge dis balance of trade in favour of china.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    1. Gandhian constructive programme was the mantra of socio-economic development. In his view India’s greatest curse was poverty and hunger. To combat this he evolved the constructive programme, originally addressed to the members of Indian national congress. This programme otherwise callad construction of purnaswaraj or complete independence by truthful and non violent means.
    Constructive work played an important role in the Gandhian strategy. It played a crucial role during the passive phase in filling the political space left vacant by the withdrawal of mass movements. It provided an alternative of continuous and effective work. Parliamentary and intellectual work could be done by relatively few, constructive work could involve millions.
    From the nineteen twenties until his death in 1948, Gandhiji gradually shifted the emphasis of his work from non-violent resistance to constructive schemes for the welfare of all. The constructive programme focused upon constructive ways of rebuilding a demoralized society.
    The constructive programme includes nurturing communal unity, abolishing untouchability, fostering adult education, systematic improvement of village, upliftment of the peasant, development of Non-violent labour unions, promotion of cottage and small scale industries,eradication of social evils.,prohibition of alcohol.,promotion of khadi,promotion of basic education,upliftment of women,promotion of education in health and hygiene,propagation of rastrabhasa,treatment of lepers.
    Gandhiji devised his constructive programme and setup a number of constructive work organizations. From this created the capacity to offer non-violent resistance called non-cooperation and civil disobedience. This work would raise the statusof people and bring home to them the power of non-violent social change for the ending of exploitation. The outcome of this programme involves for revival of cottage and village industries, All India Village industries was formed, untouchability has been abolished by law after independence, women of India participated in satyagraha, harijanas and adivasis joined in freedom struggle etc. The constructive programmes if carried out in the right direction, Gandhiji believed would result in the ideal Sarvodaya Samaj.

    thanks sir for this thrilling experiment

    • lakshmi prasanna

      thanks sir for this thrilling experiment

    • Very good answer. There are some repetitions – so the word limit is crossed. (312 words). Thanks for enjoying writing here 🙂

      • lakshmi prasanna

        thanks sir, I’ll impact it in coming answers.

  • manish

    22 July 2013

    2)“She is a goddess to millions yet helpless on the streets. The solution is in the mindset not laws”. Discuss.

    Answer – The word “Culture” is derived from Latin word cult meaning – cultivating and refining – cultivating and refining a thing to such an extent that its end product brings admiration and respect. It’s Hindi word “Sanskriti” which is derived from word kriti meaning – to do. “Kriti” leads to formation of 3 word “Prakriti” – basic matter, Sanskriti – refined matter and Vikriti – modified matter.

    Today, our society is modified and bringing “Vikriti” of minds than Sanskriti. This is the Vikriti which are establishing their feet in the society and are looking at woman as an asset rather than as goddess. Looking at the root level why our society is being modified – reason –
    a) Poverty – Family are helpless to nurture culture and provide good education (what is right and what is wrong)
    b) Violence – A child who has brought up in the environment where he only learnt violence, he is liable to see violence in future and will commit crime.
    c) Westernization – The effect of other culture which is mingling with out culture.

    Taking consideration of above point, government of India has introduced many Laws to curb crime against women. Infact there are statutory bodies – National commission for women, Ministry of women and children development has come with many strict laws and rules but still they are ineffective. Focus should be to eradicate the crime not the criminal, and that could not be done by laws. Even Supreme court of India in the special case of “Delhi Gang Rape” has ruled out reducing the age of juvenile, which has sent clear message that by only reducing age will not solve the problem.

    Solution lies on nurturing the basic matter to make it Sanskriti. It is the responsibility of society how and in which environment a born child is taking shape.

  • Geetika Enani

    22nd july 2013
    Ques:”she is a goddess to millions yet helpless on the streets.the solution is in the mindset not laws”
    Ans: the above comment fully describes the importance of a girl,her helplessness and the change that could improve her image in the society.
    In this the girl has been compared with the goddess,the one who have given birth to humans just as mother do.
    Despite of this similarity,both are seen with different perspectives.Where a goddess is being worshipped in all houses and streets,a girl is always dominated and humilated by man in houses and seen with bed intentions on the streets,where she seems to be helpless,
    The fault of this discrimination is of our society.people of India have mindset that Indian society is a man dominated society.So to bring change in society,one has to change his mind,no laws can do anything and then an equal status will be achieved by a woman.

  • Anjali Motghare

    Along the side of Non Cooperation movement Gandhiji launched the constructive program. His aim was to make people emotionally stronger and aware about their rights. Gandhiji’s strategy was of satyagraha nearly passive resistance, for that one needs to be strong withing to face any adversities without enmity towards opponent. So on the constructive side he urged people to develop spirit of discipline and self-sacrifice. With that he wanted to make people economically independent, so he asked people to set up spinning hand weaving and use of Swadeshi goods. This is the first phase and in second phase after Civil Disobedient movement, he mainly focused his constructive work on the upliftment of harijans.
    Gandhiji’s constructive programme ushered enthusiasm in people. In the silent phase of national movement it prepared people for the next movement. It improved economic standard of people made women economically independent. People started using swadeshi goods so it helped Indian industry grow. In the second phase it helped in making harijans aware of their rights.

  • Asha Goud

    Q During the Indian national movement , constructive work played an important role in Gandhian strategy. Discuss its nature and outcome.

    A. During the Indian national movement different ideologies like socialist, communist, moderates, extremist developed. One among these was the Gandhian Ideology. Gandhian Ideology gave preference to connect with the masses and work towards a united society.

    Gandhiji after his return from South Africa took up fight for the rights of peasants, workers who were until now neglected. Gandhiji developed a non violent method of struggle, Satyagrah. Gandhiji always stayed connected to the masses and worked with the masses.

    During the Non cooperation movement he called for boycott of foreign goods and called people to take up khadi and spinning. He took up cause of the muslims during Khilafat and urged for shunning the religion based divide among people. During 1933-34 he took up the cause of untouchables and propagated the removal untouchability.

    All these ideals were together Gandhian ideology that unity among the masses. Serving the downtrodden, helping the poor, upliftment of the status of women, spread of education etc. These ideals were taken up by the no-changers, and they conducted such constructive work on large scale at the ground level.
    The leaders and masses were brought closer to each other which led to spread of ideas of freedom, unity, brotherhood, democracy and it led to formation of a stronger and more united society. Large scale participation of the masses was witnessed during non cooperation, civil disobedience, quit India movement, and it can be largely attributed to the constructive work done at ground levels.

    • Good answer. You have tried well to pack many points within the word limit. 🙂

  • Biman Ghosh

    you are most welcome sir!…its my humble request you to keep evaluating our answers…it would encourage us as well as make us confident..thanks again!

  • Keerthi Narayan

    Keerthi Narayan

    1. The Indian National Movement can be clearly distinguished into 3 phases. The Moderate, The Extremist and the Gandhian phase. Of the 3, it was during the Gandhian phase that it reached its mass character, widespread outreach and brought common people into the struggle. The Gandhian phase was so successful because of crucial strategies like non violent satyagraha and constructive work amidst the rural folk.

    Constructive work:
    Gandhiji clearly understood the nature of mass movements. He said by their nature itself, mass movements are not possible to sustain for prolonged periods. People’s ability to sacrifice and undergo repression are not unlimited. Hence to keep up the spirits of the people and to keep the lamp of nationalistic sense glowing during the non-struggle years, he suggested constructive work among the masses.

    Constructive work:
    During the times of freedom struggle, there were lots of social problems in the Indian society like poverty, untouchability, child marriage, gender inequality. Gandhiji advised that Congress should take up such constructive work amidst the masses which would help in overcoming these social problems and use such opportunities to infuse nationalistic spirit among the masses. He taught people the use of the spinning wheel or Charka and helped them to make money from handwoven cloth. He campaigned against gender inequality. He toured the country and brought in awareness about the inhuman practice of untouchability.

    The strategy of constructive work yielded fruitful results. It served both the purposes. While keeping the masses engaged in constructive work during non-struggle phases of the national movement, it also brought in significant changes in the social problems addressing. Particularly, Women of the country became politically aware, participated in the national movement events widely. Though significant change was not seen in eradicating untouchability, the inhumaneness of the social evil was realised by the untouchables themselves and other sections of the society. Above all, the strategy of constructive work brought in rural folk into large numbers into the national movement and gave it a true mass character

    2. The statement reflects the paradox pervading the Indian society. In India, on one hand, feminity and womenness are worshipped in the form of women goddesses, sacred rivers are given feminine names, on the other hand, the real women who come down to the streets as a part of their daily life undergo physical and mental abuse.

    Worshipping womenhood, sanctifying a women’s various stages of life like attaining puberty, marriage, attaining motherhood through various rituals are part of Indian culture. Indians have been worshipping mother goddesses since time immemorial. However, there is a marked difference about how Indians view a women as a society and as an Individual. As a society she is revered, considered as a symbol of fertility. But as an individual male, an Indian man’s way of seeing a women on the street, a co-worker and a film actress are not so decent.

    Laws cannot be effective in curbing those acts which are taken as ‘normal’ and ‘casual’ by the underlying mindset. Hence, more importance should be given in changing the attitude that takes women for granted. Such change in mindset should be brought in in the family and in the schools, the basic premises of teaching morality. When this is achieved, stringent laws combined with good policing can bring in safety and peace to the millions of women in India.

    • 1) Beautiful answer for the first question. Again, you would have said all those things within 200 words. (sorry i will keep reminding you – this times you used 332 words! )

      2) Second answer fulfills all criteria – good structure, content, precision, basic understanding and word limit (+/- 20 is ok 🙂

    • Anjali Motghare

      I am learning good things from your answers.

      • Keerthi Narayan

        That’s the + of doing this. We all can learn a lot from each other, refine ourselves. Im glad.


      Both are very good answers ..

  • Biman Ghosh

    Britain,that ruled and exploited economically India for over 200 years is twenty times smaller than India and ten times lesser in population compared to India.It could be possible only,due to very success of their notorious “Divide and Rule” policy.They succeeded in their policies year by year resulted deteriorating economic and political situations of India day by day.The British govt used the significant “vacant unity space” among the people as their handy tool to consolidate their cruel rule for over the centuries in subcontinent

    Gandhiji is among the ones,who recognised earlier the mind of Britishers behind their policies.He held the lackness in unity among Indian people as the success of British regime. He knew very well that,its well aware mammoth Indian mass,which will do his job to expel Britishers from Indian subcontinent.he also got the point,that his task is only to construct a well informative and aware masses,which are aware about their rights,about their freedom and ultimately, about the “game-plan” of the Britishers to keep them apart from their brothers and prevent their unity,which was inevitable for getting freedom.Gandhi threw his entire energy to crate masses and induct them into movements against British rule.he was well familiar about the power of mass based movements.This was an important characteristic of Indian national movements,led by Gandhiji.

    he fell in full swing to educate people about the exploitation being done by the British rulers and it’s consequences.he also emphasised on community and religions unity People also learnt well by the magnificent Gandhian ideas and lectures and gave reply positively.they flooded in streets with a ultimate goal – “to get freedom at any cost”.British rulers left no stone unturn to suppress movements,but it was too late for them.it was not possible for them to suppress such large scale mass movements with determined nationalism attitude.Frequent mass based movements weakened the foreign regime and compelled them to flee from country.ultimately,they understood that Indian people is not in mood to tolerate them anymore. Gandhiji was done with his job and resulting we got our Independence in 1947.

    • Good answer. Some specifics like – what exactly were constructive works? – fight against untouchability, development of Harijans, Setting up of Ashramas across the nation to train ‘constructive workers’, Hindu Muslim unity (you have mentioned this), promotion of khadi and village industries,etc.. All these factors prepared a band of constructive workers who mobilized people at the grassroots. People trained in his ashrams later became prominent national leaders within and outside INC.

  • Biman Ghosh

    Its nothing more than hypocrisy,that one side we organise most of our Pujas as “Goddess pujas” with utmost majesty and holiness and on the other side our police stations flooded with hundreds of women harassment cases everyday.sometimes it create major disputes over some mere “obscene paintings” of goddess,while we make women feel obscene by our offences against them and force them raise their voice to be ensure their safety in public domain.Its most unfortunate and frustated to see growing crimes against the women day by day.

    Recent trend of growing crimes against women compelled our lawmakers to enact strict laws agains offenders of such crimes.But it seems that,its hardly going to grag down the figure of crimes against the women.Because the roots of such gravious crimes lies in the mindset of our society.Its clear by the research that,a such offender hardly think about the consequences of his heinous acts.he simply goes to commit,what he had in his mind.and generally,it has been seen that he had enough reasons to back his wrong doings.his mind retains the ambiguous reasons in support of his acts.such attitudes rare not sudden product of his mind,instead such thoughts develop over the period of time.Pornography,religious thoughts,conservative outlook towards women,lackness of proper education,etc. are a few of such factors to influence and motivate a man towards such crimes
    considering such a large population of our country,it would be futile to impose more strict punishments in IPC,rather than to culminate moral values about women and their majesty in the generations.once we are done to cultivate moral values in our generation,it would help people to change their mentality towards women.they would start to pay more respect to women,whom they see as their ideal and offer pray with immense holiness in life in form of various “Goddess”.

  • Asha Goud

    Q “With the disintegration of USSR and an end to the cold war, the international diplomacy took a new turn”. Critically examine.

    A. With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991, came to an end Socialism. A Bipolar world led by USSR and USA characterized by high military expenditure, espionage, stock piling of nuclear weapons, proxy wars, was replaced by a unipolar world led by USA and capitalists.

    End of cold war is also seen as the victory of capitalism over socialism. The Capitalist countries like USA and European countries popularized the ideas of economic Liberalization and Globalization.

    The capitalist countries identified the lack of Good Governance as the reason for under development of many Asian and African countries that were victims to proxy wars and ethnic conflicts. As the ideas of globalization and liberalization were adopted, trade relations developed and now diplomatic relations were driven by economic relations unlike the earlier trend of military cooperation. With globalization and opening up of trade relations, people to people interactions increased. Spread of Internet led to discussions and knowledge sharing among people and organizations. As a result issues relevant to less developed countries like environment, governance, human development raised in international forums.

    However critics view Globalization and Liberalization as Neo-imperialism. The market and resources the less developed countries are drained away and lead to development else where. The international forums, like the UNSC, are dominated by the capitalist countries. Therefore with coming of globalization, international diplomacy is now participatory and discussion oriented but the world is led by the capitalist interests.

  • Asha Goud

    Q The latest census shows us declining sex-ratio in some of the states – Discuss the socio-cultural factors contributing to this disturbing trend.

    A. The Census is not merely a statistical exercise. It brings into light state of various human development indicators like literacy rate, population growth, sex ratio, mortality rates, and helps policy makers in policy making.

    The latest census exercise conducted in 2011 indicated a growth in over all sex ratio ( number of females per 1000 males ) in the country from 927 to 940. However a few states have shown a decline in sex ratio like state of Bihar, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir. Even more disturbing is the steep decline in the Child sex ratio ( between the age group 0-6), at all India level Child sex ratio has fallen from 927 in 2001 to 914 in 2011. It is an indicator of the preference of male child in our society.

    The states having low sex ratio like Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar lie in the northern belt. These northern states are patriarchal societies giving importance to male child as heirs. Female child is seen as a burden and the region has in past witnessed practices like female infanticide. The northern belt is also the agricultural belt and they show preference of male child as a helping hand whereas female child has less economic value. Southern states have performed better than their northern counterparts in sex ratio.

    At the same time it is worth noting that backward states like Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, and many north eastern states have fared better in sex ratio. These states have majority tribal population which do not have a culture preference of male child.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Comment on Asha’s answer.
      From your answer I learned some facts, its nice. I feel question demands more stress on socio -cultural factors.

      • Asha Goud

        Hi Anjali,
        there was so much i wanted to put in answer 2 but due to word limit had to cut down, it becomes difficult 🙂
        also i wanted to put how northern states differ from southern states and the states having majority tribal population.

  • Anjali Motghare

    Declining sex ratio. Socio-cultural factors.
    In the census of 2011 we child sex ratio of 914 which is less than 2001’s.
    Reasons are many, but main factors are socio-cultural as follows
    1. Our society is patriarchial. Male member is the head of the family. He is more respected than other members of the family, so society always has inclination towards son.
    2. Son contributes in the earning of family, and daughter given households work.
    3. Son will take care of parents in the old age, so he is considered as investment for old age pension, as daughter has to leave her house after marriage.
    4.Parent has to pay dowry for their daughters wedding, so girl considered as burden. Now days wedding’s has got more costlier as girls parents has to pay dowry as per boy’s status.
    5. Its traditional belief system son will continue lineage of the family. Their name will continue even after parents death as girl’s name is changed after marriage.
    So all these factors come into consideration while giving birth to a child, though people are more educated, more liberal in thinking now but deep rooted thing dominates their mind, and as more techniques are available so girl fetus is put to death before she is born.

  • Sreekanth Soman

    1) The phase of the world history after the second world war was characterized by what is known as “cold war” between the two super powers, the United States and the USSR. The struggle for hegemony between them brought many other countries like Cuba, Vietnam, and Yugoslavia into internal war or war-like situations. It was expected of any country of the world to join either of the groups led by the powers. If not, a country could be considered an enemy. Thus even countries which were part of the non-aligned movement also were not kept out of the effects of the cold war. The social, economic, and cultural aspects of the world were also affected due to cold war apart from political sphere.

    With the disintegration of the USSR by 1990 as a result of economic problems and reaction to reforms introduced by Gorbachev, Perestroika and Glasnost, there happened a radical change in world power equations. Unites States. as the lone super power, came to occupy commanding heights in world politics and international institutions like United Nations, World Bank, IMF, WTO etc. became a playground for pursuing the interests of US and other NATO countries. NATO was able to interfere in Gulf War, Balkan crisis and other international issues very easily and enforce their decisions. The world economy became extremely dependent on the developed countries for markets, capital and aid. Thus there was major transformation in international diplomacy based on the new situation.

    2) The 2011 census data revealed some disturbing aspects of Indian society. It was the declining sex ratio, particularly the child sex ratio at 914, that establishes the preference for male child among Indians even in 21st century. The sex ratio is very much skewed in some states in north-west India like Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan. It is to be understood that the social evils of female infanticide, female foeticide and possibly honour killings contribute to this problem.

    The utlimate cause for the skewed sex ratio is the low status of women in the society preserved from ancient times. Before marriage, a woman is considered as a burden to her parents as it is thought that she cannot earn enough for the family and also huge money required to marry off her. After marriage, a woman is subjected to abuse and domestic violence leading to suicides over matters of dowry. Such attitudes are entrenched in the above mentioned states.

    Though education can help in eradicating this evil, it is a matter of deep concern that even among the urban elite, there is preference for the male child. Advances in diagnostic techniques help in sex selective abortions aided by unscrupulous medical practitioners. Only by the strict enforcement of the Pre Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act by the concerned agencies, sensitizing efforts of the civil society and pro-active role of the media can these evils be removed from our society.

  • Biman Ghosh

    “With the disintegration of USSR and an end to the cold war, the international diplomacy took a new turn”. Critically examine.

    In 1992,the disintegration of USSR, followed by the end of prolonged “cold war” between the then two superpowers,was a significant event in the world diplomacy.It changed the structure of entire world diplomatic equation, dramatically.

    During cold war,the world was Bipolar in terms of diplomatic equations.USA was leading one front with it’s touted pro-liberal views,while USSR held the other one with socialist ideas.Both fronts were in cut-throat competition to influence major world affairs and international institution’s strategies.Each country had to make a clear choice to enter in any of the two fronts.since world war 2 onwards,the world was being young and various processes were taking place,like de-colonization,industrialization,liberalization,etc.these situations opened a greater space for both superpowers to play greater roles out amid the cold war’s tensions. Major emerging countries,like India,china,South africa,South Asians nations were also in greatest need of help of these superpowers.These countries also directed their foreign policies to absorb maximum assistance from US led or USSR led domains.they envisaged these situations ripe to shape their economy with the massive help,they got from either US or USSR,as per their foreign policy admitted.

    but with the sudden collapse of the USSR,entire diplomatic equation took a new turn,most dramatically.the scenario was changed.the world was shifted from bipolar to uni polar with the mighty US, alone superpower in the world.initially,for a few years,some countries were clueless about their future diplomatic steps,eg;India.the situations were more or lees,a dilemma for entire world community. Now,the countries,who earlier would had been with USSR,have to decide about their future collaboration.Some countries preferred to be with the Russian federation,a successive state of USSR,while some countries gradually changed their priorities and approached to US for further progress.The US had become one and only one superpower with enormous powers to influence any activity in any corner of the world.The world diplomacy had been changed.The country’s priorities and foreign policies had been changed.


    23, july 2013

    1. Even though the word ‘cold war’ is virtually memorizing many times at present international arena, the actual theme got faded out with disintegration of USSR in early nineties. With this disintegration the USSR, so many independent nations are created with their own principles and own interests. However all this shifted the power to one side, i.e., towards USA and NATO countries.

    Even though the USSR splits apart into many, still Russia is still world’s biggest country. But it was unable to manage the balance of power. The main reasons are economic and geographical. Economically the main energy security of USSR is lies in the western part, which is now in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Baltic countries and surrounding countries. With splitting the vast quantities of Oil and Gas reserves and minerals lost to these countries.

    Geographically Russia lies in temperate zone and northern part lies at tundra zone which are not favorable to agriculture. Russia mainly depends on other countries for many agricultural needs and as well as for energy needs. It only manages by military technology so far.

    On the other way USA and NATO countries are very advanced in these sectors and continually expanding their economic territories by various agreements with different states. So Russia almost ends up its cold war actions and concentrating on its own security.

    2. The latest census of 2011 shows the sex ratio as 940, which means there are 940 women for 1000 men. Even though it was slightly improved compared to census of 2011, still it is a big concern because the alarming low levels of certain states and decreasing ratio of child sex ratio at 914.

    As the trend continuous for Kerala and Puduchcherri at top levels, the traditionally low sex ratio states of Haryana, J & K, Punjab, Union Territories of Delhi and Chandigarh continue their dismal form. The main reasons for low sex ratio are the mind set of people, liberal government attitude, no strict implementation of laws (like predetermination of sex during pregnancy) at ground level by Doctors.

    In India the birth of female child still not welcomed by many people irrespective of their economic status. The main concern is even educated are not thinking in positively at many instances. One of the main reason for this may be the social evil of Dowry. People are considered the birth of female child as a burden for them till their marriage and feel un protective compared to male child. The increasing violence on females also may be one of the reason.

    Government also has to act very strictly on the culprits who bypass the respective laws and have to penalize the hospitals who ever allows the sex determination tests.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    2. Sex ratio is one of the important parameter that reflects the status of women in society. Sex ratio decline in India is fact, but important thing is, that decline with sociocultural, educational and economic development.
    In India sex ratio is 933 in 2001 and it is 940 in 2011, which is one of the lowest in the world. In 1901 the states like Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu had sex ratio 1061, 1004, 1037 and 1044 respectively while UT’s like Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand, Lakshadweep, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram had Sex ratio 1046, 1091, 1032, 1063, 103, 1037, 1036 and 1113 respectively. After independence i.e. from 1951 to 1961 the position of all the above states and UTs was good but from 1971 to 2001 the declining trend in sex ratio was shown except Kerala and Pondicherry. But in 2011 Census it is seen that in all states except Bihar, Gujarat and Jammu Kashmir the sex ratio is increased, it is also increased in UTs except Dadra & Haveli and Daman & Diu.
    Reasons for decline includes preference of son, practice of dowry, Increasing ultrasound clinics and the ability to pay for abortions, education, poverty, male dominancy, lack of women empowerment, and social status of women. Collective work of government and society is needed for seeing healthy sex ratio in future census

  • Geetika Enani

    thank you for explaining this difference by example.

  • re singh

    date 24/07/2013
    question 2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss.
    UN is the brain child of the western world that evolve after the second world war which purposes are make a world peaceful where international issues are bring at a place and resolve them peacefully and also resolve all concern of the newly independent states.
    After the end of world war new version of war were emerged a proxy war (cold war). At this scenario UN also plays an important role and after 1990,at the end of the cold war, UN and its agencies makes world peaceful and brings world to be more globalized.
    UN and its agencies plays important role in the economic oriented new world where each countries are economically depend to one another. UN works for more liberalized the world and take action against conservatism.
    UN sending its secretaries and agent to the conflicted areas of the world and trying to resolve the problem with conversation between rival groups.
    It also sending peace army to the conflicted zones and disaster affected areas and also supplying resources to the poor and poverty affected areas.
    Its security council are playing important role to stop the terrorism and nuclear expansions through keep banning on research and development on nuclear.
    UN have doing so many grateful and successful jobs. But along this jobs it also criticizes for its leanness to the western country. security council is mostly criticized for its leanness to developed world.
    After the cold world war new economies were emerging then they start demand for making UN more open and stop biased activity. Developing countries are demanding for expand security council and also liberalized nuclear policy for power generation. And new demand for more responsibility and transparency increases.
    this is a brief story of UN but the requirement of the globalized world is more so there are so many changes are required in the right direction through which the world become more peaceful.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    1.In modern world history, the period from post second world war till the 1990s is marked by the polarisation of nations into two distinct blocks. Nations aligned themselves either in sync with the capitalist United States or the socialist USSR. This scenario underwent a change when the USSR disintegrated into pieces. The world after the USSR collapse was not at all bipolar. It has been largely unipolar so far and may become multi polar in the near future.

    International diplomacy or a nation’s foreign policies are framed taking into consideration a lot of factors. During the cold war era, one important factor in determining its foreign policy was the economic, military, moral and ideological support it would derive by either inclining towards USA or the USSR. But this major factor determining a country’s foreign policy changed after the USSR collapse. Many nations liberalised and integrated themselves with the global trading network. So nation’s foreign policies were determined by its potential to prosper by establishing trade links, joint naval exercises to combat piracy.

    Also the international scenario witnessed a lot of flexing of muscles by the two block during the cold war. The Cuban Missile crisis, the formation of NATO, CENTO, SEATO and the Commintern, nuclear tests, inter continental ballistic missile tests etc are examples. Post cold war scenario did not witness such such muscle flexing.

    It can be said that post cold war, the USA alone dominated the world political scenario and nations were either pro-USA or anti-USA(like Cuba, Venezuela) during this time period.

    2. Sex ratio is the no. of females per 1000 males in the country’s population. In India, sex ratio is measured during every census. It is a measure of Gender Equality. The recent census shows that India’s sex ratio has been improving since the previous decades. However few states like Bihar and Gujarat have seen decline in sex ratio in the 2001-2011 period.

    This clearly indicates the preference of male children over female children in these states. The following could be the reasons for this dangerous trend:

    1. Sex determination during pre-natal stage has become more popular in this communication-technology decades than during the 80s. Female foetuses are aborted before birth. The PCPNDT act amendments made few years back may bring in some positive change in the forthcoming decade.

    2. General belief in the society that female children are a economic burden to the family as the entire expense of bringing her up, educating and marrying does not yield any return. This is a fundamentally flawed opinion and educations and experience will bring about a change in this attitude.

    3. Considering women and her sanctity as a mark of family’s honour, fear of safely marrying her to a family of same caste, fear of her falling in love with someone else. All these factors not only affect the sex ratio, but also demean women and prevent economic prosperity, right to freedom and a honorable growth of women and society.

    4. The myth that male children take care of the parents during old age and female children don’t/can’t.

    5. Male children viewed as carriers of family’s tradition, honour, lineage.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    The first World War came to an end in 1919 with the defeat of Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy to the England-France-Russia-USA alliance. A post war treaty called the Treaty of Versailles was signed in the palace at Versailles near Paris.

    The treaty of Versailles was basically an unfair treaty. It fixed the sole responsibility for the first World War on Germany. It was basically the intention of France and England to punish Germany to such an extent that it would never cause trouble again. The treaty consisted of harsh conditions like:

    Demilitarisation of Rhineland
    Loss of resource rich Alsace Lorraine to France
    Loss of territories in the east to Russia
    Loss of Germany’s African colonies to the League of Nations
    Germany was not supposed to build any more war ships
    Germany’s military strength is to be confined to 100000
    Huge war indemnity of 6600 million pounds was imposed on Germany
    Germany should not impose compulsory military training upon its citizens

    All these conditions were imposed to ensure that Germany has to undergo moral humiliation and economic, military subordination to the Anglo-French.However, the intention backfired. The very conditions imposed on Germany forcibly was the major reason for the rise of German nationalism under Hitler. German people were so humbled that Hitler’s every move against the Treaty of Versailles was welcomed by the German public with great cheer.

    Thus, the Treaty of Versailles, with which peace was supposed to be established in Europe planted the seeds of hatred among German minds leading to the second world war.

    2. The United Nations Organisation is an international body whose primary responsibility is to maintain world peace. it was with this primary objective that it was formed post the second World War.

    To assess the success of the UNO in maintaining world peace it becomes necessary to define the term “world peace” in the present context. During 1900-1950 the world witnesses two major and horrible wars which resulted in a innumerable loss of lives and property. The world is a different world now. Concepts like democracy, development and international trade have gained roots and invasion of territory, missile power demonstration, spy network superiority have lost ground. The world has become more civilised now politically. Hence dangers to world peace are not exactly invading of nations by a powerful nation anymore. So in the present scenario, the UN’s success should be assessed by how far it has been successful in maintaining the world nations’ sovereignty.

    1. UNO has been successful in preventing large outbreak of territorial wars.(mostly because countries have understood the ill effects of a full blown war)
    2. The post cold war era has seen invasion of many nations’ sovereignty by a superior nation and the UN has failed to prevent such events.

    Eg. In the name of eradicating terror cells of Al Quaeda, the US entered Afghansitan post 9/11 attacks.

    In the name of ousting dictatorship and establishing democracy the US entered Iraq.

    In the name of removing an autocratic regime (though it is democratically elected), the US is supporting the anti-Syrian forces in Syria.

    So if viewed in terms of avoiding major wars, the UN has been successful. However, the fundamental edifice of modern polity called sovereignty of a country and its people has been forcibly breached many a times by the prime funder of the UN and the UN has appallingly failed in this regard.

  • Asha Goud

    Q ” The seeds of the World War II were sown at a peace treaty held in a grand Palace in France.” Elaborate.

    A. The given statements refers to the Treaty of Versailles signed after the World War 1. Imperial Germany with Austria lost against the allies countries. With the fall of imperial power in Germany parliamentary government was established which signed the Peace treaty at Versailles.

    The treaty put the entire responsibility of World War 1 on Germany and Germany was now asked to pay for the destruction during the war to the Allies. The treaty did not go down well with the German people who considered it unfair and German government failed to maintain people’s support. 13% of German territory was occupied by Allies, its resource rich regions like Rhineland, Ruhr and German colonies too were taken away. Germany was demilitarized.

    These harsh provisions of the treaty lead to an economic slow down and condition of hyperinflation along with large scale unemployment in Germany. People had lost faith in the government. In such situation of political and economic instability, Hitler was able to raise his Nazi party to power and turn into dictator. He gained the support of people by bringing the economy back on track. He declared the German people as the higher race and restored the lost dignity of the people.

    Therefore Hitler was able to win support of German population and he acquired such powers that no one could oppose him. He justified his acts as an attempt to regain the lost dignity to his people.

  • Asha Goud

    Q Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss

    A: In the Post Cold war scenario characterized by absence of the persistent danger war between the conflicting powers. The nature of conflicts is now majorly ethnic and secessionist.

    United nations has gained significance an a major platform for deliberations and discussions between nations in with end of cold war. UN aims to achieve and maintain balanced world order and peace. Its peace keeping arm being UNSC which authorizes peace keeping missions to conflict torn regions.

    During Cold War neither USA nor USSR supported the UN peacekeeping however with end of cold war USA and Russia readily support peacekeeping. UN currently maintains its peacekeeping missions in various countries and the number of peacekeeping missions has increased post cold war. The nature of peacekeeping is no more only military but has enlarged to include humanitarian assistance.

    The failure of UN peacekeeping is that as it requires a consent of UNSC it sometimes becomes difficult to take up issues where the UNSC permanent members put their veto, like the Israel-Palestinian conflict.

    With the support of all UN members the peace keeping missions are successful in playing a major role towards maintaining peaceful world order.

  • Anjali Motghare

    ” The seeds of the World War II were sown at a peace treaty held in a grand Palace in France.” Elaborate.
    1. Paris Peace Conference was convened with the aim of restoring peace in World and not to repeat those mistakes which led to World War I. However the very treaty of Versailles one of which concluded in Peace Conference sowed the seed of dissension and draw World to second World War.
    At the Paris Peace Conference Germany was not treated in befitting manner.
    Because of Treaty Of Versailles she had to loose one eighth of her
    of her territories in Europe and 7 million people together with all her colonies, her naval force destroyed and her army was reduced to one lakh, economically her resources confiscated and she had to pay
    war indemnity of 5 billion. This treaty was a dictated peace so after some time German nationalist started violating it.
    Italy and japan was also discontented with the paris peace treaties. Italy joined the revisionists and Japan adopted expansionist policies.
    France wanted to reduce Germany to a state of extinction but Britain wanted to see her prosperous nation able to maintain balance in Europe,. Thus Germany got an opportunity to violate the conditions of treaty of Versailles and she took the full advantage of that and took up arms against allied powers to seek vengeance. Thus started a second world war.

    2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss.

    With the end of Cold War, a World become a unipolar and U.S.A. remained sole super power contributing nearly 25 per cent of fund to United Nations.
    So whenever USA wanted it acted in its own interests flouting UN’s norms, leading to failure of UN.
    Though UN has been successful in bringing happiness and prosperity through its welfare measure like education, water, sanitation by its various arms but it failed on major issues, which are as follows.
    1. UN ineptly handled Somalia crisis, the war torn country is yet to recover.
    2. In Rwanda genocide, UN itself admitted it failed to safeguard the peoples lives.
    3.UN failed to prevent second Congo War where eight nations and twenty five groups were involved and million civilians perished.
    4. UN also failed in Sudan were more than five million people killed in civil war of independence.
    5.UN’s failed to prevent genocide which took place in Srebrenica, a
    place in Bosnia & Herzegovina.
    6.The US war on Iraq in 2003 showed that a powerful nation like the US
    could simply wish aside global opinion.
    7. UN failed to bring North Korea and Iran on a path of non proliferation despite of many sanctions.
    8. Recently in Syria UN has not been able to bring reconciliation between government and opposition and war is continue for more than a year which lead to more than 60,000 civilian deaths and much more become refugee.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      Somalia, Rwanda are cases of internal problems, aint they? How do they pose a problem to ‘world’ peace? And in Iran’s case, there has been no proof so far that its nuclear programs are meant for making warheads. If non-proliferation is a case for threatening world peace, even India is a threat to world peace, know?

      • Anjali Motghare

        Thanks Kirti, good question,
        see we are living in a globalized world, each country is a part of whole world. In India Kashmir is not at peace so can we say India is at peace?
        Similarly if trouble is in any part of the world means world is not at peace.

      • Anjali Motghare

        For Kirti,
        There is no proof against Iran, but it has shown intentions to develop it. Nuclear proliferation is a threat to world peace, so UN is imposing sanctions on her. India faced so many sanctions when it went nuclear, and till date some country don’t trade with India in nuclear material like Japan & Australia. India is not threat to world peace because it pledged no first use doctrine. Hope you got the answer.

    • Anjali,

      Very good answer. One observation: You should use numbers to make points in your answers only when question demands it.

      Eg. What are the fundamental duties enshrined in the constitution? Enumerate.

      When you are asked to ‘enumerate’, using numbers is justified.

      In the above answer, just use bullets/stars/hyphen, or just single line paragraphs. 🙂 Good going. Keep it up guys!

      • Anjali Motghare

        Thanks a lot sir, I note your point.

  • August Pegu

    2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss
    Since the end of the cold war,there has been a dramatic shift in the number of peace keeping operations as well as maintaining world peace.The UN has contributed to the settlement of numerous regional conflicts, including the Iran-Iraq War, the South African presence in Namibia, the Soviet presence in Afghanistan and the Vietnamese presence in Cambodia.
    UN has provided a framework for the expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait

    .Second, given a choice, states contemplating the use of force beyond their borders often prefer to do it in a multilateral, especially in UN, context.
    UN or multilateral approach helps to neutralize domestic political opposition, increases the opportunities to acquire useful allies, reassures the international community that operations have limited and legitimate goals and reduces therisks of large-scale force being used by adversaries or rival powers.

    Third, the UN has some notable advantages over regional organizations in tackling security problems threatening world peace: UN is universal now; it has a reputation, even is it is now under threat, for impartiality; and it has a more clear set of arrangements for making decisions on security issues than do most regional organizations,including even the powerful North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

    Since the end of the Cold War, the evolution of UN peace operations has created some consequences for the organisation. In some cases it has shown itself unprepared to adapt to change, while in other instances it has found itself having to deal with situations seemingly beyond its control.

    Yet we have to admit the fact that UN has been more or less able to maintain world peace at numerous instances.The most important being preventing the world from a nuclear third world war.

  • Rahul

    ” The seeds of the World War II were sown at a peace treaty held in a grand Palace in France.” Elaborate.
    The end of World War I led to the signing of the treaty of Versailles, where the Allied powers led by Britain, France and America forced Germany to sign the peace treaty. Germany was forced to surrender a major portion of its territory to the Allied countries. Moreover, they could not keep aircrafts, navy and the number of soldiers were limited to 1 lakhs. Germany was humiliated and extremely harsh conditions were imposed on her.
    The signing of treaty of Versailles led also to the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Austrian, Russian empires and creation of a set of weak independent countries. The first WW was ‘a war to end all war’’. However, the treaty failed to achieve this. Many victories countries also felt cheated as their hopes were not fulfilled. Imperialism, in fact did not end with the signing of the treaty although it led to the creation of the Leaque of Nations.
    The reparations that the defeated nations had to pay as per the treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany. It was at this time that the Nazi party, a nationalist party took the advantage to form a base in Germany and ultimately form the government under Hitler which rejected many post war changes.

  • 2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss.

    Post cold war, the UN has recalibrated its traditional field operations into complex multi dimensional enterprise. It has also enlarged its base ; interstate conflicts to civil wars. Un peacekeepers are presently undertaking various missions from to build sustainable government institutions, to monitor human rights violation, to security sectors reforms etc.
    However, its record in peacekeeping missions to Rwanda, Somalia and former Yugoslavia were criticized as it failed to adhere its peacekeeping mission or the peacekeeprs were themselves not provided better resources or political support. As civilians causalities rose, the reputation of the UN peacekeepers also dipped considerably. The setback during those missions led to the Security council to limit the number of peacekeeping missions and begin a process of self reflection so the mistakes are not repeated again.
    With continuing crisis in a number of countries the essential role of peacekeeping was soon reaffirmed although a major exercise followed to initiate reforms. The UN peacekeepers were deployed in countries like Burundi, Liberia, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, Congo, Haiti, East Timor etc. They were stretched like never before in remote locations, uncertain operating conditions, volatile political contexts and many more operational challenges.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    1. World war l was the major shock for the world. It left Europe in debt and victors looking for revenge. That was the victors’ downfall at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The delegates of allies made a treaty called treaty of Versailles signed on June 28 1919 aiming specifically to weak Germany. The treaty includes:
    Distribution of German territory to other countries to cause loss of resources industries and breaking unity of people, restrictions on transport to effect trade and commerce, giving German ships to allies targeting mercantile marine, restrictions on military and importing war materials and reparations injuring German economy caused inflation. Allies succeed in troubling Germany with all these restrictions.
    Treaty resulted unemployment, poverty and famine among people of Germany. People got anger and outraged against treaty and government for accepting it. From this outrage Hitler emerged as leader who took measures to effect consequences of treaty and started uniting German territory. He started Nazi party which got support from people He invaded Poland; two days later World war ll began. Therefore treaty of Versailles was major cause of World war ll. If the delegates of allies had been more concerned about future of Europe rather punishing Germany, World war ll may have never occurred.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    NPT was found in 1970 for a time period of 25Y saying after that it would be amended according to the current situation. Prior to the NPT conference in New York in 1995, India believed the proposed CTBT would prevent the emergence of new nuclear weapons states and limit proliferation of existing states. These hopes were soon eroded.
    India was forced to sign NPT in1995.for this china issued a National Statement on Security Assurance. Indian analysts found difference in phrases used in1982 assurance and current one in former they mentioned unconditional where as in later they used at any time or any circumstances which implies assurance is given only who signs NPT
    In 1995 UN Security Council passed resolution 984 which says security guaranties to those non nuclear weapon states which acceded to NPT. India therefore refused to accede NPT and reiterated the reasons for doing s: by making to classes of nations NPT is discriminatory; also the treaty did not encourage the existing nuclear powers to move towards nuclear discrimination. New Delhi pointed out that extending the treaty signified acceptance of prevailing unequal order. The NPT, India noted, required the nuclear disarmament of specified non-nuclear states while legitimizing the nuclear weapons status of permanent members of the Security Council.
    Also, the treaty allows an exporting country to withhold supplies if it user license for the exports are questionable, or national records on the use of ammunition are not satisfactory. If supplies are withheld, as occurred during the Kargil conflict in 1999, there could be serious consequences for India.
    Finally, India is currently the world’s largest arms importer. It relies on imports to modernize its military forces. The arms treaty would, effectively, put this process at risk
    But India is willing to have a consensus over CTBT in country only if some of her demands are conceded. Such as, it demands that India should be included in the club of Nuclear weapon states and the countries having nuclear arms should go for a comprehensive programme for disarmament with specific time bound resolution. But no proper attention has been given to our demands and India has refused to become a party of the treaty.

    Sorry crossed word limit

  • Asha Goud

    Q What role did Parliament played in finalizing the India-US nuclear deal? Discuss.

    A: The Indo-US nuclear deal has 3 components. A Separation Plan under which India would separate its civilian and military nuclear complexes. The civilian nuclear complexes would be put under IAEA inspection. Lastly a waiver from NSG to import nuclear fuel and technology despite being a non NSG member. On finalization India would be able to import nuclear fuel and technology form other countries.

    The deal became highly controversial for its various implications on India’s strategic interests. The issue was raised in Parliament and discussed in detail. It was raised here that the deal would indirectly bring India under purview of NSG and US laws that would not allow India to conduct nuclear test in the future.

    Left pulled out its support of government and it was asked to prove its majority on the floor of the house. Government survived by a thin 19 votes majority. The issue of nuclear test was discussed by both the parties and later clarified that the moratorium on nuclear test was unilateral an voluntary and there was no pressure on India from outside.

    The event shows the important role Parliament plays in safeguarding the interest of country. However it should be ensured that interest of the country and stability of government are not compromised for party politics.

    • Important point – Nuclear liability bill and the role parliament played in its finalization must be mentioned.

      • Asha Goud

        Yes sir i just completely missed out liability bill.
        Thank you.

  • Asha Goud

    Q On what grounds India is opposing both NPT and CTBT. Critically analyze.

    A : The Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) are 2 very important international agreements with the aim of ensuring peaceful use nuclear weapons. The world has seen in the past the destruction nuclear weapons can cause during World War 2 and it is therefore important to ensure nuclear weapons do not reach untrustworthy hands.

    NPT obliges its signatories to nuclear disarmament, non proliferation and peaceful use of nuclear technology. NPT recognizes 5 countries as Nuclear Weapons State (NWS) and with no obligation to disarm.
    The CTBT intends to put a ban on nuclear weapon test explosion by its signatories. But it is yet not in force. As 8 member have not yet ratified it, they include USA, China, both signatories of NPT.

    India, North Korea and Pakistan have declared to possess nuclear weapons however declined to be part of either NPT or CBDT. India has called the NPT as discriminatory as the NWS possess a huge stockpile of nuclear weapons and do not show any inclination to disarm. On no ethical grounds can the discrimination be justified.

    Another concern raised by India is the nuclear deal signed by China and Pakistan. China is a NWS under NPT and NPT disallows such agreement. India has declared that it would sign CTBT given USA ratifies it. However USA has put several conditions for the ratification.

    Thus NPT and CTBT are seen as flawed, discriminatory by India. The possession of nuclear weapons by certain countries puts them in a superior position. Of the NWS, USA used nuclear weapon during WW 2, China is known for its aggressive territorial encroachments, Russia was main player during Cold War, Britain has a colonial history of exploiting. Therefore no country can be trusted as a guardian of all nuclear weapons in the world.

    • Very good answer – you have answered exactly what question demanded.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Asha after reading your answer my concepts are more clear.

    • abu zafar imam

      relly u r right …that no country can be trusted as guardian……..

      it is a factor of their interest, sovereignty and neighbor hood.

  • Q2. On what grounds India is opposing NPT and CTBT. critically analyse

    India has been a long time supporter of nuclear non proliferation and denuclearisation. India is the only state with nuclear weapons to have offered to forego its nuclear weapons if whole world agreed to denuclearisation. Despite this, india has opposed treaties like NPT, CTBT which address isues of nuuclear proliferation.

    NPT was a treaty negotiated mostly by the permanent members of UN security council. It was meant to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons. It divided the world into nuclear weapon states and non nuclear weapon states. All states that acquired nuclear technology before NPT came into force were considered as nuclear weapon states. The treaty banned non nuclear weapon states[NNWS] from developing nuclear weapons while it had no such provision on nuclear weapon states[NWS]. Similarly the treaty bans transfer of nuclear weapon technology from NWS to NNWS however there is no restriction on transfer of technology between the NWS. NNWS are subject to safeguards of IAEA unlike to NWS. Further the treaty doesn’t have any provision calling for disarmament by NWS. By banning NNWS from developing nuclear weapons, the treaty violates sovereign power of a nation to defend its borders. Further the treaty has no provisions to safeguard NNWS from a nuclear attack by NWS. India sees these provisions as discriminatory and calls for a more egalitarian treaty

    Comprehensive test ban treaty was opened was signature in 1990s. Its aim is to ban test of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapon test is an important step in development of nuclear weapons. hence banning nuclear weapon test would prevent spread of nuclear weapons to non nuclear weapon states. The treaty estabished CTBT organisation to oversee implementation of treaty. India has refused to sign this treaty on following grouns

    1. While it bans nuclear weapon tests, it doesn’t ban computer simulated tests which can help NWS to upgrade their existing weapons

    2. India has been calling for a time bound global nuclear disarmament . The treaty has no such caluse mandating NWS to denuclearise

    3. Treaty specifically identifies 44 nations whose ratification of treaty is a prerequisite for the treaty to come into force. India is one of them. This is seen by india as discriminatory

    Hence India’s concerns regarding these treaties are genuine. It is time for global community to renegotiate these treaties on a multilateral platform to ensure that they reflect the realities of 21st century world.

    • Excellent answer. Word limit!

      • ecebloggers

        yes i exceeded the word limit. i didn’t read the instructions properly. next time shall stick to the limit

  • Anjali Motghare

    1) What role did Parliament play in finalizing the India-US nuclear deal? Discuss.
    During the finalization of India – US nuclear deal government faced the stiff opposition in Parliament. Government had to face no-confidence motion but finally it won.
    Many of the members of Parliament were against the some provisions of Hyde act, accordingly government made a series of hard negotiations to neutralize the negative implications of it through a bilateral agreement.
    Both the countries finally concluded a 123 agreement which provided the legal basis to two countries to cooperate in the civil nuclear field.
    Due to differences on the issue India got time and space to bargain with the US to get more and more benefits.
    There were two important concerns first, right of reprocessing of imported spent nuclear fuel and second was an uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to imported reactors.
    As India took time US addressed the second concern and agreed to help India in obtaining fuel from the suppliers and to create a stockpile to mitigate the effects of any interruption.
    Parliament provided an opportunity for better negotiations and more benefits.

    2) On what grounds India is opposing both NPT and CTBT. Critically analyze.
    India opposes NPT on the following grounds
    treaty imposes safeguards only on the non-weapon states;
    under the treaty weapon states have right to explore peaceful uses of nuclear material;
    it doesn’t have impressive commitment by weapon states;
    it doesn’t address security concerns of non-weapon states.
    India is against CTBT due to following reasons,
    it is neither comprehensive nor it bans all types of testing such as sub critical and computer/laboratory testing.
    As both its neighbors Pakistan and China are weapon state India wanted to retain its strategic flexibility.
    It favours five nuclear powers, it allowed them to keep their nuclear arsenals;
    It provides for an agency which was to monitor the implementation was a breach on sovereignty.
    India maintain a position that both the treaties are discriminatory,
    they imposes a ban on new tests but doesn’t do anything to eliminate the existing nuclear weapons.
    India is right in opposing the treaties, as any treaty should provide equal provision for all the signatories. It should address the concerns of all the member nations. But both the treaties doesn’t address India’s concern. Though India agrees to sign the treaties if they are modified and if a clause is added to address the concern of non weapon states.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Anjali, both answers are very nice.
      Second answer covers all points, good one.

  • What role did Parliament play in finalizing the India-US nuclear deal? Discuss.
    The signing of the Indo-US nuclear deal better known as 123 agreement meant that US could push for civilian nuclear cooperation with India. This deal led India to separate its military and civil nuclear facilities and to place all its civil nuclear facilities under the supervision of IAEA. Also, granting of waiver from the NSG, a nuclear suppliers group to trade civil nuclear technology with India took place.

    This deal was opposed in the parliament by a number of political parties. The left finally pulled out of the government which led to a no confidence motion for the Congress. However, it managed to overcome this crisis but by a small margin. The opposition to the deal mainly came from the fact that India could no longer have a strategic reserve of fuel supply and could not test a nuclear device. If it does so, the NSG waiver would be withdrawn and shutting of US nuclear deal would be imminent. Thus the country would compromise on its sovereignty and independent nuclear testing policy.

    Thus there was wide discussion and deliberation before signing of the India US nuclear deal in the parliament.

  • On what grounds India is opposing both NPT and CTBT. Critically analyze.

    The NPT is an international treaty which prevents the spread, non proliferation and disarmament of nuclear arsenal in future and the right to peaceful use of nuclear technology. The NPT has recognized five NWS. The NPT has been ratified by almost all countries in the world barring a few like India, Pakistan, Isreal, N Korea, S Sudan.

    CTBT, on the other hand is a treaty to ban nuclear tests of all kinds both civilian and military in near future. This treaty is yet to come into force due to non ratification of eight specific states. India’s stand is that it would ratify the treaty only after US ratifies it. President Obama has vowed to ratify the treaty at the earliest possible practical date. So India’s ground is valid in opposing both these treaties as both Pakistan and China is armed with nuclear weapons and India cannot afford to voluntarily ratify both the treaty. Moreover, China has proliferated the nuclear arms to both Pakistan and N Korea.It would lead to a state of insecurity in the defence establishment and administration in India.

    Given India’s impeccable record in non proliferation of nuclear arms and the right to peacefully use civilian nuclear technology, it can pursue its civilian nuclear capabilities without ratifying both the NPT and CTBT.

  • riddhu

    1. ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of RTE implementation. What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings?

    The report highlights the inability of Class 5 students to solve even class 2 level reading and mathematical questions and hence poses serious question on level of education provided.
    RTE which entitles children of the age group of 6-14 the right to free and compulsory education is a boon for the students from weaker section of the society. Its provisions like mandate on the private schools for reserving 25% of their class strength for the weaker section, ban on donation and capitation fee, a fixed student and teacher ratio, norms for teachers training and qualifications are very sound. As the act is very recent it will take time to yield results yet only when the guidelines are strictly adhered to.

    Mere enrollment in school should not suffice and to keep up with fast developing world the basic minimum skills must be acquired at due age otherwise it will perpetuate poor performance. The need of the hour is to make teachers perform. Teachers must be restricted to do personal work during school hours and must not involve students for their personal work in quid pro quo for favourable results. Regular and continuation evaluation of teachers, students and school infrastructure; strict incentive -disincentive mechanism for performing and non performing teachers and schools, creating fearless ambience wherein students don’t fear to ask questions, nurturing attitude of parents and teachers, and financial assistance by the state when genuinely needed can ameliorate the situation.

    2. Why did India sign the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and what were its consequences? Analyze critically the political and diplomatic implications of this step by India.

    India has signed the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC), which seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for the compensation of victims in the event of a nuclear accident. It provides for establishment of an international fund to increase the amount available to compensate victims and allows for compensating civil damage occurring within a State’s exclusive economic zone, including loss of tourism or fisheries related income.
    It also sets parameters on a nuclear operators financial liability, time limits governing possible legal action, requires that nuclear operators maintain insurance or other financial security measures and provides for a single competent court to hear claims.

    The opposition parties have criticized India’s signing of CSC on the ground that it removes India’s flexibility in charging international nuclear operators in the event of an accident. But, it must be remembered that what international investors prefer is predictability and they will invest only when they are assured that in the event of an accident their liability will be confined to internationally reckoned best practices and not on domestic policies which vary from nation to nation. So, signing the treaty is a welcome diplomatic step. We need investment in this sector which is perhaps the only large scale harness able energy source which is sustainable, environmentally benign and cost effective and though there are risks attached with nuclear technology the latest designs are far better, accident proof and with mechanism to deal in the event of accident.

    • Anjali Motghare

      For riddhu, some of the measures in first one you suggested are really nice.
      but in second answer India signed the CSC because it was promised US when it signed nuclear agreement with it. and for world class liabillity measure government brought up Nuclear Liability Bill.

      • riddhu

        Thanks Anjali for correcting me.I do feel that I do not know many aspects asked in second question.I will be thankful to you if you throw light on diplomatic and political consequences of signing CSC.

        • Anjali Motghare

          For riddhu
          I m also short of knowledge on it but I know this points,
          The international convention provides for compensation in case of trans-national implications of a nuclear accident and has been signed by 14 countries, including India. But it has not come
          into force yet as required number countries have not ratified it.
          first, precursor to this convention Country needs a world class N-liability law, So India brought up N-liability bill which fixes liability on operator in case of accident and compensation within time limit to victims. And in case of insufficient fund India can get fund from international corpus.
          second, NPCIL got eligible to negotiate with two major nuclear material supplier American companies because of CSC.
          Obviously it Pleased US so India is getting US support on many nuclear issue like entry into various nuclear groups and in FMCT.
          US exempted India from NSG rules.

          • riddhu

            Thank you so much Anajali for your guidance as the news papers have reported the issue of signing in such a intricate way i could never get the gist.Thanks again.

          • Rahul Singh

            Hi , can we aggrandise this aspect in this case [it might be possible that there may occur a question regarding >>> Critically Analyse the proposed dilution of section 17 b)]
            With the unfolding of recent controversy of proposed dilution of section 17 (b) of civil nuclear liability law which exclusively hold suppliers responsibility in any unforeseen nuke accident
            Correct me ….

  • Kirthi

    1) “The growth of the Indian economic class in the colonial period was substantial that too in spite of and in opposition to colonialism” Comment.

    India has missed out on industrial revolution being a colony under British. India under British capitalism, has turned into a supplier of raw materials and markets for cheap, manufactured goods and avenue for investing foreign capital.

    Any modern industry worth it’s name took its roots in india during mid 19 Th. century. Initially it was mainly confined to jute, cotton mill industries and sugar, centered mainly in Bombay and Calcutta. However plantations are controlled by British, railways machinery were imported, access to finance was mainly in British hands, railways were so constricted to serve the interests of British capitalists for markets and connecting resource rich areas to ports.

    The exchange rate was so controlled,so as to favor Britain industrialists interests. Indian exports faced exorbitant tariff rates in Britain unlike imports at zero duty.Colonialism has had an adverse impact on Indian industrialists in every area- finance, connectivity, tariffs, markets, taxes, working hours etc..

    However, Indian economic class- capitalists and trade worker- two new classes emerged during mid 19 th century, has endured the difficulties. This, they did, by including their demands in and supporting nationalist movements. By 1920s, forays have been made to basic industries like iron and steel, cement etc. unlike capitalists of other countries who often side with colonialists, indian industrialists were fully convinced of the fact that they can truly prosper only under an Indian government.

    This can further be seen when Indian national movement under Indian national congress threatened a left turn, industrialists didn’t take shelter under British but instead influenced the movement to its side. Their take and support to public sector has been clear in Bombay plan and national planning committee reports.

    Indian economic classes- capitalists and workers – have both grown substantially taking help of national movement led by ideologically diverse, pluralistic INC and further left their imprint on the national movement, opposing the colonialism all through the way.

  • 1) ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of RTE implementation. What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings? Discuss.

    ASER report published by HRD ministry pointed out the sad state of affairs of educational structure in India. The report indicated that despite 3 years after the implementation of RTE, the learning outcomes of the children have actually decreased. It finds out that only 53% of class 5th students can read syllabus of class II. Further there has been sharp decline in the arithmetic solving capacity of the students. The report attribute this to abysmal low standard of education, no retention scheme, absence of continuous assessment, under trained teachers and lack of infrastructure and resources.
    These lacunae require a multi pronged strategy with wide emphasis on increasing the financial support for education program from current 3.5% of GDP to 6% of GDP recommended by Kothari commission five decades ago, proper assessment at each level and doing away with no retention scheme, providing proper training to teachers and incentives for better performing ones, creating physical infrastructure like drinking water facilities, separate toilets for girls and boys and class rooms.
    This requires a coordinated approach from both the centre and state and civil society organization as education is the mainstay for the growth and prosperity of the nation. It is instrumental in creating the knowledge base of the society There is a need to create a friendly milieu for the children where they can learn without fear .It is time that government should concentrate more on quality and skill development of students blended with a pro active learning environment which can enable them to come up to the dynamics of market.

    • ASER report is not published by HRD ministry.

      It is facilitated by a foundation called Pratham and is endorsed by the Planning commission.

  • Asha Goud

    Q ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of RTE implementation. What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings? Discuss.

    A: The Annual Status of Education Report is a outcome of a large scale survey conducted by NGO Pratham among rural children in the age group 6 to 14, the same age group comes under RTE. The report reveals state of primary education in India.

    Some of the revelations made by the report are, a decrease in enrollment in government schools, decline in attendance, lack of adequate classrooms and the most disappointing is the lack of basic arthematic and reading skills among the children.
    Currently more focus is on spending money on infrastructure, black boards, uniforms, books etc which is important but more important are the teachers and teaching methods. Teacher training to fulfill child’s learning needs should be focused.

    It should be ensured that child is enrolled in school at proper age so that important learning years are not lost. Focus should on elementary education and even teaching in mother tongue can be provided according to child’s requirement.

    Classrooms, toilets, library, playgrounds are basic necessity for schools. Also it is revealed that student attendance is low therefore a child friendly environment should be created at schools.

    Lastly It is important to hold regular inspections and proper supervision by authorities to maintain quality
    Enrollment is increasing in private schools therefore quality of education should be improved in government schools. It is very important to focus more on outcomes rather than outputs.

  • Anjali Motghare

    1) ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of SSA and RTE implementation. What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings? Discuss
    Ans: Some important negative findings of ASER are:
    Teacher Classroom ratio is declining;
    Declining basic reading levels;
    Arithmetic levels also show a decline across most states;
    Children’s attendance has declined;
    More than half of all Std 2 and Std 4 classes sit together with another class. Over these issues I would suggest following remedial measures,
    Declining teacher classroom ratio simply suggest scarcity of teachers,
    for this more appointment needs to be done, government need to invest more money in this.
    Declining basic reading level and declining arithmetic level
    suggests students are not getting quality education, for this purpose we need a innovative and vigilant teacher. A vigilant teacher will find out which student is lying behind the required level of education stage and innovative teacher will implement good methods to rectify.
    To make teacher innovative and vigilant we need a good teacher training.
    For this purpose government should implement new methods in training the teacher which are pertinent to curriculum and are with the need of time.
    To make students active we need a keen teacher
    To teacher work enthusiastically his/her performance should be linked to incentives. By evaluating teachers preformance at the end of the year, as per performance he/she should be given pay hike. By this teacher will have a motto to work in a smart way.
    Students of different class sitting together simply suggest shortage of class-rooms. For this we will need more buildings and government need to put some more money into this.
    Where students attendance declining, parent should be taken into confidence and required to make them aware about importance of education so they will send their ward to school.

  • Ashok

    The success of any policy program lies in the effectiveness of its implementation. The implementation of RTE and programs like SSA requires synergic participation of various stakeholders like schools, teachers, ground level administration ,PRIs,parents and students themselves. The challenge is further compounded by its being a fundamental right rooted in constitution and it has to move against all the systemic resistances which any top down policy will face having the sole objective of social inclusiveness by providing parity among all to access basic education.
    The ASER report 2012 has given an independent finding and needs to be pondered since it has negative consequences on the society and the nation in long run also. The report has revealed the shocking observations in rural india in particular, where the arithmetic ability of subs traction is lacking in students of primary level. It gets further compounded by the shift of students from govt to private schools indicating erosion of faith in public education system. The trend is more severe on gender basis in some states like Rajsthan and Uttar Pardesh.
    The reasons are multipronged for this decline of faith in govt school education system viz structural, functional, behavioral, legal policy and implementation level flaws. Besides poor supervision, ambiguous role of PRIs’control, absenteeism, poor infrastructure, demotivated teaching staff and the lack of spirit In implementation has contributed to this startling observation. In some quarters it was felt that the shift to CCE (Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation ) from annual examination system as per RTE Act has resulted in demotivation for studies in students, which the ministry has refuted clearly.
    Therefore, the emphasis has to be such that it infuses
    -A deep sense of self accountability among teachers since education is a noble profession and only external accountability can not help.
    – The PRIs be empowered and trained enough to handle an village education system for desired goals of the RTE.
    – The performance appraisal of schools should be done primarily on quality of human infrasturcute and teacher student relationship for bringing students at the center stage of evaluation.
    -The local administration and PRIs should function for winning the eroding confidence of the parents in govt schooling through spirited coordination and awareness.
    -Use of technology for ensuring modern education and for effective monitoring of schools be done to bring parity between govt and private schools in the people’s perception.
    This trend of decline if not arrested will cause the greater damage to society by rooting new kind of disparity between urban and rural youth and between rich and poor youth thereby vitiating the very purpose of the constitutional amendment in article 21. The report does not say so but it does not go without saying that it will definitely deprive India as a nation from the only clear advantage India has among all the emerging economies i.e.its emerging Demographic Dividend.

  • 1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?
    The LPG reforms introduced way back in 1991 has contributed to the prosperity with country clocking a growth of more than 8% in the time when the world in reeling under recession but the rich have become richer faster than the poor improved. That is; even while poverty levels reduced impressively, inequality has grown too.
    The reasons for steep inequality are multifarious:
    1. Income growth is concentrated in certain urban centres leading to urban rural divide. It has created islands of prosperity in the ocean of poverty.
    2. More than 50% of the population still rely on agriculture and allied sector with a mere contribution of around 12% in GDP. Obsolete and outdated technology coupled with lack of technology transfer and research and development in agriculture has led to perpetuation of poverty
    3. Low education standards damaging the long term prospect as it restricts the no. of person who can join market
    4. Dismal health indicators and low public investment in the primary health care infrastructure leading to out of pocket expenses of poor.
    5. Most of the growth was the result of services sector with stagnation in manufacturing and industrial base. Lack of labour intensive growth and lackadaisical approach towards MSME with low skill and training capacity has created wide income gaps.

    2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.
    The rising temperature due to global warming has resulted into the melting of ice in the arctic region. This has opened up avenues for new trade route and exploitation of region for the extraction of mineral resources and hydrocarbons. Every littoral state of arctic region is claiming an upper hand for harnessing the economic potential of the region. This had led to a standoff which resulted in the formation of arctic council for a coordinated approach in the region. If the shipping routes through the Arctic become more dense, the countries that lie astride these routes, will gain in importance. The exploitation of the rich resources of the region will add to the wealth and economic significance of the already affluent U.S., Canada and northern European countries. Russia may be the most prominent beneficiary of this shift, not only because it occupies the largest part of the Arctic, but also because it has the most experience in dealing with the harsh conditions that will continue to prevail in the region. The geopolitical centre of gravity may well swing back from the Asia-Pacific to the trans-Atlantic. It is ironic that while on the one hand the world is grappling with global warming triggered by climate change, the world’s major powers are scrambling to profit from its consequences in the fragile Arctic zone.
    However the creation of arctic council is a right mechanism to avert any confrontation between the states. Further, what is required is an all inclusive approach like that of Antarctic template in which every country has a stake and the region should not be monopolized for getting economic benefit.

    • Anjali Motghare

      First one is the good answer

  • Keerthi Narayan

    Keerthi Narayan

    1. In the the last decade. India witnessed apprecialble economic growth. In 2004-2008, the country’s economy grew by an average 8%. Even after the economic crisis years, its growth has been comparitively better than developed countries. However, this economic growth, instead of bringing up the standard of living of its total population, has resulted in increasing the existing inequality.

    The World Bank releases a data called Gini coefficient every year, which is a measure of economic inequalities of nations. India’s Gini coefficient has been increasing since the last decade and in 2012 was 0.33. (A 0 Gini coefficient indicates perfect equality and 1 indicates perfect inequality)

    This means that the growth has not infiltrated to the masses has it is expected. Rather it has made the wealthy wealthier. This may be because of the following reasons

    -A majority of India’s population is involved in economic activities of low productivity like agriculture. Agriculture is actually a potentially high productive economic activity, however India’s agriculture faces issues like small and marginal holdings, poor mechanisation, poor irrigation, dependence on monsoon etc. Hence inspite of the hard labour, economic returns are less.

    – Productive areas like manufacturing industry are not growing in a pace with economic growth. The economic survey 2013 says that micro, small and medium enterprises are not growing into bigger industries. One major reason for this is the regulations and rules. India fares poor in ease of doing business globally.

    -Highly productive areas like service industry is not creating enough jobs. This is because of the low skill level of the people. Though India has an advantage of demographic dividend, it will yield results only when the young population has good health, necessary education and skills.

    Hence to counter inequality India has to address these issues: Making agriculture productive, engouraging entrepreunership through ease of rules and regulations and more spending on education, health and skill development

    2. The Arctic region, till the 21st century has remained largely frozen. Thanks to the increase in green house gases, its ice content is melting fast.When it sends an alarming signal to island nations and countries with a large coastal area, the nations bordering the Arctic circle are looking at a different area. The melting ice has made the Arctic less harsh, more habitable, more navigable and more explorable.

    It has been said that Arctic region has about 10% of world’s unexplored oil and 30% of natural gas. Besides it may house resources like coal, zinc etc.Besides ship traffic from east Asia to Europe will benefit significantly if it takes the northern Arctic route since it is shorter than the Malacca-Suez route.

    Countries bordering the Arctic region understood the linkage between the melting of ice, benefit of global ship traffic along their borders and existence of resources well before. There is an organisation called Arctic Circle comprising of 8 nations: Sweden, Norway, Iceland, denmark, Russia, Finland, Canada and USA. These countries have been claiming Arctic and its resources as their own and have taken measures to explore the resources by setting up research stations.

    Recently, China remarked that Arctic should be a part of global commons and all nations should have a claim in its resources. The Arctic Circle admitted 5 other nations, including India and China, as Observers recently.

    All these show that the world nations are preparing for a resource race in the Arctic. However it is unlikely to become a bipolar cold war like scenario. Rather, going by the current needs of the population, geographic setting and diplomatic alliances, it may result in a multipolar race with scandinavian and european nations as one block, the USA and Canada as one block, Russia, India and South east nations as one block and China with its partners as a 4th block.

    • Anjali Motghare

      good answer

      • Asha Goud

        Hi keerthi, in the 2nd answer i liked the conclusion that it might result in multipolar scenario.
        However i feel the possibility is arctic circle countries stand together to claim the region as their territory and non arctic countries demand it to be a global common region as initiated by China. At the same time the arctic countries compete among themselves over the territorial claims.
        It will become a complex scenario.

        • All,

          Good to see informed discussion. Please also spend 1 hour on others answers and share ideas. 🙂 Good going!

          • simran

            Sir plz tell me where i m lacking in my response and what improvement i have to be make in my answers plz tell me
            Thnk for helping and guiding us… thank s a lot plz rply

            • Simran,

              You are giving importance to facts more. Compared to your first day’s answer, you are writing very well these days. Try to be critical in your answers with a balanced approach. Also, word limit is very important. Stick to it always. Good going 🙂

              • Ashish Mandal

                Thanks for great initiative you have taken.
                I have started following your website recently.
                I find it very useful.
                Though I was constantly writing answers but on sheet today I have posted one.
                God Bless you

                • Thanks Ashish. After writing on paper, you may spend few minutes to type your answer here also. You can get feedback. Also, your answers will be saved on this site for future reference by others. Thanks.

              • simran

                thnks sir… thank u so much

        • Kirthi

          I concur with Asha. It could be arctic vs. non arctic countries and intra arctic rivalries, but again if countries like china benefit by new trade route, then opposition to make it global commons is considerably weakened. UN is the best place to move further, but since world powers are involved, this might not happen( unlike in Antarctica- global common). There is serious need to reform the existing post WW-2 institutions, but looks impossible at the moment.


    1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?
    Ans: India suffers from a paradox.India possesses more billionaires than Great Britain itself.But at the same time India has largest number of poor in the world and nearly 50% of its childern suffer from malnutrition.This inspite of the the high economic growth enjoyed in recent years.
    The main causes for this persistant inequality are:
    it is said that growth benefited mostly rich and the middle classes who were better positioned to exploit the opportunities arising from economic reforms and growth.They had the necessary education,technical skills and knowledge of english.However the poor and rural people lacked these capabilties and thus excluded from growth
    only few sectors benefited from economic growth like software,telecommunications and service sector which are highly skill intensive.Whereas the sectors like agriculture and manufacturing which employ most of the population,either stagnated or were negatively affected.
    the high growth period failed to substaintially improve the employment situation .
    the success of tricke down theory depends on the efficiency of govt’s redistributary role.However in India , plagued by a highly corrupt and inefficient govts both at center and statel levels,this redistribution did not take place well.
    for example:nearly 40% of the grains meant for poor are diverted to market .Hospitals are not working ,affecting the health of poor and thereby their productivity.
    5.LOPSIDED PLANNING:in recent years it can be argued that planning was done to boost private investment rather than empowering poor.For instance,Govt of india spends much less on Health when compared to capitalistic countries of west.

    Mere economic reforms and consequent growth is not sustainable.For growth to be sustainable it must be widely shared and accompanied by other crucial reforms in governance ,health ,education and democracy itself.

    2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.

    Thanks to global warming,the arctic ice is melting thereby open new maritime routes and huge reserves of resouces like petroleum, gas etc.
    This Gold rush apart from harming the delicate and pristine arctic ecosystem,could seriously affect world peace due to competition for resources which is exaggerated due to lack of true estimates of the resouces.Nearly every arctic country is dreaming of a bonanza and are not willing to share the spoils with rest of the world.
    This attitude is clearly visible in the behavior of ARCTIC COUNCIL member-usa,canada,russia,denmark,norway etc.Each one of them want of grab as much area as possible and also exclude rest of the world from accessing it.
    This scramble for resources in arctic region creates the risk of another cold war among these nations.Already few countries like Russia and Norway are involved in disputes.
    Further the region ,unlike antartic is not bound by any treaty or law.This anarchic situation foster cold war and also may break in a fully fledged hot war.

    Thus it is in the interest of world nations that Arctic region like Antartic ,should be made as global commons.UN should regulate all activities with the aim of sustainable utilization of resources.Also on the principles of equality,ever developing and underdeveloped nations should have an opportunity of participate in arctic region.

  • Sreekanth Soman

    1. Since independence, the democratic governments in India have undertaken many programmes under the Five Year Plans to achieve growth, self-reliance, poverty reduction and to improve the quality of life of the people. As a result there was a steady GDP growth of around 3 to 5% before 1991 and after the economic reforms, India has grown consistently above 5%. The recent high economic growth has catapulted India into the league of emerging economies alongside Brazil, China, South Africa and Russia. But the sad fact is that only in India do we find such a stark contrast between the lives of the poor and the rich.

    The economic inequality in India expressed in terms of Gini coefficient is well more than 0.35. There are some factors in India like the caste system, extreme dependence on agriculture by more than 60% of the population and disproportionate growth of urban centres which perpetuate this inequality. But it is the overall failure of the government to address the inequality through better implementation of its social welfare programmes that makes the situation worse. It is the responsibility of the government to provide universal education and health facilities to its people. The illiterate and unhealthy poor in India are thrown into the abyss of poverty through a vicious cycle unless the state performs its duties.

    2. Scientists and politicians across the world are debating whether the global warming is real or not. You don’t need a better evidence for this than the scramble for the resource of Arctic Ocean by the eight nations that constitute the Arctic Council, United States, Russia, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Canada and Sweden and also some others outside it looking for a pie of the new wealth. The melting of Arctic ice exposes the ocean in summer throwing open opportunities for navigation, exploitation of mineral and oil resources and research. Instead of finding ways to mitigate the impacts of melting of ice on native communities and the rise in sea level through global forums like United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Arctic Council states regard the Arctic Ocean as a legitimate avenue for exploitation of resources.

    Among the Arctic council states, there is a considerable opposition to the claims of Russia by the other states. Since Russia has the longest coastline among them, most of the Arctic Ocean would be under its control if the international maritime laws like UNCLOS are applied. This is resented by the other states, particularly United States. The uneasy relationship between Russia and Unites States on international issues have a spillover effect in Arctic Ocean. There is a need for the United Nations to play a dominant role on the fate of Arctic Ocean considering it as global commons like the mechanism for Indian Ocean. Otherwise, the whole world would have to repent and not only the native communities of Arctic.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      Answer to question 2 was very good. Answer to one could have been a little more specific. i.e. you could have listed down reasons for why growth has not resulted in equality.

      • Kirthi

        Second questions answer is very good- global commons, need for UN, Russia benefits etc.

      • Sreekanth Soman

        Thanks Keerthi. I understood the problem with the answer for Q1 after reading other answers including yours.

  • Biman Ghosh

    In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?
    Indian economy after 2nd-G economic reforms, gained a steady increased growth rate.even during 9th and 10th five year plans,the growth rate almost touched to 9%.But what has been concern of our economic planners is growing inequality. in the event of such growing inequality,the 12th plan document also had to title “Inclusive Growth”,instead of only growth.
    Economic inequality can be explained under following subheads:

    *UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME:the most responsible factor behind this growing inequality has been our tax structure.as the matter of fact is,our indirect taxes are greater than direct taxes.this causes the inequality among the people.. a poor people pay the greater part of their income in form of indirect taxes,while the rich people pay a tiny part of their income as indirect taxes.it promotes inequality of income.as far as direct tax is concerned,The trend of tax evasion further fuels it.

    *COLLAPSED SOCIAL WELFARE SCHEMES: due to lack of proper implemention,most of our social welfare schemes are hardly been effective.they failed to deliver for what they meant for.rampant corruption and wide leakages collapsed all flagship welfare programmes. It took heavy toll on vulnerable part of our population.Health services,PDS,Universal education system have been key issues regarding this.Such negligence added significant economic inequality component.

    *WIDENING TRADE DEFICIT: continuous widening of trade deficit has also promoted inequality by and large.widening of trade deficit has always averse effects over domestic trade and monetary policy.as trade deficit wide central bank follows “cheap money policy” to boost up exports,which ultimately results in fueling inflation.it add fuel to fire.It also reduce the “public purchase parity” among poor people and promote Inequality.

    taking account of all above reasons,which are generally outcomes of our lackness in willing power promotes inequality, despite heavy growth rate and wise planning.we need to address the above issues to achive “Inclusive growth”.

  • S.P.

    1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?
    Ans:- Economic inequality arises in any society due to an unequal distribution & growth in the economic resources available with the people that form a society.India traditionally has such economic inequality in which most part of the resources were accumulated in the hands of the upper caste of the society with some exception.After Independence and even after adoption of LPG model, Indian leaders are not able to eradication or minimize economic inequality instead of that it was increase because of some following reason,
    1) Unequal distribution of land resources on which 58.2% of our population depends for their livelihood.Small group of people owned larger share of land while larger group of people owned small share of land.This type of mismatch makes weaker section less active in the use of latest technology & improved agricultural practices.
    2)Though there was consistency in the overall economic planning but this consistency was not there for agriculture sector since independence and even since adoption of LPG model in 1990’s.
    3)Educational facility and skill development training,required to take part and then get the benefit of economic planning and growth,were not provided to the full extent to weaker sections.
    4)Poor implementation of the schemes and programmes made for economically weaker sections and of course,large scale corruption in them.
    5)Adoption of Market Economy itself is a reason for economic inequality because it reward those who can cope with it & punish those who cannot.

  • Biman Ghosh

    2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.

    As far as global warming and race for resources are concerned,perhaps the Arctic region is the most vulerable area,where it can create major conflicts.arctic region is administrated and managed by “Arctic council”,which consisting the US,Canada,Russia,Denmark,Iceland,Norway,Sweden and Finland.these nations have exclusive rights to manage the whole arctic region,though a few Asian countries have also been conferred the observer designations.

    As it is tangible fact that the Arctic region is treasure house of natural resources and a group of countries has been alleging that arctic council continuously exploiting the Arctic region rather than to manage it.The Arctic region also accounts for a significant reservoir for reserve water.increasing global warming in this region can be resulted in melting of the great icestones.which have immense potential to bring serious climate change effects.these effects will be global,weather in sea level rise,acidification of sea water and change in oceanic currents. that’s why,non-council nations,have been suspicious about the activities of the Arctic council countries in said region and sought a demand for Arctic should be treated on same manner as Antarctica being on.
    more importantly,the Arctic has virtually become the inland water space of five coastel states-Russia,Norway,Denmark and the US so it sets ground for arguing in favor of council nations.The council nations have conveyed a stern massege that it cannot be treated as any other ordinary region,they have full soverighnity over arctic and they cannot leave their responsibilities towards arctic to any other authority.

    some non-council countries,including India are also in favour to drag the Arctic issue within the United Nation Framework for Climate Change(UNFCC) and advocated for an independent institution to control and manage Arctic region.it further strain the situations as it will harm considerably the interests of arctic nations..
    more or less,this issue has created a huge space between council and non-council nations and “conflict of interests” has been nucleus to this discourse.It might lead a next “cold-war”,where one side is lured by great natural resource reservoirs while other side is committed to protect the earth from odd consequences of arctic exploitation.

  • Sreekanth Soman


    It would be good if you can give a summary of the major points to be covered in an answer the next day.

    • I would love to give a summary – from tomorrow, I will give a summary containing important points to be included in your answer. Mutually we can improve each others answers too. Thank you.

      • Cini

        The level of answers being written here is really good and people are putting forth wonderful points! But there is a lack of adherence to the word limit of 200 words…mains is all about condensing the many thoughts and points into a small framework,isn’t it?

  • Kirthi

    1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?

    Economic inequality is a phenomena not unique to india, it has been suffered by others incl. communist china. However, the reasons are many for our failures.

    At the time of independence, fear of partition has made our founding fathers to rely on time tested instruments of governance, though many of ideals in preamble, fundamental rights and DPSP are high sounding. Many opine that coincidence between our constitution and GOI 1935 is 80oercent. This made sure that, however effective planning might have been, the implementation failed due to over reliance on centralized hierarchical bureaucy and absence of participatory development or inclusion of stake holders in ensuring accountability.

    Growth of a country greatly depends on unlocking the potential of its citizens, and this has been done in 1990 reforms and rightly so,we have elected people not to run business,but to fulfil theirh core Areas of responsibility – health, education, Infrastructure,rule of law and justice. But state in India failed- seen from the public expenditure as percent of GDP, and expenditure o healt and education – 7% GDP, where as OECD -15% for decades. Out of pocket expenditure on health of an India has been one of the highest globally. Education failed to produce skilled, employable, wealth creators, productive students.

    Absence of social reforms/ civil society participation post independence, and perpetuation of caste, religion, sex discrimination based in accident of birth and acceptances of hierarchies.

    Absence of truly functional panchayats raj system, accountable and efficient bureaucracy, participation of stake holders, citizen centric service by public service, rule of law, decentralized decision making etc. are some of the systemic defects that need to be corrected.

    • Kirthi

      Any Answer is incomplete without mentioning agriculture, forgot.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      the implementation failed due to over reliance on centralized hierarchical bureaucy and absence of participatory development or inclusion of stake holders in ensuring accountability- A very different angle- Very good..!

      • Anjali Motghare

        good point, noted by Kirti

  • Asha Goud

    1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?

    A : The nature of Indian state is that of an welfare state. The philosophy enshrined in the Preamble of our constitution establishes an egalitarian society, as stated economic political ans social justice for all citizens.

    However even after all these years of economic planning we are far away from achieving economic justice for all. After independence India adopted socialistic model of economy which was not able to deliver very high rate of growth. LPG reforms introduced in 1991 slowly delivered the once dreamt of economic growth rate. Focus completely shifted to achieving higher GDP growth and human development indicators do not receive the required importance. GDP does not indicate the income distribution.

    In all sectors of economy pockets of growth developed. Micro and small enterprises remained small and the large enterprises made huge profits. A major reason is lack of capital available to small enterprises.

    In the agriculture sector too large land holdings are with the few and majority farmers have small lands. Small farmers are not able to invest in farm equipments and modern technology and make small profits.

    Education in India is not skill development oriented as a result low skilled employees are paid less. HRD ministry is now introducing skill training at higher secondary level.

    Therefore the shift of focus towards achieving high GDP and other economic indicators and neglecting the human development is main cause. Due importance should be given to Education to all, Capital support to small enterprises and Agricultural reforms.

  • Asha Goud

    2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.

    Global Warming and resultant melting of ice has made artic circle approachable. Exploration of minerals and hydrocarbons also navigation through the region hitherto commercially unviable is now possible.

    Reaearches in the region have led to discovery of huge mineral and hydrocarbon reserves. The economic value of these reserves have lured the countries to focus on the region.

    Arctic Council is formed by the 8 surrounding countries, USA Russia Norway Iceland Denmark Canada Finland and Sweden, affirming Arctic region as their territory, this approach is opposed to the one adopted for the Antarctic region which is declared as global common and open only for scientific research to all countries.

    The Arctic Council countries are themselves putting forward their competing claims under the UNLOS beyond their continental shelf. The territorial disputes are increasing further with the melting of ice and developing international trade passage through the region.

    In such scenario Arctic region has gained geopolitical significance and the region is open to the New Great Game. However in this competition what is neglected is that nations should work together to control global warming. Melting of ice in the arctic will only further fuel global warming which is already impacting the world adversely.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      Good answer. One suggestion. You could have discussed whether the race for resources would result in a situation similar to the Cold War.

      • Asha Goud

        Yes i agree with you Keerthi, reading my answer again i feel it is not to the point.
        Actually writing an answer on an international issue requires lot of knowledge and analysis, i need to practice more.
        Thank You.

  • NB

    1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?

    India marched into planned level of economy from 1950 onward. It has been more than 60 years of independence but India’s economic inequality has been rising. India also marched from closed economy to much more liberalized economy from 1990s. From 2005 to 2010 India grew at very fast rate, however there are various reason in spite of this economic inequality persists:

    1. Indian Planning has been centralized and has never been able sufficiently involve grass roots people in developing plans for their economic development.

    2. Asset distribution in population is varied. Land, capital are unevenly distributed.This structured problem has been not reformed yet.

    3. Agriculture income has not increased in India, although 70 % of population depends on it. The agriculture contribution has consistently decreased in GDP. This creates problem because although large population depends on it, but its productivity is decreasing.

    4. Public Investment in major sector of economy such as agriculture and infrastructure has been low.

    5.Further employment generation has been at slower rates. MGNREGA has to some extent improved condition in rural area, but it can not be long term solution. Investments in development of human capabilities is also require. Skill and vocational education has been very slow in India.

    6.Further more economic inequalities have been accentuated by faulty implementation of various social sector schemes. Finally last but not least corruption in governance is also contributing for increased inequality in India.

  • Anjali Motghare

    1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years,
    there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?
    Ans: The reason for this are as follows:
    1. We have a Planning but its mechanism is top-down. So most of the times plans are prepared at central level without considering the environment and needs of every bottom place. Because of this one plan doesn’t suit to all states, somewhere it get success somewhere it fails.
    2.We have many good policies like MGNREGA but, they are marred by poor implementation and corruption, so its benefit gets minimized.
    3 Unequal distribution of resources. We see progress where there are mineral resources or good agricultural conditions and poverty where these are not available.
    3.Poor employment generation rate and if employment available then lacking of skilled manpower adds to the woes.
    4. Unequal spread of industries. In some areas there are industrial hubs which added to growth where industry lacks, employment lacks and poverty grows.
    5. We still have population to agricultural employment ratio high because we don’t have employment in other sectors.
    6. We are mainly agricultural country but less investment and poor technology leads to low productivity. With that excess employment dependency on it leads to less income benefit.

    2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.
    cold war of 1950-90 was of a different kind and the squabble over Arctic resources Will be of a a new kind. It has been estimated that the Arctic contains about a quarter of the world’s untapped oil reserves and it is natural that proximate states should seek to exploit the geographical advantage. scramble already started among the Arctic council member states for the control of new shipping routes,
    untapped oil and gas reserves, and commercial fishing rights that would be thrown open when the melting of Arctic ice-cover in the summer touches 100 per cent, which is expected to happen in a few decades. To assert their territorial claims, these countries have been dispatching scientific expeditions to prove that the continental shelves originating in their coasts extend beyond the 200 nautical miles allowed under the
    While India set up a research station in the Arctic in the 2008, and is keen on a say in the area, China is far ahead of it. A Chinese icebreaker made a three-month journey in the Arctic Ocean last year, thus becoming the first Asian ship to navigate through the
    treacherous waters. China, was very keen on an Arctic sea route since it would be beneficial.
    Norway wrapped up one of the largest Arctic manoeuvres ever Exercise Cold Response with 16,300 troops from 14 countries training on the ice for everything from high intensity warfare to terror threats.
    The U.S., Canada and Denmark had done major exercises for the purpose, and in an unprecedented move, the military chiefs of the eight main Arctic powers Canada, the U.S., Russia, Iceland,
    Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland had a meeting to specifically discuss regional security issues.
    As the number of workers and ships increases in the High North to exploit oil and gas reserves, so will the need for policing, border patrols and may lead to military tussle.
    Russia, Canada and the United States have the biggest stakes in the Arctic,and they already started their planning to move ahead of other.
    This situation will not lead to immediate war, but certainly a race in technology know-how warfare techniques to have an edge over opponent, which is a kind of cold war.

  • NB

    2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.

    Ans History suggests that every country has always scrambled for resources to keep its countries population thriving. One of the reason for imperialism in 19th century was European demand for raw material and resources to feed its industries. Recently due to global warming ice has started melting in Arctic circle, this has lead to new shorter international trade pathways and also unlocking of various natural resources.

    According to official estimate there is about 13 % of world’s undiscovered oil reserve and 30 % of gas undiscovered gas reserve in Arctic. This has lead to new zeal among various nation to be part of that gold rush.

    Not only littoral states are interested but far of states as well. China has vociferously looking for resources in Arctic. India has been taking keen interest in research in Arctic since 2008. Recently five states including was given observer status in Arctic Council which comprises of 8 littoral states.

    However, research suggest that global warming will lead to release of methane gas from Arctic which has capabilities of raising the global temperature further. This is going to create more trouble for developing countries.

    This is future will lead to division among countries as there would be divide who will get benefit of resources of the Arctic. More important is that exploitation of resources of Arctic will further disturb the fragile global eco-system.

    It therefore become important that India does not become part of such mad rush and rather advocates issues related to exploitation of Arctic circle at appropriate forums.

  • 1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality. Explain why?

    The Indian standing committee on finance in its recent report said that there has been an overall increase in widening of gap between the rich and the poor. Economic inequality is the fundamental disparity that permits one individual certain choices to make while restricting many others.

    Recent policies like reduction in public expenditures in crucial sectors like agriculture, infrastructure development, downsizing of employment in public sector units, closing down loss making public sectors, casualisation of labour has had adverse effect on the earning capabilities of the people.

    Financial sectors and trade liberalization policies favouring the rich has also resulted in growing inequality. Reluctance of banks to lend in many priority sectors and failure of many microfinance institution has resulted in reduced financial empowerment of rural India.

    Trade liberalization in favour of export sector has also affected our import substitution domestic production. Also many businesses are growing by unethical practices and by exploiting the working class.

    Moreover, economic inequality has increased due to a bad shaped agricultural sector and lack of proper rural safety nets. This safety nets include rural infrastructure like power, road transport facilities etc. Also, rural employment schemes, public distribution system are not working properly to facilitate better earning capabilities of the rural population.

    • Anjali Motghare

      From your answer I come to know about standing committees report.
      good point.

  • 2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”. Critically analyze.
    Global warming is having a devastating impact in the Artic region. Average temperature in the Artic region in increasing twice as fast as in other places on earth. This has led to, melting and finally rupturing of ice sheets and shrinking of polar ice caps.

    The direct consequence of global warming has led countries mainly of the Artic circle to explore possibilities of deposit of minerals with easy accessibility to many remote places. Russia, with the longest coastline along the Artic is already involved in such projects. USA, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland are also in favour of similar explorations. This has led to the possibility of another Artic cold war.

    Moreover, new shipping lanes have come up in the summer seasons. The north east passage and the north west passage tends to connect Asia with North America and Europe. This will lead to increased tourist accumulation and stiff competition among the Artic region countries.

    It is therefore, easy to see why the countries that lie in the Artic littoral are keen to monopolize the resources of the regions and shut out any other interlopers. The sharpening tensions arising out of long standing border issues among the Artic countries are also a consequence of the prospects of the long economic gains that could be made from exploiting the locational advantages and potential resources of the vast and frozen place.

  • 1) “The empowerment of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.

    Empowerment of women essentially mean improving the social, political and economic status of women , especially the traditional underprivileged one. It means creating an environment where women are free from any sort of physical , mental abuse, exploitation, and prejudice that they are the most vulnerable section in the society.

    Although the participation of women in the local democracy has increased over the years, yet it has failed to achieve the desired outcome of empowering them to as much extent so that they are able to make a significant impact in the male dominated society. Their lack of expertise, unable to raise their issues in proper forum as well as unproper redressal mechanism are main issues for this.

    Proper development programs to enable better health care, nutritional issues, education, better infrastructure should be the basis on which the emphasis should be given. Better economic opportunities like rural employment schemes for women, self employment generation avenues like animal husbandry, dairy, local craftsmanship, should be available to empower women. This economic capability would infuse a sense of confidence among the women and lead to the decline of gender inequality and better prospects for women in both urban and rural areas.

    Proper legislation to ensure equal economic and political status and assuring them participation in decision making process and providing them platform to vent our their grievances and fighting for the female community would be positive for women in the long run.

  • Anjali Motghare

    1) “The so called ‘empowerment’ of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.
    Ans: Empowerment of women in the local bodies through reservation has increased their numerical strength, about one million women entered Panchayats after 73rd constitutional Amendment Act.
    A very positive step led to very positive transformation in women empowerment.
    As representative doesn’t assures participation still lots need to be done, as their is male dominance in politics, so most of the time, issues related to planning for rural development works and identification of
    BPL families were discussed by the Male Pradhans and Ward Members.
    Its imperative now to work towards bring elected women representatives in a position to influence decision making and prepare and implement the schemes for economic development and social justice. Though reservation brings women into the Panchayat office but it doesn’t empower women due to several factors like illiteracy, language barriers, inexperience or low respect among fellow villagers.
    In many cases because of lack of availability of forums and lack of proper grievance redressal mechanism for gender related issues, most of women elected representatives in panchayats have very minor role in decision making and mostly they are dummy.
    A supportive professional environment evidently motivates elected women
    representatives to perform better. So we need a seperate quorum for attendance of women and for attendance at Gram Sabha
    meetings.Now we have good legislation in place but mere political will and articulation of policies will alone not translate into benefits for women. Its effective implementation would require changes in administrative and social structures. With that a collaborative approach between the household, the community, the State, voluntary organizations and the media would add necessary help. We also need a multi-pronged approach, taking into account policies, laws, judicial processes, attitudes and social imaging of women. So we will be able to make available a platform of equality for women where they will be able to express themselves freely.

    • Kirthi

      1) “The empowerment of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.

      Empowering women would mean having the power to take/choose decisions that affect their lives. Unfortunately, due to the patriarchal set up and mind set in India, women is seen as a liability, seen from son preference, child sex ratio from 927 to 914 in last decade etc. which shows that modernization of India didn’t lead to empowering women but a new tool to perpetuate the old belief systems.

      A minority of women made rapid strides in all the fields post independence – sports, business, professions, educational c except politics. Women participation has been significant in national movement and considerably reduced later.

      Though the 73 and 74 amendment made mandatory reservation in PRIs, this did not lead to true empowerment for many. Reasons are – rotation of constituency for reservation would mean losing of chance for others to participate, no meaningful long term contribution by women and men in their constituency, stigma for women associated with reservation, absence of natural leaders among women to spring up cause of rotation and women empowerment leading to male disempowerment – result has been though women numbers have been increased, they have become proxies, only as sister/wife/mother of existing local politician to preserve the constituency, absence of true decision making power etc.

      Therefore, instead of worrying about mandatory reservation for parliament/SL , what is needed instead is a legislation to make it mandatory for political parties to nominate 1/3 rd of their candidates as women, absence leading to de registration/ losing benefits etc. From statistics, percentage of winning an elections to contesting has been higher for women. This will give a chance for natural leaders among women to contest, contribute long term meaningfully to constituent , no mandatory rotation, contesting with male in constituencies based on merit, absence of stigma of mandatory reservation etc. For political parties to misuse the nomination of women from areas they don’t have significant presence – mandatory for not more than a fixed number of them from a state/ region etc. this will truly empower women in politics, make the society a willing partner in her empowerment. This will have an overall positive contribution to women in other fields.

      Though women made their presence in almost all fields, an enabling atmosphere has not been created. A critical mass of women in all fields will ensure that, but till then compulsory crèche facilities in work place, implementation of laws like dowry prohibition, indecent representation of women, domestic violence , sexual harassment preventin act etc, good social secuirty benefits in unorganized sector, financial inclusion etc be taken.

      Indians in every field except govt. jobs have an insecurity in old age no matter however rich- this led to son preference, tendency not to share property with daughter , seeing daughter as a liability etc. Like in developed counties, if the state can have working social security systems in place for every one based on mix of stae and mandatory individual contribution- organized and unorganized – preference for son as saviour in old age comes down. Govt efforts like gender budgeting should continue. More efforts are needed to reduce patriarchal mindset, this should be achieved by meaningful education inculcating these values in young minds of India.

      • Good answer, but you should stick to the question. It specifically demands what measures should be taken to create an enabling environment for women to become catalysts for socio-economic change.

        All the laws already exist that claim to ’empower’ women – but on the ground, how will you ensure their real empowerment? As a would be IAS officer, for this question, answer should be ‘out-of the box’ – what would you do as an IAS officer in your district to create that ‘enabling’ environment?

        One very good point you gave is – nominating 1/3 ed women candidates for elections by the political parties itself.

        All of you have not mentioned the 110th amendment bill pending in Parliament that wants to amend article 243D to bring 50 % reservation in panchayats. This question was asked in this background. As many as 10 states have already reserved 50% seats for women in Panchayats.

    • Responsibility of states under article 243G should be mentioned. States are exclusively given rights to empower Panchayats. Most of the states are lackadaisical in this regard. For example, states can empower Panchayats, through legislation, to punish/debar/fine male relative of women member who interferes in her duty or uses her as proxy.

      • Kirthi

        Thank you sir. Realized that my answer was not to the point, and exceeded word limit.

        Apart from the measure you suggested
        – use occasions like women s day etc to give awards in every field generate awareness about existing schemes, and importantance of education of girl child
        – a brief survey about the traditional strengths of the village – handicrafts, indigenous medicine etc,tribal arts etc. and promoting them inclusively, plus areas where women can make their presence felt like SHGs and empower them.
        – try to include training courses to the staff, police, service providers across the spectrum to reduce gender biases and be gender sensitive.
        – an online forum for women in district to point the difficulties they face anonymously and address them either by implementing existing laws/ new innovative ideas in place
        – encourage women to raise their issues in differ forums like grams sabhas,NGOs, conferences and be proactive.

  • Sreekanth Soman

    1. The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution institutionalized the Panchayati Raj System and Muncipal bodies in India. Considering the important role women has to play in society, it was mandated that one-third of the seats to be reserved for women in the local self-government institutions. Since then, in many states where proper elections were held, women came to occupy positions of power at the local level. But the impact of this on the status of women in society and the recognition of their contributions to the development of the country still remains debated.

    Women who are elected to the important posts usually are forced to act as proxies for their husbands or the heads of thier families. They seldom are empowered to take decisions on their own. The paternalistic nature of the society dominates over the token representation of women. The evils of female foeticide, honour killings, and sexual exploitation and unequal pay of equal work, female illiteracy and other handicaps suffered by women still continue unabated in India. There is a need for radical change in the mindset of people. The government has to promote awareness among the people so as to give women the respect they deserve in all matters. The law enforcement machinery has to be pro-active in curbing the anti-social crimes against women. So a mere increase in numerical strength does not absolve the government and the whole society of their responsibility toward women.

    • You should mention cabinet approval of 50% reservation for women instead of 1/3 ed as this info is the latest (110th amendment bill). Also 2 line introduction is more effective.

      • Sreekanth Soman

        Thanks Sir for your thoughts.


    “The so called ‘empowerment’ of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.
    ans:One of the most revolutionary decisions taken was to reserve 33% of the seats to women in local bodies.The objective behind this decision was to give women more voice in day to day affairs of the village.This social participation would boost their confidence and bridge the gap between men and women.More importantly it would improve the status of women within each household.Also the presence of women in panchayats would encourage more and more women to participate in gram sabha meetings and thereby contribute to more policies relevant to women.
    For example it has been found that in panchayats having women sarpanchs ,more emphasis was given to drinking water supply as it would reduce the burden on women.This was the result of greater participation of women.
    However,sadly this is an exception rather than a general trend
    The real potential of women in panchayats has not been exploited due to various reasons:

    * doubts in the ability of women members among villagers
    * Dominated by husbands or male relatives
    * lack self-confidence due to years of subordination
    * lack of cooperation by traditional caste based panchayats
    * lack of information
    * lack of capacity building
    * lack of motivation due to reservation for women only for 5 years i.e rotation policy

    The solution lies educating women and capacity building.However the society itself has to change its attitude towards women.Men should not feel insecure or that their privelages have been usurped by women.Awards must be given to women panchayat members for good work.Above all resources and powers must be transferred to local bodies.
    It has to be remembered that unless the great potential of other half of the society is tapped,development and wellbeing will be a mirage.

    • Sreekanth Soman

      Good answer. But I have doubts regarding the point – lack of motivation due to reservation for women only for 5 years i.e rotation policy
      5 years should be good enough for making meaningful changes at the local level.

      • NITISH K

        due to rotation policy, there is no reservation for women for the next election.This make women members insecure because in the next election they will be overwhelmed by male counterparts.When they are convinced that their probability of winning is very low due to reentry of male candidates,obviously they will not possess the urge/motivation to perform and win the hearts and minds of the fellow villagers in their current term in local body.

        • Sreekanth Soman

          This fear of male counterparts is to be removed by empowering them. I think motivation should not be just to continue winning in elections. The responsibility to make some meaningful changes within the 5 years alloted to them should be the motivating factor for women representatives and thos achievements should help them in winning next elections.

    • Very good answer. You have given some practical problems being faced by women.

      Structure your answer well – make 2-3 sentence paragraphs. Introduction should be straightforward and concise so is the conclusion. Your conclusion is good – but it should be a separate paragraph. I am stressing this because of effectiveness it brings to your answer.

  • 1) “The empowerment of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.

    The LSG reforms introduced by 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment boast about bringing a sense of gender equality in the lower echelons of power structure. There have been talks about providing reservation of women in the parliament.

    The reservation of women in the higher level will not change the status quo until and unless they are empowered from the birth. They won’t be able to do justice to themselves unless properly socialized. They would not be able to raise their voice at the floor of the house unless given the proper educational support and physical and mental strength to outpace the patriarchy because the very social fabric of Indian society institutionalizes gender based exploitation and inequality.

    The experience of women reservation in the grass root politics is very dismal and gloomy. In many situations, woman elected as sarpanch is not actually permitted to participate in public sphere activities. The male counterpart of her family join panchayat meetings, take decisions and officially elected women are compelled to sign on dotted lines. This has given way to the rise of the so called sarpanch patis.

    The other impediment in the emancipation of women is gender based violence. The increased gender violence, rape, sexual assault, eve teasing require extraordinary measures. An integrative movement not only for the reservation of seats for women in parliament but also a say in household decision making, rejection of pink color jobs which speak about feminization of occupations, bridging gender gap in the educational structure is the need of the hour. The women should be given equality of space, opportunity and power both in public and private life and in every structure of the society.

  • riddhu

    1.In Britain, empire was justified as a benevolent ‘white man’s burden’. And in the United States, empire does not even exist; ‘we’ are merely protecting the causes of freedom, democracy, and justice worldwide.

    Britain and United State have been the most imperialist countries of the last two centuries. Yet when ever fingers were raised to them by their own countrymen or others from the world they had always tried to justify their imperialism in the name of protecting democratic values, freedom and justice and as if they were doing it selflessly by taking pain themselves for the betterment of the people they mastered.
    British have ruled not by just the military might but also by the sly diplomacy and the myth they have created that British rule “ is not only benevolent for the subjects but also is invincible.” The real motive behind the rule not only in India but in other countries as well was purely imperial. India was of special interest to them as Lord Curzon has well said that he “cannot afford to lose India as the day India is lost entire British Empire will collapse”. Their annexation policies both within India as well as outside like annexation of Burma and others in various Asian and African counties is a proof of their growing greedy imperialism. Their adverse economic policies was made to serve this motive. Though initially they have introduced reforms after 1857 revolt their policy totally changed and they started confining themselves to their own mundane interests. As national movement started growing their real character was revealed to the world. The Jallianwalabag butchery and inhumane treatments to the unarmed satyagrahis proved their inhuman imperialism. Churchil’s adamancy towards Gandhiji when he was on the verge of dying due to long fast earned him bitter criticism across the world.

    USA though did not have the policy of direct ruling, its policy of throwing unfavourable governments through coups and installing puppet governments in other countries reveals its imperialism. Due to its distinct geographical location and vast resources its imperialism to Latin American countries came to the notice of the world lately. Of late in cases like World wars, Korea,Vietnam,the Gulf War US government has always convinced the citizenry and world of necessity of war on the ground of protecting freedom, justice and democracy.

    • Anjali Motghare

      good answer, About USA u mentioned required facts.

  • riddhu

    Q The so called ‘empowerment’ of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment

    73rd and 74th amendments empowering local bodies are landmark in Indian history. Our national movement has witnessed the vigor of Indian women and reserving one third of seats for them in local bodies at all the levels is a step in right direction as it has increased not only the numerical strength of the women but also has proved that when women are empowered and actively involved it leads to more transparent, more sensitive and more responsive governance.
    Yet the skewed sex ratio and rising crimes against women reveals a lot has to be done. At economic front though our constitution ensures equal pay for equal work differential payment still prevails which mars women especially from weaker section and not only that well educated women are also victim of glass ceiling syndrome. Besides, creating women friendly environment both in informal and formal sector is a prerequisite.
    Women must be treated with respect and must have say in all the matters that affect them. The indecent representation of women at media must be stopped.
    On political front a woman member must have equal say in decision making as her male counterparts .As current governance requires constant learning she must have equal opportunity to learn, must be made familiar with required ICT tools irrespective of her educational qualification, this hold true especially at Panchayat level. Issues faced by urban women especially from weaker section must be given due attention as India is urbanizing fast.
    Thus enabling environment wherein all Indian women are literate, capable to think independently, economically empowered and treated with respect will create a new dawn for them and golden era for Indian society.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    Keerthi Narayan

    1. Women are certainly capable of acting as catalysts of socio-economic change. There have been many cases where the collective working ability, hardwork, sincerity and commitment of women has brought in significant changes in the society. The prominent ones that stand out are the cases of Amul cooperative society, successful functioning of women Self Help Groups in states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh.

    However, how can this potential of women be harnessed? Social scientists suggest two ways, one is politically empowering them by reserving seats for them in decision making bodies. The other one is to create an enabling environment which brings out such potential to the fore.

    An enabling environment would constitute of the following:
    – Technical or vocational training
    -Access to necessary financial resources
    – Freedom to take decisions
    – Sufficient manpower and support

    The Indian Constitution has so far guaranteed political empowerment by reserving 1/3rd of the seats in local bodies for women. This has increased their numbers. However this has not resulted in ‘real’ empowerment as most local body women leaders act as ‘dummies’ and their spouses wield real control. Moreover, increase in no.of women has not resulted in the creation of an enabling environment comprising of abovementioned factors.

    Hence, for women to act as catalysts of socio-economic change and replicate successes of Amul elsewhere, it is necessary to create enabling environment rather than merely satisfying constitutional provisions.

    2. Imperialism is the domination of one country over another for economic, military and anyother benefit. During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries both Britain and the USA were imperialist powers. Imperialism, in spite of being beneficial to the ‘home’ country, is not always accepted in totality by the citizens of the home countries. Hence the imperialist nations give a justification to convince the citizens so that internal protests do not arise.

    This justification provided by the Britain and by the USA were ideologically different.

    Britain, being the earliest nation to modernise and industrialise, considered its citizens as the most civilised of all men. Even the common man of England took pride in being a modern ‘white’. (It is this arrogant pride of being white that threw Gandhiji out of his train at Petermaritzberg, South Africa was then a British colony). Hence Britain justified imperialism by saying that in occupying third world countries in Asia and Africa it is actually civilizing the inhabitants who are uncultured and barbaric. It was said to be the White Man’s burden, his additional responsibilty, to bring the dark men to a civilised society.

    On the other hand, USA being a liberal democratic country which cherished the ideals of freedom, democracy and justice used the same to justify it imperialistic needs. The USA convinced its citizens by saying that by taking over colonies in America it is actually instilling democratic values in the minds of those countries by overthrowing tribal chiefs and kingships.

    Thus, both Britain’s and USA’s objectives were the same, exploitation of colonies for their own benefit, but they pursued different ideals and values to justify their acts.

    • For the first answer you should have mentioned Ela Bhatt’s SEWA and Aruna Roy’s MKSS experiments as examples.

      Practical steps to empower women apart from so many laws was expected in this answer.

      1) Women in SHG are more vocal even if they are illiterate – so, bring all women under SHG’s in villages and let leaders among them contest elections and win on their own expenses – it will make a positive impact.
      2) Second option is to encourage educated women in villages to enter Panchayats – it is observed that educated women are more aware of their rights as members and they demand the same.
      3) Let the district and block administration strictly monitor and enforce Women targeted schemes effectively – to make them financially independent. A major step toward empowerment.
      4) Give powers to the Panchayats to punish male relatives who use women as proxies.
      5) Strictly instruct block education officers to bring every girl child to schools, and later help them enter higher education through financial help – which many schemes already provide.

      You can mention many such points depending on word limit.

      • The above suggestions should be given after mentioning ‘sociological’ and ‘economical’ problems that are hindering women from realizing their true potential.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Thanks Insights and please throw some light on second question.

        • I thought more people would answer second question:

          Both Keerthi and Sahil have partially answered the question.

          The question requires you to answer how ‘imperialism’ manifested from USA and Europe in different forms.

          Begin with the definition of imperialism. (complete dominance over a country’s economic, social and political life and its territory by another country)

          secondly, there is a sarcastic tone in the question – how these powers, in the garb of ‘white Man’s burden’ and ‘spreading democracy’ became imperialist powers.

          USA was opposed to any form of colonialism and imperialism till 1898. During Mexican wars, because of compulsion from influential businessmen, politicians and power brokers, US occupied Cuba, Hawaii, Guam , Phillippines and some other Pacific islands – which were rich in Tobacco, cane and other plantation cultivation, also provided markets for US businessmen.

          Later, USA, after Worl War I and II began ‘neo-imperialism’ – economic dominance by subjugating weaker countries to its expedient domestic policies.

          We know how its economic, political and military policies have shaped the world since the end of Cold War and also before it. Most recent examples are Iraq, Afghanistan,Libya, Egypt, and Tunisia.

          Coming to Europe, we know from our own history, why we became ‘subjects’ of the British empire and how and for what they divided and ruled us for so long. You can elaborate on this.

          • Anjali Motghare

            Thanks a lot Insights, I have one important question. While writing answer, what should be mind, As we read multiple sources we have experts opinion on the topic, and with that own opinion too, or own suggestions too, which way will fetch more marks. It will be very kind of you if you guide me on this. And I would like to know from all aspirants too. Please put your points.

            • riddhu

              Hi, Anjali I think it depends on type of question but more important is that the opinions we give should be in congruence and must not contradict each other.E.g taking clue from recent Sen Bhagwati debate if question is asked what is more important growth or development? You can take side of either or a mix of both but it must not be the case that you start with favouring growth and subsequent opinions you make end up in suggesting more importance of development.

              • Anjali Motghare

                Thanks riddhu.

            • Thanks for asking this question.

              Before I answer your question, a small introduction:

              While answering a question, importantly the question must be in mind till you write the conclusion. Most of the times, after giving an introduction, we wander away from the intent of the question.

              After every paragraph, we should have a look at the question. This keeps us on track.

              Now, to answer your question, even after reading various sources and digesting various opinions, in the answer, your own synthesis matters – especially in questions where critical analysis or examination is required.

              While concluding your answer, you should suggest some measures which must be logical and pragmatic.

              One point I am stressing is, dividing your answer into many small paragraphs each logically flowing from introduction to the conclusion.

              This makes reading very pleasant because the answer reflects your ideas in an orderly way. 🙂

              • Anjali Motghare

                Thanks a lot again Insights. A very valuable suggestion.

            • Keerthi Narayan

              I think the most important thing to keep in mind is the relevance to the question’s context. Usually, we read expert’s opinions from various sources. They see the issue in various angles and give their opinion mostly based on thier area of expertise and experience. I think we should collate various views we have read in our mind and choose those points relevant to the question’s context and present them alone.

              • Anjali Motghare

                Thanks Keerthi.

  • nutan panda

    1.There is no way for the welfare of the world unless the plight of women is improved.It is not possible for a bird to fly using only one wing once said by Swami VIvekanand.Women empowerment means giving lawful power and authority to act.If people were empowered,they would be able to participate in planning,implementing developmental schemes.

    political empowerment of women is important for a nation.Since independence there is a very low percentage of women participating in our parliament.The women who proved well due to political empowerment are Mrs jaylalithaa,ms Mamta Banerjee and also previously we have seen Indira Gandhi,Sarojini Naidu have done great to mould modern India.
    Apart from political empowerment,economic and social empowerment are also crucial.Social empowerment could be achieved by education.Education of women means greater awareness of their role in society.Awareness of their rights,better knowledge of housekeeping and better performance of their roles as a housewife and mother.
    In addition ,investing money in womens greatly fuels economic growth.In developing countries,women operate many small businesses.hence,encouraging them ,will serve to immeasurably strengthen economic development.

    In striking contrast,nations such as US,UK,where women and girls are given same oppotunities and priviledges as their male counterparts,there is significant success in economic and social stability.
    Traditional beliefs and idelogies are to be firstly broken in order to establish equality among man and women.
    Only investing in the education,health care and providing financial contributions to the development of women give the percentage increased in the empowerment of women.
    Women should be treated as equal as man,There should be equal place of women in political,social and economic state of a country as man.Then we could proudly achieve true WOMEN EMPOWERMENT.

  • Ques 2)”In Britain, empire was justified as a benevolent ‘white man’s burden’. And in the United States, empire does not even exist; ‘we’ are merely protecting the causes of freedom, democracy, and justice worldwide.” Critically analyze the different ways in which imperialism manifested from both sides of the Atlantic.
    Imperialism and hegemonic ideology have been used by countries to enforce their domination from time immemorial. It has been instrumental in changing the course of history in time and space for the benefit of the mother country and for the acceleration of its interest in international politics.
    Britain imperialism was based on the premise that British merchants and traders have benefited the colonies by bringing in new laws, social order and dismantling their isolation from the rest of the word. They construed that colonies were backward, using obsolete methods of warfare and old technology and are driven by no innovation and technological revolution in different spheres. British rule has provided the ground for introducing new technology, new scientific methods, and modern education in political, social and economic sphere. The contended that inspite of backwardness of the people of different colonies, Britain provided them the much needed support by bringing a change in their social structure.
    Similarly, with the rise of new world order after the end of cold war, one kind of domination has been replaced by another kind. In the name of liberty, freedom, democracy and human right violations, US used its ideology to enforce its domination and toppled many autocratic and authoritarian regimes that are not in line with its stance. The support to rebels by providing them weapons and economic sanctions imposed unilaterally by US hold testimony to the fact that in the name of transparency and participatory democratic transition, US has legitimized its ideology on the masses.
    It can be advocated that ideological domination and imperialism is universal. One kind of imperialism has given way to new form of imperialism which can be regarded as new wine in the old bottle.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    1.The role of women in development is related to the socioeconomic and political development of a country. Therefore for holistic empowerment of the women to happen social, economic and political aspects impacting a women’s life must converge effectively.
    Strategies include
    Governments at both Center and State should implement devolution and decentralization of powers from higher bodies in the panchayati raj structure. This is lagging in almost all the States. The delay is causing a serious setback to the political empowerment of the locally elected bodies.
    Provision of non-confidence clause need to be amended which is often used to women sarpanches, to ensure that a non-confidence motion cannot be passed for a year and a half of having taken office. If a non-confidence vote is passed, the replacing incumbent should be from the same such group as the earlier incumbent.
    Ensure that two children norm law that prevent those who have more than two children from holding office are repealed across States. Electoral reforms should provide for State funding for women contesting for elections to parliament, state assemblies, urban local bodies and panchayat raj institutions.
    Ensure that women are taken seriously in their elected post by allotting important portfolios and limiting their functions to social welfare and w omen and child development and ensure awareness amongst women through mass media about the electoral process and also
    the candidates, To ensure that women have adequate space in trade unions and co-operative societies

    Enhance the existing training for elected women representatives. The packages must address functional responsibilities that would enable women to govern effectively. in a conducive and enabling environment
    Finally education, health, productivity and governance all work better when women are involved. To quote Ranjana Kumari and Sara Khurtzezerna
    “Political empowerment is critical to women’s achievement of equality for without real clout at the decision making level social and economic empowerment”

  • NB

    question one

    Traditionally women has suffered through ages. Various reform movement aimed to empower women and ensure equality and freedom. 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment act aimed to take very positive step in this direction. It was to struck at very root of governance by giving them reservation in local level governance.

    Over the period of years there has been considerable increased in representation of women at various level of local governance. In few states there is even 50 % reservation in Panchayat.

    However, this has not lead to remarkable shift in condition of women. Basic reason is systemic flaw in PRIs.Local bodies are facing tremendous problem of funds function and functionaries.This makes them tiger without teeth.

    Further though women represents in Panchayat but they are are not allowed to take decisions which is heart of governance. Still their husbands or men takes decisions. The problem therefore lies in attitudinal change of society to accept the role of women.

    Further more, as Mary Wolstonecraft stated that key to equality and freedom of women is through education. Education and skill to women is key for their empowerment. In India stil there is biasness which is amply reflected by female literacy in the country.

    In nutshell, if capabilities of women are to be improved it is important to create enabling environment wherein Gram sabha is empowered, it is made socio-economic and political churning space for women. Further encouraging Self Help Groups, increasing role in decision making,improving education and most importantly attitudinal change in society to accept new role of women will help in unleashing potential of 50 % of India population.

    • Good answer. Liked the feminist touch to your answer.

  • Cini

    1. Recognising that women form the grassroots of democracy the 74th amendment in the Indian constitution reserved 1/3rd seats in local bodies for women. This was further increased to 50% reservation in 2012. There is a saying “educate a woman and you educate a family”, it shows the importance of women in the role of caretaker and administrator of the family. Having women participate in local governance gives them a voice in the traditionally male dominated Indian society. But here too exists concerns of them being fielded as dummy candidates, controlled by male members.
    Creating an environment of equal standing, where women aren’t perceived as weak, where no specific chore is marked as ‘only for females’ and where society looks on them as leaders will enable them to display their potential. Many women driven initiatives like Ela Bhatt’s SEWA have prospered because they have managed to instil confidence in women about their abilities and allowed them to utilise their talents to the fullest. This combined with a voice in decision making will truly empower women in India.

    2. The birth of imperialism in Britain (Old Imperialism,1450) and the United States (Neo Imperialism,1750) took place at different times. British explorers and trading companies exercised influence over a number of countries by the time the USA started claiming colonies. Extreme nationalism and a false sense of chauvinism propagated the theory of superiority of the white man supported by writers like Rudyard Kipling in Britain. It was a tame justification for the plunder of the colonies off their resources and wealth in the name of civilizing an alien culture and custom different from their Christian way of life, especially in Africa and Asia.
    The United States of America kickstarted their Imperialistic drive by forcing open trade routes in Japan through Commodore Perry’s efforts. Their neo-imperialistic approach focused mainly on opening ports(China), coaling stations, military bases(Hawaii) and securing their trade routes(Philippines). Monroe Diplomacy which allowed USA to interfere in internal matters of countries in the Americas and Caribbean to guard its own interests in the name of democracy and freedom. USA thus effected changed in governments in Mexico, Cuba, Guatemala and recently through its wars on terror on Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan.

    • Concise, effective and straight to the point. Very good answer. Mention of Roosevelt policy of continuations of Monroe Doctrine in 1910s, Marshall Plan, Post- WW-II reconstruction policy in the Pacific (neo-imperialism) should have been mentioned in the second answer. But, overall an excellent answer.

  • cppcontrol

    In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.

    Western Ghats ecology expert panel led by Dr. Madhav Gadgil in its report has said that the entire Western Ghats region should be declared a ecologically sensitive zone, three levels of categorization of the demarcated areas and blanket protection should be provided to preserve it. The High level working group led by Dr. K. Kasturirangan has endorsed the same sensitivity and has recommended to divide the western ghats into cultural and natural landscapes with total prohibition of development activities in the natural landscapes.

    Few major recommendations of these reports are
    • To incentivize green growth in Eastern Ghats. This can be done by managing forests and improving their productivity to ensure inclusive growth and sustainable development.
    • Initiating an ecosystem service fund to help villages around the forests.
    • Promoting sustainable agriculture and encouraging ecotourism.
    • Ban of land forests to promote industries, big dams, high station development and mining in ecological sensitive areas.
    • On the regulatory part, strict implementation of various environment related acts and impact assessment of individual small power projects.
    • Decentralized water resource management plans at local self government level and protect high altitude valley swamp and water bodies.

    These recommendations are must to be accepted to save the sensitive western ghats from exploitation of various interest business groups. This will led to a sustained development of the western ghats which has been one of the eight hotspots of biological diversity of UNESCO. The economic activities of the region would be regulated by governance mechanism which would empower local communities for conserving these eco sensitive zone.

    • Nirmal Singh

      WGEEP and HWLG reports has suggested some bold reforms.Although both have common grounds on majority of recommendation yet there are some contrasting features which needs careful scrutiny.
      WGEEP headed by Dr Gadgil laid stresses on inclusive and participatory approach ,native people being the nucleus of decision making.It advocated for sustainable development.To implement the same it suggested demarcating of whole region into ecosensitive zones(ESZ) and further these into levels which will determine type and intensity of economic activities from restricted to flexible.If implemented these reforms will go a long way in securing livelihood options of native people while preserving pristine wealth of W.ghats which plays a important role in climate and rainfall pattern of the region.It recognized rights of tribal people who are main stake holders and will prevent ruthless exploitation of natural resources specially mining.
      HWLG headed by Dr. Kasturirangan has stressed on development needs by a more flexible approach towards industries.It suggested dividing the whole region into natural area and development area ignoring Dr.Gadgil ESZs criteria.It had further given upper hand to state government in the final say.Such loose approach will eventually result in intruding of natural area by industries when resources in development area get exhausted and will result in depriving people of their rights and windfall gains to industries
      To say that WGEEP and HWLG runs antithetical to each other would not be an exaggeration.

    • abhish

      In your answer in the implication part, should we not mention that mining losses, hydro power electrical losses will also occur. I believe implication whether negative or positive must be mentioned.

  • 2)“In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”. Comment.
    Sustainable development is a mode of human development which do not compromise with the social, natural and environmental cost. The concept gains importance in the light of fast depleting resources, threatened biodiversity and acceleration of urbanization and human needs.
    There has been a spurt in the process of urbanization in the past 2 decades because of increased industrial activities in major towns and cities which is percolating to other small towns as well. Migration of large chunk of population towards these towns for employment has led to sustainability crunch because of mushrooming of slums, non availability of low cost housing, sanitation, lack of infrastructure and public transport facility and absence of services like drinking water and electricity etc. All these factors have been overlooked by the government in search of growth and lack of awareness on the part of civil society organization. The ever increasing population with ever increasing demands for better services is poised to become a challenge to the growth of environmentally sustainable and productive cities. The lack of coordination on the part of the government, municipal corporations and CSO led to rise of unplanned development, unorganized growth and unfeasible infrastructure.
    The report published by UN ranking India’s metros as low on prosperous list hold testimony to the fact that despite tall claims by the government in the form of JNNURM , nothing substantial has been achieved. Most of the cities lack viable environment and absence of even threshold investment in areas which define the standard of living like services and inclusive growth.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      You have rightly pointed out the problems of Indian urbanisation like lack of housing, sanitation, public transport, safe drinking water etc. However, I feel, your answer should, atleast say in the conclusion, whether you think urbanisation and sustainable development can go hand in hand or not. If yes or no, what are your reasons.

      • Thank you Keerthi for your valuable feedback. I will definitely try to answer your question.
        According to me, urbanization and sustainable development can and should go hand in hand and complement each other but that requires an organised and planned growth of cities. That requires proper mobilization of funds for long term prospect regarding infrastructure and high labour intensive industries should be established outside the main boundary of cities and towns in a special zones with better connectivity through roads etc. All these measures are absent in India for different reasons and mainly because of improper and under utilization of funds and deep slumber on the part of govt. Further every stakeholder including civil society must be a part of this development which is all inclusive.

      • Looking into your answer, i think i should have incorporated the measure which should be taken to bring about harmonization in sustainability and urban development. You have provided great insights like setting up sewage treatment plants, recycling and reusing waste products , creating renewable sources of energy etc. Thank you again.

  • Asha Goud

    Q In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.

    A: Western Ghats is an ecologically and biologically diverse region spread in six states. It covers an area of approximately 100,000 sq km. With the ever growing demand of land and resources the Western Ghats have attracted attention of industries.

    The Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil made a recommendation of declaring the whole Western Ghats as Eco-sensitve, divided into 3 levels with varying degree of restrictions on activities like mining, thermal and hydel power plants, industries, construction.

    On the other hand a High Level Expert Group (HLEG) headed by Space Scientist K. Kasturiranjan recommended that only 37% of the Ghats should be declared eco-sensitive. What the HLEG highlighted is that along with the natural landscapes the ghats consist of cultural landscapes inhabited by people. Therefore HLEG recommended adopting a balanced approach keeping in mind the development needs of the people living in the Ghats. Therefore opening a window of possibility for industries. However Panel recommended encouraging Green development in remaining region.

    The WGEEP on the other hand viewed the entire region as an single ecosystem. Disturbing the ecosystem at one place will disturb the balance of the entire region. The recent floods in Uttarakhand are an example.
    Highly destructive activities like mining, construction, industries, power plants will only destabilize the region and will infact adversely affect the people. These industries might provide them employment, but it will also attract migrant workers. Mining and Construction will cause large scale deforestation, leading to loss of wildlife. These changes will only increase pressure on the fragile ecosystem making it vulnerable to a collapse.

    The Western Ghats are known worldwide as a Biodiversity Hot spot and therefore it needs to be conserved and not exploited.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      If the WGEEP recommendations are implemented, what are all the implications for the stakeholders?

      • Asha Goud

        I am more in the favour of implementing the WGEEP recommendations that has a focus on conserving the region, therefore I presented the negative impact the implementation HLEG recommendations can have on the region.

  • Asha Goud

    Q “In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”. Comment.

    A The process of urbanisation is the increase in size and number of cities and urban population. Sustainable development is concept of ensuring development that does not adversely impact the surrounding environment.
    Phenomena of urbanization have been experienced by western countries in the past and at present South Asian countries are experiencing urbanization on a large scale.

    In India the population pressure is immense as a result urbanization is occurring at a very fast pace. As population is increasing people are moving out of villages towards cities in search of livelihood, in fact villages are also getting converted into small towns. Cities are growing in size and the surrounding agricultural land or forest land is cleared for habitation or industries. Wherever land is not available vertical growth is seen like in cities like Delhi, Mumbai.

    This rapid change in land use increases pressure on the surrounding environment. Pollution level in rivers increases, deforestation leads to loss of valuable vegetation, wildlife, industries lead to soil, water and air pollution levels increases. As a result of rapid urbanization pressure increases on existing facilities like roads, transportation, sewerage, water, electricity as a result slums emerge in the cities.

    However it needs to be noted that the clash between urbanization and sustainable development is not inherent, it arises due to rapid and unplanned development.

    • Keerthi Narayan

      In the end you have mentioned that urbanisation and sustainable development are not inherently incompatible. Good.It would have been a very good answer if you could say what are all the measures to be taken for such conflicting models to be made compatible,

      • Asha Goud

        Hi keerthi, I did not mention the measures as the question asked a comment on the statement. So i simply presented my view whether the two are antithetical or not. But i think mentioning a few measures like efficient waste disposal management, public transport system, demarking green areas in city, keeping hazardous industries away and many more would have gained me few extra points. 🙂


    1) In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.

    Ans:The conservation of one of the richest biodiversity hotstops of the world promted Ministry of Environment and forests[MOEF] to constitute Madav gadgil headed panel -WGEEP.The main recommendations include-

    * entire western ghats to be ecologically sensitive zone(ESZ) with highly sensitive ESZ 1 forming 60% of the area.
    * participation of local communities in environmental protection
    * complete moratorium on new mining licenses in ESZ1 and ESZ 2.In zone 1 all existing mines to be phased out and in zone 2 mining to be carried under strict regulation and social audit.
    * polluting industies,thermal power projects ,large scale dams not allowed in zone1 and 2.

    However in the wake of severe opposition to the radical recommendations of Gadgil committe by states and industries,new panel under Kasturirangan was formed.This panel reduced the ESZ to only 37% of the western ghats and did not oppose hydel power projects.Also it proposed financial incentives for promoting green growth in remaining 63% on non-ESZ regions.Also it didnot involve local communities in decision making reg environment conservation

    Major implications of Gadgil report if implemented:

    * For the first time in history ,local communities will play a leading part in protection ,which till now was the exclusive privilage of central and state bureaucracy heavy bodies
    * Banning of mining and polluting industries will protect delicate ecosystem
    * Social audit of all activities will ensure fruits of development will be shared by all.
    * prevent deforestation
    * lead to greater research on biodiversity and commerialization of the research rather than plundering minerals.i.e more value addition and less pollution
    * Minor employment loss due to prohibition of mining and industries

    Major implication of Kasturirangan report:

    * Big hydel projects will come which may lead to Uttarkand like scenario.
    * large scale deforestation
    * no role of local communities.
    * this unrestrained exploitation without benefits to local people may encourage extremism which is till now a latent force.

    2)“In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”. Comment.

    Ans:The rapid and unplanned urbanistion witnessed since 1990s has put enormous pressure on the ecosystem and rendered life difficult not only in urban areas but also in rural areas.

    Indian Urbanisation affects sustainable development adversely in the following manner:

    * Pollution:the explosion of vehicles has polluted the atmosphere.This affects not only the urban systems but also nearby rural areas.It also affects future generation as the pollutants remains in atmosphere for a long time.
    * Waste: The waste generated by various urban activities are dumped into rivers converting them in sewages,ex:Yamuna.These effluents creep underground and affect living being far and near.Also in many cities ,solid wastes are dumped into nearby villages which harm them.
    * Ground water depletion:Due to enormous population there is heavy demand for water.Due to this borewells are sunk in huge numbers.Every year the depth of bore wells goes on increasing and many past borewells have become redundant.This depletes the ground water and also forces people to drink water that is having dangerous fluorine.
    * Deforestation:the thirst for land has seen encroachment of forest lands and community lands and constant expansion of cities at the cost of neighbouring villages
    * Sustainable development requires optimum utilization of resoures.But due to rampant urbanisation there is lack of skilled manpower in rural areas to utilize the resources in the optimal way.The illiterate people with no information,due to poverty end up degrading the environment.

    Therefore sufficient opportunities must be developed in rural areas itself,so that pressure on urban areas is reduced and existing resources are utilized in the best possible way.Also the capacity of muncipal boards in dealing with these problems is poor.Therfore they have to be trained.Also the practice of appointing political loyalists to head state pollution control boards must be stopped.Greater role for civil society organisations must be given.Also best practices from around the world must be adopted

    • Keerthi Narayan

      I loved the structure of your 1st answer. First, crisp mentioning of both reports’ recommendations followed by Implications. ( However, I felt a pro-Gadkil, anti-Kasturirangan tilt in your answer, it would have been so very good if you had said + and – of both Gadgil’s and Kasturi’s )

      In your second answer, you ve mentioned problems of urbanisation and how it affects sustainable development neatly. (thereby you indirectly imply urbanisation and sustainable development are not compatible) . However, your concluding para sounds little general, to me. (Nice way of inserting recent Hindu’ headlines- “Also the practice of appointing political loyalists to head state pollution control boards must be stopped”)

      • NITISH K

        important points which I missed in 2nd answer:
        1. proliferation of slums:Slums are the causes and consequence of unsustainable urbanisation.
        2.lax implementation of rules and regulations:the norms for buildings like materials,number of floors ,spacing are brazenly flouted.The effect of these illegalities is seen in future say after 20-30 years.The acts of today harm the future occupants.
        3.nonutilization of renewable energy like solar ,biogas etc as well as disregard to rainwater harvesting and water reusing

        • Nitish,

          Very good answer for the first question.

          However, you should briefly mention who are all the stakeholders in the region. Then explain implications on them.

          You also missed the conclusion part. Conclusion is very necessary.

          You should end it by stating your opinion which must be logical culmination of rest of the answer.

          Good going!

  • rahul aggarwal

    2)sustainable development and urbanization.
    According to recent survey by WHO across G-20 economies showed that 13 out of 20 most polluted cities are in India,recent Uttrakhand disaster draws our attention towards encroachment on river banks are the few examples to show that there are serious loopholes in our strategy towards tackling and integrating the issues of sustainable development and urbanization.

    India being a developing country and still 60% of our population lives in rural areas,hence in coming years the urban population is bound to increase and would further deteriorate the environmental health of cities in the country if the problems are not identified and appropriate action not taken to tackle them.

    The major problems which urbanization in india is facing are as follows:

    a)Pollution level : Increase in number of vehicles,increse in mining,construction and industrial activities has resulted in increase in harmful gases and particulate matter in air which is responsible for increase in lung and various NCD.

    b)SANITATION:Open defecation is still a major problem even in cities. Morover lack of proper sewerage system ,drainage system is affecting the health of citizens especially the poor,slum dewellers and vulnerable groups.

    c)CHANGE IN LAND USE PATTERN:With ever expanding cities of India ,to accomodate ever increasing urban population the forest cover has reduced drastically ,encroachment on grasslands,water bodies has increased continuously.

    d)SOLID WASTE :Inefficient waste collection and treatment system is one of the biggest problems.According to estimates more than 30% waste is not collected and even the waste which is collected is not dumped properly,the open dumping sites are highly inappropriate.

    In addition to these above problems lack of proper landscape sites,scarcity of safe water to drink are some other problems faced by urban centres.

    There are solutions available to all these problems.Some of the major recommendations are:

    a)TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTIUON:Improving the public transport system would result in reduction in the private vehicles.Also properly implementing polluter pay principle would result in reduction of emission from factories and improve the air pollution situation.

    b)TO improve land use:Setting up a National Land Development Authority responsible for developing long term strategies for conservation of land is important.

    c)TO IMPROVE SANITATION:awareness generation is very important in regard.In addition community toilets could be encouraged where there is constraint of space.Also public toilets should be available everywhere and properly maintained.
    Various municipal boards should take active interest in improving the drainage system.

    d)To improve solid waste management:First of all 100% waste collection is important.It should be done in a completely covered van.
    The waste should be segregated in degradable and non-degradable.
    Efficient waste to energy conversion plants which donot pollute environment could be used.

    Inspite of these several limitations in our policies various recent initiatives by government,judiciary,media and NGOs promises to improve the situation in the long run.Some of these initiatives include Proposal Green toilets in trains,Nirmal Bharat yatra,setting of National Green Tribunals ,use of CNG in public transport,encouragement to electricity vehicles etc. They deserve appreciation and encouragement.

    • The question is about relationship between Urbanization and sustainable development – why is it difficult to apply principles of sustainable development to our cities? Where have we failed?

      You have stressed more on problems of urbanization and remedies. I think your last paragraph gives half the answer. Please follow the word limit. You will save lot of time in the examination.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    The Western Ghats, one of the characteristic feature of India’s physiography, ranges from Kerala in the South to Gujarat in the north West. It spreads through Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Maharashtra besides Kerala and Gujarat. It is a rich source of floral and faunal biodiversity and primary source of riverine water for peninsular India.

    Alarmed at the growing rate of activities like mining and construction, the Ministry of Environment and Forests set up Western Ghats Ecological Expert Panel under the chairmanship of Prof.Madhav Gadgil in 2010. The panel came out with it report last year. Its salient recommendations include gradation of the western ghats area into 3 ecolologically sensitive zones each having separate restrictions for development activities. If the recommendations of the report would be implemented, there would be severe restrictions for development activities on about 70% of the area of the Western Ghats. The state Govts. voiced their dissent to the report and this led to the MoEF setting up a High Level Expert group on the chairmanship of Kasturirangan to study the WGEEP report in a ‘holistic’ way.

    The HLWG used remote sensing data with the help of ISRO and classified the area under Western Ghats into natural landscapes and cultural landscapes. According to HLWG’s recommendations, there will be restrictions on developmental activities on 37% of western ghats’ area. This includes complete ban on new mining and phasing out of existing mining in 5 years, ban for new thermal projects, ‘red’ category industries and severe restrictions on large scale construction activities. However, the HLWG has not clearly said anything about the remaining 90000 sq.km area under cultural landscapes.


    The grid size used by WGEEP is 9km x 9km, 81sq.km, which is the taluk area. Prof.Madhav Gadgil himself admitted that this was the data available with the panel and the grid size can be refined. This large grid size results in an entire taluk being marked as ecologically sensitive even when only a panchayat unit area is actually so. Institutions like Kerala Forest research Institute suggest that using panchayat as tha base unit will clear a lot of area from being marked as ecologically sensitive.

    Small states like Kerala and Goa already have very few land spaces free of regulations. Being sandwiched between the sea and the hills, these states have restrictions on land use like coastal regulation norms. It is necessary that such states are given a fair chance for developmental activities.

    At the same time, in Goa, Karnataka rampant mining has led to substantial losses to natural habitat and pristine ecosystems. Hence, the Govt has to take a stand considering both sides of the issue into account. A blanket ban or a clear approval to consrtuctions in the name of development, both will be detrimental to the people’s livelihood.

    2. Sustainable development is the use of available resources for a society’s development and well being, without depleting it for the use of future generations. Urbanisation is the phenomenon of increase in the size and population of areas having urban characteristics, i.e. areas dominated by non-agricultural, non-primary economic activities. Generally, urbanisation involves consumption of resources to provide for the existence of growing populace and hence is considered as a non-compatible activity to sustainable development.

    Indian Context:
    India is a rapidly urbanising country. The census 2011 indicates increasing rate of urban population. India’s urbanisation has so far followed only the consumption model. This means that those cities which developed as a result of urbanisation in the last 20 years have only consumed resources and discarded the end products. Reuse, Recycle, Renewable energy, Replenishment of used resources have not been followed during this urbanisation phase.

    Cities and towns are densely populated and hence face crunch in basic resources like land, water, trees and also face problems of solid waste disposal, sewerage and sanitation. Such current consumption model is clearly unsustainable.

    Hence, to urbanise positively and grow in a sustainable way, the cities and towns should plan the following:

    1. Use of Renewable energy resources for small utilities like solar heating, solar power for homes
    2. Rain water harvesting to replenish the depleted ground water.
    3. Reuse and recycle when it comes to solid wastes like plastics, wood and ceramics
    4. Rational land use
    5. Sewage treatment plants to reuse the wastewater

    Hence, in the present Indian context, Urbanisation is not compatible with sustainable development.

    • Kirthi

      You gave wonderful points but as cini has commented, there is a need to shorten the answers I guess.

  • Sreekanth Soman

    1. The Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) headed by Madhav Gadgil was appointed by Ministry of Environment and Forests ( MoE&F) to suggest measures for conservation of Western Ghats. Due to the controversies surrounding the recommendations of the panel, another High Level Expert Group (HLEG) headed by Kasturirangan was asked to the look into the report of the WGEEP. Major recommendations of WGEEP were :-
    1) Creation of three ecologically sensitive zones in the Western Ghats apart from the present protected areas. It recommended complete ban on destructive economic activities including mining in ESZ1 with progressive relaxation of control measures in the other zones.
    2) Not to proceed with the Athirapally and Gundia hydro electric power projects as these would submerge highly biodiverse areas of endemic species like Malabar Hornbill.
    3) A supervisory body of experts to ensure implementation of conservation measures, Western Ghats Ecology authority.
    4) Ban on introduction and even field trials of Gentically Modified crops.

    The WGEEP highlights the destruction to the environment and biodiversity caused due to the developmental activities like mining, tea and coffee plantations, unsustainable agricultural practices etc. It advocated strict implementation of its recommendations to prevent further damages. These recommendations were not received positively by any of the state governments in the region. Protests by local people, encouraged by politicians and religious leaders, who thought their livelihood options would be affected happened. Due to considerable opposition from all quarters, the MoE&F appointed the Kasturirangan panel, which submitted a report that reduced protection to only 37% of Western Ghats which it considered as natural landscape and did not recommend any ban on the hydroelectric power projects.

    This controversy raises the all important question of sustainable development. Though the local people as well as the states may benefit by employment opportunities due to mining, quarrying and deforestation, it should be remembered that long term livelihood and quality of life would be severely affected by the damage caused to the land, water and air in the Western Ghats apart from loss of highly endemic species.

    2. Urbanization is an essential feature of modern life. As man progresses, growth of cities and towns take place naturally to accommodate the growing needs of economic development. It is to ensured that this urbanization happens in a sustainable way.

    In India, most cities grow in an unplanned way, utilizing the resources in an inefficient manner. Construction of buildings happen violating the norms required for security and transport. Proper management of water supply and sewerage, solid waste disposal, maintenance of roads etc. are not able to keep pace with the needs of the people. Pollution of all possible natural resources take place in our cities. Slums and squalor have become a dominant feature of Indian cities. We find posh localiites with all amenities beside the poor slums. Rehabilitation of slums have been talked about for many decades, but still no improvment in their conditions. No concern shown to the lives of the poor who are displaced mercilessly to make way for “development”.

    Most of Indian cities are notorious for high pollution levels and lack of public sanitation facilities. Environment and human rights are not on the priority list of the authorities, where corruption is rampant. So it can be rightly said that urbanization and sustainable development are antithetical to each other in the Indian context.

  • Cini

    1) In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.

    Western Ghats is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in India and a major supplier and drainage of the peninsular river system. The Western Ghat Ecology Expert Panel headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil and the subsequent High Level Working Group headed by economist Dr. Kasturirangan were formed to stop the degradation of the ecology of the ghats.
    The WGEEP proposed a blanket ban on mining, hydel projects and invasive developmental activities in 3/4th of the ghat area, proposing the area to be declared Ecologically Sensitive Area under a regulatory authority that could override central and state governments. This report was opposed by the inhabitants of the ghats and by political parties as being unviable and hence the HLWG was formed. It bans mining and other activities in only the core areas, phases out existing mines and asks for stricter clearances for hydel projects. The WGEEP was prepared to limit the damage caused by man to the environment by keeping them out completely, the HLWG takes a far more practical approach by not snatching the livelihood of the inhabitants (tourism in national parks, forest produce or hill towns like Lavasa) and providing a chance for peaceful coexistence of nature and man.

    2)“In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”. Comment.

    An estimated 1/3rd of Indian population lives in urban areas. Good infrastructure, better facilities, opportunities and a higher standard of life are the pull factor of urban areas. In this age of consumerism and global warming; in a bid to gather more resources a lot of harm is being done to the environment.
    India has witnessed a steady urbanization – chaotic and unplanned cities not adhering to city masterplans, vertical growth of structures (Mumbai, Delhi) which puts a burden on resources like water, electricity and sanitation facilities. The rampant misuse of these resources and their wastage are problems affecting urban areas in India. The resultant has been; falling groundwater levels, creation of ghettos, glaring inequality/class divides and rising pollution levels across cities. Recent disasters like the Uttarakhand floods are an example of lack of future planning keeping in mind the environment. The lack of proper implementation of urban policies has resulted in unregulated growth opposite to the demands of sustainable development. In comparison global high density cities like Manhattan, New York, Singapore city have adopted sustainable methods like rainwater harvesting, increased use of public transport and subsidies green fuels to combat increased urbanisation.

  • Kirthi

    In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”. Comment

    Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of present generator with out comprising the ability of future generations to meet their needs, central to this is inter generational equity. Urbanization is an inevitable phenomena after industrial revolution, attracting people and have become engines of economic growth.

    Rapid urbanization increases ecological footprint, creates pressure on land use, challenges to manage green cover, waste management, increased pollution, emissions, polluted ground water, fuel use etc.

    Indian cities are rated mediocre in UN habitat city prosperity index that include quality of life, infrastructure, environmental sustainability, equitable development.

    Indian cities dump mos of waste in suburbs where as in Germany Copenhagen etc resuly in only 4 percent waste as landfill. Singapore has 50 percent surface area green cover. Japan piping system ensures grey water is reused.

    Therefore, good efforts have been made by others to reduce ecological foot print of cities and make them sustainable.
    Census 2011 shows tht last decade more people added to urban than rural areas. India faces an opportunity to grow its cities sustainably as rapid urbanization is on the way.

    Some measures include
    – non motorized transport, separate cycling lanes
    – metro with good feeder network
    – incentives to use public transport
    – disincentivize polluting activities, pvt transport
    – solar or Led lamps in place of low efficient sodium or mercury lamps
    – reuse grey water, rain water harvesting, recycle waste
    – increase fuel efficiency and promote Research
    – mandatory energy conservation buildings code
    – effectively implement PURA

    Though inherently urbanization and sustainable development look antithetical , focused effort can better the situation as some metropolitans across the world show.

  • Kirthi

    Very true. I realized after looking others answers. Have to practice condensing points.

  • Anjali Motghare

    2)“In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”. Comment.
    I agree with the statement on the following reasons:
    Sustainable development has a broader meaning
    * Improving the quality of human life without exceeding the carrying capacity of nature;
    * Economic growth that provides fairness and opportunity for all the people, not just few at the cost of all.
    * Its a economic and social development that protect and enhance the natural environment.
    In Indian urbanisation is a growing phenomenon and is expected to rise to 57 per cent by 2025. But uncontrolled and unplanned expansion of towns and cities with large population has overwhelmed transport, communication, water supply, sanitation and energy system resulting
    in a growth of urban poor and unemployed population with precarious health problems.Most of our metro cities have crossed the permissible pollution level which is having ill effects on health of the people.
    Cities often have become dump yards of garbage and industrial waste.Untreated waste has given rise to environmental problem like air and water pollution Most of the times waste directed in river and because of that we are having most sacred river dangerously contaminated. Which is having serious repercussions on the aquatic life as well as downstream human settlement.Unplanned cities led to development of slums. Our financial capital Mumbai gave birth to Asia’s largest slum Dharavi. In terms of our capital’s pollution Supreme Court had to intervened from
    time to time to save people in terms of air pollution. Recently it had to guide on mobile tower placement.
    Urbanization is a necessary condition for development but it should not be at the cost of environment because finally nature wins. We have experienced tsunami in 2005, and this year Uttarakhand flood.
    As humans are destroyers so we can act as a preserver too by taking necessary steps, strict implementation of framed laws will be a welcome step.

  • K Partha

    1)The WGEEP (Gadgil Committee) was formed with the objective of studying the environmental and ecological issues related to Western Ghats. Gadgil committee recommended dividing Western Ghats into 3 different types of ecologically sensitive zones (Zone 1 being the most sensitive) and formation of Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA). WGEA would have jurisdiction in six states (Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Maharastra,Tamil Nadu, Gujarat).

    According to the Report all mining activities should be phased out in Zone 1 within the next five yrs while existing mines in Zone 2 and Zone 3 should be put under strict regulation and social audit. No new license to be given for zone 1 and zone 2 while license can be given for zone 3 areas only for minerals not available in plains. Similarly the report called for a strict ban on polluting industries in Zone 1 and 2 if the industries aren’t able to switch to zero pollution technology within 5 yrs. All new industries in Zone 3 should be put under strict regulation and social audit.

    Further reasonable restrictions have been put on the size/scale of river projects in different ESZ. (Athirappilly Project and Gundia Project will be affected).There shouldn’t be any power plant in Zone 1 and 2.No new railway lines or major roads in zone 1 and 2.Waste management, traffic management to be strictly regulated in the zones. Further the report has stressed upon community participation and grass roots involvement.

    A High-Level Working Group was formed to study the Gadgil report and accordingly advise the Govt. According to the panel around 37% of the total area defined as boundary of Western ghats is ecologically sensitive. There needs to be a prohibitory regime on those activities with maximum interventionist and destructive impact on the environment. So here it makes a departure from the Gadgil report which can be wrongly used to continue with the exploitation.
    Further the report stresses upon inclusive development of local communities and green growth. The panel calls for the establishment of Decision Support and Monitoring Centre for Geospatial Analysis and Policy Support .But there is no suggestion related to WGEA.

    If the WGEEP report is implemented in letter and spirit then it would go a long way in preserving the biodiversity of the region and in maintaining the ecological balance in the region which has been subjected to rampant exploitation by mankind. It may lead to decrease in development activities (Mining and industries) but just development at the cost ecology can prove harmful in the longer run. It might help in curbing the illegal mining menace prevalent in the region. The suggestion for the formation of WGEA has not found support with the concerned state Govts. But the creation for a central authority is necessary for the uniform implementation of the suggestions given the vast expanse of the Western Ghats.

    The HLWG report seems to be a diluted form of WGEEP report. It leaves scope for wider manipulations. It might not be effective in preserving the biodiversity and ecological balance of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

  • NB

    question 2

    Essence of sustainable development is conscious awareness that development activities have to take care of future generation needs in mind while fulfilling needs of current generation. Rapid Urbanization in India has developed unsustainable cities. It has lead to social , economic and environmental problems.These cities where people have migrated from rural area in search of job have created slums in absence of unavailability of housing. This in itself has generated many problems ranging from sanitation, clean drinking water to disposal of waste. Policy maker have not been able to develop blue print of development of cities. No proper spatial planning has been done, there is no balance in utilization of natural resources
    Gradually deforestation is being done to create more urban space. This has tremendously affected environment. Sprouting of Industries near urban center has also created problems. Further huge consumption of electricity, rapid rise of private transportation have further deteriorated environment. Air quality, water quality , food quality have all decreased. Problem is getting attenuated due to increase of consumerism, greediness and looking for temporary solutions to fix problem. Recent happenings in Uttrakhand after rain havoc is grim reminder of our development policies.If such development continues not only future generation will pay price but also present generation as well,
    Requirement is therefore for a systemic planned development, involvement of grass root people in development policies, balance utilization of natural resources, using more renewable resources, creating sustainable economically viable villages and having a deep awareness and attitude of conservation of resources among people.


    What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain. (300 Words)

    Ans:Malnutrition refers to intake of an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking.Mere intake of carbohydrates does not complete nutrition,it must be supplemented by nutrients like proteins, vitamins ,minerals like sodium calcium etc,fats etc.
    A large number of reports point out that nearly half of India,s children suffer from malnutrition and it is worst in India when compared to subsaharan african countries.This creates a dismal picture,especially after decades of consistant growth.
    The prominent reasons for malnutrition among children are:

    * Improper Agricultural policy:It is said that in India,Buffer storage is nearly 3 times more than the required strategic levels.These huge stocks are rotting due to lack of storage space and also fuel inflation by crowding out the grain markets.
    * Unsatisfactory PDS:nearly 40% of the PDS supplies are diverted to open market thereby impoverishing poor.Also the current PDS except in Tamil nadu provides only cereals like wheat and rice and not pulses ,edible oil etc needed for bolstering nutrient content of poor man’s food basket
    * Reduced pulses and oilseed production:Due to lack of procurement support for pulses and oilseeds,farmlands are diverted to rice ,wheat and sugarcane.
    * Lack of information:the mothers donot know the importance of micronutrients in building the mental and physical health of children
    * vicious cycle:Usually due to poor status of women ,they are not given adequate care during pregnancy and also during first few months of child delivary.This decreases the nutritional content of mothers milk.Also adolscent girls ,due to gender bias ,donot get proper nutrients .They give birth to weak girls who in future get married and again continue the cycle of malnutrition.
    * Absence of creches:Due to this usually mother is forced to leave the child at the care of elder sibling when she goes out to work.This affects the nutrition of the child.

    Unless measures are taken on warfooting,we will not be able to exploit our demographic dividend ,which inevitablely would become a demographic nightmare.

    • NITISH K

      2)“In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”. Critically comment.

      Barring some minor outbreak of violence ,the linguistic reorganisation of states was largely peaceful.Also the prophecy of the western observers that India would soon become disintegrated into mutually hostile independent states was shown false.The main reason for this was the common bond developed between the people as well nationalist leaders developed in their fight against tyrant British.Also the shared pain suffered by the people by the loss of east and west Pakistan preempted any further misadventure.More importantly the nature of federalism which had a strong center and destructible states, also played a great role in strengthening the unity and integrity of India.Any antinational activity by state govts could be nipped at the bud itself through president’s rule.Also the great role played by statesmen like Pandit Nehru and Sardar Patel also prevented balkanisation of India.

      Now we see that ,many groups are demanding further creation of states on the basis of developmental bias.Some states like chattishgarh ,Jharkandh and uttarakand were created on this basis for promoting development.There is also enduring demand for new states.Prominent examples being Telangana,Gorkaland,vidarba region etc.Here it is difficult to differentiate between genuine aspiration for development versus aspiration of vested interests to gain political power.Is there any guarantee that a separate state would be a harbinger of development?Will the widely prevalent corruption and maladministration cease to exist?Will people have more say in day to day administration?Or will the MLAs represent the people or the party high command?These are the more intrinsic questions that one needs to ask before contemplating further states.

      Rather than more and more states,which will inevitably create more regional parties and thus greater instability in governance,paramount thrust must be empowering the panchayat raj institutions which has the potential for transforming the way people interact with govt.

      • Asha Goud

        Hi Nitish, I think its a very good answer. Conclusion provided is very innovative.

        • Anjali Motghare

          Nitish overall good answer, but I feel question asks whether demand is made on development or not. U did’nt concluded anything about that.

    • NITISH K

      An important reason for malnutrition which I missed:
      Open defecation: this leads to diseases like diarrhea,dysentery etc leading to loss of nutrients and minerals from the body.

  • 22) What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain. (300 Words)
    Malnutrition and undernourishment are used for measuring the nutritional intake of a child and are major part of health indicators. Malnutrition is when a child eats food which does not provide the enough nutrition for growth of his /her potential while undernourishment is when a child does not get the required quantity of food intake and low calorie intake. Both these have contributed for infants’ mortality and morbidity, stunted growth, make them prone to diseases and act as inhabitant to mental and physical growth of a child.
    Many reports pointed out that India has a bulging number (more than 42%) of malnourished and undernourished children. Despite the fact that India boast of having produced record food grains every year, its number of children suffering from malnutrition are also increasing. Many factors are responsible malnutrition :

    1. Accessibility and Affordability : Most part of the population in India have lack of access to food grains either because of high prices in the market or because of poor implementation of PDS which account for major transmission and distribution losses and does not reach the intended beneficiary.
    2. Low nutritional content: While government provide cooked food in all government schools under its mid day meal scheme, the nutritional content in the food in very low or not up to standards. The food storage is unhygienic leading to loss of nutritional contents
    3. Feeding practices: There is a lack of awareness on the part of pregnant and lactating mothers. It has been pointed out that mother’s milk is the most imperative factor which provides protection and helps built immunity. Most mothers don’t eat well during pregnancy and do not breastfed their child during the first 6 months of child birth.
    4. Due to lack of diagnostic and early detection health services, many children suffer from diseases which inhibit their growth. Tough government implement various programs like ICDS but no programme screens children and provide double rations for those who are under nourished.
    All this requires a paradigm shift from child food security to nutritional security, untargeted food supplements to screening of all children from vulnerable groups, promotion of appropriate dietary intake and integrated comprehensive services to improve health and nutrition

    • Kirthi

      Liked your conclusion esp. Paradigm shift from food to nutrition security.

  • Nirmal Singh

    Malnutrition is a lack of adequate nutrition resulting from insufficient food, unbalanced diet, or defective assimilation.This is due to the absence of nutrients.Malnourishment is not having enough food to develop or function normally.Poverty is the main culprit here.

    It is indeed a tragedy that in spite of surplus food grain production, India is home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world.This is due to a number of reasons
    First,the majority of children belongs to SC,ST,identified tribes and Slums which lacks access to government schemes like PDS and other social security programs which requires identification proofs like Adhaar Card.The recent decision of government to extend DBT to food subsidy on basis of bank account ,if implemented would worsen the same.
    Second,The food given under Mid day meal and PDS is mostly rice and wheat which satisfy only partial needs of nutrition.The other nutritious elements like proteins and zinc are absent which causes malnutrition.
    Third,the lack of information and awareness especially in rural areas has compounded the problem.The recent initiative of Health ministry with Aamir khan as brand ambassador to address the same is welcome initiative.
    Fourth,the present issue is intimately linked to mother healthcare,which is abysmal condition considering the fact cases of anemia,insufficient nutrition available during pregnancy is among the highest in the world which translates into malnutrition.Another related issue is low practice of breastfeeding which provides immunity to child in early years.Milk banks can be a good step in this direction
    Fifth,the absence of hygiene,unsafe drinking water and sanitation is a big factor considering the fact India is home to largest open defection which is source of a number of diseases leading to malnutrition.It must be remembered that India share of healthcare to GDP is too low the address the issues.
    Lastly the poverty and backwardness of states has set the ground for malnutrition growth.

  • K Partha

    While Malnutrition is the condition caused by eating too little, too much or an unbalanced diet that does not contain the right quantity and quality of nutrients necessary for adequate nutrition, Undernourishment is the condition caused by insufficient food intake and repeated infectious diseases. Undernourishment results in being underweight for one’s age, stunted, wasted and deficient in vitamins and minerals.When individuals are undernourished, they can no longer maintain natural bodily capacities.

    The production of food grains in 2011-12 was at a record high of 259.32 million tones. Despite the surplus production India is home to one out of every three malnourished children(UNICEF).

    The growth in agricultural production in India doesn’t have the support of an efficient distribution and storage system. Unavailability of proper storage facilities have led to food grains rotting in the storage facility. There have been suggestions to distribute the food grains for free but it might lead to crashing of prices and might be a negative incentive for farmers. So it calls for efficient stocks management, timely offloading of stocks and predictable trade policy.

    Poor feeding of infants and young children, especially the lack of optimal breastfeeding and responsive complementary feeding, along with such illnesses as diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria are major causes of undernourishment. So better implementation of Govt Programmes like ICDS and NMBS which take care of the nutrition needs of the women and the child is the need of the hour. Further More awareness is needed for consumption of healthy food in right amount(balanced diet).

    In India 73% households defecate in the open which is a result of lack of awareness and gap between availability and adequacy of toilets. Open defecation is a major reason for diseases like diarrhea(which can be easily prevented).So greater emphasis on sanitation and strengthening of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan can address this.

    Further the national food security bill/Ordinance if implemented properly can go a long way in addressing the nutrition issues.

  • 23) “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”. Critically comment.
    Balkanization as a geopolitical process which describes the fragmentation of a state into smaller states which are often inimical to each other. When India got independence, it adopted a federal constitution. Despite cultural, lingual diversity, India was declared as Union of States so that India would not disassociate into different states and shall remain as one whole unit. But soon demands were raised regarding creation of new linguistic states. The government appointed Fazal Ali Commission that recommended organization of states on linguistic basis. The States reorganization Act 1956 was instrumental in creating many states on lingual basis.
    However post economic reforms and liberalization, globalization and privatization, there had been a continuous spurt in the economic activities in different part of the country leading to mushrooming of islands of growth in the sea of underdevelopment. This led to a disparity between different regions and disproportionate growth in certain pockets. The prosperity of one region over the other brought back the demand for creation of new states but which is developmental oriented. Every region wanted to reap the benefit of economic liberalization and that led to demand for creation of different states on the basis of backwardness in the economic developmental indicator.
    Nevertheless, the experience of smaller states supported the theory of balkanization because of the growing hostility between different states which are forcefully bound by supreme constitution. The creation of more states, either on linguistic or developmental basis, has led to growing discontent on different issue ranging from water sharing, tax imposition on interstate trade to rise of sons of the soil. The growing intolerance is in fact a clear indication and inclination of the states towards its rejection of the current political system. But as they are bound by constitution and only parliament is the supreme authority to alter the boundaries of states, India is still one entity in which voices have been raised in the form of developmental regionalism.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Sahil,
      i don’t think inter state disputes for river water use is a strong support for the theory of balkanisation of the country. The states in India are not hostile to each other.
      Can you provide an example.?

      • Hi Asha,
        The recent political skirmishes between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over Cauvery water sharing despite of SC directive can be construed as an example.
        The confrontation between Haryana and Punjab over hansi butana canal is another example.Though different mechanisms like constitutional provisions are there, still the problem persist which define a dis-junction between a nation and a state.

      • Further balkanisation, in crude way is fractured nationalism. India share political and territorial unity but lack emotional integration which is expressed by different political vested interest for different political gains or in the form of developmental disparity or on the basis of language. The creation of states should be based on administrative viability and efficiency rather than short term political gains which lead to fragmentation of a nation. One may find himself in limbo when he see India as a state searching for nation or a state of states which are searching for nations.

        • Asha Goud

          Thank you Sahil for your response.
          You have rightly called the disputes as “Political skirmishes” , the disputes relating to distribution of resources are blown out of proportion just to gain some vote bank.
          Regional political parties have emerged in states and since they belong to only one particular state they lack the national outlook.
          Post independence we had one major political party, Congress, and level of co operation among states was higher.

  • K Partha

    During colonial rule the state boundaries were drawn on administrative convenience.But our national movement was in favor of linguistic reorganization. But because of the unpleasant experiences during partition carving of states on the basis of language didn’t happen immediately after independence. There was fear that it might lead to Balkanization (disruption and disintegration) of India.

    The formation of Andhra Pradesh and the struggle in different parts of the country for separate states led to the formation of State Reorganization commission in 1953 and finally 14 states and 6 UTs were carved out on the basis of language. Contrary to the fears the reorganization has actually accommodated the regional demands to a greater extent. It strengthened national unity.

    But now also there are at least 31 separate struggles going on for independent statehood. The demands are made on the basis of the lack of development. But a careful analysis will show that it is due to non-congruence between cultural boundary and administrative boundary. In many cases, the present states haven’t been successful in creating common linguistic, administrative and political identity among the people living within the different regions of the state. For example, the people of Telengana cherish their history and tradition of cultural synthesis as their identity, instead of Telegu language. So there is a demand for separate state.

    So the dynamics of state reorganization are being affected due to the cultural heterogeneity of different regions in a state rather than just the issue of lack of development.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi K Partha,
      i liked the second part of the answer, you put forward a different perspective.
      However you took example of Telengana, can this argument of similar history tradition and culture be for demand for vidharbha.?

      • K Partha

        Hi Asha,
        I am not saying that economic imbalance doesn’t play any role.But this difference is generally felt when the integration hasn’t happened, when a new pan state identity hasn’t been created.Creation of Pan state identity is not always on the basis of relative deprivation, it can be due to variety of reasons like ecological distinctiveness (Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand etc) or ethnical homogeniety (Punjab, TN etc)[This are the states where demand of separate statehood hasn’t happened].

        The issue of Vidharbha is not new. The state reorganisation commission in 1956 had recommended for the creation of “Vidarbha state” with Nagpur as the capital.But finally it was included in Maharashtra state using the linguistic principle. Vidharbha has had a distinct identity since 1853 when Nagpur Province was created by British annexations.

        So I feel its not “just” development concerns which fuel demand for separate statehood.

        • Asha Goud

          Thank you, K Partha.
          You provided a new perspective of looking at the issue to me.

  • riddhu

    In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”. Critically comment

    Post independence the most crucial question facing the nation was of reorganizing the states. SK Dhar commission and JVP committee in 1948 rejected linguistic reorganization lest it would result in linguistic chauvinism and a threat to national unity. Creation of AndhraPradesh in 1953 led to demand on the same basis by other states and finally SRC in 1956 led to redrawing map of India on linguistic basis.

    The experience over the years has been positive, the creation on linguistic ground has not adversely affected federal relations nor has any state out cried any discrimination on linguistic ground. On the contrary it has made education possible in mother tongue leading to wide jump in literacy, and administration in mother tongue has bridged the gap between government and citizens and instead of acting as divider has acted as binder for national unity and has belied the myth of Balkanization.

    Over the time it is realized that certain areas of the state in spite of having the same language as that of the state are visibly underdeveloped resulting in glaring intrastate inequality. Creation of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh and recent demand for Telangana is not on linguistic but on development grounds. So, it is true that development issues are now taking front seat.

  • Anjali Motghare

    Malnutrition: It is state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet.
    Undernourishment: Not having enough food to develop or function normally.
    Undernourishment is arise from the non-availability of food.
    As per HUNGaMA Report 42 per cent children in India stunted, wasted, and underweight.
    India has shown high growth rate for over a 15 years despite that it houses a world’s largest underweight children. Reasons for such horrendous situations are, growth is unequal.
    We have surplus production of food. Large quantities of food grains
    get wasted in government granaries instead of being supplied to hungry people.
    Poverty is one cause and other is supply-chain mechanism.
    Instead of having TPDS its ineffective implentation aggravate the situation. Study finds that most of the time food grain does’t reach
    to intended benificiary. MGNREGA is somewhat successful but it doesn’t add much to income of household. Mead Day Meal does not help infants in the two-three-year age group who are the most vulnerable to nutrition insufficiency.
    Malnutrition is mainly caused by unawareness. ‘In India almost 92 per cent mother don’t have knowledge about nutrition, nor they heard the word malnutrition’ a report says.
    We can allay the situation by changing some our systems like:
    Loopholes in TPDS needs to be removed, hopefully new food bill will address the issue, Its successful implementation can be assured by civil societies participation which will ensure transparency and accountability.
    ICDS shown positive results but, it is facing insufficient fund and manpower, so its penetration needs to be increased by fulfilling its requirement.
    Tamilnadu’s Amma kitchen is a successful programme its implementaion can be extended to whole country as per situations demand.
    Increasing awareness in mother about nutrition via anganwadi workers and ASHA.
    by making agriculture more pro-nutrition by focussing it more on what people living in poverty grow, eat, and need nutritionally.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi anjali,
      i think your answer started right on track but slowly towards the end it shifted more towards food security rather than staying on the issue of child malnutrition.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Hi, Asha Thanks for the comment. I will improve my answer.

  • Asha Goud

    Q What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain. (300 Words)

    A: Malnutrition is a medical condition where the body doesn’t get the required nutrition in proper proportion and therefore can lead to either over nutrition or under nutrition. The condition of over nutrition is seen in developed countries.
    Undernourishment is a type of malnutrition where body doesn’t get the required minimum amount of calories, protein, vitamins for proper growth and maintenance of the body. Undernourishment is a cause of conditions like marasmus and kwashiorkar.

    A survey conducted by WHO worldwide to study the prevalence of malnutrition among children have found that 1 out of every 3 malnourished in the world is from India. The total number of underweight children in India exceeds that in the whole of Sub Saharan countries. Thus it becomes very important to find out the causes and solutions for this widespread malnutrition among Indian children.

    However Malnutrition and Under nutrition are not result of only lack of food but due to lack of proper nutrition and the reasons are wide ranging.
    Health of mother is during pregnancy and after pregnancy are very crucial to the health of the child. In India women working in the unorganized sector work during pregnancy and immediately after child birth as there is no provision of paid leave to them. Therefore the child due to lack of proper care becomes vulnerable.

    Early marriages resulting in early pregnancies, where the girl is not fit for pregnancy gives birth to a weak child and then lack of proper health care leads to malnutrition.

    Due to lack of sanitation and availability of clean drinking water in the slums a large number of children living there are vulnerable to diseases like diarrhea- a major cause of under nourishment among children.

    Lastly India is a food grain surplus country, but lacks in a well functioning PDS. Also PDS adopts a minimalistic approach supplying the basic minimum of rice and wheat, there is no provision for pulses, vegetables, milk which are very important for growth of a child.

    Therefore it becomes very important to focus on the health of mother and child during pregnancy and immediately after child birth. Programs like the ICDS, mid day meals, Janani Suraksha Yojana are effectively implemented through proper training given to the Anganwadi workers and ASHAs.

    • Kirthi

      You have rightly pointed the issue of early marriages which comes in societal context.

  • Asha Goud

    Q “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”. Critically comment.

    A: After India got independence the states that were formed were not based on any particular principle. States were formed by consolidating adjoining Princely states among themselves or with the already existing states.

    The issue of state reorganization was first taken up by constituent assembly in 1948 and commission under SK Dhar was constituted and it rejected language as a principle for state reorganization. But by that time demand for linguistic states had started emerging from all parts of India. Based on the demands of the people states were created based on common languages. It was predicted that linguistic provinces would initiate the process of disintegration of India but instead India as a nation became stronger and stable. The demand of linguistic states emerged from the people and it further strengthen ideal of democracy.

    In the current scenario language is no more the major issue for states as it is already addressed, also certain regions within the states remained backward and neglected. These backward regions demand separation as the existing state has not been successful providing them growth. The state of Jharkhand and Chattisgarh are examples of such states. In the same ways the demand of Telengana, Vidharbha, Saurastra is on the issue of development and the neglect by the existing state.

    • lakshmi prasanna

      good structure

  • Nirmal Singh

    “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”. Critically comment.

    India is federal country with diverse cultures which at large is divided on the basis of linguistic differences.After 1991 globalization and eventual development ,some regions lagged behind development which fueled demand for new states.
    Owing to asymmetries in development people became more vocal about their aspirations.This gave them more political representation which caters to their exclusive needs.In an era where economy decides everything,the demand seems more realistic.The creation of such states will provide them much needed central funds which translates into homogenous development.At the same time it will create level playing field by providing more opportunities in the forms of jobs which majority government hitherto has ignored.This will further address administrative
    The same has given birth to menace of coalition politics
    further destabilizing parliamentary democracy.The coalition politics sustain its existence by creating “empires within empires” risking India unity in diversity.The Naxalism which is termed as biggest internal security threat
    found its origin in demand for development.Further bowing to such demands will fuel from other regions and will promote minority thinking.
    It must be realized that development is more complex function of culture,geography and history ,therefor needs a holistic approach.The tendency towards creating more states should be avoided. The more prudent steps would be to create a federation as exist in US with equal political powers and more devolution of economic powers to states as it
    is lack of funds which fuels such demands.

    • Nirmal Singh

      Please suggest any improvement i think it is missing somewhat but don’t know what

      • Examples are missing. This question was asked after taking hint from Telangana situation.

        Also, mention of coalition politics and Naxalism is not needed here. (though Naxalism apparently stems from grievance of lack of development and host of other reasons, it is irrelevant here – they are not for reorganization of states in India, they want to overthrow the whole system itself)

        Your first paragraph is actually beautiful. It sums up the whole answer.

  • riddhu

    1.What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world?
    Undernourishment is the lack of sufficient quantity of food and malnutrition is not just about quantity but also about right type of food . It can be said that all undernourished children are malnourished but reverse may not be true as many obese children are found to be not undernourished but are malnourished.
    The root cause is poverty which hampers access to right quantity , right quality and right type of food . In spite of surplus food grain production the logistic inefficiency in distribution has resulted in its non availability to the needy which has resulted in undernourishment.
    Policy makers instead of focusing on well balanced diet which consists of not only grains but also of pulses, vegetables and milk and edible oil have focussed merely on food grains which has resulted in malnutrition. Now of course attempts are made to increase nutrition value of food by fortification and golden rice is a good example yet more balancing is needed.
    Poor Indian women in most of the case are inadequately fed and highly anemic and during the time of pregnancy is also over burdened and hence when she gives birth to child the chances of maternal mortality, infant mortality or that of both are high and the child so born suffers from undernourishment from the womb which increases its chance of being stunted, wasted and underweight if it survives. Child labour,lack of access to clean drinking water and sanitation aggravates the situation.
    Mid day meals schemes have done fair yet it also need to revamped and more bothering are recent incidents. The initiatives like giving cash to pregnant and lactating woman so she need not work those days and can feed her self and child sufficiently are worthy yet the findings by the Hungama report and other reports by United Nations reveal a lot has to be done.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    Though malnutrition and undernourishment seem to be similar, there is a subtle difference between the two terms. Malnutrition is lack of nutrition required for proper growth and it can be due to inadequate food intake, intake of food, but lack of essential nutrients in the diet or inability of the body to absorb nutrients from the food. Undernourishment is lack of nutrition essentially due to inadequate food intake.

    The recent UNICEF report states that India has the largest no. of children under 5 facing malnutrition in the world, a whopping 61 million. Malnutrition leads to stunted growth, poor development of brain, underweight and lack of immunity to withstand diseases.

    India’s agricultural output has been increasing in the past few years.There has been difficulty in storing the excess grains produced as India lacks enough storage space for food grains.

    However, the excess food grains and malnutrition should not be directly correlated. As defined earlier, malnutrition is not only because of inadequate food intake but also due to intake of food which does not have all nutrients required for a balanced growth. The major reasons of malnutrition are:

    1. Poverty: As said, inadequate food is one of the reasons for malnutrition. Around 30% of the population in India lingers in dire poverty even by official estimates. Inspite of social welfare programs and schemes like mid day meal, children in India still find it difficult to have 3 meals a day

    2. Lack of essential nutrients in food: The spike in Indian food grain production is mainly in cereals like rice and wheat. Pulses, grams, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds are yet to see such surplus. Hence, the average Indian child’s meal lack proteins, vitamins, fat and minerals which are essential for overall growth.

    3. Lack of awareness: The Indian diet is predominantly carbohydrate based. The importance of including greens, vegetables, milk products, meat, fruits are not widely known to every parent.

    4. Lack of Hygiene: Cleanliness and sanitation are not given due importance. Because of this a large number of children are infected by germs which in turn substantially affects their growth during their vital growing years.

    So India needs multi pronged approaches to tackle this grave problem. Only a well balanced growth during the early years will make a intellectual, healthy and productive citizen. To achieve this objective, impetus is to be given to areas like agricultural production of cereals, non-cereals and vegetables, an efficient distribution system, a mass awareness among the literate and illiterate about the importance of balanced diet and stressing of importance of hygiene through formal and informal education.

    2. India attained its Independence after a painful and bloody partition. The sub-continent was divided into two nations based on religion. The builders of new born India were very cautious that the nation’s unity and integrity should not be endangered by any other ‘ism’ like communalism. Hence, in the decade following Independence, when requests came for dividing states based on language, they hesitated. Thats why, the JPC committee formed initially rejected the linguistic proposal.

    However, the sentiments of the states were too strong and ultimately the states were reorganised based on linguistic basis starting from 1953. Instead of dividing the nation and leading to disintegration, the separation on the basis of language, proved to be beneficial. It made administration convenient too. With time, more states were carved out of existing states also.

    However, the division of states gained a new ideology after few decades. Growth and development began to be cited as reasons for demand for new states. The demand for Telangana out of Andhra Pradesh has been lingering on since decades and has gained momentum in the last few years.

    The geographical area of Telangana is not gifted with fertile alluvial soil as the rest of Andhra Pradesh. The literacy rate is poor and unemployment rate is high when compared to coastal Andhra. Decades of glaring inequality between the two regions has strengthened the demand for a separate state.

    Besides Telangana, there are similar demands from other regions as well. The demand for Bodoland for Assam, Bundelkand from UP are few other examples. The primacy given to GDP based economic growth, the surge in economy in the past decade and inequality that resulted out of it are the main reasons for separate state demands taking root in ‘ growth ‘ ideology.

    • lakshmi prasanna

      good coordination among words 2Q

    • Asha Goud

      Hi keerthi,
      i think the demand for Bundelkhand and Bodoland is not on the issue of backwardness or less development.
      vidharbha could have been an example here.
      K Partha and Nitish have pointed out in their conclusions various reasons other than development.

      • First answer has 429 words and second has 291 words. I gave 300 word limit for the first question because I knew it demanded lengthy answer.

        Please don’t take negatively my repeated suggestion to stick to word limit. In GS writing too much costs very dearly. I won’t be reminding you further 🙂

        By the way it is JVP committee not JPC committe – Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallbh Bhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramaiah were its members.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    2.The reorganization of the provinces of India on linguistic lines had been one of the demands of the Indian National Congress during the freedom struggle After Independence its demand was raised in various parts of the country.. Dhar Commission in 1948, J.V.P. Commission did not favor the idea of linguistic reorganisation of States. The fast and death of Sriramulu, who was demanding the creation of a Telugu state of Andhra Pradesh forced the government to the reorganization of states early In 1953, Andhra Pradesh was created out of Telugu speaking areas of Madras, Bombay and Central Province. It was the first state to be formed on linguistic basis. In 1954 the commission headed by Justice Fazal Ali recommended the formation of 16 states and 3 centrally administered areas for the Indian Union. Based on this the Union parliament passed the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, 14 States and 6 Union Territories were formed. By 2000, 14 states has become 28 states. Now people of bodoland, dimaraji,darjling, harit pradesh, kongu nadu, kosal mithila, purvanchal, telangana ,tulu nadu, vidarbha, vindhya pradesh,etc demanding separate state on the grounds of development. But fact is centralized Economic planning for balanced regional development, can be difficult in the area which is divided into various States .In addition to this states will be susceptible to: disputes among states, terrorism and naxalism, burden on public expenditure, lacks unity and integrity etc
    Finally though committees and commissions appointed by government rejects, still formation of states continued as the priority is based on political benefits. It doesn’t matter much about peoples sentiments.

  • Kirthi

    1.What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world?

    Malnutrition refers to imbalance in intake of nutrients which could result in over nutrition, obesity and undernourishment, where as undernourishment refers to low intake of diet resulting in stunting, underweight, growth retardation etc.

    According to UNICEF , 48% of Indian children are stunted.
    This shows the faulty public health policy

    – PDS/ national food security ordinance has concentrated on rice , wheat which address the problem of extreme hunger but not on vegetable, fruits and vegetables, pulses which improve nutrition status
    – open defection in India is rampant as a result of which nutrients are not sufficiently absorbed irrespective of intake
    – public expenditure on health percent of GDP and per capita public expenditure in India is very low, high out of pocket expenditure push many into poverty
    – existing apparatus concentrates more on curative than preventive aspects, insufficient attention to vaccination
    – more than 70 percent expenditure spend in urban areas, though 69 percent live in villages
    – poor sanitary conditions in villages,slums, absence of piped water supply to majority of villages
    – inefficient PDS – targeting errors,diversion to markets, adulteration
    – illiteracy among parents (ESP women) affects nutrition status of child due to lack of information,importance of early years in growth of child
    – low food intake by pregnant women affects baby and mother which is consequence of widespread poverty

    12FYP working group on universal health care emphasizes private participation in spite of affordable,accessible public provisioning of services. Though incremental steps are taken in form of NRHM,NBA, immunization, provision of piped water supply, much needs to be done and least that can be done is to increase central expenditure 2.5% GDP by end of 12 th FYP as envisaged by working group and concentrate more on preventive than curative aspects.

  • rahul aggarwal

    1)Malnutrition and undernourishment
    Malnutrition is inadequate diet which may be undernutrition,overnutrition or improper balance of various constituents.

    Whereas undernourishment is a situation which mainly results from lack of available resources, undernourishment is a problem mainly prevalent in developing countries ,malnutrition can even in resource rich countries

    though india achieved self sufficiency in food grains during 1970s but even now more than 40% of our children are undernourished. there are many reasons responsible:

    a)improper government policies: government is not able to coordinate between its procuremement and distribution policies. recent critism by supreme court holds significance in which court said on the issue of wastage of food grains due to lack of proper storage that if instead of wasting food grains it can provide it to the needy, but government is not able to tackle this situation.
    although various policies like pds, antyodaya anna yojana ,mid-day meal have been started but they have not produced the desired results due to ineffective implementation. recent incidents like death of 23 children of bihar due to insecticide in mid day meal are a cause of concern and needs expedious solution

    b)maternal health: providing food is not enough for solving undernourishment ,if the health of child is not good since he is born it would be difficult to solve the problem of undernourishment,to solve this the health of mother should be good and proper diet should be ensured for her.
    janani sishu suraksha karyakaram is an important step in this direction

    c) lack of micronutrients in food : extreme poverty is the main cause of this.zinc, iron, calcium are the micronutrients which are essential for good health but they missing in the diet.
    lack of diversification is also a reason for this ,government annouces support prices for rice and wheat ,this has lead to lack of cereal ,oilseeds and coarse grain production
    initiative to promote crop diversification has been taken in this budget

    d)lack of awareness about proper diet: due to illiteracy and ignorance people are unaware about proper diet and ways to address it. thus campaign has to be launched through various media to address this
    step to involve star like aamir khan is a good step.

    thus what is required is coordinated effort by different government departments to solve this serious problem of thge country.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    2.Malnutrition is not a disease it is due to inadequate diet. We are facing this despite of many welfare schemes. Causes for malnutrition in India can be well understood on knowledging about Attappady tragedy. Attapady is an area in Kerala where within two months 19 infant deaths and 52 children deaths due to malnutrition were recorded. People there eat what they can afford to buy. Current diet of women includes rice gruel and rice and tamarind water. Women were malnourished. Health department officials say that a woman should weigh at least 48 kg before she can bear a child. But most women here weigh just 35 to 38 kg. women with such condition bearing a child is highly risk. Majority of infants died were pre-term babies with low weight. This is in spite of having health facilities. Last year 1200 pregnant women were registered in this area last year, only 25 had institutional deliveries; reason is drastic cut of facilities.
    Families use to have land in the past to meet their malnutrition. They lose it on the grounds of land grab methods which are important reason for low nutrition and increased dependence on PDS. On cutting subsidies worsened the situation.
    A PIL filed recently in the Kerala High Court reveals the status of anganwadies. Food supply to it was privatized resulted corruption. Rotten food was supplied to children in 172 anganwadis.
    If this can happen in Kerala, what of those States where governments equally committed to neo-liberal policies do not even have a proper monitoring system?
    Tribal communities want their land back, they want livelihood not charity. Past one year they got 63 days of an average under MGNREGS, delayed wage payments and denied minimum wage. Clearly government has to change their policies, which could have prevented this tragedy. At least now government has to learn lessons from past experiences

    • ecebloggers

      although you made very pertinent points, but i think your answer focused too much on Kerala and Tribals while questions asks for India in general. though in the end you tried to give a general context to it, but a better way would have been to restrict the example to a single para and then elaborate on broad issues that india as a whole faces

      • lakshmi prasanna

        intention is to show that if so called l iterated state condition is this one can anticipate the failure of policies in each step all over India.more over i felt that it works like a case study.
        thank u

        • lakshmi prasanna

          sir anything in writing an answer like this (framing answer on any instance wholly) pls comment

          • You have completely deviated from the question. I understand your intention of giving Kerala’s example.

            But look at the question again. It clearly demands 3 answers. First, difference between malnutrition and undernourishment, second, factors responsible and third is remedies.

            You should structure your answer according to the question.

            You would have just said – Kerala’s Attappady tragedy of death of infants because of malnutrition and supply of rotten food to anganawadi’s because of corruption show that even states with best HDI indicators are worse off when it comes to providing nutrition security to its children”. Add to this Gujarat too.

            There was no need to explain the incident in detail. Word limit matters a lot.

            Question is the key here. If you read and understand the question correctly, half the answer is answered. 🙂

            • lakshmi prasanna

              thank u sir

  • simran

    Malnutrition is the condition that results from eating diet in which certain nutrion are lacking in excess or wrong proportiin .
    In medicinal term it is condition caused by an improper diet. It is technically a category of diseases that includes undernutrition , obesity and micrenutrition deficiency amongs other.
    However its frequently used to mean undernutrion from either inadequate calories or inadequate specify dietary components for whatever reason.
    In India stunted wasted anf underweighted childern are more as compared to the develooed countries. As we know that tese type of problem are natural or common in developing countries, and its inc day by day bcz many factors affected it like maternal health, improper security of govt, adulteration in food grains, lack of awareness, improper govt policies,and the main and major factor which directly and indirectly affected our country in each and manner i.e. corruption.
    Although these are several diff working defination of food security , all time involve in FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION of UNITED NATION currently used following description i.e, food security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economy acess to sufficent safe and nutrition food which meets their dietry needs and food preference for active and healty life. Simillary US also adopted same definatiin i.e USDA of food security access by all people at all time to enough food for an active , healty life. And food insecurity defined by USDA as a household level economics and social cond of limited or uncertain access to adequtae food.
    Acc to UNICEF 48% 8f indian child are stunted. This shows the faulty public health policy.
    i… maternal health: as we know that brain of child started build up in 5 or 6 week of pregnacy so its imp that food taken by mother is 1/4 more than normal routein of the diet . If mother doesnt take proper food its leads to the deficency in the growth of child. !aternql health is very improtant factor which affecting the the health of both maternal as well as child.
    ii… improper security of govt : as we know in rular area where people doesnt have such amt to admit pregnant women in the hospital bcz they are not able to submit the fees of hospital . Due to there this unability they dont admit there women in private hospitals and in govt hospitals doctor doesnt know any thing or some times they are not avilable too bcz govt doesnt give them proper salay .its not a casr of urban area its the case of rular areas hospital. The most imp thing we always notice that govt hospitals are mainly in urban areas why dat so urban people also go for private hospitals but a rular one doesnt go for private hospitals.
    iii… adulteration in food grains : govt takes godd quantity of grains from farmers but when they gives quota for people below than poverty line food grains provide from govt side was so much adulterated .
    In uttrakhand distaster which held there before one an half month its vanish each and every things, at that time food grain provide by people was adulterated in large amt. Why now ministers said the rate of rice and wheat are getting below for people below than poverty line onpy bcz election comes thats why
    Why they dont think on it before ection why they dont think when we elected them why .nd why every times we remind them doing aldulteration in food , life and future of all indians .
    iv,… lack of awareness about proper diet: malnutrion also done bcz of lack of awareness in people its not getting removed by showing some advertise on tv bcz in rular areas people doesnt have a proper money to complete there other needs so from where they get tv if get so too there is not electricty in rular areas.
    There are still may points which are the reson for malnutrion i.e. improper gov policies , lack of nutrion in food corruption but ponting these point is not the result of solving problems ,. As human tehre is still lots of diff in us and people who are poor but still what ever is going on still goes no one can improve it someone had to take a step to improve it. I know its not too easy as i said but still if think if think forever its time to take step toward those people are like us nd they need us…

    • lakshmi prasanna

      good attempt, but can be better. express sentences with limited words to check word limit.

  • Anjali Motghare

    Balkanization was feared due to India- Pakistan partition on communal lines and turning them into hostile neighbours.But sustained efforts of Shri Sardar Patel brought positive results and belied the myth. During
    the national movement of independence itself national leadership felt that independent India should be reorganised on linguistic basis.
    Language is closely related to culture and therefore to the customs of people. Democracy can become real to the common people only when politics and administration are conducted through the local language. This will be possible only when state is formed on such predominant language.
    After Independence immediate though was to consolidate India so national leadership gave the reorganization of states second thought.Issue got prominence with the fast unto death and after passing away of Sri Patti Sriaramalu. Government immediately created the state of Andhra on lingustic basis.
    Success of the Andhra struggle encouraged other lingustic groups. Government appointed State Reorganisation Commission, which gave priority to administration and economic factor but recognized
    lingustic principle.
    State reorganization Act passed by Parliament and 14 states came into being. Maharashtra opposed strongle and finally Bombay state got split into Maharashtra and Gujarat. Then Punjab divide to form Haryana.
    After three decades again reorganization issue came to the fore but on different issues. Hilly region people of UP wanted of their own state. Tribal people of Bihar wanted Zarkhand and Those who championing the cause of workers wanted Chattisgarh. Each of movements supported by regional parties to fulfill their own inspirations too.
    Demand for Telangana, Vidarbha, Gorkhaland, Bundelkhand are on developmental issue, as we observe these areas remain underrepresented in terms of ministers in legislature, government jobs and in administration.
    These regions have no industry, less urbanization and their resources utilized for other parts of states at their cost. Now development is the main basis for the people to demand a new state.

  • ecebloggers


  • cppcontrol

    What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain.

    Malnutrition is the condition that results from the intake of an unbalanced diet or a diet in which proper proportional ingredients are not present. Undernourishment is basically the state of a person or child where adequate amount of food is not consumed leading to lack of essential nutrients in the body.

    India has not been able to completely eradicate the problem of malnutrition. Poverty being the main reason behind this. Adequate quality and intake of food is not been consumed by many infants and mothers as well as pregnant women. Low income households are not being able to consume the right quality of food.

    However, the government has been trying to provide the necessary supply. Various schemes are being implemented to include pregnant women, infants and lactating mothers to have the required nourishment. But it has yet to get the desired results. Main problems in implementing the schemes include the leaky PDS system wherein the intended household are not targeted. Lack of proper nutritional content of the foodgrains, high prices of various commodities in the market, lack of information on the part of the rural households to provide mother’s milk to infants during the first six months which provide immunity to various diseases, proper health care of the infant and care to be taken during pregnancy are some of the issues that needs to be addressed.

    The country needs to invest more in building institutions which will provide for better facilities in this regard. The PRI’s will play an important role in implementing the schemes of the government. Proper diet and nutritional monitoring of pregnant women as well as infants after birth will be helpful. Moreover improving the overall economic condition of the rural people would enable them to have proper choice of food.

  • ecebloggers

    question 2

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are two major challenges that India is facing on health front. 42% of India’s children are malnourished. Malnutrition is seen when a child doesn’t consume a balanced diet leading to deficiency in one or more proteins. Undernourishment occurs when there is a lack of access to adequate food resulting in starvation
    Neglect of public health and lack of adequate investment in health and nutrition is a major cuase for current situation. India spends less than 2% GDP on health. Little attention has been paid towards providing nutritional support to children. It was only in 1990s that the state began providing nutritional support to children in form of mid day meals.
    Another major cause for malnutrition is the unidimensional agriculture policy followed by Indian government. In an effort to address food shortage in 1960s, government emphasised on growth of wheat and rice. This came at cost of decline in cultivation of endemic nutritious crops in different regions. This reduced options of food items for consumption leading to imbalanced diet.
    Starvation is also prevalent in some regions of India. This is a result of leakages and corruption in PDS due to which less than half of the intended beneficiaries get their entitlements.
    There is also a high incidence of child marriages. This has adverse impact on health of women and children. This is because in case of early age pregnancies, there are higher chances of birth of malnourished child. Although several schemes like ICDS, IGMSY, JSSY have been launched to address these challenges, they have failed to address the challenges
    To tackle malnutrition following measures are needed

    1. Increase spending on health and strengthen primary healthcare centers
    2. Expand food basket under PDS to include nutritious food items
    3. Streamline PDS implementation with technology interventions like GPS, biometrics etc
    4. Promote health of women
    5. Focus of ICDS should be more on first 2 years after birth of child since it is the most critical period when child is prone to malnutrition

    • ecebloggers

      any feedback on this answer.

      The question specifically mentioned about food grains. So was it right on my part to also discuss health and social issues in the answer?

  • “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”. Critically comment.

    Reorganization of states was one of the important decision after the independence of India. The states reorganization act of 1956 succeeded the seventh amendment of the Indian constitution. This reorganizational period was largely peaceful as was not expected by many. The result was the creation of a number of states with common linguistic background.

    Decades later the reorganization of states still occur but on the basis of development. With increase in economic activity in India there is a paradigm shift in the outlook of the masses. With increase in the overall literacy rate in the country, people are more aware of the problems being faced by the regions. Economic and developmental disparity among various regions within a state lead to forming of public opinion for change in the dynamics of the state.

    However, the idea of reorganization of a state on the basis of development is still in the nascent stage. Because, formation of states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand has not yielded in overall improvement of the problems being faced by the masses. Issues like bad governance, corruption , despotism, lack of farsightedness are few reasons for this. Lack in overall improvement of facilities like healthcare, education, infrastructure in this newly created states create a doubt in the minds of many regarding the reorganization of states on the basis of development.

    There should be a conscious effort on the part of the political and bureaucratic establishments to provide for better institutional buildings in this newly framed states. Good governance should be the basis for development of these states. Until the poor is being provided with the basic need of food, clothing and shelter, the creation of states on the basis of development would be a myth.

  • Biman Ghosh

    1) What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain. (300 Words)

    When a person fails to take the basic and necessary nutritional elements as a part of food,the body starts to dysfunction and becomes vulnerable to the major life snatching diseases.It affects considerably the nourishment of body and invite dangerous diseases to occupy it.Underweight,poor resistance power,sluggish brain and stagnant body growth are some of evil outcomes of “malnutrition”.
    though.at all age stages,a human body needs nutritional elements to nourish it yet as children’s bodies are in growing stage,they need greater nourishment and higher nutritional foods and therefor the “malnutrition” or “undernourishment” generally refers to the deprivation of these children to basic nutritional foods and proper nourishment.

    According to Planning commission,since 2004-05 onward,our agricultural productivity has been surplus and even we have exported a part of it.despite the surplus agricultural production,In our country “malnutrition” occurs in worse form.our children not only deprived the basic nutrition food but most of them fail to take enough meal,they remains stunt all day long.our notorious infant mortality rate is also a outcome of malnutrition.The chief reason behind it is the lackness of proper policy formation and more importantly,their careful implementation across the country.

    The govt has some plans though.like ICDS,mid-day mil,etc but their implementation suffers.the lackness of accountability further makes them less effective.There have been evident for that the million of tonnes of food grains are still in goodowns being completely wasted due to lacking of executing and monitoring tools.In rural areas,the lackness of infrastructures,like roads,proper storage capacities,effective transport facility,etc. also deemed as a major barrier of such schemes.

    The govt. policies seems also based on “less targeting approach”.
    The downtrodden children from most vulnerable societies form the biggest pie of such “Undernourished people”.despite,its being one of the UN’s MDGs,we see govt has hardly any policy to include them in it’s major malnutrition alleviation programme. They remain out of radius of such programmes by begging or labouring here and there.
    the NGOs are making effort to bring them in such radius of benefits.

    The Diary products,which also could be very useful to keep malnutrition at arm’s lenth also have not access to poor people.dispite being no.1 in dairy production our govt. fails terribly to use dairy products in malnutrition alleviation programs.

    in order to alleviate malnutrition,we have to form policies for inclusiveness,build infrastructures in rural areas a device proper mechanisms to implement them.

  • NB

    What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain

    Malnutrition is phenomena where there is mismatch in intake of nutrients which are required for healthy growth of an individual. This mismatch can be both due to high intake or less intake. An undernourish child has less intake of required nutrients. An undernourish child is at severe health risk physically, mentally and emotionally.

    India has one of the world largest malnourished children. According to world bank report. 47 % of children are malnourished. One in three malnourished child stays in India. This is alarming situation when India has surplus food grain production. However, there are many underlying determinants which results into stunted,wasted, underweight children as a result of malnourishment.

    In India Public distribution system has not worked well. In spite of surplus food grain it has not been able to reach to targeted beneficiary. Further Immediate cause of nutritional disorder is dietary intake and health status. Dietary intake depends on household food security and quality of care available to young children, pregnant and lactating mother.

    Household food security in turn depends on quantity and quality of food available and purchasing power of family. Poverty therefore leads to less household food security resulting into malnourishment. Even if India produces surplus food grain it fails to reach at required houshold. Further diversity of food available is also important for providing required nutrients.

    Further resources of health like availability of public health care service, clean drinking water and sanitation are major determinant for child’s health. Less intake of food lowers immunity resulting into health hazard and unavailabilty of proper health environment further attenuates the problem and vice-versa.

    Furthermore, it has been observed that education status of women is very important determinant of quality child care provided to young child. In India less education, especially to women, unawareness regarding feeding of child results in enhancing malnourishment. Further social status also determines malnourishment, for example since girl child has low status in society, she is at more risk of malnourishment.

    Hence, surplus production of food grain is one overarching factor but there are numerous underlying factor which results into malnourishment.
    Therefore any strategy to tackle malnutrition has to be multi -pronged which includes transfer of diversified food grain to beneficiary, intervention in quality of child care, taking care of lactating and pregnant mother, improving overall health care services including safe drinking water and proper sanitation and also gender sensitization.

  • Asha Goud

    Hello Sir, Please clarify. what does MDG 5 mean ? i couldn’t understand.

    • I intentionally framed the question in this way. Sometimes, UPSC won’t give any clue – here you can at least search internet, but in the exam you must be ready to face this type of questions.

      MDG 5 refers to Millennium Development Goal number 5 – which is about Improving Maternal Health.

      I think this much of clue is enough to proceed. 🙂

      • Asha Goud

        Thank you Sir. 🙂

  • K Partha

    Communist thought in India has its roots in Marxist-Leninist ideology. The Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917 had its impact in India. The Indian Communist party was established in 1924 and worked in close co-operation with other communist movements guided by Comintern. It was able to make inroads into the worker bodies and its activities intensified.

    In 1930’s it aligned itself with the national movement. As CPI was banned many communists joined congress and formed socialist party within congress (CSP).

    The Communists didn’t participate in Quit India Movement and during WW2 established control over AITUC..

    With the shift of the Nehru Govt to Soviet Union the CPI underwent a gradual change: from revolutionary strategy to parliamentary strategy .The 1957 Lok Sabha elections saw victory of CPI in Kerala.

    The 60’s saw division within the communist ranks which led to a split: CPI and CPI (M). CPI remained closer to Soviet while CPI (M) to China though the latter distance itself from it.

    In later years CPI came to be associated with the Congress, the failures and laurels of CPI counted along with that of congress. CPI(M) became popular among rural and urban poor and was successful in forming Governments in West Bengal and Kerala.

    With the disintegration of soviet there was gradual decline of CPI. The opening up of Indian Economy in the 90s seemed like the death knell for the communists. The CPI(M) lost in kerala as well as West Bengal in 2011.

    But in the wake of neo-liberalization it has been observed that there has been a great increase in economic disparities leading to unrest. This sense of relative deprivation is not good in the long turn for the healthy running of a democracy. It is in this situation that the role of communists (prevention of capitalist-monopoly, disapproving the dominating role of MNCs, seeking to strengthen socialist measures, demanding social security legislation for peasants and workers) becomes even more significant.

    • Kirthi

      With the disintegration of soviet there was gradual decline of CPI. The opening up of Indian Economy in the 90s seemed like the death knell for the communists. The CPI(M) lost in kerala as well as West Bengal in 2011.

      – I feel you should have included CPI(M) 3 time victory in Tripura, narrow win in Kerala etc. cause with the continuation of the previous line,it gave a feeling that you seemed to indicate there is no support to CPI(M)/its political future at all.
      But particularly liked the concluding para.

      • K Partha

        Thanks for the feedback. Yeah i shd have included the points.

    • Your answer is very good. You would have condensed it further (though difficult).

  • 1) When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.
    MDG 5 is one of the millennium development goal ,relating to improvement of maternal health, to be achieved by nations across the globe. It calls upon the states to reduce maternal mortality and increase the child birth attended by health care professionals.
    In lieu of its commitment towards these goals , GoI enacted various programmes like Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram which provides medical and economic intervention for both the lactating and pregnant women and Janani Surakhsha Yojna which advocate for free health services and in hospital delivery of the women. Others programs like ICDS seek to allay nutritional deficiency syndrome for pregnant women and talks about immunization program. Further ASHA and ANM have been used to create both awareness about the need for healthy mothers, transition period of atleast 2 years between child birth and door to door delivery to medical services.
    Both private sector and government went an extra mile with flexi maternity leave for working women for upto 6 months.
    Inspite of all these efforts, India is far away from its goal of bringing out MMR to 100 till 2015 and counts a whooping MMR of 212 till 2012. This can be attributed not only economic reasons which are impediment to avail private services but also to social prejudices which are
    1. The birth of girl child is considered inauspicious leading to abortions which often endanger the life of a woman.
    2. Further, girls are often married off in an early stage making them vulnerable to diseases, mortality and morbidity during pregnancy. They do not have the strength to bear child at that early stage.
    3. The pregnant women is required to have maxima rest in final stages of her incubation period but due to patriarchal setup many women are forced to work in household and render their services to male counterpart.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Good answer. you could have added Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana, Janani Suraksha Yojana and Private Sector MSD’s programme which launced in UP, Rajasthan, Jharkhand.

      • Thank you Anjali.
        I have added Janani Suraksha Yojna as a thread in my answer.I donot know much about private sector contribution except leave benefits. What is MSD?

        • Anjali Motghare

          MSD Merck a private sector US firm, works to help mothers.One more point recently govt launched a new program to address MMR in most backward 250 districts, where MMR is high, through already existing schemes with more focus.

          • Yes, i forgot to mention that. Thank you for the help and providing more information. 🙂

    • ajay ahlawat

      You cam also include the point. There is a very less role of women in family planning, main at the will of a male.

      • Hi Ajay
        I will definitely incorporate your point next time. Thank you.

  • rahul aggarwal

    2)MDG 5
    According to MDG5 India has to REDUCE ITS MMR by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 .As per the estimates by WHO,UNICEF and world bank India requires to reduce its MMR from 600 in 1990 to 150 per 100000 live births in 2015.

    As per the latest estimates released by the office of RGI ,the MMR in India stands at 212 per 100000 live births during 2007-09

    Various steps have been taken to improve the situation of maternal health:

    a)JANANI SURAKSHA YOJANA :It provides cash benefits to the mother.

    b)JANANI SISHU SURAKSHA KARYAKARAM:which provides free entitlements to pregnant women including C-section,drugs,free transportation to health institutions and free diet during stay.

    c)the name based mother and child tracking system established to record every pregnant women and child to ensure full ante-natal check ups.

    d)ADOLESCENT SEXUAL REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH strategy for promotion of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls.

    ASHA,ANM play a very important part to successfully implement these strategies so there is aneed to improve their skills and training.

    In India apart from economic aspects ,sociological aspects are also hindering India’s efforts.Some of them are:

    a)Early child marriage is the biggest problem.Adolescent mothers form a big part of maternal deaths.

    b)Lack of use of contraceptives and planning for child birth and spacing between child birth.

    c)Lack of social status enjoyed by women due to which in backward areas they don’t have a say to decide the time for child birth.

    Thus efforts are required both on economic and social front to tackle this problem of maternal health.Educated people ,civil society grops and media can play a significant role yo improve the situation.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Hi, Rahul , you completely missed private sector initiative.

      • rahul aggarwal

        Thankyou Anjali, for your suggestion.I also felt private sector is missing from my answer.

  • riddhu

    To Insights,
    Sir pls give your views on how development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization especially in the light of creation of separate Telangana and its effect on Indian polity and other such movements.Thanks a lot for this site its of a great help.

    • Riddhu,

      The question demanded ‘critical comment’ from you on the statement given in the question i.e,

      “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states. Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”

      When you are asked to comment, you are specifically required to give your own opinion based on your critical observation of the statement. You may find fault in the statement, or you may just concur completely – but you have to register your opinion.

      In this question, you don’t have to agree completely to what the statement is saying.

      First, the first reorganization of states was not completely peaceful (the statement says it was).

      Secondly, is really development taking precedence over language in deciding the formation of new states?

      There are other factors also involved apart from development.

      Important is culture. The plea for creation of Bodoland, Gorkhaland and Coorg are more rooted on the need for cultural identity than development. Coorg is a well to do region and has its own language too.

      Creation of Jharkhand and Chattisgarh were also based on regional tribal identity and the point to be noted is they were formed out of then two most backward states.(regional imbalance was not the sole criteria)

      In the case of Telangana and Vidharbha, both have suffered from regional inequalities. Also, Telangana has its own dialect and cultural identity when it comes to folklore, food, dress etc. Some also felt these were invaded by the dominant coastal culture.

      Uttarkhand was a genuine case where the region was highly neglected and people had to travel from hilly regions to distant Lucknow even for petty needs.

      For this question one can conclude that, though lack of development and regional inequality is an issue in the formation of new states, there are also elements of cultural, political aspirations and perception of ease of administration and governance that are determining the formation of new states.

      • Asha Goud

        Sir can you please help a little bit on the second answer. About communism, its growth and post liberalisation relevance.
        Thank you.

        • Asha,

          I asked this question because it is mentioned in the syllabus (Evolution of communism GS-I)

          This question should be answered in a neutral tone – one should mention both good and the bad Communism has been to India.
          (I may cross word limit – because I want to stress some important points)

          The 1917 Russian Revolution and the formation of Comintern in 1919 gave impetus to the formation of communist movement in India.

          Communists took part in early revolutionary and worker mobilization activities during freedom struggle. To stem the growth of communism the British jailed many leaders under conspiracy cases, such as Meerut conspiracy case. (See Anjali’s answer for more on it)

          Communists didn’t participate in 1930 civil disobedience movement as all its leaders were jailed and later in 1942 Communists stayed away from Quit India movement because they wanted to support Allied Force’s war efforts.

          Communists worked for agrarian reforms and were instrumental in Tebhaga movement.

          In post independence India, Communist party of India actively participated in democratic process. It formed governments in Kerala and West Bengal in 1960s. In 1964 the party split into CPI and CPM, latter supported Chinese communism and looked at Indian democracy as sham whereas CPI leaned towards Russian communism and renounced any further armed struggles.

          In 1967, at Naxalbari, a village in North Bengal, anti-landlord armed rebellion took place and it came to be known as Naxal movement. Later Naxals formed their onw communist outfit called Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). This movement strongly advocates armed struggle and has grown into biggest internal security threat to India in recent times.

          Post reforms era, the importance of Communist parties actually grew in India. They won more seats in the General elections and came close to form their own government in 1996. later in 2004 they were part of the government.

          Communists have strengthened democracy in India -governments in Kerala, Tripura and West Bengal have registered large voter turn outs. Kerala and West Bengal have robust Panchayat Raj systems in the country.

          Their opposition to capitalism though founded on ideology, their governments have not abandoned them entirely. But Nandigram and Singur incidents in West Bengal showed that unless agrarian and worker reforms were in place, capitalism experiments would fail.

          Because of increasing economic inequality, abuse of worker rights, rising tide of communalism, Communism is still relevant today, only if every faction in them participate peacefully and strengthen the democratic process.

          • In one line I should have mentioned important personalities – Dange, Roy, Joshi, Sundarayya, Namboodiripad, Basu etc.

      • riddhu

        Great. Clarified so many concepts. One more request it will be very nice if your view on each question is provided following day because many times we students feel that we have answered nicely but the reality turns out to be different.Thanks again for your benevolent work.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Excellent Points given by you. thanks insight.

      • NIKS

        Sir you are doing commendable job by posting questions daily but can you please post more than 2 question say 3 or 4 from which 1 will be on current affair and other 2/3 on core syllabus of G.S.

        It will great if you post core syllabus question from previous year UPSC optional paper.
        e.g. on topic like “Effects of globalization on Indian society “(G.S.-1)
        question can be ask from sociology optional previous year papers.
        This trick will cover whole syllabus of General studies and aspirant will answer the question almost from every topic of syllabus.

        This is just a suggestion..

        Thank you so much sir….for such a great site which is helping a lot in UPSC preparation

        • Thanks for your suggestion. Yes, I am going through previous year optional papers question papers to get questions. Thing is I am framing them differently based on GS syllabus. Of the 38 questions posted so far, 35 are directly from the syllabus.

          About increasing the number of questions, I am planning to do it after 20th August.

          By the end of November, 90-100 % of the syllabus will be covered. I assure you that.

          Only thing I request is active participation, informed discussion and exchange of ideas (one can devote 2 hours every day to write their answers and read others answers and comment on them – it is extremely useful)

          Looking forward to your active participation. Thank you. 🙂

          • NIKS

            You are simply great sir…. Thanks for prompt reply and such a wonderful initiative of daily answer writing practice.
            I will start writing,replying answers from today only…

  • Abhishek Sharma

    MDG 5 is about improving maternal health. It has two components :
    a) Reducing maternal mortality by three quarters, and
    b) Improving acess to reproductive health.
    To achieve this goal the government fas initiated few measures among which NRHM and Janani Suraksha Yojna are important.

  • Asha Goud

    Q When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.

    A: The Millennium Development Goals (MDG)adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000 unanimously aims at improving basic human development indicators ranging from poverty, education, health and environment.

    MDG 5 is improving Maternal health by taking actions to reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by 75% of its value in 2000. The MDGs require a country specific solutions where developing countries are provided with financial support along with guidance by developed countries and international organizations.

    In India Government has initiated programs with general focus on health in addition to giving specific focus to maternal health. ASHAs under the NHRM work at the village level spreading awareness about various importance issues relating to pregnancy like regular health check ups, institutional delivery, post delivery care and also use of contraceptives. Janani Suraksha Yojana is a program specific to maternal health, promoting institutional delivery. It also has provision of cash incentive, transport facility and post delivery check ups.
    India has a MDG of reducing MMR to 109 per 100,000 live births. In 2010, MMR was 210. A slow decrease in MMR has been recorded. In India the position of women in the society is very weak specially in rural areas. Families do not consider it important to take pregnant women for health check ups from time to time. Absence of roads, transport facility and a health centre in vicinity add to the problems.

    Therefore it is important that Government takes the help of NGOs, PRIs and other stakeholders to spread awareness about Maternal health and related issues.

    • Hi Asha.
      I think your answer lack the sociological prejudices that are hampering the maternal health. Absence of road , transport facilities are infrastructural and economic constraints. Further though families do not take their pregnant women for health checkups, there are human capability in the form of ASHA and ANM which provide door to door services and enumerate various vulnerable women who need special care. ASHA and ANM have been instrumental in bringing many women under the ambit of primary health care centres.

    • rahul aggarwal

      Hi Asha,you have missed the second part of the question which talks about sociological aspect.

  • Nirmal Singh

    The communism has its origin in 1920s with the formation of CPI by MN Roy.The communist movement grew out of economic causes and targeted the propertied classes whether British or Indian. After Independence the growth is particularly driven by Land reforms and class struggle,.Later in 1960 it splits into CPI(M) which took violent overtone in the form of naxalism while other preferred democracy.
    After 1991 India opened its economy.The need for reforms in the wake of globalization became inevitable.The government eased its control by disinvestments ,FDI ,Free Trade and Privatization.Although it created prosperity ,yet it failed to trickle down to marginalized sections of society and instead created classes by huge asymmetries in income level.In this context the relevance of communism can’t be disputed.
    India is a welfare state.A large fraction of society is still underdeveloped and require state assistance.Further the
    government as a trustee of natural resources which are public assets need more state control to prevent exploitation of these as recently happened in coal gate and RIL case.Moreover there are critical sectors like agriculture which need to be protected from free market
    The present state of country suggest that reforms should be complemented with state regulations in public interest

    • Anjali Motghare

      Nirmal, Split in CPI was because of Sino- Soviet issue. Differences were on to whom to support over border issue between two.

      • Nirmal Singh

        Thanks for important point

        • Nirmal Singh

          I think i have missed mentioning parties role and Quit India movement part

  • Anjali Motghare

    Communism grown in India after Soviet revolution. M.N.Roy formed Communist Party of India in 1920. There were efforts to organise people on Communist lines, first with the help of world Comintern but it failed, comrades were arrested as they entered India and charged with
    treason against Emperor. It gained momentum after support of British wing of Communist Party take task into their hands. There were three trials Peshawar Conspiracy, Kanpur Conspiracy and Meerut Conspiracy, which helped CPI to gain some sympathy from people, even Congress
    leadership supported it. Emminet leader plead the trials on behalf of Communist Comrades. In thirties CPI gained some ground but in forties it completely lost as it supported British against 1942 QIM and as it put 17 Nation plan in front of Cabinet Mission. By taking inspiration from CPI there were many minor communist parties formed in India like Forward Block of SubhashChandra Bose, Revolutionary CSP, Bolshevik Party of India and the like.
    In 1964 there arose differences within CPI over Sino-Soviet Border issue and split occurred and CPI(M) took birth. Till then to now CPI losing ground to CPI(M). After liberalization India opened up reforms but it doesn’t affected much to communist ideology. Both CPI and CPI (M) are still a national parties. In 2004 elections CPI(M) had 43 MP’s and CPI 10. Due to leadership deficiency both reduced to CPI(M)16 and CPI 4 seats in 2009 elections. Communist ideology doesn’t declined, but the ineffective government in Kerala and West Bengal lost to other parties. In Tripura three Consecutive win of CPI(M) suggest ideology is still relevant where it delivers.
    If both CPI and CPI(M) bring relevant changes in Party structure and if lead by prominent leader then they can gain ground again. As we see post reform period gap between reach and poor is increasing, so communist ideology can take root in India.

    • riddhu

      good answer Anjali

      • Anjali Motghare

        thanks riddhu

  • cppcontrol

    When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor. What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5. Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.

    MDG is a visionary document with explicit result oriented approach to deal with the specific issues like hunger, poverty, infant and maternal mortality, prevention of spread of HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria and education for all children by the year 2015 along with gender equality and sustainable development. MDG5 specifically deals with maternal mortality ratio and proportion of births attended by skilled health professionals. India’s aim to reduce MMR to 109 per 100000 live births by 2015 is still a challenge which is presently is at 252 per 100000 live births.

    Government schemes like NRHM, ICDS, Janani suraksha yojana has massive inputs in this regards. NRHM deals with improving the overall health services in the rural areas with easy and affordable access to health services, infrastructure development, additional health personal etc. Jannani Suraksha yojana provides for additional cash benefits for the pregnant women. Private sector on the other hand has provided technological help with regards to information and communication.

    Poverty and lack of proper information of the rural people are major reasons for India’s failure to meet the target. Proper drinking water supply and toilets are not available in rural households. Patriarchal society with gender inequality are few factors which adversely impact MMR. The birth of a girl child is seen as a burden in the society. Thus sociological factors impact our pledge to reduce MMR.

    However, with rise in literacy rate and poverty the people would tend to become more aware of the issue. So schemes like SSA are a must and retention of girl child in school along with reduction of child girl marriage would lead to an improved environment in this regard. Institutions like PRI would have to play an important role in this effect. NGOs and SHG along with dedicated health workers like AHSA, ANMs play the most crucial role in reducing MMR in our country.

    • Hey,
      i think the question does not demand the further steps needed to improve maternal health. Poverty is one reason but the government is providing many benefits in the form of nutritional and economic support. Drinking water and sanitation cannot be considered as sociological stigmas faced by society

  • Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.

    Communism played an important role during the pre independence period in India. The CPI was formed after the triumphed of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Bose were inspired by the socialist ideas. However, communists integrated into mainstream nationalist Congress to fight the British and formed the congress socialist party.

    Post independence, the CPI was soon split with a section aligning with CPI(M). Faction of CPI(M) followed a revolutionary path in the 70’s and formed the CPI(Maoists). The former two sections entered the mainstream politics of India while the latter followed an armed struggle. This section has active support from China.

    Post liberalization saw a dramatic rise in the economic activity in this country which led to growth and development. However, many tribal regions in Chhattisgarh, MP, Jharkhand, AP has not seen this growth. In fact, these tribal regions are the most underdeveloped in the country. CPI(Maoists) or the Naxalites have seen this disparity and have continued their armed struggle against the administrative machinery. With support from the masses, the Naxalists have threatened to overthrow the government inflicting heavy causalities. The problem has been the most crucial with regards to internal security of the country.

    Poverty and underdevelopment are the major causes of the growth of the naxalites. Proper developmental schemes to eradicate poverty, hunger, education, infrastructure, employment opportunities,land rights, inclusion of these people in the mainstream along with talks with the leaders of the group can help reduce their grievances. A holistic approach in resolving the problems related to these people is needed at this juncture. However, armed struggle by the naxalites killing hundred of innocents can never be justified and the state should be engaged in dialogues as early as possible.

  • NB

    Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.

    Growth of communism in India can be traced back to freedom struggle in India. Bolshevik movement in Russia was inspiration to various groups to form communist party. One of the earliest founder of communist party was MN Roy during 1920s. From 1935 communist party was working within Congress. But later during World War II they separated and joined Britishers in their war against Nazi.

    After Independence initially party took to violent recourse as it believed that India has not achieved true independence, however it was crushed and later on communist party abandoned violence in 1951. However in 1964, ideological rift between China and soviet Union led to split of party . Pro Soviet faction was CPI and opponents formed CPI(M).

    Liberalization is antithesis to Communist ideology, which believes on classless society and socialism as a means to solution to problems of countries. Communist influence in India is restricted to few states in India. However it is noteworthy that where ever communists are ruling they are not completely committed to strict communist ideology. In current era liberalization and market model is practiced by communist ruled state as well. This is the practical reality today. Further it would not be justified to say that communism has completely lost relevance today because communism as ideology always have concern for weaker and poor section of society. This has been amply observed in various national issues where communist parties bring forth problems of poor section of society. These healthy debate give rise to enlightened and enriching democracy.

  • NB

    Sociological aspect of MMR in India

    1. Still faith and trust in modern day medical treatment has not come in certain areas because of backwardness, lack of education and awareness.

    2. Societal backwardness of women, still women has no autonomy on her body. High dominance of male in taking decision about women. This lead to delays and timely check up is not done.


  • rahul aggarwal

    1)India has played a significant role in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of afghanistan .India’s commitment is reflected in the strategic partnership aggrement signed in 2011.Also India’s development assistance program now stands at around US $2 billion making India the 5th largest bilateral donor in Afghanistan.

    Afghanistan holds importance for India because of its strategic location, peace and stability in Afghanistan could ensure peace in entire south asia.
    India being a victim of terrorism and holding doubtful relations with Pakistan would like to ensure that terrorist outfits donot get a chance to grow again in afghanistan.

    Afghanistan can also become transportation hub connecting south asia with central and west asia.

    The strategy of India in afghanistan after US exit should be of continuous engagement with afghan government and people.

    India should support all the efforts in the direction to strengthen democracy and to establish government institutions in Afghanistan.

    India should keep engaging with immediate neighbour’s of Afghanistan like Iran and Tajikistan on this issue as they can prove a great help to maintain stability in afghanistan.Like India can get access to afghanistan through alternative route(bypassing pakistan) through Chahbahar port of Iran.

    India should ensure that international community donot lose its focus on development process in Afghanistan after US exit.

    Thus India can maintain good relations with afghanistan which would be beneficial for both the countries.

  • Nirmal Singh

    1.The decision of US to withdraw its armed forces has aroused interest of policy makers.India in post 2014 scenario needs a comprehensive strategy considering its stake in Afghanistan
    First,India has huge strategic interests in Afghanistan.The recent signing of strategic partnership agreement is a welcome step.Such steps should be reinforced by building capacity through training of afghani soldiers.Further India need to involve international communities through institution like ADB,UN and countries like China,Russia so as to develop restrain for Pakistan through its involvement with Taliban through Al Qaeda
    as terrorism is global problem.
    Second,the economic stakes are high for India considering the fact that it has huge investments and projects like TAPI.India need to engage china as both stakes in investment are vulnerable due to lack of security.This needs to be complemented by building trade relations with Afghanistan
    Third there is need for building democracy,which is in nascent stage.This requires building parliamentary institutional setup ,India can play a constructive role in this using its experience with democracy.
    Lastly the need for development social infrastructure cannot be overstated as it underpins all development and a important tool to resurgence of Taliban
    The primary role of India should be a facilitation not control unlike happened in Nepal and Bangladesh.This demands respect for sovereignty.It will be win-win situation for both countries in the long run

  • Q. in your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.
    Afghanistan and India share strategic and historical ties. India has a close collaboration with Afghanistan on economic, political and security front. Afghanistan has been ravaged by a decade long war between US forces and Taliban before instatement of a democratic government five years ago. This led to renewed ties between India and Afghanistan.
    The recent increased interaction between both should be seen in light of US decision to withdraw its troops post 2014. India is required to take a lead role in reconciliation of Afganistan and to build its capability because peace and tranquility in Afganistan is necessary for a secure and prosperous region. India shall provide defense assistance in the form of training to Afghan’s military personnel and closely collaborate on military equipment transfer as it can be used to avert any rebellion by Taliban and contain Pakistan and its anti Indian elements.
    On economic side, Indian companies have invested in mining process and India must extend full support for the development of infrastructure through its line of credit. That will enable the Afghan government to provide employment to its vagabond youth and wean away the hold of anti state elements. TAPI pipeline is necessary for energy starved Indian economy and a stable regime in Afghanistan is necessary for this.
    On social front, India would do well to provide education and health care facilities besides creating a skilled labour force through its ITEC programme. India shall also closely collaborate for the acceleration of democracy and strengthening the political dynamics of the country.
    All this requires a coordinated, collaborative, participative approach with afganistan to promote development, strengthen defense capability and create a social base which is literate, healthy and skilled. It will be a win-win situation for both.

  • Q. India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.
    India is facing many challenges to its internal and external security in the form of terrorism, insurgency, naxalism and cyber security threats etc. Terrorism and insurgency is the most potent threat of these as they had been instrumental in nipping the democratic governments in bud and destroying the social and economic fabric of the countries.
    The causes of terrorism are mostly inconclusive though researches have pointed out that it may be due to social and political injustice, dehumanization, nationalism and separatism etc. These groups whether terrorist or insurgent enjoys ideological, religious or cultural etc affiliations. These threads are needed to be faced with iron hand as they stigmatize the people, disrupt normal life and destabilize the government, violate human rights and impede upon the freedom of people.
    The recent terrorist attacks in India pointed out the sad state of affairs in tackling such problems. The main reason is the disjunction between intelligence agencies and local police. There is lack of information sharing and swift action and this deficit is used by terrorist to carry out their operation. Further India has a long boundary and porous borders and there is no close collaboration in averting terrorism and insurgency with neighbouring country except with Bangladesh. The military operation requires support from local people and they must be bought into confidence so that anti national elements do not find a hedge but because of certain draconian laws like AFSPA there is gross human rights violations and illicit killing which only ignite separatist tendencies. India has failed on most of fronts like curbing black money which are used to fund terrorist activities and providing alternative avenues like employment for youths so that they do not take up arms.
    Lack of institutional mechanism like NCTC, close collaboration between centre and state and harmonization between intelligence agencies and local police have render the efforts of the government ineffective.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    1.India’s post 2014 Afghanistan policy depends upon on the status of the country. The vulnerable issues of Afghanistan include inter-ethnic disharmony, pervasive culture of militancy, radicalization, warlordism, rampant corruption, narcotic trafficking, and growing public apathy. On other hand it is trying level best for attaining development which is proved by: girls going to school, security situation is not bad, developmental activities by the aid of international community. Security forces are able to defend from Taliban to some extent. But the post 2014 situations may alter. US may leave some of its forces in afghan, how far the afghan security will be successful in suppressing Taliban activities draws importance, will western countries continue to aid, political changes that may occur, Taliban Pakistan relations, drug trafficking etc. Despite of all these countries like Russia china and Iran are coming front to negotiate with Afghanistan in post 2014. Expecting optimistic conditions India can drive its policy towards Afghanistan in the fields like infrastructure and agriculture development, institutional building, and health care education democratization etc. If the security situation worsens it is better to take part in selective programme’s without involving in its political changes and often making dialogue with government regarding security.

  • riddhu

    Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    India has played a constructive role in promoting economic interaction with Afghanistan, both bilaterally and under the auspices of the Heart of Asia grouping of regional countries. It has provided substantial development assistance, invested in a large number of small projects and a few large-scale infrastructure projects and has provided training to the Afghan army and along with China has won tenders for mining operations .India’s recent decision to renovate Chabahar Port in Iran is a demonstration of its long-term commitment here. Most important is India’s security concerns are related to developments here.

    There are concerned about Afghanistan’s trajectory from 2014, when Western forces are reduced and elections are held. A few recent developments are disturbing major of them are clashes along the Durand Line appear to have intensified recently, and its relationship with Pakistan is strained again and USA’s recent tilting towards engaging Talibans in peace process and treating it on equal footing with democratically elected government which both India and Russia have vehemently opposed. So, India apart from continuing aid must insist on multiparty involvement in the issue and strongly involve other SCO members along with Russia and China who are also wary of fundamentalism here.

    • Anjali Motghare

      riddhu questions asks what should be India’s role post US exit, u completely missed that.

      • riddhu

        Thanks Anjali . True, i unnecessarily written too much about India’s role till now and foucussed on recent incidents of some disturbance there as i thought security must be established there and as there is no dearth of funds development will follow if peace is there.But, observing others’ answers i feel they have written very well and covered all the aspects.This has made my answer only one aspect centric which can be fatal in exam.

        • It is heartening to see among you the eagerness to correct your mistakes and improve. 🙂


    2) India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.
    The recent attack on the Army convoy by militants in Srinagar, serial bomb blasts in Bodh Gaya, the brutal attack by CPI (Maoists) in Chhattisgarh’s Bastar District, and double bomb blast in Hyderabad were attacks on our democratic values and freedom to participate in economic, social and political activities.

    The causes of terrorism and insurgencies can be related to social, historical, cultural, religious, economic, and psychological aspects. some of the important causes are:
    (A)Social: Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic, linguistic, religious or cultural groups, social alienation, racial unrest or ethnical divisions, the differences based on caste, color, place and sex.
    (B)Political: Lack of equality, lack of political freedom, demands of autonomy, Suppressing a community, political exploitation and rule without representation.
    (C)Economic: the absence of land reforms, unemployment, exploitation of landless laborers, poverty and inequality, lack of education etc
    (D)Religious: misinterpretation of the religious ideologies and hate speeches by religious people, and discrimination and differences between various religions often results in real and perceived instances of misunderstanding and injustices.

    Steps taken by government to tackle terrorism and insurgencies are:
    1.Enactment of laws such as, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment (UAPA) Act and Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) for effective prevention of unlawful activities against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
    2.The Minister for Rural Development recently launched a new skill development scheme called “Roshni” for rural youth from 24 most critical left-wing extremism (LWE) affected districts. This initiative aims at skilling and placement of fifty thousand youth.
    3. Centralized monitoring System (CMS) is the new surveillance project which helps government to access phone conversations, SMS, mails etc to prevent possible attacks.
    4.The employment generation scheme like “UDAAN” and “HIMAYAT” in the State of J&K.
    5.Sharing of intelligence through close and effective co-ordination among Central and State level agencies.
    6. Modernization of State Police Forces.
    7.Creation of four regional hubs (Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai and Kolkata) of National Security Guards (NSG) to cover the whole country.
    8.National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID envisaged to link data bases of several departments and ministry for creating actionable intelligence to combat terrorism.
    9.The Central Govt. is continuously assisting the North Eastern States by deploying Central Armed Police Forces to assist the State Police in their counter insurgency operations.

    In conclusion, government may not be fully successful in preventing terrorist activities, as a responsible citizen we can protect our country by not indulging in false propagation against others, by helping police with the information on unlawful activities and abiding by the rule of land to maintain necessary law and order. Thus, protecting and preventing our country from terrorism and insurgencies.

    • Hi dinesh,
      Your answer has crossed the word limit to the extent of 450 words. the question does not require you to enumerate steps taken by the government but a critical analysis and effectiveness of those steps


        sorry for crossing the word limit, thanks for suggestions!

    • Your answer is completely factual. When you are asked to analyze, you should give your views. Here, you should analyze what are the basic causes of terrorism, insurgency and why government’s measure are ineffective so far. And as Sahil pointed out, you have actually answered in more than double the word limit.


        Thank you for the valuable suggestions, will surely incorporate these in my future answers.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    2. India is fighting war on many fronts against its external and internal security threats. Ethnic and religious causes, forcible inclusion of princely states, failure of government to control large scale immigrants, underdevelopment of a region for a longer period and disaffection towards government caused left wing extremism insurgency, and terrorism,
    Left wing extremism objective is to seize power of state through armed forces. They protest infrastructure development and further attract people saying states inability to develop. State response to curb LWE was not appropriate; they deployed forces against naxals but did not educate people and failed to allot rehabilitation packages to make them economically strong.
    North east insurgency rooted at the times of British who used it as a buffer zone and developed Christianity and modern education. After independence people denied merging them into India feeling that they are separate racial group. Resulted ethnic insurgency and anti New Delhi. Strategy used was punishing them, forcible reallocation and military operation. Failed to develop secured civilization.
    Being a Hindu majority nation at the time of independence people of J&K felt they will be suppressed and demanded for independence. On denying Muslim organizations took to terrorism. State did not address their insecure feeling. Delayed responses concreted into communal riots.
    Now at least state should come up with comprehensive strategy which makes the people strong minded unity and integrity as Indians. Also it should convert nation to a stable and secured.

    • Hi lakshmi,
      Your causes are in a very lucid way and nicely written but i think You overlooked the second part which demands you to analyse the effectiveness of government in tackling these menace.

      • lakshmi prasanna

        hi thanks, I’ll improve

    • You should first differentiate between terrorism and insurgency. Mention few examples of each. Then analyze reasons for their birth and perpetuation. Lastly analyze why government’s strategy is not so effective.

      You have content but structure is missing.

      • lakshmi prasanna

        thanks sir, I’ll note. can u suggest about the content of first answer to pls.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Laxmi very good points about insurgency I learned from you, u missed terrorism.

      • lakshmi prasanna

        thanks anjali, u are right I’ll improve

  • Biman Ghosh

    1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss

    The proposed US led NATO force’s exit in 2014 created much anxiety over the foreign policies of various countries including India, on Afghanistan.In addition,the recent developments in Afghan politics,like the reopening of Taliban office in Doha,American inclination towards Taliban,etc. produced enough reasons to make India wary.
    India has invested almost 4 billion US$ in Afghanistan.Its one of the biggest investments,that has been done by any country in Afghanistan.With such a huge investment in Afghanistan Indian diplomats have no options but to ensure the safety of investments,which is only visible if the country gets stable internally and politically.

    On the other hand,the Taliban also cleared its intentions by naming its office as “Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan”,to play a substantial role in Afghan politics in post US exit scenario.If somehow the Taliban comes to power after 2014,it would be worse condition for India to continue its endeavors to bring prosperity and peace in that country.in fact, it will be a setback for Indian diplomacy over Afghanistan.Thus,India’s ultimate goal should be to keep Taliban away at arm’s length from Afghan politics.

    As India has advocated hard for democracy in Afghanistan.India should keep this policy on while addressing Afghanistan issue in international domain. Further, India should also consult With US and various international organisations,like UN,NATO,world bank,etc for help over building of a solid democracy government in Afghanistan. India can also tie-up with China,also a major investor in Afghanistan, over securities concerns on ongoing Projects.India should also make efforts to train Afghan securities forces as much as possible so that Afghan forces be able to counter Taliban attacks.The new elected govt. in Pakistan also seems as a great ray of hope,if India could encash this opportunity.India should press hard to Pakistan for stop giving a platform to Taliban in turn of extending bilateral ties.India through extending solidarity with Iran, also can ensure the declination of Taliban roots in Afghanistan.India should play play multi- dimension diplomacy to be ensure the safety of Indian investments and Afghan interests.Indian diplomats should come up with massive diplomatic proposals to various neighbors of Afghanistan and ofcourse have to maintain the International co-opration over Afghanistan issue.

    • 355 words. You have mentioned valid points but you could have pruned many of them. For eg, mention of Taliban could have been done in 1-2 sentences.

      It is $2 Billion so far. Also, more than UN, NATO,role regional organizations must be emphasized.

      • Biman Ghosh

        sir,perhaps answering questions within the given word limit a major problem we r facing..they need introduction as well as subject content with an impressive conclusions..tough task….need a lot of practice..thanks for ur valuable inputs..

  • Kirthi

    Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    In the aftermath of US exit, a peaceful and stable afghanisatan is is everyone’s interests and India should strive to achieve this.
    Any extremism in Afghanistan will have repercussion in Russia, china, India and is a threat to the region. It will lead to intensification of Uighur riots in xinjiang province which is not in interest of china. India must work for the future development in afghanisatan which must be afghan owned and afghan led within the framework of SCO shanghai cooperation organization of which India, afghanisatan and Pakistan are observers.

    India should provide valuable guidance in the process of democracy and institutions buiding, India should take special steps to promte investments in afghan ( incentives to investors etc.), hasten the process of TAPI pipeline from which it will benefit, north south corridor, provide employment to the youth through investments.
    To prevent subversive elements in Pakistan from attaining strategic depth against India in Afghanistan, India must encourage civilian control over military in pak, work within SCO, and promote trade in the region and integrate all the economies in the region which will incentivize everyone and afghan because of its presence in geostratefic area will benefit from trade routes and transit fee,while at the same time participating in global efforts to mitigate terrorism.

    Development in Afghanistan is the only way to ensure Long lasting peace and india has enormous good will in afghan, india must promote trade in the region that hardwire economies in the region incentivizing everyone in afghan s development.

    • Kirthi

      Should have included protecting indian investment, training afghan forces and a strict action against narcotic trafficking that funds subversive elements.

      • you have already written more. very good answer – first two paragraphs sum up whole answer. Some repetitions are there. Also, question is not just asking what India should do – you should also say what it should not do.

        • riddhu

          good answer by Kirthi. Sir you have said what it should not do in Afghan should also be mentioned.So, pls throw some light on what Ind should not do there.Thanks.

          • India should not be tempted to fill the security vacuum created by the exit of US, i.e, military intervention.

            It should not go alone in dealing with Afghan problem, take Pakistan on board too – to reduce the trust deficit.

            It should not identify itself as supporting one faction as it did during Soviet invasion – deal with all stakeholders. (India supported Northern Alliance, which is now keen to make a come back and have India on their side)

            Should not aid militarily – just maintain the ‘enduring civilizational link’ through social, economical, cultural and educational aid/support – in the long term, these measures win the hearts of the people there.

            Also, none mentioned – BBs/ABC channel survey found that >80 % people favour India’s role and <8 % favour Pakistan's role in their country (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/11_01_10_afghanpoll.pdf)

            Should not use Afghanistan for launching broader regional aspirations.

            You can mention many other points too.

            • riddhu


  • Kirthi

    India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

    India is adversely affected by terrorism, Naxalism, regionalism ,communalism, secessionist movements etc. The reasons for terrorism are historical and failure of INC to effectively develop, propagate and ingrain in minds of people an effective critique of communalism that ultimately led to communalization of people and partition 1947, and India had been left with 500 odd independent princely states in its territory. Ineffective handling of Kashmir issue by UN, Pakistan claiming kashmir by nature of Muslim majority to be its own etc. Naxalism has been influence Mao Zedong ideology, to deal with inequality in society by violence and overthrow of govt.. and redistribute land etc. which has attracted support of tribals, peasants, students etc. who believed it can better their life.

    The apparatus against terrorism is weak evident from Mumbai attacks, where is no coordination between intelligence and police departments. The NCTC is an effective solution that has intelliigence gathering As well as operational responsibilities. Intelligence gathering is a senstitive activity and coordination between central intelligence agencies (RAW,IB) and police hasn’t been effective and explais why it might assume some functions of state police,and to allay state fears, inclusion of DIG in standing council is a good step, and NCTC to be continued under IB( has intelliigence data over decades) and not to rebuild it separately. The proposed central monitoring system should be backed by privacy laws, or like in UK have bipartisan parliamentary oversight by committee and should be held accountable for their misdeeds to them and their expenditure, functionaries etc be controlled by parliamentary committee.( not just executive )

    The only alternative to Naxalism is law and order And development, violent means cannot not be justified to attain just ends. Strengthening PRIs, truly empower them with funds, functions and functionaries, decentraliz based on principle of subsidiary, effectively implement 5 and 6 schedule provisions, respecting GP decisions in environmental clearances, including local people in the development of the region are some ways to lessen its influence.

    • Kirthi

      Can you let us know what to include in the answer
      – should we include indian efforts in dealing with terrorism – NATGRID etc.?
      – and war on many fronts – should we include regionalism, communalism, secessionist tendencies too?
      – or would dealing with insurgency and terrorism would do?

      • Kirthi

        Completely forgot to mention northeast insurgency too.

        • The question is clear – basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and ineffectiveness of India in dealing with them – you should analyze.

          First in a sentence you should write the difference between terrorism and insurgency. mention them in the Indian context. Then analyze their root causes. Then analyze why India is failing in dealing with them.

          Communalism is irrelevant here. It is not terrorism. Mention of cross border terrorism and home grown terrorism should be made (don’t just associate with single religion)

          Then mention about various insurgencies taking place across the country and their causes.

          While analyzing India’s effectiveness in dealing with these threats, you have mentioned good points. Also police reforms (you have gone into much detail), agrarian reforms, addressing regional inequalities, giving political space for disgruntled groups, fighting communalism -( it breeds sense of alienation), strengthening border security, improving infrastructure along the borders, effective diplomacy, effective use of international organizations etc should be analyzed.


    Answer 2:
    Yes it is very true that India is fighting on many fronts such as poverty, economic development, unemployment…etc and terrorism and insurgency is one of those fronts. But question arises where do these come from or why India can’t get rid of them
    Cross-Border terrorism is root cause of terrorism in India. Terrorist camps along POK are training innocent youth by injecting in them seditious thoughts based on religious thinking.If we have to eradicate it we need to improve our watch and strictness on border areas. Youth should be educated to empower rational thinking.Intelligence agencies along with cooperation of state police can tighten border areas.

    Growing differences between government and people led to growth of Maoism,Naxalism,ULFA and other various armed rebellion groups.Government wants development in these areas but some local leaders want their autonomous regions which are mainly tribal areas.
    There is need to find middle way to tackle these insurgencies, as it is rightly said that ” Main casualties of War is Society”.

    State has huge role to play in it because every state knows its people, their thinking,their needs and demands.Also strategically all the locations,areas of concern are well known to State Police. Centre-State cooperation can effectively deal with these situations. High Level Committees should be formed and leaders of these insurgent groups should be invited to have dialog on these issues.There is a need of sustainable development in these sensitive areas. Proper elementary education along with opportunity to pursue higher education in deemed universities should be brought in focus.In the end it should be not be wrong to say that State has big role to play, to provide effectiveness in all spheres to these remedies.

    • Nirmal Singh

      Where is state response analysis and there are other factors which can contribute to terrorism land Insurgency like ideologies.Recommendation you given are good

    • You should get basics right Gagan. Answer is biased and wrong on certain facts too. More depth is needed. The question doesn’t ask what government should, do it seeks why its policy is so far ineffective. (take suggestions in good spirit)


        Thank you for providing suggestions…….i have just started my preparation for next year….hope my answers will improve soon………….

    • S.P.

      we have been protecting our border since independence but terrorist activities have not stopped.Is it possible to stop them completely in those areas where climatic conditions are very harsh.
      How will you educate youth present across the border. Will technology provide the answer. Can technology exert same effect on everyone or on those who live in terrorist camp from their childhood and accept every word of their “Aaka” as words of Allah.
      Please give your thought and also comment on my answer.
      Good day.

      • S.P.

        If terrorists can operate in harsh climatic conditions, then why not well trained and equipped soldiers?

        India should use International fora for creating a positive opinion on its efforts, instead we frequently watch on BBC only the human rights violation stories in J&K, not anything else.

        Again, we can not educate youth across the border, but there are channels in diplomacy which can work behind the scenes to create camaraderie between the people of two nations. Cultural exchanges play major role too. Once again, India should draw the attention of the world to the curricula that’s been taught in schools across the border. There are institutions at the international level to address these issues – we need tougher diplomacy.

        It is Aqah not Aaka.

  • Anjali Motghare

    Afghanistan is strategic partner of India. It is important for India from many perspective, border plus internal security, link to central Asia, part of ring road which is potentially world energy supply chain extended neighborhood, Cross-Border Transport Agreement will ultimately connect East-Asia and Arabian Sea through Central Asia and shares historical ties with India.
    India is the fifth largest contributor in Afghanistan and invested in many
    fields; education, social upliftment health industry and the like. India succeeded in developing a feeling of gratitude in Afghan people.
    After US exit India will need to play important role, for its own concern and for Afghanistan’s stability also.
    India should focus more on development work, as always people prefer development over terrorism and insecurity. On the economic sector India could help establish small and medium enterprises, alternate livelihood programmes. More stress could be on to implement development programmes to address poverty, illiteracy and systemic administrative dysfunction
    Help Afghan forces in training to counter insurgency as it has to play
    more proactive role in building the capabilities of the Afghan security sector.
    Stress for national dialog over transparent and fair election process. It would need to engage present Afghan government and other political groups to ensure free and fair elections.
    AS we can’t expect what will be the exact scenario after US troops withdrawal, India need to utilize a range of diplomatic, military, and economic tools and set clear policy markers to sustain the democratic order and deny the space for the return of the extremists.
    The short term projects could be training of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), particularly its officer corps, the police, paramilitary, and the air force, and also helping to build the justice sector.
    Long term project could be security sector reform and building
    sound civil-military relations for preventing the disintegration or loss of civil control of the army.
    India has done lot in Afghanistan and if to ensure it doesn’t get lost it needs to act on range of available option to help Afghanistan emerge as a sovereign stable and prosperous nation.

  • Asha Goud

    Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    A: The location of Afghanistan is at the heart of Central Asia. Instabilty in Afghanistan will eventually spread to the neighbouring countries. Russia, China, India and Pakistan have a huge stake in keeping Afghanistan clear of insurgencies.

    India has a Strategic Partnership Agreement with Afghanistan. With areas of co operation ranging from security, trade and economic, education, development. India has made commitment to provide $2 billion developmental assistance. Therefore India has focused on providing humanitarian and development assistance and largely kept away from getting directly involved in the fight against the armed struggle.

    In the current scenario when USA is looking for options to get out of Afghanistan as soon as possible it becomes imperative for India to develop Afghanistan Strategy from security perspective. India rejected President Hamid Karzai’s request for providing lethal arms to fight Taliban. However military assistance is very important for keeping the Taliban and al Qaeda under control in the region. For this India should collaborate with other stakeholders in the region and develop a strategy with co operation.

    At the same time India should keep its main focus on developmental assistance as even after the long drawn war since 2001 USA and the NATO are still not successful in controlling the insurgencies. Real answer to the region is development and integration of the nation in the region which has been long left out.

    • Asha Goud

      Q India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

      A India is a unique country that houses large scale diversity in terms of diversity geography, people, culture, religion bound together by historical reasons.

      At present India is facing problem of terrorism funded by outside to destabilse the country and several insurgencies from within like the naxal movement or the insurgencies in north east with demands varying from separate statehood to demands for independence.

      To effectively counter these internal security problems it is very important to understand the nature of problem.

      Left wing extremist movement has developed in certain backward regions of many states. This movement rejects the authority of government, for government has failed them. Government’s initial approach was to control the movement by using force, however it only further accentuated the insurgencies. Therefore the right approach would be to increase development in affected regions. The Integrated Action Plan initiated by government with focus on development.

      In the North East, there are demands for separate states, more autonomy or complete independence based on the argument that the region is distinct from the rest of India and also isolated and largely neglected. Political integration along with development should be focus in this region.

      The Jammu and Kashmir region has its unique problem of demand for independence and cross border terrorism. J&K already has been provided with special constitutional status. The main problem is lack economic development and employment.

      India should strengthen its intelligence gathering institutions like RAW and IB to control the cross border terrorism. A pan India intelligence sharing mechanism should be in place like the envisaged NCTC and NATGRID. Border security should also be focused.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Asha u explained insurgency locations but missed root causes of it and terrorism. With that u haven’t dealt with states effectiveness.

        • Kirthi

          Though state effectiveness is inadequate, liked the structure of answer -LWE,NE,JK

          • Asha Goud

            Thank you Kirthi and Anjali for your feedback. I agree with both of you. My answer is not perfect. I will improve. 🙂

  • Q. Explain the growth of communism in India. Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.
    Communist genesis in India dates back to late 1920s after Russian revolution of 1917. M.N.Roy, a staunch communist was instrumental in evolution of communist and socialist ideology in India. This led to emergence of new leaders like Dange, Singravellu chettiar, Nalini gupta at regional and national level accelerating socialist agenda.
    However its gaining influence led British to declare it a banned outfit. This led the communist ideologues to get into the ranks of Congress in the form of CPI & CSP and later on various blocs developed. They resisted any kind of piece meal approach of the British and organized industrial strikes, Workers and Peasants conferences & developed a blue print for socialist society based upon transfer of all power to people, economic activities to be planned and controlled by state, nationalization of industries, redistribution of land.
    After independence, India opted for socialist agenda as a Directive Principle. The initial period was marked by imminent factionalism between communist party which led to its split. After LPG, CPI as a political outfit started losing its sheen. There has been disintegration of communism as a political ideology and as a party. However, there has been considerable rise in the demand for a new socialist and communist agenda that should balance both growth which is a capitalist imperative and welfare and equitable, inclusive development which is communism prerogative. This has been manifested in the form of grass root mobilization, resistance to different mining , nuclear projects and hydropower plants. New socialist agenda is also expressed in the form of trade union strike against disinvestment of PSE like NLC or resistance from labour unions in maruti plant.
    In conclusion it can be advocated that character of communism has changed from ideology based to need based and it is less organized and more revolutionary and parochial.

    • Feedback please….!!!!

      • Answer is very good. You missed Naxalism. Also mention of split in CPI in 1964 should be mentioned – an important stage in its evolution.

        • Thank you for your response. Yes i forgot to mention naxalism and will incorporate this in my answer. Further mentioned about split in CPI but was not aware of the year. Thank you again

      • Anjali Motghare

        Sahil, one point is very good, demand for new ideology which will balance
        growth and welfare.

  • Nirmal Singh

    2.The specter of terrorism and insurgency are haunting India and are one the biggest challenge India is facing today.Both are born out of different concerns with spatial and temporal variations and need through investigation.
    Terrorism started out in India during 1990s in Jammu & Kashmir is deeply rooted in ideological extremism with support of state actors.It is further influenced by historical reasons like boundary disputes,wars.Pakistan is supposed to be source of all forms of terrorism directed towards India.Ever since Partition of India, 3 Indo-Pak wars and later liberation of Bangladesh Pakistan has changed its response by sponsoring Terrorism.
    Insurgency has multidimensional root causes like Ideological issues non inclusive development ,lack of political representation,social injustice,government policies and political demands.For example Naxalism is influenced by communism ,insurgency in NE India owes to separatist movements.
    Government has responded to insurgency by deploying Paramilitary forces,salwa judam and building social infrastructure like schools ,hospitals but seems to be of little use as evident from recent Maoist attack and extra judicial killings.There is need for shift by switching to more effective solutions like granting 6th schedule status for self governance,right based approach,The recent initiatives to build mobile towers and creation of special groups for negotiations is a welcome step.
    The India has been a soft state when it comes to terrorism.
    The recurrences of terrorist attacks is direct testimony to failure of diplomacy.The situation is further worsened by enacting anarchic laws like POTA,TADA,AFSA and ineffective money laundry Act. The efforts to solve coordination problems by formation of NTC and NATGRID is in doldrums due to widespread opposition.Need of the hour is to exercise counter diplomacy complemented by vigilant inner security.

    • Terrorism increased after 1990, but was started way back in 1948 (attack on kKshmir was a terrorist attack, it was not military offensive). Mention should be made of terrorism in Punjab (Khalistan movement).

      Salwa Judum was a privately formed, but government supported it (now dissolved after SC verdict).

      Otherwise, answer is very good.

      • Nirmal Singh

        Thanks for improvement .Is there any way I can further condense my answer without compromising points.I think i already exceeded word limit

        • Your answer is fine. Word limit – you have exceeded some 20-30 words, may be you could shorten first paragraph into one sentence. Otherwise well condensed incorporating good points.

  • Anjali Motghare

    India has fighting war on many fronts. Neighborhood threat of war,
    Cross border terrorism, internal Maoist insurgency, fake currency, communal conflict, drug peddling, energy security, food security and pandemics.
    National security is a complex spider web and each strand of this web is connected to other strands.
    Terrorism and insurgency is a act of violence that targets civilians to overawe a legally constituted government and people in the pursuit of political or ideologiacal aims.
    The root cause of terrorism are manifolfd. There are environmental factors responsible for terrorism and insurgency. Grievances such as social, political, or economic, with their nature of being real, or imagined, just or unjust, motivate people to resort to terrorism against those who holds power.
    There are ideological factors, terrorist claim themselves “true believer” possessed by will to better society through radical and revolutionary techniques. For Marxist-Leninists-Maoists targets are always the upper rich classes, for nationalists, the targets are always the colonialists, for the religious extremists, the targets are always people of belonging to other religion.
    Psychological/socio-psychological- analysts says some of who join terrorism are mentally disturbed, having imbalanced brain. Some join for a thrill, some to earn money, some to defend their religion or community.
    Culture of violence is another factor. Opposing cultures, being in
    conflict over a period, result in terrorist activities.
    In the Indian context measures to combat terrorism are failed to
    act as deterrent. Constantly after certain gap India witnessed terrorist or Maoist activity like bomb blast, or mass troops killing. Recentaly Bastar attack and Bodh-Gaya blast.
    To overcome terrorism national as well as international support is necessary.Vigilant intelligence agency, high class police force with ultra modern weopons and technolgy are institutional requirement. Economic and regional imbalances would have to be minimized. Citizens need to stop providing assistance to them, instead support administration to curb the menace. Communal harmony is another essential requirement
    to counter terrorism and insurgency.

    • Anjali,

      avoid phrase like – ‘complex spider web’, ‘unbalanced brain’,

      Elaborate?? – “environmental factors responsible for terrorism and insurgency. ”

      “For Marxist-Leninists-Maoists targets are always the upper rich classes” – what about Police?

      Colonialists? – “the targets are always the colonialists,” (difference between imperialism, colonialism?)

      You should structure your answer well. Also, should think if certain phrases are really necessary? (to stick to word limit)

      • Anjali Motghare

        You are very right, I agree with you Insight, actually i failed to differentiate between insurgency and terrorism. I was short of knowledge and thinking on the issue but I don’t wanted to give up so I wrote it. Please elaborate more on it. I know you give in depth knowledge.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Insight please kindly guide me on the, how to structure answer well
        it will be very kind of you. self preparation, so many concepts of mine regarding answer writing are not clear.

        • Anjali,

          You are writing really well. Except that question your answers are good. I will write a separate article on answer writing in 2-3 days.

          One quick tip is – read the question many times. Understand it better. Note down ‘key words’ in the question. If you can do this better then your answer will be organized. Question is the guide to better answer. Please keep writing no matter how you write now. After few days you will wonder at your own answers – they will be lot better. 🙂

  • NB

    1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    Afghanistan has civilization links with India. Being geographically very close to us whatever happens their affects India. United States have gradually decided to exit from their after more than a decade of presence there. In spite of US led forces Taliban is mighty power in Afghanistan today. India has reason to worry because once again Taliban can control Afghan, which will be detrimental to peace in the region.

    India has already stated that any stability in Afghanistan is possible only by Afghan led and Afghan owned process. Before US exit, India need to convince US about danger of collaborating with Taliban. Extremist forces are required to be curbed. India should start making sincere effort to convince other major international players about this sense of urgency.

    India further should continue its development role in Afghanistan, which will develop trust with people of Afghanistan. Further India should also collaborate with Pakistan as well. which is closest neighbor of Afghanistan.
    After exit of US it would be prime responsibility of other stakeholders to help in reconstructing Afghanistan peacefully and defeating extremist forces.

    Indian foreign policy therefore must be aggressive to convince international players to sideline Taliban and led the development in Afghanistan by their own people.

  • S.P

    After 9\11,US government knew what terrorism is? Later NATO led ISAF( International Security Assistance Force) forces were sent to Afghanistan to dismantle terror base and made it free from terrorist’s clutches.Now,US and other have decided that they will withdraw their forces in 2014 and therefore whole world and specially India and neighbouring countries are more worried about Afghanistan’s future.
    India has given assistance to Afghanistan in two ways,
    1)Financial assistance for development project inside Afghanistan. and 2)Training provided to Afghan army so that they could maintain law and order in their country.
    After 2014,though US led western forces withdraw from Afghanistan but that will not be the complete withdrawal.So US influence is not going to end,it will minimize to some extent.Therefore, what India has to do is that it should continue and take steps forward on development and other assistance programme to increase it’s influence in Afghanistan and through Afghanistan to other central Asian countries.
    While doing this India should work closely with other stakeholders like Pakistan,Iran,US and other for overall development of Afghanistan.Such close cooperation is important because whenever India act independently,Pakistan see it as a sign of threat to it’s own position in that country.In near future when India’s need of energy will increase many fold, such close cordial relation can only bring desired result from different projects like TAPI ,IPI etc.
    Today,when India is diversifying it’s export destination, Afghanistan and other central Asia countries will provide good market in future if India take right steps at present.

  • Biman Ghosh

    2)India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

    In entire south Asia,India is one of the countries,which is facing terrible form of terrorism on all of it’s fronts-be it extremism insurgency,cyber terrorism or internal naxalism movements.the country is busy to tackle this menace at all fronts..

    The different kind of terrorism has different causes.The extremism insurgency is the result of growing hostile attitude of our rival neighbors ,especially Pakistan and Bangladesh.They play the card of insurgency and carry out massive terror attacks across the country.Its a kind of dog warfare against India with less cost,yet effective.
    Lacking in cooperation among the intelligence agencies and security forces has been largely responsible to counter such insurgency.the geographical landscapes of Indian borders further increases it.
    Thogh,the govt has taken a number of steps.like installation of HD cameras across the border,forming high Mountain strike corps along Indo-China border yet the less faith of border people over Indian security forces make such measures less effective.In fact,they make the situations ripe for infiltration.

    cyber-terrorism is a new form of challenge,in front of Indian security agencies.In recent years it causes considerable harm to our country in form of loosing sensitive information. These information can paralyze our important sectors,like banking,civil aviation,power,etc. and that’s why they launch offensives at such a large scale.
    despite being a IT hub,the govt. fails to prevent such cyber attacks.lacking of trained manpower can be held as a chief reason.we have very less cyber experts in compares to the US and China.Modern techniques can also play a vital role to tackle this,which we don’t have.Only 40 billion US$ is our defense budget,even in which only a tiny part goes for cyber security.the financial constraints remain in front of defense warriors.the establishment of NATGRID and enacting the National Cyber Security Policy(NSCP) 2013 are of some good steps towards it.
    Our country remains largely vulnerable to various kind of terrorism right from its origin.we have to come up with very innovative and constructive ideas to tackle this menace.

    • Biman Ghosh

      sir,this quisition deserve to get answer atleast 300 words..due to word constraint i had to cut a substantial part of ans. regarding internal terrorism and govt endeavors..i wrote the answer considering the external terrorism…pls clear my doubt…thanks

    • Good that you mentioned cyber terrorism too. But you have spent lot of words on this alone. Answer should encompass all the forms of terrorism and insurgency, and more importance should be given to threats that are considered detrimental to nation as a whole.

      • Biman Ghosh

        Yes sir!..i was dilemma in this question..because i did not know which one to write and which one to exclude..there r lot of issues,Cyber terrorism,Infiltration,regional insurgency,extremism,left wing movements,etc…its a tough task to write a balance anser within wordlimit..thanks for ur as usual great inputs..hats off to u..

  • abhishek

    1)The statement was made by a famous journalist in a conference which became a reason of protest by the backward communities against this biased comment.

    First of all the comment is a biased one which links corruption with certain communities . The comment is irresponsible as the corruption and honesty doesnot characterize any community and they are individual attributes and attempt to generalise them is a direct infringement on the right of equality and right to live with dignity guaranteed by our constitution to every citizen of the country.We have various cases of honest person from backward castes and a dishonest person from a higher classes ,thus any generalisation on this aspect must be avoided.

    The second part which says as long as it is the case indian democracy survives,puts a question mark on the socio-economic situation of the country whether equal oppurtunities to grow are provided to each and every section of society or the backward society still feel alienated due to lack of social status . But this aspect of statement is also wrong and supportive of a wrong trend of using wrong means to remove backwardness.

    The statement also can’t appreciate the various steps taken by the government to improve the situation of backward classes.It also ignores that in the present times there has been a significant improvement in the social status of backward classes ,many of whom have reached to positions of prime minister ,president,speaker of lok sabha and cheif ministers etc.

    Thus on every aspect this statement is irresponsible and have the potential of disrupting the ever increasing feeling of unity and patriotism.This is far from reality .

    • nicely written….can you please provide separate elaboration on second part which talks about survival of republic of India. Thank You

      • Anjali Motghare

        Sahil good answer, in the statements context. Let me correct u, Ashish Nandy is not a journalist, and he said this in Jaipur Literary Festival. He said this sentence over reservations use. Yes in reality those who even don’t need they also using reservation ladder to reach to top.

        • Anjali Motghare

          Above statement for Abhishek not for Sahil.

  • 2)“The basic structure doctrine is an embargo upon the Parliamentary supremacy”. Critically comment. (300 words)
    Doctrine of basic structure was evolved by Supreme Court in Keshwanand Bharti Case in 1973 and held that certain principles cannot be amended by parliament under any circumstances. They are outside the purview of amending power of parliament and any law enacted to bypass those principles will be declared null and void.
    Of late, political executive contended that a parliament is the representative of the people and therefore has the power to amend any provision of constitution according to will and welfare of people. In India, unlike Britain, Constitution and not parliament is supreme, Even the parliament has to work under the provisions of constitution and shall not trespass its mandate.
    Supreme Court held that basic structure include supremacy of constitution, sovereignty, democratic and republican nature of India polity, secular character of constitution, separation of power between 3 organs of government etc. All these features are intrinsic for a democratic, secular setup which is free to exercise in its own capacity. Any political interference for short term gains can jeopardize the security and peace of the country and may compromise the freedom and rule of law.
    Many features like sovereignty is necessary for maintaining independence from any foreign pressure, secular character is indispensable for maintaining communal harmony and a sense of brotherhood and fraternity while republic character talks about democratic head of state, separation of power brings about a sense of stability in political, judicial and social life and prevent clash of interest of various organs. Unity and integrity is necessary to counter nay external threat and for the prosperity and welfare of the people. Any legislation which impede upon these provisions must be dealt with iron fist because compromise on the democratic and sovereign credentials may give rise to internal colonialism, suppression of freedom, gross human right violations.
    Hence in order to encapsulate, doctrine of basic structure in no way impeded upon parliamentary supremacy rather it substantiated democracy and rule of law and accelerated free, fair and participative parliamentary arrangement. Parliament is still the sole authority to enact laws but it must not act malafide and in biased manner.

  • riddhu

    The basic structure doctrine is an embargo upon the Parliamentary supremacy”. Critically comment. (300 words)

    The prudence of our constitution makers lie in crafting fine balance among the three pillars of our democracy: Parliament, Executive and Judiciary. Certainly the parliament is more visible in its functions as it consists of people directly elected by the people of India or representatives chosen by such elected persons. Yet, the parliament is neither supreme nor sovereign like that of Britain due to written constitution, federal nature of polity, fundamental rights and of course judicial review. This makes our parliament to work under boundary and whenever it has tried to cross it judiciary has come to halt it.

    After a huge debate and judgments over years which provisions or part of the constitution parliament can amend especially with respect to wrangle between supremacy of fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy ,the judiciary through its doctrine of basic structure of constitution as laid down in Keshavananda Bharti case(1973) clearly said that constitutional power of parliament under Article 368 does not allow it alter the basic structure of the constitution. The echoes of this doctrine were further reiterated in Minerava Mills case (1980) and Waman Rao case(1981).

    Though the doctrine is not specifically defined, through various judgments : the supremacy of the constitution, secular and federal nature of our polity, judicial review, free and fair election, welfare state, rule of law, principle of equality, independence of judiciary, unity and integrity of nation are laid as basic structure of constitution and hence must not be tempered with.

    The doctrine has strengthened the roots of democracy. It is through this doctrine court has rejected president rule when imposed on ingenuine grounds or continued by promulgating ordinances and thus not holding elections; banned communal manifestoes; preserved principle of judicial review ( 42nd Amendment Act 1976) and thus has prevented parliament from being reckless especially when one party rule prevails.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Riddhu, i liked the introduction very much.
      However the answer did not mention what the Basic Structure Doctrine was.
      In the Keshwanand Bharti case the Supreme Court gave the basic structure doctrine. According to the doctrine there are certain basic features of the constitution which cannot be altered by an amendment in the constitution. A act of altering the basic structure would be equivalent to enacting a new constitution.
      Also supreme court has identified Judicial review as a basic structure, therefore final word regarding deciding constitutionality remains with the supreme court.

      • Anjali Motghare

        riddhu, very good answer.

        • riddhu

          thanks anjali

      • riddhu

        thanks asha. i have mentioned basic structure doctrine in third paragraph yet it will be better if is written immediately after mentioning Keshvananda case.

  • gao

    1) “It is a fact that most of the corrupt come from the O.B.C.s and the scheduled caste and now increasingly the scheduled tribes. And as long as this is the case, the Indian republic will survive.” Critically analyze the statement. (300 words)

    This type questions will never ask in any UPSC exam but we can expect questions relating in & around the basic issues- like corruption&caste,freedom of expression etc- of this type statement from the prominent thinkers like Ashish nandy. am i right?

    • I am aware this type of question will never be asked in Mains. There is a misconception regarding the statement, so would like to know if serious aspirants are clear about it. A neutral, emotion-free answer is expected.

      However, this question is a possibility in the interview.

    • Ya, you are right. It is from Ashis Nandy.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    The issue is caste of corruption. The fact is that most of the Indian population is from under caste communities so chances of forming majority corrupt are natural. Trouble shooting point is looking corruption based on caste. Even people of upper cast people are violating their professional ethics but most of the times bottom of social pyramid are involved. Reasons for this are their socio-economic status which includes
    Economically privileged upper caste is able to develop social network system, where as disadvantaged lower caste lack in it. For using network system and for getting things done they need money, later it is called as corruption but upper caste used network directly in place of money which is not called as corruption. Also as network is in their hands protected well from expose.
    Social groups long term subject to humiliation, dignity politics often trump good governance. So it is seen in politics lower caste people get elected with votes of their caste. After election they get exposure to the whole group and grasp self esteem and dignity. Similarly feels all these years the upper caste looted public money now it’s our turn, leads to corrupt.

    In a survey of politician corruption in 102 legislative jurisdictions in Uttar Pradesh, where caste-based polarization in voting behavior increased between 1980 and 1996, show a decline in the quality of the politicians who win. They find clear evidence of a trade-off between caste loyalty and quality of politicians.

    Again lokpal bill is opposed by most of the minority politicians because they afraid of mass movements, particularly when these are led by upper classes because of threat from them.

    Finally government to maintain equity used strategy like reservations which failed to serve the purpose. So quick steps are needed which develops them from socio-economic disadvantages

    • Hi lakshmi,
      The issue is about corruption of caste and not caste of corruption.Secondly , i am not able to derive any relation between the question asked and your evaluation. You have diverted completely from your answer and went on to talk about politicization of caste and casteisation of politcs.
      i think you should follow this link and understand the basic idea behind the remark and its implication. Even i refereed to this article to understand the topic

      • lakshmi prasanna

        thanks for this keen observation. most of the cases politicians do involve in bigger scams and there comes the caste of the person and i tried to mention reasons for disparities in involvement

        • You are not required to mention the political aspect of caste rather how reservation has led to mobility in social ladder throw sanskratisation. The corruption of higher caste in invisible , while that of lower caste is visible as they have not learned the basic tenets on how to mould the truth in their favour. Corruption is all pervasive in Indian society. Further as long as reservation is provided in employment and education and as it will provide opportunity to hitherto marginalized and socially deprived sections to be a part in policy formulation, increased assertiveness, it will avert any social revolution or caste mobilisation , Indian republic will survive.

  • Asha Goud

    Q “It is a fact that most of the corrupt come from the O.B.C.s and the scheduled caste and now increasingly the scheduled tribes. And as long as this is the case, the Indian republic will survive.” Critically analyze the statement. (300 words)

    A: The prevalence of caste can be traced to 3000 yrs back in history to the Vedic times. Caste was associated with the occupation. However to maintain power and position in the society certain caste declared themselves as superior and created a hierarchy of caste. The higher caste exploited the lower caste since then.

    To ensure that the exploitation is brought to an end the Constitution of India identifies the backward castes and tribes as Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) and provides for reservation of certain proportion of seats in public employment and educational institutes.

    The given statement mentions scheduled caste, scheduled tribes and OBCs along with corruption in the same breath. Corruption refers to an act of abuse of authority for personal gains. Corruption is omnipresent in society. Motive behind the act of corruption is to gain money and power. An act of corruption is always condemned but not necessarily the corrupt person. Acceptance or rejection of a person in Indian society is based on the caste of the person and his economic status in society, where caste is the major determining factor.

    The above statement tries to make an argument that the SCs, STs and OBCs are increasingly committing acts of corruption to gain a position of superiority in terms of money and power as it would provide them acceptance in the society. Also acceptance received in such a way would strengthen the framework of Indian republic.

    However what the statement is trying to put across is highly unjustifiable. Firstly because it labels the SCs, STs and OBCs as the people who are most likely to be corrupt. Therefore questioning the integrity of the whole community on no ground whatsoever. Secondly it tries to justify the acts of corruption on the grounds that it would help achieving equality in society.
    Therefore such statements should be not be made which is directed towards a community and puts them in bad light.

    • Beautiful answer Asha 🙂 Loved it. You have balanced your views well.

      • Asha Goud

        Thank you sir. 🙂

    • riddhu

      really nice answer asha as you have logically linked past beliefs with present ideology which even some
      well learned people are afflicted with.

    • Anjali Motghare

      I was short of thinking on the statement, I learned from you. Great effort.

  • Anjali Motghare

    Basic Structure Doctrine evolved out of two circumstances, one Parliament started amending constitution to often, and two SC shifted its stance in Prasad Singh Deo vs Union of India, Sajjan Singh vs State of The State of Rajasthan and in Golknath vs The State of Punjab cases. In Keshavnanda Bharti case SC pronounced that the Parliament could not distort, damage or alter the basic features of Constitution under the pretext of amending power, is called as Basic Structure Doctrine.
    In India SC is the guardian of Constitution. So it can strike down the law which is contrary to Constitution.
    As per my view Basic Structure doctrine protects the essential features of Constition. Till now if we observe, sovereign, democratic and secular character of polity, rule of law, independence of the judiciary, fundamental rights of the citizens, etc. are some of the essential features of the Constition that have only appeared in the Supreme court’s pronouncements.
    Instead many a times in Parliament ruling party with majority,
    amended Constitution to its fervor like Indira Gandhi’s election validity,
    so its necessary there should be some authority to keep check on government to save Constitution from misuse.
    Constitution does have some essential features which cannot be taken away. Article 13 itself defines some features related to Fundamental Rights. Which is also amended by Parliament to give effect DPSP. Though SC evolved Basic Structure doctrine, it doesn’t struck down valid and essential
    amendments under the doctrines pretext.
    Parliament is a sovereign body and it possesses right to amend the Constitution under Article 368. It can amend any part to give effect DPSP, and SC held valid such amendments, nationalization of banks and the like which are for welfare measures.
    Yet there is no case where SC arbitrarily used Basic Structure Doctrine to invalidate amendments.So it cannot be said that Basic Structure Doctrine is embargo on Parliaments Supremacy.

  • riddhu

    To Insights,
    Sir, as basic structure doctrine is hot favourite question of Upsc pls give your views on the question you have asked.

    • Riddhu,

      I don’t know what more I can add to already good answers written here.

      Yes the Basic structure doctrine is favourite with UPSC. I would like to mention following points regarding this:

      The SC in its 7-6 majority judgement in the Keshavananda Bharati case, brought out the basic structure doctrine in order to protect its own right of ‘judicial review’ and to limit the parliamentary ‘autocracy’ (as put by Justice Radhakrishnan).

      This doctrine should be analyzed keeping in mind the context and the times during which this historic verdict was given. Indira Gandhi government, through 24th and 25th amendments, itself had given unlimited powers to amend the constitution by neglecting/sidelining the Golaknath case’s verdict.

      The parliament where the ruling party has two third or more majority can ‘misuse’ article 368 and even limit the right of judiciary to review laws – this was the main fear that forced SC to formulate basic structure doctrine.

      Now the question is, does it limit the parliament’s power? Theoretically yes, but pragmatically No.

      Yesterday we saw that all political parties, forgetting their differences, unitedly opposed CIC’s move to bring their sources of funding into RTI purview. Imagine what a single party with 400+ seats in Parliament can do to the constitution?

      SC actually observed that ““parliament having two third majority can extend its own life indefinitely and also, to amend the Constitution in such a manner as to make it either legally or practically unamendable ever afterwards.”

      This doctrine is an accountability mechanism – parliament is accountable to the people and to the constitution. Judiciary is the conscience keeper. Constitution is supreme.

      (one analogy I can think of is – “you can conduct plastic surgery, but don’t mess with the DNA – it might lead to the cancer!” – Constitution is our DNA, the blueprint… right?)

      It is a beautiful topic to discuss and debate. You should prepare an essay too on this topic. 🙂

      • riddhu

        Sir, I must say you have a very good command over mains stuff and your views are always enhancing our knowledge and enriching our writing experience.Thanks again.

  • simran

    Its fact that most of the corrupt come from the obc, sc and st. And as long as this is the case the indian republic will survive?
    before strt i would like to give a light on such topic which related to the caste i.e caste is only thing due to which we alwys fought and if we fond ratio i.e 99% about the fight or any corrupt think which was going on only bcz of caste.
    Before i said any thing u told me why always caste and religion too comes in our way? Why ?
    We r democratic we have a right to vote to anyone .indirectly we select the ministers nd they have always a topic which related to the caste and religion bcz they know well that our weakness, they know we ready to fought with each other on name of caste and religion. Even none of them talking about poverty line of people who dont get food for whole day they alwas have topic regarding quotes, reservation , why this if u want to give a benefit for poor peoples provide the facility who belows the poverty line instead of provoking people regarding castes and religion.
    We all r human nd we all created by god its up to us what we say who create us god , allah, jessus its all upto us . When our creator who create each and every thing if he dont many any diff in us so why we, only bcz we get profit wid dat.
    We dont know who create these caste or religion but whom ever create this its not creation its a destruction of human being, bcz caste and religion is only thing which create distruction either in form of terrorism or in form of blasting or in any form.
    Its a issue around 1.8 yr ago i.e in aligarh there is statue of Dr. Ambedkar whoes broke in night and no one knows that who was behind that and as a result there is rally by people and conclusion by them is its done by opposion.
    May be wat ever they think that true but if they r wrong then?
    May be ruling party done that work so?
    But directly and indirectly conclusion is caste nd religion comes in humanity way???
    And saying this that indian republic survive bcz of caste so my perception is its a false satement bcz we all know well dat caste is not a problem , problem is corruption.
    Why sonia gandhi and rajiiv gandhi always do work at the time of election why the bill which was gives by aana hzare only pass rajay sabha, not it goes to lok sbha why? Why only at the time of election there is reduction in rate of food grain why? Why rajiv gandhi elected whereas our constitution say any person have criminal record not stand for election so why law not act on rahul gandhi why? Why Mr. Kalam aor former president not again make president even he is done best work regarding there time period.
    So i just wnt to say blame on caste and religion is not way we all knows well the real reson behind all this is corruption either its a issue of survival of imdian republic or a corruption of person

    • simran

      I m getting confuse regarding second ques plz help me plzzz

      • simran

        There is some mistake by me in ansering above ques is at place of rajiv gandhi there is mame of rahul gandhi

        • hey simran
          is it right to raise questions in the answer itself?

    • Simran,

      I appreciate you for trying to answer this question. But your answer is very immature. Please read related articles on the question given. You should never mention names of political leaders or give opinion on political parties in the UPSC main exam.

      As Sahil pointed out, you are asking the evaluator more questions than answering the main question. Take your time, read well, form an unbiased opinion and answer the question.

      Keep trying – initially we all committed the same mistake.

  • Biman Ghosh

    2)“The basic structure doctrine is an embargo upon the Parliamentary supremacy”. Critically comment. (300 words)

    The “basic structure doctrine” of constitution was coined by the Supreme court of India during the hearing of Keshavnanda Bharti(1973)case.According to this doctrine the supreme court held some part of our constitution as absolute rigid,like,the Preamble,DPSP,the status of Supreme court,etc.which cannot be amended by any kind of legislation.

    the supreme court was convinced enough that these parts of constitution are very essential structure and imperative to keep the original philosophy and right spirit of our people,which was envisaged by our constitutional makers for this country.The basic structure of our constitution reflects the original vision of our country.

    Though,in most of the parliamentary governments across the world, parliament supremacy remains, but in India,under this doctrine,the SC prevents any amendment in this basic structure that can tilt the real vision and philosophy of the constitution and ultimately can have averse effects over the functioning of democracy.It has been created by taking into account all the future potential political scenarios.the SC wants the govt. to be bonded with the moral and real principles of our constitution forever and act as per our constitution allows it to do.It is in fact, to tame the wild horses of .parliamentary supremacy.

    The point to be noted is that, the SC held only that part as “basic structure”,which is either philosophical in nature, which guides the government while formulating policies for country or the guardian in nature,which is very necessary to guard the basic vision and to justify the acts of government in entire constitution.It also secure the source of constitution from where it had been derived.
    Thus,all together the SC ensured the well functioning of democracy as well as preserving the principle values and philosophies of our constitution by defining the basic structure of the Constitution.More or less,its an embargo over the parliamentary supremacy.

    • Biman Ghosh

      sorry sir..i think i have critically analyze the question rather than comment on it.since there is no option for delete the thoughts,so i had to continue with the same answer..pls give ur opinion.

      • Biman Ghosh

        another query…in quistion to critically comment is it neccessary to give a introduction of that topic?..pls clear

        • Ya it is necessary to give introductions especially in this category of questions.

      • It is ok this time. Now you know where you went wrong. Still the answer was relevant.

  • Q. Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.
    Desertification is a kind of land degradation characterized by the conversion of fertile and arable land into arid or dry barren earth. It reduces the natural potential of the ecosystem and has a direct impact on people in terms of vulnerability to food shortages and natural disasters, depletion of natural resources and deterioration of the environment. It has affected around 168 countries in 2012, up from 110 a decade ago and includes India as well.
    Causes of desertification in India are both man-made and natural. Rising population coupled with rising demand for better infrastructure has rendered country facing resource crunch and led to indiscriminate deforestation. It has further put pressure on land for sufficing the food and affluent needs of the Homo sapiens. Other factors that aggravated the situation are unsystematic mining activities in different pockets of country, improper waste disposal on the periphery of urban agglomerates, overgrazing, unsustainable agricultural practices like Jhum cultivation and shifting cultivation etc and use of pesticides. Natural factors include floods, drought, earthquake, soil erosion by wind and water, climate change etc.
    Desertification has economic, social, cultural, environmental implications. It increases the stress of residual agricultural land leading to its over exploitation, thus becoming a vicious cycle of land abuse. It breeds poverty and lessen the productivity of human resource. There has been increased stress on natural resources leading to permanent loss of vegetation and plant species and conversion of large tracts of land into wastelands. This has an adverse impact on biodiversity and imbalances the ecosystem equilibrium. It also leads to frequent natural disasters and adverse climate change due biodiversity loss.
    In a nutshell the causes of desertification rear the consequences and the consequences become the reason in the long run and it has become one of the major environmental problems of modern India.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Sahil why u wrote Homo sapiens, we are developed form of them , not original homo sapiens? good answer.

      • Homo sapiens is modern human being as a species and i used that in context of growing affluent needs of human species

  • Anjali Motghare

    As per govt report over one fourth area is undergoing desertificaton in India.
    Although India’s area only 2.4 per cent of World’s it supports 16.67 of the World’s population and 18 per cent of livestock.
    The pressure on land alone is a major factor in promoting desertification.
    As the human and animal population increases, these stresses will become greater and the demand on natural resources will increase leading to permanent loss of vegetation and plant species.
    extensive cultivation of one crop;
    use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides;
    shifting cultivation without adequate period of recovery;
    industrial and mining activities;
    logging and illegal felling;
    forest fires and unsustainable water management.
    Water and soil erosion lead to land degradation and such land finally
    converted to desert.
    Divergent of land for development programmes;
    industrial effluents;
    loss of vegetation due to draught;
    all the above factors lead to desertification.
    Consequences of desertification:
    due to desertification human habitation and farms encroach upon jungles, so not only plants and animals loose their habitat but it disturbs environment.
    it has severe implications for livelihood and food security;
    it accentuate the poverty;
    increasing desertification upset the ecological balance and ultimately become a danger to human as well.
    Imaginative land use planning, soil reclaimable agricultural practices like organic farming, management of degraded land and the efficient use of water can act as a remedy to a desertification.

    • lakshmi prasanna

      anjali mostly prefer to write in paragraph format avoid points except in cases like panchasheel fundamental rights etc where points are definite.
      thank u

      • Anjali Motghare

        lakshmi this is only not clear to me how to write, please clarify more on it.
        thanks for telling me.

        • lakshmi prasanna

          simple look at ur answer u collected all the points, now divide them into paragraphs introduction + causes + consequences + mitigation or conclusion use this formula when ever u r making answer. in this case u r asked to mention causes + consequences if not this will be replaced by body (discussion or explanation etc) of the question. while making structure please take care their should be flow just like cinema screen plays and connection b/w paragraphs. to get habituate to this practice by observing editorials for expression of views and paragraphing. i hope u understood.

          • Anjali Motghare

            Thank u very much lakshmi.

        • Anjali,

          I wanted to write separate post on it. Ok let me give you some ideas.

          In your answer, there should be many ‘paragraphs’ and each paragraph must contain an ‘idea’. For example, if you are answering the desertification question – in introduction, state the stance of your answer in 2 sentences.

          Next move to different paragraph and give a good amount of space between two. In this paragraph, define what is desertification.

          Next paragraph – start explaining the causes of desertification – continue the flow and in another paragraph give an example.

          Next move to another paragraph and explain the consequences. again in another paragraph give an example that is striking.

          Finally, conclude the answer by explaining what measure have been taken by the government and what more needs to be done (this is your view).

          Anjali, your answers have all the content, just organize them well. The above explanation applies most of the questions.

          If you observe how I explained this to you in paragraphs, you will realize my point. Thank you 🙂

          • But the question doesnot demand anything like measures needed to ward off the adverse impact and consequences of desetification.

            • Ya you are right. That is why I mentioned it in the ‘conclusion’, may be I should have used the word ‘mention’ in the place of ‘explain’ above .
              In the conclusion in 1-2 sentences you can say like;

              ” though government has ABC measures in place, they have not mitigated the problem, so ….’your view’ …is to be done to reduce/stop desertification and its adverse effects”.

              You need relative measures to suggest your own. If you can suggest better conclusion, that is very good. We are all learning here.

              In the body of the answer, anything unrelated to the question should not be there.

              • Ya, that should be a better approach. Thank you

          • Anjali Motghare

            Thanks a lot Insight, beautifully explained, this the art. concept clear. observe my answer on PDS . I tried to apply it and tell me whether it is right or not? Thanks again. My humble request please spend 1 min on my answers and do fault finding I want to reach to five star level writing.
            Thanks again.

    • nice answer….

  • lakshmi prasanna

    Desertification as defined by UNEP in 1992 and adopted by UNCCD is a process of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub humid areas from various factors including climatic various factors including climatic variations and human activities. According to the recent report submitted by ministry of environment to UN one fourth of Indian geographical area is undergoing desertification despite of combat measures.
    The causes of desertification are: change in frequency and amount of rainfall, reduction in vegetal cover, wrong agricultural management practices, cultivation on marginal lands, over-exploitation of the natural resources, excessive grazing, incorrect irrigation practices causing build up of salt in soil etc.
    Environmental consequences:
    Soils in arid and semi-arid regions tend to be fragile, with topsoil relatively thin compared with regions with more rainfall. Loss of topsoil is both a cause and a consequence of desertification. While over-farming removes organic matter from the soil, removing tree cover and overgrazing reduce the amount of organic matter that gets returned to the soil. As soil becomes depleted, it becomes more prone to erosion. Desertification also leads to increased flooding during heavy rains, as land fails to absorb water, further increasing erosion problems. Erosion in turn threatens remaining plant life.
    Human consequences:
    Desertification tends to occur in areas with high levels of poverty. As land becomes less productive, human societies experience higher levels of poverty, food insecurity, water scarcity and disease. As agricultural yields drop or water becomes more scarce, poor communities often react by increasing the over-exploitation of remaining resources. As environmental degradation progresses and human communities become more desperate, crises can develop, including famine, wars and mass migrations.
    Steps to combat include controlling wind erosion, sand dune stabilization, shelter belt plantation, management of permanent pastures and range lands etc.

    • Dr. Ashish

      Nice one..

  • Nirmal Singh

    India constitution provides for welfare of poor through directive policies and assumes right to food (Right to Life) as fundamental right.To implement the same government initiated PDS.
    Being the biggest food distribution programme in the world,it has widest reach and has been proved instrumental in securing the food needs of poor section of society.Recent data suggests that states like Tamilnadu & Himachal Pradesh shown a decrease in poverty levels due to robust PDS system.Further it has hedged poor from fluctuation of free market and has ensured economic and social growth in rural areas by allocating Fair Price Shops to SHGs and other less privileged sections of society.
    The same is not immune to weaknesses.First,except rice and wheat other important items like pulses and oil are left out of its ambit causing malnutrition.Secondly the targeting criteria is somewhat ineffective leaving a substantial number of BPL families out of its preview .The related issue is use of Aadhar cards and other bio-metric methods to provide access without ensuring availability.Third it has been more of a entitlement rather than right on the part of poor.The recent decision to give legal effect to the same through food security ordinance is a welcome step.Fourth the leakages and corrupt practices by diversion of food to free market made it inefficient.Fifth food provided has been of abysmal Quality widely used in Mid day meals programme and ICSD.
    In spite of its deficiencies,it has proved a milestone in ensuring food security and require a makeover .The suggestions of food coupons with inflation indexation,use of ICT,smart cards deserve attention.The need of the hour is give force to reforms lest it becomes too late.

    • Hey Nirmal,
      Right to food is not the only imperative of PDS system and right to consumer goods is the hallmark of PDS system. Further pulses are provided through fair price mechanisms though in a very less quantity. It provide wide ranging good like kerosene , coal, and in some cases ,even cloths at subsidized price.
      Thirdly Aadhar card is poised to bridge the loopholes and better tagetting by Ensuring accessibility and affordability which are the working tenets of PDS (“The related issue is use of Aadhar cards and other bio-metric methods to provide access without ensuring availability”). The issue is not availability as India has enough food grain production
      Fourthly, mid may meal is provided by FCI and not PDS.

      • Nirmal Singh

        Dear Sahil,
        I appreciate you Input .I need to clarify here few things.First,here ‘availability’ is referred not to food grains but to to availability of Aadhar cards which still a substantial chunk of population is lacking .Further Aadhar card has inherent weaknesses. Second i was talking in wider context of malnutrition when referred to absence of diverse basket of different food items apart from wheat and rice, so giving clothes ,coal, kerosene will do no good in this context.Third right to consumer good can also exercised in free market but special purpose of PDS is to feed poor section of society not because of legal consumer rights but their inalienable right to life .The former can be revoked but latter can’t be as it is fundamental.The recent food security ordinance will give legal affect to the same
        I thank you for correction for mid day meal point which as you said is definitely right and it is good to see a healthy discussion going on and hope to continue it……………..

        • Hi Nirmal,
          You mentioned in your answer that other food items like pulses and oil are left out from the ambit of system. This is not the case. There is diversification of food items(Even the Food security bill talks about providing wheat, rice, “pulses” to people through PDS only). You are right that Aadhar cards are not available but still in many parts there is use of ration card and Aadhar card distribution should be given enough time to cover entire population. How can right to consumer goods can be exercised in free markets?Kerosene is regarded as poor man’s fuel and giving them food without providing them the energy security that is required to cook the food will render the very purpose of PDS flawed. If you mean to say that it can happen through new institutional framework, then that will add a new layer of agencies that again would be required to be strengthened. PDS is not a food distribution system(FDS) but Provision of Diversified Services.
          By the way, thanks for your reply and clarifying your stand on most of the things. you are right in your approach.
          One more point, don’t you think that substantial procurement of food grains from the market by government for PDS has led to escalation of prices in the retail market. MSP for wheat is 1350 but we are getting it at more than 2000. MSP for pulses is around 3200 per quintal but in market , the price of 1KG of pulses cost a whopping rs 80/- which will be around 8000 per quintal. Just think about it.

          • Nirmal Singh

            Thanks for timely reply,Consumer rights are best practiced in perfect market i.e. free market but in PDS two things are missing First,poor have no choice but to take whatever government has to offer .There is only entitlement under monopolistic government but no right .Second the grievance readdressal mechanism in PDS is too weak to address the same.There is no effort whatsoever to improve food quality.To say PDS is Pirated(food) Distribution system(must mention here,you have good creativity with abbreviations!) would not be an exaggeration. Moreover I am not against inclusion of non food items like kerosene which as you rightly pointed out is essential for energy security but i am more concerned with non inclusion of other food items namely millets like Ragi ,Bajra. Also you mentioned pulses and oil are included,if that is the case why there is widespread malnutrition?.Except few states like Tamilnadu, Himachal and now Chattisgarh,pulses is not a priority for majority of states .Further I am not in favor of new institutional mechanisms but use of technology like ICT with universalization of PDS can be a progressive step.This will prevent unnecessary diversion.
            As regard to you last question ,PDS is not major reason for price escalation in free market .The rising cost of inputs like fertilizers (produced from natural gas ) ,inflation,middleman,better price by Agro processing companies like chips manufactures are main culprits here
            Universalization of PDS through Food Security law can be good step here.

            • Good Morning Nirmal,
              See free market principles and PDS are contradictory to each other as latter has a socialist tilt while former is capitalist imperative. Further providing choice to the poor to have access to all kinds of consumer goods and food grains at subsidized cost will put huge burden on fiscal management and will lead to magnanimity of the government and will not provide any incentive to the poor to climb the social and economic ladder as they will get everything for free or very low prices. Further low quality food is not because of PDS but because of poor storage standards of FCI. Malnutrition is not the product of availability but of quality. Low quality is the main reason of malnutrition. It is only a Distribution chain and not a storage facility.I think food quality should be improved at the procurement level and maintained at the storage level.
              Again , Food security bill also does not provide millet and ragi etc. It will not provide the right to food but a fixed entitlement of 5 Kg per person per month.
              PDS must be strengthened structurally and most be provided with logistical support. You are right that there is a need to leverage that ICT for better targetting and bridging the lacunae but that will take time for it requires technology to reach last mile and distribution of Aadhar cards on War footing.
              Universalisation of PDS must be done after overhauling the current system and establishing the technological infrastructure.

    • Nirmal, Answer is Beautifully written. Liked the way how you condensed many points.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    The PDS was institutionalized in the country in the 60s to achieve multiple objectives including ensuring stability of prices, rationing of essential commodities in case of deficit in supplies, ensuring availability of basic commodities to the poor and needy and to check the practice of hoarding and black marketing. But it failed to deal malnutrition and death due to starvation. PDS failed to translate the macro level self sufficiency in food grains achieved through green revolution by the country into household level food security to the poor. Quantum of PDS to family is low than requirement. PDS failed to serve poor in the poorer states.
    To address all this limitations TPDS was introduced in 1997 under which two PDS issue prices is granted for BPL at 50% of economic cost and APL families at economic cost. This is for the first time drastic increase in prices. PDS instead of insulating poor from rising open market prices it has become an instrument for pushing up prices. This act narrowed the difference between the free market and PDS price. In some cases PDS price of APL was more than market
    Decentralization of PDS took place in 2001-02 where centre instead of giving subsidized food grains financial assistance is given to states to procure and distribute to BPL. Most of the states opposed this pointing out lack of necessary infrastructure and financial resources at the beginning.
    PDS is also suffering out of leakages and diversion. This is due to inclusion of people who are not eligible, ghost cards,and shadow ownership. Recent surveys showed BPL received 84 % of PDS entitlements, where as APL quota suffering out of leakages this is due to dumping out of excess food grain stocks.
    Recent amendments to Food security bill helps PDS to resolve errors, leakages of APL and wastage of public resources. when the bill comes to force abolishes APL quota and gives entitlements to 75% of rural and 50% 0f urban. Despite of benefits bill has problem like per capita entitlements

  • simran

    Desertification process by which fertile land becomes desert typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropiate agriculture.

    Its a global phenomenon of land degraditiion, which reduces the natural potential of the ecosystem and has a direct impact on people interm of vulnerability to foof shortage and natural disasters, depletion of natural resources and determination of the enviroment.
    As the human and animal population inc, these stresses will become greater and the demamd on natural resources will inc leading to permanent loss of vegetation and plant species.they lead to the conversion of large areas into wastelands and to the frequent occurence of natural disasters.
    1/2 the land of India is now effected by desertification and this impairs the ability of the land to support life.its particularly devastating bczof its self reinforcing nature.

    Causes of desertification done by both climate variations and human activities; complex interation among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factos. Some are:::
    ● extensive cultivation of one crop which lead to toxicity of organic matter
    Farmer changes crops in field as per its nutrient values like when there is pulse in field at that time soil are rich in organic matter.
    ● use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides its prevent our crops from insect but at same time the chemical which spray are attached to crops as well as polute land due to which its fertility get reduce.
    ● farming average land is causing desertification. People are cutting down trees to use them as fuel but trees are only those who bind soil particles and retain their fertility.
    ● industries and minning activies occur once at any place its degrade the land and thus cause desertification.
    ● salination in this due to lack of water for irrigation farmer use canal water which contain salt and this salt deposit in soil.
    ● shifting cultivation without adequate period of recovery.

    Consequences of desertification are::::
    ● soil becomes less usable i.e. when desertification takes place its reduces the organic matter of soil like phosphorus , nitrogen ,etc.
    ● vegetation is lacked or damaged i.e. when its occur it reduce or loss in the fertility of soil ,
    ● cause famine ots occirs bcz use of canal water in irrigation this water contain salt and thos salt get deposit to the soil and cause famine.
    ● people near areas also effect it bcz many times its happen people use land as a garbage nd due to this it degrade the land

  • ecebloggers

    1)Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.

    Desertification is a major environmental threat for India. Desertification is a phenomenon by which land becomes unfit for use. land is a precious asset for many in India since 70% of population is still dependent on agriculture. Therefore there is a need to take measures to check desertification

    Major causes and consequences of desertification are

    1. cause: Unscientific agricultural practices

    consequence: This results in a decline in fertility of soil and over a period of time the land becomes infertile

    2. Excess exploitation of water

    Unregulated use of water has led to water scarcity in several places in India. In the absence of adequate moisture, soil becomes loose and paves way for desertification
    ex: punjab

    3. Illegal mining

    Mining causes severe damage to land. After mining for few years, the land is left deserted and no measures are taken to restore the degraded land
    Ex: mining in aravalli hills

    4. Deforestation

    In an era of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, the need for forest conservation has been disregarded. There have been several violations of forest norms. Forests act as a barrier against desertification. In absence of them, land desertification is spreading at a rapid pace

    There is a need to address these issues to avoid deleterious consequences of desertification .

    • ecebloggers

      @insights if possible, could you provide a facility to upload scanned answers. Since in mains writing on paper quickly and neatly is key to scoring good marks.


      • Ecebloggers,

        You are right that writing quickly and neatly on paper matters. The intention of this initiative is to make you cover whole syllabus, get familiar with all the topics, widen knowledge base and learn to write within word limit.

        Unfortunately there is a limitation to upload documents by viewers – let me see if I can do something about it later.

        If one is good at subject and learns to condense their thoughts, it naturally speeds up your answer when you write on paper. Still writing on papers is advised. Thanks for bringing this up.

      • riddhu

        To ecebloggers,
        You are very right because writing on paper is must not only for speed but also for accuracy as while writing on PC we can easily delete/add/check spell but in exam we have to be very careful. So, I feel it is better to write the answers on paper first and then type on PC, typing 400 to 500 words will not take more than 10 minutes.It will serve the purpose.

  • Nirmal Singh

    Desertification refers to process of conversion of land into desert like conditions causing its degradation. The problem is more acute in India.
    Chief underlying causes are two folds: Climate change and human interference. Climate change includes variability in rainfall,rising temperature ,reversal of winds like El-Niño which is further accelerated by anthropogenic changes like industrialization,use of unsustainable agricultural practices like pesticide and fertilizer use,urbanization,global warming ,forest fires ,jhum cultivation,mining,deforestation ,overgrazing and irrigation which causes water logging and eventually soil salinity. It must be emphasized here that both climate change and human interference are interrelated in a subtle way and form vicious cycle. For example industrialization leads to global warming causing temperature rise which ultimately leads to climate variations.
    Being a agrarian economy,desertification has huge ramification for India.The existing cultivable land is under pressure to ensure food security for rising population.This has adverse socioeconomic
    consequences for farmer community .More land will be under risk due to soil erosion.Water non availability will be yet another challenge as land become arid resulting in no ground water recharge.The loss in productivity will result in economic loss further intensified by import of food and inflation as MSP will increase.
    We need multipronged strategy addressing underlying causes.India being a signatory to convention on desertification can leverage international support.This calls for adopting sustainable approach and scientific use of land through community participation

  • simran

    PDS ( public distribution system) is an Indian food security system. Established by the govt of India under the ministry of consumer affairs, fuel qnd public distribution and manage jointly with state govt in India , it distributes subsidized food and non food items to India’s poor. Major commodites distributed like staple food grains, such as wheat ,rice , sugar, kerosene, throug a network of public distribtution shop also known as RATION SHOPS established in several states across the country. Food corporation of India, a govt owned coorporation of India, a govt owned corporation, processes and maintain the public distribution system. In term of both coverage and public expenditure, it is considered to be the most imp food security network.

    Fuctions of public distribution system in india has provode so many facilites they are as follows::
    Facilities related to the product generation –
    AF, FEP, PF_HS, IPFs
    Facilities related to the product administeration-
    ARF, DF
    Faclites related to the supervision-
    Facilites related to the user service-
    Facilited related to the suoport of operation-
    PQF, ESF

    Limitation of PDS
    Public distribution system support in NFS adhere to the convention used in MVS. For eg you can’t have more than 1 member of PDSopen for output at a time. If u try to create, remove , remame or write a member of PDS while another member is open for output you get a permission denied message.
    A PDS member stays open for the time out specified in the appropriate time out for processing attributeoruntill you try to create or write to another member.

    • What are the full forms of different abbreviations used by you in your answer?? You should have mentioned the functioning in a paragraph form. I think your limitations are limited to the extent of functioning of NFS law which is still to become reality. You should have mentioned about the hitherto limitations of PDS

      • simran

        Thnx for rply i’ll be surely tale care of these things ehich point out by ur side thnx for the rply

  • Anjali Motghare

    Public Distribution System (PDS), assures food security and its objectives are i) price stability, ii)price support to farmers, iii) making grain affordable, through distribution from food surplus to food deficient region and to the people in the country. PDS offers to stabilize prices of food-grains as well by procuring after harvest when prices are low and releasing food-grain at the time of shortage in the market.
    PDS was set up in 1965, and operated under joint responsibility of state and central government. Central government has the responsiblity of procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of essential commodities namely wheat, rice, sugar, edible oil and
    kerosene to the states. These commodities are made available at fixed Central Issue Prices, which kept lower than original prices, means subsidised by the Central government. The State government has responsibility of distribution through a network of fair price shops.
    The PDS, however has not been very successful in providing food security to the poor. Over the years its importance has been diminished due to steep and frequent increases in procurement prices. The real beneficiaries of the large increase in procurement prices have been the surplus farmers of wheat and rice in four states. AP, Punjab, Haryana, UP, which are major rice and wheat producres.
    PDS also failed in its another objectives of food security of the people. The quantum of PDS supply to each household formed only a small proportion of a family’s total requirement. States with the highest incidence of poverty like MP, Orissa,Bihar, UP have lowest per capita PDS off-take. The universal PDS thus did not serve the poor well especially in poorer states.
    A need for targeted system arised and in June 1997 Targeted Public
    Distribution System launched. Govt fixed different prices for APL & BPL families. PDS prices were hiked. Most of the time market prices are lower than the APL prices, because of inefficiencies in the FCI operations, whose charges are high for handling and storage. Over the years off-take of foodgrains under PDS has been declining which is reduces market supply and push up prices.
    Stock of food grain is higher than required level, and extra stock maintained at an enormous cost to the nation, and somewhere lack of proper storage leads to spoilage of food grain. So nation is facing twin shock, malnutrition and semi starvation death despite of huge stock and extra subsidy burden to maintain the extra stock of food-grains.

    • Anjali,

      In the first line itself you are giving objectives without defining what is PDS. Also, there is no need to mention 1,2,3 in the first line itself. You have also contradicted your answer in the very first sentence – you say PDS is a food security measure but its objective is to bring price stability and price support to farmers!

      First paragraph is very important – it tells evaluator what the rest of the answer is all about. So, play it safe. Here you would have just mentioned what is PDS and moved to next paragraph mentioning its objectives.

      Again, your answer has very good points – but scattered here and there. See below your modified answer (I have not added single extra word to your answer, just rearranged it – also you have crossed word limit!)

      Public Distribution System, set up in 1965, and operated under joint responsibility of state and central government, assures food security and its objectives are making grain affordable, bring price stability, price support to farmers – through distribution from food surplus to food deficient region and to the people in the country.

      PDS offers to stabilize prices of food-grains as well by procuring after harvest when prices are low and releasing food-grain at the time of shortage in the market.Central government has the responsibility of procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of essential commodities namely wheat, rice, sugar, edible oil and kerosene to the states.

      These commodities are made available at fixed Central Issue Prices, which kept lower than original prices i.e, subsidized by the Central government. The State government has responsibility of distribution through a network of fair price shops.

      The PDS, however has not been very successful in providing food security to the poor.
      Over the years its importance has been diminished due to steep and frequent increases in procurement prices. The real beneficiaries of the large increase in procurement prices have been the surplus farmers of wheat and rice in four states. AP, Punjab, Haryana, UP, which are major rice and wheat producers.

      The quantum of PDS supply to each household formed only a small proportion of a family’s total requirement. States with the highest incidence of poverty like MP, Orissa, Bihar, UP have lowest per capita PDS off-take. The universal PDS thus did not serve the poor well especially in poorer states.

      A need for targeted system aroused and in June 1997 Targeted Public Distribution System launched. Government fixed different prices for APL & BPL families. PDS prices were hiked. Most of the time market prices are lower than the APL prices, because of inefficiencies in the FCI operations, whose charges are high for handling and storage. Over the years off-take of food grains under PDS has been declining which is reduces market supply and push up prices.

      Stock of food grain is higher than required level, and extra stock maintained at an enormous cost to the nation, and somewhere lack of proper storage leads to spoilage of food grain. So nation is facing twin shock, malnutrition and semi starvation death despite of huge stock and extra subsidy burden to maintain the extra stock of food-grains.”

      I think it looks better now. 🙂

      Have a look at Nirmal Singh’s answer. It is very good.

      • Anjali Motghare

        ya 5 star answer now, thanks a lot, I realised I didn’t think before writing, I will improve today itself. Thanks a lot again.

  • Asha Goud

    Q Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.

    A: Desertification is a process where fertile land is converted into desert or an unproductive land due to land degradation. It can be due to environmental factors or human interventions. Arid and Semi arid areas are most vulnerable to desertification. India has majority land under arid and semi arid region.
    Causes of desertification can be deforestation, improper agricultural activities and polluting industries.

    Deforestation is a major cause of land degradation that makes soil vulnerable to wind and water erosion. Also land looses its moisture, useful microbes and organic content that contribute to its fertility. In India due to large demand of land forest are targeted for agriculture, industries, habitation and mining.

    Improper agricultural activities like over use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, over irrigation, practice of slash and burn etc. With the advent of green revolution, modern agricultural practices are adopted in an indiscriminate manner. Plains of Punjab, Haryana and eastern UP are now facing threat of land degradation. Also over grazing in arid and semi arid areas leads to desertification.

    Polluting industries that dispose off hazardous waste into are increasing in numbers. As a result the river bed looses fertility and turns barren.

    Apart from this deserts have a natural tendency to spread with wind like the Sahel region bordering Sahara Desert and the eastern Thar, if proper measures are adopted like creating a green belt on desert margins, it can be controlled.

    Desertification has direct impact on the fertility of soil, as a result it adversely impacts agriculture and food production. In India a majority population depends on agriculture for employment, also to provide food security to the increasing population of India it becomes imperative to bring more land under cultivation and avoid land degradation through proper intervention.

  • Asha Goud

    Q Analyze the functioning of PDS in India and bring out its limitations.

    World’s largest network of Public distribution system in functioning in India. Government provides cereals (rice and wheat), sugar and kerosene under PDS.
    PDS starts from procurement, to storage, transportation and includes distribution.
    PDS works with collaboration of central and state government. The central government procures rice and wheat from directly farmers at MSP. Food grains are stored by FCI and distributed to the states according to their requirement cost is borne by the central government as food subsidy.

    The state governments have the responsibility to the BPL and Antayodaya beneficiaries and build a structure for effective distribution to the people, like providing ration cards and ration shops.

    Food distribution is of very crucial importance and therefore effective monitoring of the whole mechanism is vital.

    PDS system has come under criticism for lack of proper implementation. Certain states like Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Chhattisgarh are performing very well. However in many states it is found that food grains marked for PDS are sold in open market. Therefore there are leakages in the system at various stages.

    Government does not have a food policy and a framework in place for managing the large amount of food grains procured. Therefore Food grains rot in the open due to lack of storage and a policy for distribution.

    From the perspective of economics, the food subsidy that government provides under PDS becomes a huge burden on the country’s finances due to improper implementation.

    Identification of BPL is not carried out properly. As a result many needy remain out of BPL list and fake beneficiaries are created for diversion of food grains.

    States that are effectively implementing food distribution are adopting practices like geo-tagging of transport vehicles, introducing biometric ration cards, regular inspection to check quality of food grains being distributed.

  • cppcontrol

    Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.

    Desertification is a type of land degradation where a dry region becomes increasingly arid, thus losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors like climate change and human activities and hence is a global ecological problem

    In India, desertification takes place in dry land areas where the earth is especially fragile. No rainfall and harsh climatic conditions like drought lead to destruction of topsoil followed by land’s ability to sustain crops, livestock or human activity. Also, over cultivation exhausts the soil while overgrazing of land by livestock strips the soil of its grasses. Moreover, deforestation for fuel or construction materials continues which results in soil erosion. With decrease in the ground water level due to heavy consumption for agriculture has also led to ground water depletion. Removal of livestock or wildlife from an area under human influence is also a major reason for promoting desertification.

    Desertification adds to and worsens the impact of climate change. Deserts in Western India are increasing at an alarming rate. Hundreds of acres of lands are becoming arid and semi arid and dry lands are becoming sand dunes. This means lesser amount of land are available for agriculture, livestock rearing and allied activities that provide livelihood to sources to many people. Desertification cuts the availability of food and water even as population of our country is increasing. It also causes sandstorms which wipe out large portion of habitual lands. Aquifers vanish and there is a great reduction in biodiversity of the region. Moreover, dusts from dry lands blows to the urban places causing a lot of health related problems when inhaled.

    Battle against desertification is a long term commitment and investment. Reforestation should be encouraged to mitigate the issue. Preservation of water along with its minimal use of water should be practiced. Countries like India should integrate its poverty alleviation programs along with strategies to fight the menace. The soil and land preservation issues needs to be prioritized and mainstreamed. Funds from climate change mitigation should also be diverted. Techniques like agro forestry, farmer managed natural regeneration, community programs like degraded land for grazing, growing fast growths plants, raising tall trees and to prioritise foresty programme are some of the measures required for fixing and stabilizing sands.


    Regionalism is ideology which demands or craves for separate entity to particular region due to its distinctive culture or other reasons. Regionalism in India can be traced by the fact that India has 28 states and 7 union territories.In 1950’s first states were born on the linguistic basis when AP was born due to fast unto death by Potti. After that this phenomenon gains pace and many areas gained statehood.

    India is home to diverse cultures and languages.Also due to vast expense of India there is need for smaller states so that government can implement its policies or decisions effectively. People of particular region has their own distinctive culture and languages, as long they felt proud of that it is normal but when their local political leaders begins to use that as excuse for separate state or autonomy to gain political advantage than it does some damage.Nationalism and regionalism is two separate things but when there is polluted atmosphere based on religion or political bifurcation of areas then they began to conflict.

    Significance of Regionalism in India is immense due to the fact that India has – many religions, cultures, languages,ethnic groups, castes,different ideologies..etc.So there is need to maintain unity among them, so by decentralization or by creating new areas to safeguard their culture regionalism has played important role.Regional Parties can have confidence of people who belonged to their region and can contribute towards region’s progress.As long as there is positive motive behind the regionalism ideology in India no harm could be done to India’s integrity and unity.
    Please tell my mistakes so that I can improve in those areas as I am a new player of UPSC. Thanks

  • Anjali Motghare

    UN officially established in 1945 with the aim to prevent future world war;
    to provide a platform for dialog to resolve global and international conflict;
    to facilitate cooperation in international law, internal security, economic
    development social progress and human rights; and with the overaraching goal of ensuring world peace.
    No institution claims to be perfect at any point of time and there is always room for improvement. The situations in world have been changed over a period of time. So to remain relevant to changing needs UN reforms are necessary.
    Further there are institutional shortcomings in UN’s structure. The Security Council most powerful organ of UN have Unequal representation and functions in closed doors.
    Its five permanent members dictate the rules of UN and carry on its business the way they like. UN is not a sovereign body, it doesn’t have its own finances and army. These hinders its functioning in impartial way.
    India being the third largest contributor to UN’s peacekeeping missions supports enhanced role for the UN in development and development cooperation dialog. It wants UN to be guided by the principles of transparency, non discrimination, consensus.
    With regard to the reforms in the Security Council India seeks for wider representation as present Security Council revolves around the industrialised nations while majority of the UN members belong to developing nations and hardly addresses their problems.
    India favours an expanded but democratically constituted and a more representative Security Council which would enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy. It favours expansion of UNSC be based on agreed criteria rather than predetermined relations.
    It wants expansion of both the permanent and non-permanent member categories,demographically and geographically represented.
    India is instrumental in forming G4, with Brazil, Germany and Japan.
    They demands permanent seat in Security Council for themselves. These countries also pushing for the inclusion of more countries in UNSC, based on two principal criteria: the contributions made by countries to maintaining international peace and security; and increased representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent categories. India feels it qualifies for the UNSC on both counts.
    Apart from this India also putting effort to build consensus on UN reform through bilateral and multilateral dialogs with other countries,and most of the countries support India’s bid for permanent seat at UNSC.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Insight introduction is one paragraph, setting went wrong, I ‘ll take care of it in next answer, please check there is improvement or not?

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Anjali, the later part of answer is well written you have included all important points and also I can see you are incorporating all the suggestions made by Sir. 🙂

      The introduction could have been shorter and more focused on UNSC. Sahil has written a good introduction to this answer.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Ya actually i misread question, I read only UN so that happened.
        Thanks for cooperation. If u get time always suggest me for improvement.

    • Yes there is a lot of improvement 🙂

      • Anjali Motghare

        Thanks Insights

  • 1) Why is UNSC reforms needed? What are India’s concerns and views about it? Explain.
    UNSC is the principle organ of United Nation Organisation and it has fifteen members: five permanent and 10 temporary. Its mandate is to establish international peace and security. Its power include, inter alia, establishment of peace keeping forces, passing of different resolutions and approving sanctions. The five permanent members wield the veto power regarding the action of United Nation.
    In recent times, there has been demands by various nations for a more transparent, representative and efficient functioning of UNSC. Many other questioned to the legitimacy of the veto power retained by P 5. It has been contended that there is concentration of power in the inner wheel of UN and any resolution can be vetoed by those members according to their own interest. Further, it does not represent the changed geo political equations in international order and does not promote the interest of certain countries which have gained special economic and political potential. Different groupings like G4 comprising of Germany, India, Brazil and Japan have been formed for accelerating the process of UN reforms and promote each other bid for permanent membership. The reform calls upon the UN to incorporate atleast one permanent member from Africa as no member of the continent is currently represented in the permanent body of the UNSC.
    India concerns are with the aforesaid problems faced by UN. India considers itself as one of the emerging global power and contributes about 16% to world population. Interest and voices of new emerging power must be incorporated for making UN more participative and democratic. Further there is a need for structural change in the Veto holding power of UN members. India views the problem with a pragmatic solution by going for reforms of the council by increasing strength both of permanent and temporary members with India as one of the permanent members

    • Anjali Motghare

      Sahil, good answer.

  • 2) What is regionalism? Critically comment on its significance in India.
    Regionalism is an ideology driven by pursuing for gaining the territorial rights or acceleration of interest of a specific region. Regionalism in India is a product of multiple factors and has great significance in its politico-social sphere as India is a diverse country and every region has a unique culture, language, history etc.
    Regionalism in early 1950s to 1960s questioned to the power of centre, mobilizing masses to go for secession. Starting from Tamilian movement to Khalistan movement all started with regional aspirations which got converged into nationalist aspirations. It has led to imminent split of the nation. It glorified certain matters related to water dispute, classical status of a language, questioned the presence of other linguistic groups in a particular region who have visible domination in employment and education.
    However, on the positive side regionalism has given way to decline of uni-party system providing space for coalition politics. It has given way to balanced centre state relations and is used as a mechanism to accelerate development programme in backward region.
    In a nutshell, meaning of regionalism and its outcome represent the ever changing nature of grammar of politics in India. It was restricted to small states but later glorifying regional pride, sons of the soil movement is getting momentum in different parts of the country. Local population in a territory is looking into its comparative disadvantage as against outsiders and institutionalization of exodus as a process of ethnic separation is challenging the pluralist, democratic and equalitarian ideologies glorified by Indian Constitution. Therefore biggest threat to persistence of India as a Union of States is the divisive and pathological form of regionalism getting momentum in Indian society today.

  • NB

    UNSC reforms

    World War second lead to creation of United Nation for maintenance of peace and stability in the world. UNSC is one of the six principal organs of United Nation. There are five permanent members.Although dynamics of World polity has changes but there has been no change in structure and functioning of UNSC.

    Primarily UNSC reformed is required because of following :
    1. Composition of permanent members and non- permanent members do not reflect the world reality today.
    2. Geopolitics have completely changed, therefore it must be more representative and democratic body.
    3.Working and functioning of UNSC has not been transparent.

    Structural and functional reform will reflect new reality of world. India has been vociferous about UNSC reform. It stresses on expanding permanent members and non permanent members. One of the role of UNSC is deploying of peacekeeping mission and India has one of the largest contribution and therefore thinks that it need to be part of permanent members. Further India being second most populous country and 10th largest economy having liberal democracy rightly deserves more active role in world decision making which impacts larger humanity.

  • NB

    2)What is regionalism? Critically comment on its significance in India.

    Human being have strong carving of identity. This identity can be expressed into various forms may be it is associated with nation,state,caste,religion and region. Regionalism is therefore outpouring of human beings where they associate their identity with certain region where they reside. There can be various reasons for such an identity viz cultural, historical and also developmental.

    As democratic experiments unfolded in our country many regional aspirations started getting expressed. Significance of such regional aspirations led to creation of linguistic based states having their own cultural identity.Aspiration of regionalism is key aspect of unity and diversity of India. Further nation would not mean negation of region.

    Regionalism has increased democratic polity and helped in bringing governance more closer to people. India responded to tensions and challenges arsing out of regionalism by creating more states and by giving
    special powers under constitution. India has realized that best way to respond to regionalism is through democratic negotiation and not by suppression.

    However, recently regionalism has been fueled for benefit of party politics. This kind of regionalism undermines unity of country. Divide and rule cannot be policy which our political parties can adopt. Therefore regional aspirations are good as far as they keep balance of unity and diversity of India.

    • nice answer.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi NB,
      I have a doubt how can Regionalism lead to increased democratic polity and bringing governance close to people.

      • NB

        Regionalism is not necessary negative. Many times regional aspirations are due to increased awareness of people and expression of their desire to have more voice in affairs which affects them. So regionalism enhances democracy and increases active participation of people. Also consider Uttarpradesh, a large state huge differences in socio-economic condition of people from east to west. A smaller state being govern more myopically. can help removing such socio-economic differences. However regionalism is often exploited….

  • I have posted my handwritten answer for question 2 here


    Please share your views

    • Asha Goud

      Good answer.

    • Nirmal Singh

      Nice structure and flow

    • Anjali Motghare

      good structure, u could have added more significance. good answer.

  • Nirmal Singh

    The reforms in international governance is a long pending issue. The need for ‘Global Perestroika’ is more felt in UNSC .This is for a number of reasons.

    The context in which UNSC was formed is different now. World has undergone massive change. Economic prowess and military superiority are new mantra .New players with strong credentials have emerged namely India, Brazil, S.Africa. Presence of countries like France and Britain shows affection for legacy not reality and need to go away

    Secondly The UNSC is the major decision body for international affairs and there is strong deficit for Representation. The west seems to have share of pie with no representation for Africa, Latin America. Asia has only one considering its size. The majority of decisions taken are on Third world countries.

    The reforms are more urgent for India. It feels there are enough reasons to prove its credentials .It is on the verge of becoming third largest economic power. It has formed multilateral groups like IBSA for the same. It remained one of the important aspect of bilateral relations .India is pursuing this agenda relentlessly to gain international support. There are concerns about lack of consensus on India credentials in spite of its strategic and economic growth. Another issue is unwarranted opposition from countries like China, and swing Pakistan countries, Italy and Gulf countries. There is no unity among developing countries unlike issues like climate change and MDGs and are more concerned about their own credentials.

    The issue needs more urgency in the context of increasing globalization and imperialist wars one country waging on another.The UNSC restructuring seems to be the only to correct aberrations of Old World order

    • Though it is implied in your answer that India is seeking Permanent membership, you should have mentioned it. India’s role in UN peacekeeping missions, its democratic credentials must be stressed. Key terms such as ‘regional representation’, ‘in Larger Freedom’ and ‘need for UNSC-General Assembly’ coordination, ‘misuse of Veto power’ etc must be mentioned. Also G-4 should have been mentioned.

  • Anjali Motghare

    In the later half of 18th century changes intorduced in the industrial life by machine age due to scientific inventions which led to rapid industrialization in western Europe. First of all it started in England and then gradually spread to other parts of world

    Industrial Revolution triggered by the following reasons:
    Demographic Revolution:
    Increase in population led to increase in demand for various goods and prices increased. This motivated the British manufacturers to augment production and introduce various improvements. Also more population increased the labour power .

    Agricultural Revolution:
    With the certain changes in agricultural practices British peoples produced surplus food which they sold to industries and made good income.
    It provided food to the the population in industrial sector; more income increased peoples purchasing power, so they might buy good produced by industries. Rich landlords invested in industries and provided sufficient capital; Agricultural labourers joined industries and supplied labour requirements of industries.

    Commercial Revolution:
    Overseas trade helped in many ways to bring industrial revolution. Profit from overseas trade acted as essential capital for agriculture,
    mine technology and industrial development. In the 19th century European countries established colonies in most part of the world.Colonies supplied raw material required to industries and provided ready market for manufactured good.

    Transport Revolution:
    The development of transport proved very advantageous in intensifying the process of industrialization. Rapid movement of goods increased trade and so demand for goods.
    Demand for more goods provided motto to produce more and find various means to augment production for more profit which led to rapid industrialization .

    • Amudhan

      i really liked you structure of your answer and its concise nature. In the ‘transport revolution’ you didn’t mention ‘market expansion’ which justified substantial capital investments. One factory could produce the requirement of multiple towns, villages and cities which was not feasible before.
      otherwise 🙂

  • Q Discuss the triggers for rapid Industrialization process in Western Europe and its growth during the nineteenth century.
    Industrialization is defined as a process in which a predominantly agrarian economy is transformed into a machine based industrial economy. The industrial revolution took place in England in particular and west Europe in general for the simple reason that pre requisites to industrial revolution were present there. The triggers were:
    1. Capital: It is the main requirement for purchasing land, machinery, raw material etc. Large savings by manufacturers and traders and plunder from colonies abroad was re invested in machinery and capital formation and expansion
    2. Techniques: There has been invention of new technology and funds were mobilized for research and development of more machines and improving the efficacy of older ones.
    3. Availability of cheap labour and workers which were hitherto poor agricultural peasants and slaves from colonies filled the need for unskilled human resource. This led to their exploitation and acceleration of wealth production in the factories.
    4. Western Europe was endowed with riches of natural resources like coal for production of power and iron for production of machinery.
    5. New modes of transport like inland waterways, road network, ports and railway broke the hitherto isolation of far flung areas and also helped in transportation of raw material to the factories.
    6. The colonies provided the market base for the machine based products through disproportionate tariff policy
    The emphasis for rapid industrialization was also provided through the ideological support from the growth of philosophy of capitalism and rise of protestant ethics, new modes of education and science. The Calvinists and protestants receiving institutional support imbibed the value of material asceticism, entrepreneurship, law, discipline which had significant impact on the industrialization as a process.

  • Arvind

    Q : factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.

    The software industries made foray into India during the late 1980’s when the groundwork for liberalisation of Indian economy was being done. The growth of this industry has been phenomenal, but have their strong presence only in places like Banglore, Chennai and Hyderabad. Oflate, the industry has been spreading to other places and contributing to the economic development of those regions. Their locational factors include a combination of skilled manpower, good infrastucture and enabling environment like Tax concessions and educational places promoting and having science and research facilities. This combination of factors were available in States of AndhraPradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Also these states formulated policies that further promoted these factors and thus became an Hub for Software industries. Bangalore, with the presence of defence and space research establishments naturally became the first choice for these software firms.

    Today, software industries employ a large number of skilled men and is seen as a promising sector for employment. Other states have also started taking steps to attract the software companies and hence we are able to witness the distribution of these companies throughout India, though at varying levels.Creating more knowledge centres and offering technical education to the youth will make a large number of people employable in this sector and further help in sustaining India’s position as software capital of the world.

  • Arvind

    To Insights :
    Accidently posted my answer for ‘factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.’ in feedback box! Be kind enough to post that in the answers column.

    • Yup, I already posted on main comment section. Thanks for taking part.

      • Aravind Devanathan

        Thank you! Nice initiative 🙂

  • Q. Explain the factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.
    The growth story of India is based on evolution of India as an international hub in the field of software development, consultation and export, information technology and other business process outsourcing. Therefore it is important to understand the factors responsible for the location of such huge base of software industries which have changed the overall spectrum of economy.
    Human resource is one of the main factors for the development and sizeable increase in the software industry. The fact that India has a young demographic dividend has changed the geography of industry in the world. Availability of cheap world class software experts and core competence of India in software related products is the main reason that most of the countries are looking towards India. Secondly, information industry craves for a better communication infrastructure like telecom, better internet connectivity, fast satellite communication etc. All these pre requisites are available in India.
    Further as software has wide ranging application in the field of defense, satellite communication, telecom, and cyber security, and South India is home to most of the institutions related to these sectors, most companies are looking forward towards this region.
    India has a favourable, free and reliable market looking for better and innovative software. With the rise of the information society wanting services at the door step and government offering public service delivery through software programs, there has been ever increasing establishment of industries in the sector.
    The distribution of software industries was mainly confined to southern India in the initial stages but with the ever increasing demand for better services through better software products, there has been mushrooming of new industries in many towns of north India as well. The software industry is poised to become all pervasive in the near future.

    • lakshmi prasanna

      sahil if u don’t mine can u suggest sources or links related to this
      thanks in advance

      • good morning lakshmi,
        well i did not relied on any source for this question. It was mainly based on speculation and my subjective understanding. When i saw this question, even i wondered what should i write on software industries. they can be established any where. i searched the net but did not find any relevant link or source.

        • lakshmi prasanna


      • Asha Goud

        hi lakshmi,
        i too tried to find some relevant source for the topic and found this document.


        however Sahil is correct that we have to answer this one mostly based on our understanding.
        hope u find it useful.

  • simran

    United national security council (UNSC) is the principle organ of united nation organisation and it has 15 member among which 5 are permanent and 10 are temporary. Its form to establish international peace and security. Its power include, estalishment of peace keeping forces, passing of diff resolution and approch sanctiins. 5 permanent member made a rule of UN and carry business the way they like.UN is not a sovereign body, its doesnt have its own finance and army.
    World war 2nd leads to creation of united nation for maintainance of peace and stability in the world.
    India joimed the UN in 1945 and is the 3rd largest and a regular constant contributor of troops to united natiin peace keeping missions. India has been selected 7 times to the UN security council. Most recently India was elected to serve in UNSC from 2011 to 2012 as it had received 187 of the 190 total votes.
    India consider itself as one of the emerging global power and contributes about 16% to world population, interst and voice of new emerging power must be incorporated for making UN more participation and democratic.
    India being 2nd most population country and 10th largest economy having liberal democracy rightly deserves more active role in world decision making which impacts large humanity.

  • simran

    Regionalism is a political ideology that focused on the intersts of a particular region or group of regions whether traditional
    Or formal . Regionalists aim at inc their region influence and political power, either through movement for limited form of autonomy or through stronger measures for a greter degree of autonomy.
    Regionalism developes into a serious thread to the national unity if politicians dont go beyond their reginal loyalty and claims to stand only for their interest if regionalism is to be regarded as an unhealthy phenomenon , decentralization too would be ojectionable which offcourse its not.

    In a democracy ideological options are open in the sense that any individual or gp can adopt any ideology, provided of course it is within the legal framework. In fact it has been decline of the party system im recent yr that has inflated the role of regionalism in the country. Regionalism startimg from Tamilian movement to khalistan movement all started with regional aspirants which got converged into nationalist aspirants. It has lead to imminent split of the nation.

    India is the large contry having continental dimensioms and comprising no fewer than 28 states and 7 union territories. Its a multi-racial, multilingual nation. In principle regionalism need not be regarded as an unhealthy or anti national phenomenon unleaa it takes a militant, aggressive turn and encourages the growth of secesaionalist tendencies.
    Its not a new phenomenon , in fact the fillip given to regionalism by the emergence of the Telegu desam party in andra pradesh in 3982 has a historical community. The growth of this trend can be traced back to the fast upto death by Srivamular over the demand for the creation of andra pradesh which set in motion the reorganisation of state along linguistic lines in 1956.
    Causes of the growth of regionalism is prolonged maladministration and neglect of an area or state by the central govt. There has been creeping disillustration,ent against central rule. Regional symbols, regional culture, history and in many cases a common language all promotes regionalism.

  • simran

    industrialism is period of social amd economic chnge that trnsforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. It is part of wide modernisation process, where social chnge and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large scale energy and metallurgy production.
    Industrialization also introduces a form of philosphical xhange where people obtain a diff attitude toward the perception of natural and a socilogical process of rationalisation.
    Industrial revolution was period in the late 18th nd 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing and transportation has a profound effect an socioeconomic and cultural condition in britain and subsequently spread throughout europe and north america and eventually the world, a process that continues an industrialization. The onset of industrial revolutiin marked a major turning point in human social history, comparable to the invention of farming or the rise of 1st city state.
    8 main clauses lead to industrial revolution are……
    i… AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION ….. welthy landowness bought village farmers land and made them tenant farmers to made them more to the country. The landowners made more efficent crops which led to less starvation, less people dying,.
    ii… POPULATION BOOM ….. since there was more food going around less people died of starvation and people could have more babies which creating population boom.
    iii…. NATURAL RESOURCES….. natural resouces made possible for factories to attain energy trains to run and for industries to growth.
    iv… NEW TECHNOLOGIES…. scientists knew that industrialization bring wealth so they shifted there research on new technologies that would help the proceed of industrialization.
    v…. NEW TRANSPORT SYSTEM ….. new transport system allow cheaper and easier way for people to ship their goods.
    vi… RURAL AND URBAN MIGRATION …. since travel was become cheap , farmers decided to move to cities for job.
    vii,. MONEY=CAPITAL=POWER… since everyone wanted the newer goods its inc the wealth and this lead to powerful people than it was earlier

  • Asha Goud

    Q Discuss the triggers for rapid Industrialization process in Western Europe and its growth during the nineteenth century.

    A: Industrialisation is process of transformation of economy from agrarian to industrial. It also involves a change in social structure of the society with increase in urban population. Production levels increase due to increase in efficiency and production is no longer at subsistence level.

    Industrialisation initiated in the second half of 18th century in Britain following availability of favorable conditions. During the period Britain experienced a phase of agriculture revolution and increase in agricultural productivity.

    Therefore less labour could feed more people. Population also increased as a result people migrated to cities in search of employment. Therefore labour was available. British traders and merchants were making profits from trading with colonies and they had the capital required for investment in manufacturing units.

    The colonies provided a source of raw material and also a market for manufactured goods. However the most important factor that initiated industrialization was a series of inventions like Power loom in textile industry, Steam engine, blast furnace that uses coal as fuel. Availability of all these factors together triggered industrialization.

    In the Western Europe on the main land industrialization did not spread at the same time and same pace as it did in Britain. It was only after the 1830s industrialization was able to stabilize in the region. The favorable factors were absent there. During later 18th and early 19th century Western Europe was experiencing revolutions like the French revolution and Napoleonic wars. Also Western Europe did not have ready available capital and market for its goods.

    Therefore industrialization initiated in Britain in later 18th century but it could spread to the western Europe only after the region stabilized in 19th century.

  • Asha Goud

    Q Explain the factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.

    A: In India the birth of IT industry is marked by coming of Tata Consultancy Services. Government also realized the importance of IT industry and supported the young industry with favorable policies. IT industry includes hardware, software, BPO, networking and realted services. Software industry boom was experienced in India largely after the LPG reforms.

    India had become a favorable destination chosen by MNCs for availing software development and related services. The most important reason for favoring India is huge availability of English speaking young population that is ready to work at low wages compared to developed countries, therefore increasing profits. Also government of India adopted policies favorable to development of software industries like the development of Software Technology Parks (STP) in major cities, that provides ready to plug IT and telecom infrastructure, single window clearance, incentives under export-import policy.

    It has been noticed that software industries are not evenly spread across the country. Few cities have emerged as Software industry hubs like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi, Pune, and Mumbai. Initially metro cities were selected for the development of STP because of relatively well developed infrastructure and availability of English speaking middle class population, also preference of MNCs to work in an urbanized environment. The governments of states like Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Maharastra gauged the importance of the industry as software industry is not capital intensive, it can provide employment to young population and attract MNCs that are ready to invest. Governments therefore developed communication infrastructure in these cities also many engineering colleges came up where software industries are present.

    Therefore two important factors required for development of software industry is availability of skilled work force and well developed infrastructure. Also very important is the political support for availing industry friendly policies

  • Aravind Devanathan

    Q :Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.

    The Indian Civil services is the permanent executive arm of the government, whose mandate is to implement the executive decisions of the government and help the Indian citizenry in realising the goods and benefits it duly deserves. Civil servants, thus are involved in all important areas of governance. This demands the highest standard of professionalism, integrity and genuine concern of the welfare of the citizens.

    The various roles donned by the civil servants requires them to have a sound understanding of all aspects of administration, forethought on the consequences of their action, and above all, a clean public image that reposes faith in the country’s administration.

    Sadly, there has been mounting criticism on their functioning owing to inefficient administration, lack of leadership at many levels, low standards of service delivery , huge corruption and politician – bureaucrat nexus. Also , there has been demand for lateral entry of technocrats and experts from other fields into the civil services. This calls for unguent reforms in the functioning of civil services and a larger debate on the need for technocrats in bureaucracy .

    The role of civil services has expanded enormously because of greater decentralisation and social activism. In the wake of globalisation, the scope of economic development has become rapid and the civil service now has an additional role to play – increased concern about environmental and human security, deeper understanding of various dimensions of poverty and embracing cutting edge technology to provide services to the citizens. When the role of civil services are evaluated in these aspects, we see a huge gap in the demands and the deliverance. Therefore, a complete reorientation is needed for a more efficient functioning.

    • Amudhan

      Hey Aravind
      paragraphs one and two will not fetch you any marks since it does not answer the question directly rather it defines and describes the civil service.
      Lateral entry of techocrats to increase dynamism and subject-specific competence is an excellent point.

  • 1) Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.
    Civil service is the only institution that survived the test of the time. It was brought in to existence by Lord Cornwallis. It has shown tremendous amount of resilience and strength of character to adopt and adapt to continuity and change.
    Civil service or bureaucracy is regarded as steel frame and legacy of British imperialism. Various criticism have developed regarding it. It is advocated that bureaucracy is closed to outsiders and open to itself and is a system of inefficiency and guided by elements of favouritism. It is neither public nor accountable and is riddled with red tapeism. It is self opinionated and lacks the diplomatic and bargaining power both at international, national and local level.
    The dysfunctions of bureaucracy are pointed out by state governments who consider it against the federal spirit and is used by centre to dominate over state. Other critics include lack of ethics, morality and humanity on the part of civil service.
    With the independence and indianisation of bureaucracy, there is a paradigm shift in its functioning. The local self government reform was marked by a change in the shift from top down to bottom up policy making. It brought bureaucracy closer to people and changed its character from administrative to managerial. It has constantly strived to maintain balance between international obligation and national aspiration, political direction and constitutional obligation. The changing role of bureaucracy can be gauged from the emergence of new challenges in the form of environmental concerns, socio-economic problems with the advent of globalization, ensuring accountability and transparency while preserving national security, intellectual property right, facing protest from different quarters of population.
    Hence it can be said that civil service continues to play significant role in administration and evolved as a system of bridging the gap between political executive and common man.

    • ashish

      Hello sahil…
      As you mentioned in your answer; can you explain how civil services violate federalism.. and how central govt can dominate states using civil services as a mean..

      • Hi ashish,
        Civil servants are appointed by President of India on the recommendation of UPSC and they remain in office as long as they enjoy the pleasure of president. Thus, in practice they are accountable to Union Government. States have no say in their appointment and complain about the partisan character of services.
        civil service in a federal country like US is appointed by states and not by centre.

    • good answer. But in last para you wrote “with independence and indianisation” , this sort of conveys that all the points before it refer to pre independence period.

      • Thank you bharath.
        i may have overlooked this mistake. will take of it in future. Thank you again.

  • 2) “Agenda 21 is aimed at integrating environmental imperatives with developmental aspirations”. Elaborate
    Agenda 21 is a voluntary, non obligatory road map perceived by different nations in 1992 au UN environment and development conference in Rio-de-Janerio, to be followed in 21st century for a sustainable, inclusive, efficient development and growth. It calls upon the nations to leverage the resources in such a way that it does not harm ecological balance, increase equality and provide better access to education and health through research and development.
    With two centuries of industrialization which was marked by exploitation of resources for acceleration of wealth, there has been an increase in global temperature. The same thing is now happening is second and third world countries. Due to absence of better technologies and lack of funds and human resource in the poorer nations, there has been an increase in green house emissions and deforestation, unplanned growth leading extinction of biodiversity and low human development index. In order to bring down global temperature and protect environment without hurting growth, it proposes an integrative, comprehensive agenda which will reduce wasteful consumption and encourage investment in sustainable, global best practices.
    It seeks to promote environmental sustainability through preservation of atmosphere, conservation of biodiversity, combating deforestation and desertification, controlling pollution etc. Further it reiterate the developmental activities in social and economic sphere by better investment in education, health, science, transfer of technology and international institutional support.
    The conference and agenda calls upon an end of economic and social polarization in world and proposes to establish an international platform for bringing in consensus for better progress and prosperity of humans which is environmentally safe and growth oriented.

  • Jack

    Date- 06/08/13, 1)Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.
    Ans- Civil services are rightly been said to be the “steel frame” of India. Ranging from execution of policies to making of policies are being performed by civil servants in different positions. But there are certain criticisms that are continually being raised about it-
    Firstly, Nexus with politicians. Civil servants are expected to be party neutral & perform their duty without any political influence, but this is not the case actually. Many IAS,IPS officers have “‘good relations” with politicians. It acts as a win-win situation for them in the form of desired place of postings & non-interference in illegal activities but is a lose-lose situation for nation & its people. This can be stopped only through insulation between the two. Politicians should be ripped of the power of suspension/transfer of officers.
    The recent incident of suspension of IAS officer, Durga Shakti Nagpal by UP Govt has created a lot of controversy. This is not the first case. Earlier many such cases have come into attention of media concerning clashes between civil servant & politician-mafia nexus.
    Secondly, they are burdened with too much of work which reduces their efficiency. Not only this, it devolves enormous power into the hand of civil servant which can be misused by him/her. The power need to be more decntralised by distributing the responsibilties on more officers.
    Since Independence, India has seen a lot of changes & hence the way it should be governd need to change. First, it needs to be proactive in actions, if development has to take place. Only corrective actions will lead us to nowhere, we have to take preventive steps too. Second, with the advent of ICT, civil services should mould itself accordingly since it poses new challenges along with the oppurtunities. Thirdly, Climate change & pollution is a hot topic today which was not so when our nation became independent. Since CS are closest to the people, they can help in making & executing the policies for it accordingly. Lastly, preferences of people have changed. From “roti,kapda aur makaan”(food, clothing & shelter), it has gone to “pani, bizlee aur sadak” (water, electricity &road). Policies formulation & execution on these lines will lead India to a bright future.

    • Good answer. The role of RTI in administration – how civil servants are responding to it; challenges to civil servants because of internal security threats in many areas of the country; growing awareness among the masses because of education and dissemination of information which are throwing up new challenges in the form of protests and demands; coping with decentralization process; and ever increasing corruption and criminalization of politics and its effect on the functioning of civil servants.. should have been mentioned (how these factors are changing the role of civil servants)

  • Asha Goud

    Q “Agenda 21 is aimed at integrating environmental imperatives with developmental aspirations”. Elaborate

    A: All countries of the world met in 1992 at the UN Conference of Environment and Development. The conference recognized the challenges of maintaining healthy balance between development and preservation of environment. The conference did not negate development; rather it aspired for development for all along with conservation of environment.

    In the present situation climate change has become a major global issue. The developed countries are reluctant to take responsibility of reducing green house gases, instead want under developed countries to share responsibility equally which would have adverse effect on the development needs of these countries. In such situation Agenda 21 puts forward a very inclusive approach.

    Agenda 21 is a document that identifies the need to develop and adopt such strategies and technology aimed at achieving sustainable development. It is not a legally binding agreement and was voluntarily adopted at UNCED. Agenda 21 provides a framework for formulating strategies for sustainable development that are specific to the needs of the country. Also strategies can be developed at local and regional level with participation of all stakeholders.

    It supports development of sustainable cities with efficient transportation, energy efficient infrastructure, improved waste management, water conservation etc. In villages environment friendly agricultural practices to be adopted, increased participation of people in formulating development plans.

    Therefore Agenda 21 calls for conservation and management of natural resources and environment taking into consideration its social and economic implications in such a manner development is not lost.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Asha have a look at agenda 21 document which available on net u ‘ll get much more points of integration of environment and development.

    • dhiraj s

      I liked your starting…but ecological imbalances is not only climate change but also desertification, sea acidification, pollution and so on. Another is agenda 21 become basis for future steps like kyoto
      Third , add rio 20 points about sustainable dev goals and low carbon energy path, green economy .
      Last para is wondeful
      I will be writing answers from tomorrow so looking forward for suggestions.

  • Amudhan

    Explain the Major criticism of the civil service and evaluate its changing role in the Indian Democracy since Independence?

    The Civil Service is seen as the Iron Cage of the nation. It is a continuation of our colonial past and still has remnants of its former modus operandi. Civil servants have traditionally not been available to the people. They perceive themselves and are seen by others as ‘Maibab’ with considerable discretionary powers. It is has also been described as alien to the aam admi and not being in tune with their legitimate aspirations. It is a top-heavy organization and formulates policy without knowledge of ground realities with regards to their success. E.g. distribution of tailoring machines, during Indira Gandhi’s time, to generate employment was a monumental failure. It lacks dynamisms and is slow to adapt to a changing world e.g. E-governance is still to be implemented fully in India and adoption has been slow.

    The role of the civil servant has undergone considerable change since independence. It has ‘on average’ (centralizing tendency of the Indira Gandhi period) shifted from being a driver of growth to a facilitator. Civil servants now actively engage NGO’s, the local community and other non-state actors in implementing programs. They are increasingly in tune with the people and meet their legitimate aspiration by augmenting the PRI institutions. Some roles however have not changed since independence. They are still a unifying force within the diversity of India. They have faithfully executed the policies of the elected representatives of the people. The Civil service is a significant part of the Indian polity and will continue to enjoy this pre-eminence.

    • Hello Amudhan. Nice answer, but I have few reservations regarding it-
      1. You have said “.. formulates policy without knowledge of ground realities with regards to their success…”. I don’t think so. Civil servants are people selected from the people itself. Before being a civil servant, we are in the society itself fully aware of the ground realities. Many meetings, seminars, sessions are organised for the purpose of getting the feel of ground realities. I don’t think we can blame civil services solely for failure of a policy. Moreover, the policies are framed by legislators mostly.

      2.Again ” ..They perceive themselves and are seen by others as ‘Mai-baap’ with considerable discretionary powers…”. No doubt the power provided to the CS are huge but considering oneself the king is a personality problem not that of the service. Not all civil servants think like that.Many are down to earth. Moreover, this case arises only with district admin. not all the post. Civil service is a versatile service with a lot of variations in posts & positions. Not all positions has this privilege.

      • Amudhan

        Hey Itsmesagar
        i had a few reservations, myself, writing those two point regarding its sweeping generalizations.
        ty 🙂

        • Kirthi

          They are still a unifying force within the diversity of India – loved this statement.
          Just a doubt,
          How far did civil services help in national integration and consolidation as envisaged by Patel?

  • Meeta Vinay Myskar

    Industrialization is a process by which non industrial primary agrarian economy transforms into economy of manufacturing goods and services. It was a long, slow process of change, beginning obscurely in England, then spreading to other European countries. It brought series of changes in methods of manufacture, production and distribution of products.
    Factors that led to 19th century industrial revolution
    • Favorable political and economic conditions with stable govt. secured investments, improved trade and banking systems
    • Agricultural revolution due to invention of drill, crop rotation, wooden plough etc led to surplus of food, raw materials etc
    • Population boom with abundant semi skilled labor, emerging entrepreneurs, bankers etc
    • Favorable natural environment – abundant natural resources like coal and iron, ideal moist climate for cotton textiles etc
    • Major innovations in various fields led to both rise in production and also demand.
    o Bessemer process (1898) for large scale steel manufacturing
    o Steam engine (James Watt) replaced hitherto used horse and water power
    o For textile industry – Flying shuttle (John Kay), Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves), Arkwright’s Water Frame, Crompton’s Spinning mule, Howe’s sewing machine, roller printing etc
    o Submarine (Holland), rubber vulcanization, cycles, photography, cinematography, Portland cement, food preservation, electrical appliances like incandescent bulb, artificial heaters, etc
    • Urbanization increased due to new factory system replacing the household industry. Capitalists built mills and recruited laborers, who settled around factories.
    • Transport improved – construction of pucca roads, canals, railways, ports, steam ships etc made transport cheaper and quicker. It also connected the hitherto isolated interior areas.
    • Graham Bell’s Telephone, Samuel Morse’s telegraph, Marconi’s wireless etc improved means of communication augmented the spread of industrialization from England to other European countries.
    Thus, rapid industrialization in 19th century was a result of industrial, technological, demographic, economic and scientific progress.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    1. The civil services is the permanent executive machinery of the Indian state. It can be broadly grouped into All India Services, Central Services and the State Services. The role of civil services has been changing since Independence, From the initial days of Nehruvian socialist, welfare state to the post liberalisation state. At the same time, it is subjected to many criticisms as well. They are:

    1.Red Tapism: The government machinery is notorious for the slow pace of work. The bureaucracy is often criticized by the people for sticking to rules adamantly which leads to unnecessary delays. India ranks poorly in “Ease of doing businness” report by the world bank because of the no. of clearances required to start a business.

    2. Bribery and Corruption: Paying ‘greasing money’ for getting the work done has become so common in the government offices. Infact, the public service jobs have become so attractive because of the ‘under the table income’ that people are ready to pay huge amounts to get even simple posts.

    3.Insensitive to the common man: Though a lot of initiatives like Citizens Charters have come up, a majority of the govt. rules and procedures are difficult for the common man to comprehend. And the officers do not care to explain the purpose behind the rule.

    Changing role:
    The civil services of the 50’s and 60’s are different from that of what it is now. During the Nehruvian era, the civil services were primarily the machinery of the welfare state. It used to plan and execute welfare schemes for the betterment of the socio economic condition of the people. Nowadays, the civil services role has broadened to various aspects, though its primary work remains the same. The civil services now has grown to meet the growing demands of the modern state. The way of recruitment, the training, the technology with which it is endowed with, the accountability and the transparency has all improved thanks to civil service reforms.

    2. Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations members regarding sustainable development. Since, developmental activities of the past have been at the cost of detriment of environment, Agenda 21 aims to integrate environment and development.

    Sustainable development means use of the resources for the development of the society in such a way that they are available in abundance for the future generations too. One of the objectives of Agenda 21 is to explore ways of integrating environment and such development.

    One way of achieving this objective is to integrate the two conflicting areas of environmental conservation and development at the decision or policy making level. This means that the policy makers, planners for development should also be made responsible for the planning and policy making of environmental conservation. For example, the ministry of environment and the ministries of commerce & industry and urban development can be guided by the same think tank.

    At the implementation level, such integration mechanisms and institutions should be placed at all levels of the hierarchy, central, state ans local body level. This will not only make the decision makers responsible for environmental conservation but also sensitivise those who so far had no exposure to such areas.

  • simran

    Software industry includes business for developmemt, maintainence and publication of software that are using dif business models, mainly either “license/ maintainance based”or ” cloud based”. The induarty also includes software services such as training, documentation and consulting.
    Software industry expanded in the early 1960 almost immediately after cimputers were 1st sold in mass produced quantities. Firms such as computer science coorporation found in 1959 start to grows.
    The computer / hardware makers started bundling operating systems software and programming enviromental with their materials.
    Industry expanded greatly with rise of the personal comouter i.ePC in mid 1970s which brought computing to the desktop of office worker. In early year 21st century another successful business model has arisen for hosted softward called software-as-a-service or Saas.
    Factor may be placed into 3 basic categories are natural advantage, acquired advantage and govt advantage.
    Factord can se listed as follo i.e cost , closness to a raw material, closness to a source of power, closeness to a market, closeness to an educated working force, closeness to a method of trnsprt, govt intervention in a suitable climate in a stable political , health facility. Those factor factor which effect the distributiin of the software industries are selectiin of channel, organisatiin object and nature and extent of market .

  • simran

    The civil service of India refers to the civil services and the permanent bureancracy of the govt of India. The civil service system is the backbone of the administration of the country.
    The present civil service of India is mainly based on the pattern of the IMPERIAL CIVIL SERVICE of the british India. It was formed after the Independence of India in 1947. It was Sardar Patel’s vision that the civil services should strenghten cohesiin and national unity. The values of integrity imparticularly and merits remain the guiding principle of INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES.
    Civil services of India classified into 2 types ….i.e. ALL INDIA CIVIL SERVICE & CENTRAL CIVIL SERVICES.
    The recruits are university graduates selected through a rigorous system of examination called the civil services exam conducted by UPSC.
    AIS ( All India Civil Service) apponted are made by the president of India where as CCS ( Central Civil Services) are concernd with the administration of union govt.
    The most imp time for change in the civil services occured after 1988 with the so called Next Steps Reforms. These reforms were issued after the publication of a major issues that he felt shoild be add i.e service lacked innovation; too lare to be efficient with too many jobs diplication and some deep overlaping what oyhers did; service was not providing a quality service for the country both the advice it gave and its policy implementation were poor.
    There is no doubt at 60s time civil service are diff from that of what its now.
    Nowdays civil service role has broaded to various as pets throught it primerly work remains the same. The civil service now grown to meet the growing demands of the moderate state. The way of the recuirtment, technology with which it endowed woyh, the accountability and transperacy has all improved.

  • simran

    Agenda21 is a non binding , voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to Sustain Development. It is a product of the United Nation conference Enviroment and Deelopment (UNCED) held in Brazil in 1992. It is an action agenda for the Unite Nation , other multilateral organisation and individual govt around the world that can be executed at local , national and global levels.
    21 in Agenda21 refers to the 21 st century. Its clear that Agenda21 is designed to replace the economic and social structure of US. Yhe 1st version of the decalaration of independence used the phrase life, liberty and properly and was changed to pursuit of happiness.
    According to UN objectives of sustainable develop is to integrate economics, social and enviromental policies in order to achive reduced consumption , social equity and preaervatiin and restoratiin of biodiversity.
    Agenda21 have been grouped in 4 dection i.e.
    I … social and ecomic dimensioms…. this secyion is directed towards combating poverty,especiallly in developing countries, changing consumptiin patterns, promoting health, achieving a consumption patterns, promoting health , achieving a more sustainable population and sustainable settlement in decision making.
    II … conservation and management of resoures of development …. includes atmospheric protection, combating deforestayion, conservation of biodiversity control of pollution and management biotechnology and radio active wastes.
    III … strengthening the role of major coorpration ,,.. ininclude the roles of child and youth, men , women, MGOs, local authority, business amd workers and strengthing the rule of indigeneous people their community and farmers.
    IV… implementation… implementation include the science, technology transfer, education,international institutions and financial mechanisms.
    Agenda 21 is nothing less an anti human activites. Major point on America is though the educational system and caputre of children mind and bend them into global action.
    Agenda21 is an octopus with millionsoftentacles squeezing the very life of the declaration of independence amd limited status constituion from our god given unalianble rights.

  • Ananya Basu

    1)Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.
    -Civil services is the pith and core of the administrative machinery of government of India. The history of the civil service dates back to the days of Lord Cornwallis when India was ruled by the British. The members of the British government were appointed by the Government of India act 1935.Initially all the 1000 officers were British .By 1905 5% were from Bengal. By 1947 there were 322 Indians and 688 British officers in the ICS. All the officers, Indians or otherwise belonged to the so called aristocratic families and lacked sensitivity the general people. The hangover of various imperialistic tendencies can be seen even today, for example-
    1) The ivory tower appearance- It maintains an air about itself which segregates the public from it’s servants.
    2 )Red tapism- Unnecessary delay in it’s functioning leading to corruption, inconvenience of the citizens.
    3)High handedness in dealing with others- Often a problem of superiority complex ,arrogance is seen of the bureaucrats in dealing with the public which hampers line of effective communication.
    4) Corruption- The veil of secrecy which is maintained in administrative functioning leads to unaccounted, rampant corruption.
    5) Political affiliations- Very often, if not always bureaucrats get influenced by politicians who have vested interests and pressurize an officer to act in their favour.
    6) Lack of transparency and accountability-Though e-governance is trying to usher in transparency and accountability it is not well infiltrated in rural and computer illiterate areas.
    7) No real protection-It is mandatory under A 311(2) to make inquiry before dismissal,removal or reduction in rank of a civil servant.In that case a civil servant has to be informed of the charges against him/her and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard. But recent occurings suggest otherwise. cases of Ashok Khemka ,Durga Shakti Nagpal, Thulasi Maddineni are a living testimony to it.
    8) Lack of proper grievance redressal mechanisms-Fast , efficient and effective redressal mechanisms are necessary to remove the lacunae in the functioning of the government.
    66 years post- independence we have evolved as a democracy. India is no more a fragmented country ruled by a foreign ruler. Our sovereign, secular country is a testimony to the world that diversity can exist peacefully. If India is to survive as a Democracy,it is important to imbibe best practices in the functioning of it’s administration like accountability, transparency, stringent laws against corruption and protective laws for the whistle-blowers ,a genuine concern for the welfare of the people, integrity, commitment to serve the people .The essence of “Public Service” should be instilled in every new recruit so that civil service becomes the “ steel frame” on which our democracy rests.

    • In your introduction, I think dates and numbers are not needed – basically it should talk about something on criticism and role of civil services. You have ‘enumerated’ all the criticisms, but haven’t written much about its changing role in our democracy.

      • Ananya Basu

        thank you very much sir,i’ll work on it!! 🙂

      • Ananya Basu

        Q “Agenda 21 is aimed at integrating environmental imperatives with developmental aspirations”. Elaborate
        Agenda 21 is an important resolution of the UN which aims at resolving the dilemma arising out of the environment conservation Vs the development drive.it was introduced on 13th june 1992 at rio de janerio,brazil at the united nations action plan for sustainable development.
        Sustainable development is the development which doesn’t harm environment and the living organisms living in it.To understand and appreciate it ,it is important to understand what happens when a blind drive for development is carried out .The rapid growing population and economic development is leading to a number of environmental issues in india because of the uncontrolled growth of urbanization and industrialization, expansion and massive intensification of agriculture, and the destruction of forests. Major environmental issues are forest and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.), environmental degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity, loss of resilience in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor. The projected population indicates that India will be the first most populous country in the world and China will be ranking second in the year 2050.[2] India having 18% of the world’s population on 2.4% of world’s total area has greatly increased the pressure on its natural resources. Water shortages, soil exhaustion and erosion, deforestation, air and water pollution afflicts many areas. India’s water supply and sanitation issues are related to many environmental issues. world is our home, and development is our sustaining need.we cannot compromise one for the another.
        Thus it can be said that Agenda 21 not only helps in planning a conservative development but also helps in environmental impact assessment of various projects. A non-invasive development strategy will definitely prevent disasters like uttarakhand floods.

  • Nirmal Singh

    In spite of its merits and role in nation making, several criticisms have emerged over number of years. Considering the fact that civil servants are selected, not elected, the concentration of immense power at their disposal goes against democratic norms. Ironically it is the same which shape public policies though feedback not public. The delegated legislation is another area of concern. Moreover politicization, corruption, red tapism, inefficiency, unresponsiveness, lack of accountability and control under disguise of anonymity has eroded their credentials. It has created “empires within empires”. Further its resistance to change and maintenance of status quo act as friction towards progress. Another issue relates to the rising pyramid of bureaucracy which irrespective of workload is increasing its sheer size. Adherence to procedure instead to objective is another area of concern
    Being a welfare state and developing country with a large section of society remain under developed, bureaucracy has played an important role in development and delivery of service since independence. Over the number of years with the arrival of globalization, liberalisation and privatization its role has become that more of facilitator. Further devolution of power to people through decentralization in form of panchayati raj, people empowerment through RTI, Citizen Charters, increasing tendency towards limited government and call for transparency and control has minimized its area of influence. Still keeping the development needs of country and its ability to deliver essential services up to last mile has not minimized its importance and has been instrumental in ongoing process of nation building.

    • Superb answer.

      • Ananya Basu

        @nirmal- concise yet powerful!!

      • SREEJESH

        The best answer I have seen so far!! well done Nirmal!!

    • Rahul Singh

      Well written
      May be u can add sm recent controversies of whistleblower Civil servants and the need of real protection to sm of the integrated and upright,honest officers is the need of the hour…..

  • RV

    Explain the Major criticism of the civil service and evaluate its changing role in the Indian Democracy since Independence?
    Established by Cornwallis during colonial times and envisioned as a sturdy steel framework for the nation by Sardar Patel the Civil Services has failed to live up to the expectations of the people.
    Mired by red-tapism and elitism the civil services has been increasingly furthened from the people and the lack of ground contact has only increased the apathy. The desertion of many posts in far-off areas only further fuels the doubts of the people who have increasingly begun to see the bureaucracy as agents of the political class indifferent to the “service” of the people. The lack of vision , diplomacy and sensitization has often warranted the debate of favouring technocrats and privatising many institutions of the public services. The onus to prove Rajiv Gandhi’s statement of just 15 paise out of the allocated rupee reaching the intended beneficiary has aptly been shouldered by the civil services in nexus with their political bosses.
    Quite often honest civil servants are reduced to mendicancy by their superior officers/politicians and in due course of time in an environment where fawning and flattery is the currency of the realm these officers either leave the services or are suitably shunned into oblivion by repeated transfers/dismissals.
    In the present times where gloabalization poses new problems for the rising economies including environmental , economic and human security , where increasing bottom up approach is being followed the civil services has a chance to prove the faith entrusted to them by the constitution makers. If only flattery and apathy can give way to resilient honest ground work the rusted steel frame can redeem itself to be the shining armour for progress.

    • Good answer. But you have dwelled more on criticism part and less on Evaluation of civil services’ role.

  • Nirmal Singh

    A brain child of Earth summit 1992 under frame work of UN,Agenda 21 aims at promote sustainable development.Considering the fact that sustainable development is global issue with local solutions,it rightly underlined needs for synchronizing the local and national development needs with that of global without compromising sustainability.To implement the same developing countries will be provided green technology,education,aid by international institutions and developed countries.The development is ensured by strengthening group roles like NGOs ,farmers and women,conservation of resources like biodiversity,and preventing deforestation,radioactive waste disposal,controlling pollution and further by socioeconomic development by reducing poverty,housing needs,health,controlling population.There is criticism of Agenda 21 labeling it as “communist plot” to strengthening state control and sizing civil liberties by depriving them of property and car rights.Such criticism is unwarranted considering the fact that it is not legally binding agreement and is purely a voluntary one.The recent failure Rio+20 meet to reach any consensus regarding funding is a retrogressive step and needs attention keeping the fact that without it the developing countries has less options and is against the basic principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Nonetheless its has become a unique opportunity to leverage international attention and support towards one of the most pressing issues of our time.

  • Meeta Vinay Myskar

    1) What was the effect of Russian Nihilism and Irish nationalism on indian national movement?

    Indian national movement (INM) encompasses a wide range of movements spanning over 19th till mid 20th centuries with a common aim to end company rule. Unorganized, scattered uprisings were weaved into organized mass movements over years. Dadabhai Naoroji’s economic critique of exploitative British imperial policies, coupled with, volatile international scenario augmented INM – Russian revolution, Russian nihilism, French revolution, Irish nationalism etc.

    Nihilism is a radical skepticism & pessimistic belief that all values are baseless. In 1860 – 1917 Russia, it was identified with complete destruction and a revolutionary movement that rejected authority of state, church and family. It advocated social arrangement based on rational & material knowledge and individual freedom. Political nihilists were associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and assassinations.

    Nihilism’s & INM
    • Rise of extremists,& revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad etc sowed seeds of disrespect and antagonism to govt.
    • The Kakori conspiracy case (1925), Muzzafarpore tragedy, increasing murder attempts (Mr. Kingsford, Andrew Fraser etc), widespread conspiracies, secret societies etc indicate nihilist ideologies.

    Irish Nationalism (I.Na) in late 18th century inspired by French revolution repeatedly demanded self govt. and autonomy from British parliament – particularly Poyning law, which allowed British to rule Ireland. While Irish Radical republicanism advocated use of force to found a secular & egalitarian republic, moderates advocated non violent reformist nationalism. Mass nationalist mobilization began when Isaac Butt’s Home rule league (HRL)(1873) adopted social issues, especially land redistribution issue. Land League campaigned for 3 Fs – fair rent, free sale, fixity of tenure. Cultural nationalism (Celtic Revival of 19th century) concerned with furthering Ireland’s individual native & cultural identity.

    I. Na & INM
    • Moderates and extremists ideologies
    • Hardayal’s Gadar party (USA)(1913)
    • Chittagong armory raid (1930) – to replicate easter rising of Ireland
    • Anne Besant and Tilak’s HRL movement in 1916
    • Nationalists increasingly supporting land reforms, peasants problems also mobilized masses (like Ireland)

    Thus, over the years both internal and external factors gave INM its true essence.

    • Amudhan

      Hey Meeta
      This question had me stumped. After reading your answer i have a better idea about external influences on INM…. are there any other such influences that we should know about??

      • Meeta Vinay Myskar

        Thank you Amudhan! Well there are influences of French revolution, American war of independence and also Russian revolution.

        Russian revolution mainly led to the emergence of communist ideology in India, indian communist political parties and mainly our leaning towards USSR during cold war.

        I might have still missed few things here..

  • phani

    Which factors accelerated the process of decolonization post World War II? Explain the role played by the UN and US in this process

    During the war years itself ,in 1941 , USA president Franklin d Roosevelt has mooted the idea of having an international organization which can act as the sovereign force on behalf of all nations to instill peace and avoid the prospects of another world war like situation. Taking cue from this , the major declaration came from the USA and Britain through YALTA CONFERENCE in 1943 in which they declared “none of the allied forces has any intention of holding onto their colonies once the war is over”. It might have been their strategy to muster the support or the learning from the humiliating treaty of Versailles which eventually lead to the WW2. The Potsdam conference and the oaks conference has finally lead to the creation of United Nations organization through sanfrancisco declaration.
    War destructs and there will be no winners and losers in a war. Both the allied forces and the axis powers were equally destructed and post war reconstruction of Europe which has lost its glory became the primary interest of the United States. The birth of communist Russia though happened in 1919 but its mark on world affairs became so prominent after the ww2.with USSR supporting the freedom movements in other countries and the inability of the financially and militarily torn Europe, large scale revolutions for independence in the colonies have left USA with no options but to aid the decolonization.
    Poland, Hungary , Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia ,Romania which were French colonies became independent with the support of USSR. In Albania and Yugoslavia communist governments took oath. India , Pakistan , Burma were freed from British and other south eastern countries too became independent soon. The birth of third world and the policy of pursuing an independent foreign policy as advocated by the leaders like Nasser, tito , sukarno and Nehru through NAM pitched for the independence and peaceful coexistence. With the onset of cold war and a fear of its spread USA fought wars in Korea and Vietnam which made more damage to it than good by stirring the national consciousness of the people in other countries aswell.
    The birth of UNO with 6 principle organs could able to create a level playing field for the thirld world countries to pitch for the total decolonization of the world . The economic and social council and trusteeship councils played a major role in the post war reconstruction and decolonization respectively. The 11 countries put under UNO trusteeship became independent one by one with the last one being Namibia. The emergence of national leaders with new national consciousness has greatly helped UNO in fulfilling its mission.

    • phani

      sir i expect an assessment from u , this is first time i am writing in insights on India.the initiative is awesome. it has literally created a space for all the interested aspirants to assess and reassess themselves by constantly improving their reasoning skills and honing their journalistic aptitude which i think now a days UPSC is looking for.

      • Ritu Konar

        FOREIGN INVESTMENT is far from being critical to india’s economic growth.critlcally comment.
        Growth of any country largely depends on the volume of its capital formation requring high savings within a country.But on the eve of 1991 Balance of Payment crisis in India,under IMF compulsion it necessiated to liberalise Indian economy thus opening its door wide for global investors to invest in our economy.Foreign Investment i,e. DIRECT and INDIRECT.Direct in terms of ownership and Indirect in terms of investment in shares and stocks.Though policy makers of the land restrained the maximum cap an foreign investors can put into a particular sectorbut very recently, after the recession in world economy in 2008 efforts had been made to enhance the limit with requisite limit on govt -hand.

        In this age of economic globalization foreign investment helps to better India’s Balance of Payment scenario,infrastructure ,employment generation in many ways thus paving way for better standard of living of the countrymen.But here one thing we never can ignore that foreign investment is always made with a profit making purpose by the investors thus many a time creating economic unstability by way of flight of capital or capturing local market and generating less than expected profit for the host country.
        Therefore ,Indian economy can expect better growth by developing manufacturing and industry sector and improving its service sevtor performance rather than being over- dependent on foreign investment.

    • phani

      2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policie
      The finance ministry at the center is entrusted with the task of supervising the overall financial health of the country as a whole. In doing so, it draws its powers from the FRBM act. There are two very important policies which govern the financial soundness of any country .they are monetary and fiscal policies. The mismanagement of the either of the two will lead to a precarious situation which may hinder growth and development and infuse negative investor sentiment in an economy.
      Monetary policy is determined by RBI, basically concerned with the money flow in the economy and in reigning in inflation by making necessary adjustments using its liquidity adjustment tools like the repo rate , reverse repo rate , MSF , CRR etc. the finance ministry can only ask the RBI to take a necessary policy decision but can’t dictate the terms.
      The finance ministry’s main prerogative is to form a sound fiscal policy to deal with the receipts of money through various taxes and levies and allocating them under the head of expenditures both revenue and capital according to the policies of the government on the day by assessing the overall scenario of the economy. Balance of receipts and expenditures will lead to either deficit or surplus. How to manage the deficit or utilize the surplus are all decisions taken under the aegis of the finance ministry. The FRBM act has made it the nodal agency and put some restrictions on the current account deficit figures as to inculcate a good financial managing culture.
      Though the two policies look different, they are the twin tires on which the economy must move. In a developing country like india , growth is always associated with inflation both must go in a synchronous way to reach a stable and equitable distribution of resources
      3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.
      Ethnicity is the feeling of being different , either culturally , socially and a distinctiveness a group of people feel than the majority. South asia is a museum of various cultures and ethnicities. One of the main reasons for the backwardness of SA is the ongoing conflict of interests among various groups inhabiting a common territory. Be it hindu-muslim-christian conflicts,nagas and kukis revolts, bodos,gorkhas emancipation and revolts for political p0wer and in india , rohingya muslims issues in china and mayanmar., Sinhala and tamil conflicts in sri lanka, conflicts in Philippines among various groups , revolts of balooch groups in Pakistan , issues among the thai and combodians regarding the angorvat temple all are various socio political conflicts plaguing south asia which have to be dealt with firmly to see SA as an emerging leader on the world map.

  • Kirthi

    Though stability, time tested nature, recruitment based on merit characterize civil services, they suffer from many disabilities as instruments of governing various developmental measures.
    Its hierarchical and centralized nature resulting in decision making divorced from the people, diffused accountability, divorce of authority and responsibily etc, lack of empathy, service providers at lower hierarchy being over burdened lead to poor delivery of services and horrible experience for common citizens. Though the proportions of civil service s to population remain more or less the same as other countries, it had more than required supporting cadres nt involved in decision making like peons, drivers,clerks etc. and less human resources in developmental fields Ike govt teachers, health workers, judicial officers etc. Red Tapism, coercive corruption, emphasis on the procedures, lack of flexibility, generalist even in specialized divisions etc hampered its effectiveness

    With the LPG and economic reforms 1991 , the role of state has shifted from provider to facilitator of goods and services. State played important role in regulation, coordination, perspective planning rather than in production functions.
    This led to shifting of corruption from coercive to more collusive nature – 2G scam, coal scams etc. which affects sovereign decision making, constitutionaliztion of PRIs led to divorcing of some of its functions, RTI, increased civil society participation, citizen charters, e governance etc. had pressurized to extent to govern well. Whistle blowers bill, timely delivery of public services bill , e governance initiative etc are proposals to induce transparency. Unless genuine empowerment of PRIs with funds, functions and functionaries happen, civil services will continue to play a dominant role

    • Kirthi,

      Beautiful answer. You have condensed all the important points very well.

  • Nirmal Singh

    The moderates failure to yield results through constitutional methods from 1985 to 1905 had convinced youth of ineffectiveness of their methods and had caused widespread frustration This yielded ground for new alternatives like revolutionary terrorism drawing inspiration from foreign movements. Russian Nihilism and Irish Nationalism need special mention here.
    Russian nihilism basically a branch of anarchism believes in natural state i.e. no state, no political religious authority and no value system .It employs violent means whose success attracted extremist attraction. This led to a the era of individual heroism and extremist movements .For the first time the INM reached masses and not limited to elite section. New underground organisations like “Abhinav Bharat”,”Anushilan Samiti and ideologically committed press began to take roots. Activities like decoity(Kakori conspiracy case, murder of officials and arms manufacturing took place. A new class of leaders like Bhagat Singh, Chandrasekhar Azad, and Aurbindo Gosh emerged. The Indian nationalism is different from nihilism in the sense that former is committed to nationalism with a idea of nation unlike later which is anarchist.
    Irish nationalism is yet another movement which influenced INM although in a more moderate way. The self rule movement in Ireland became inspiration for Indian version i.e. Home rule league movement led by Tilak and Annie Besant.The goal changed from mere constitutional reforms to self rule. It had comparatively less impact on extremist ideology. Further cultural revivalism doesn’t left India untouched The impact of Irish nationalism can be gauged from the fact that later India adopted Directive Principals from Ireland.
    Although the impact of these movements is immense, yet Indian nationalism had developed its own strategy widely different and worked to complement much active non violent mass struggle unlike movement like nihilism.

    • Nirmal Singh

      I have tried to answer this question my best yet I know it is not complete .Sir can you suggest what is missing and how it can be improved

      • You have given a very good answer. In the conclusion you would have added few lines about failure of such ‘revolutionary struggles’ to inspire masses for a prolonged struggle, weaknesses of individual heroic acts, lack of long term strategy etc.

  • 1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.
    Ans- Regular nuclear power plants use U-235 as its fuel to generate electricity whereas fast breeder reactors use natural uranium (U-238), bombard it with fast neutrons to convert it into reactor grade neutron (U-235). Need for a fast breeder reactor arises because U-238 is abundant in nature but not U-235. So, in order to generate electricity, it is required to enrich U-238 with U-235. Not only uranium, but thorium & plutonium can also be used to generate nuclear fuel.
    India’s nuclear energy program is in a developing stage. The 3 stage nuclear energy program, as was proposed by Mr. bhabha, has reached upto its second stage. While in first stage, he proposed generation of electricity using natural uranium. In second stage, he had proposed generation of nuclear fuel using Thorium & plutomium through FBR. In last stage, we will generate electricity using thorium as a fuel.
    The huge importance given to thorium is due to large reserves found in monazite sands of southern states of TN etc. India will be self sufficient in the field of nuclear energy as there will be no need of nuclear fuel imports. In fact, by exporting thorium as a fuel, India can gain a lot of foreign reserve in future.
    Apart from this, breeder reactors use the spent up fuel of regular nuclear reactor to further generate fuel which can again generate power. This is a huge relief in the worry of disposal of nuclear waste as the waste will get reduced with reusal of fuel. Future prospects are very bright if we are able to use thorium as a fuel. Then, It can be used in our space programs too as the fuel will be abundant. Lesser geopoltical pressure will enable government to establish more & more nuclear power plants in the country that will eventually pull the country out of energy crisis.

    • Nicely written.

      India’s progress so far in developing FBR should have been mentioned. India’s first Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Plutonium based, 500MWe) goes critical next month at Kalpakkam – a milestone towards energy security. Also, along with TN, Kerala and Odisha must be mentioned(Thorium deposits) – though it seems minor correction, Kerala has the highest deposits, so should be mentioned.

  • Nikku

    Q) What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    Ans) Indo-China relationship is characterized by cooperation, competition and conflict. While both the countries are in a constant state of competition, there are several avenues for them to cooperate and reap mutual benefits.
    With the western nation’s economy plumetting, it falls on India and China to engineer a recovery and lead the revival of world economy. While the current trade balance might be skewed heavily in favour of China, there is plenty of opportunity to cooperate in this domain.
    Both the countries are growing fast and need energy to pump this. Thus ensuring energy security and gaining access to the vast natural resources of Africa has been a priority for both nations. Instead of competing, there is more to gain from mutual cooperation here.
    The Sea lanes of communication are important to ensure the free flow of trade and cooperation is essential in ensuring their safety and combating maritime piracy.
    Organisation like BRICS have provided a forum that could draw a new world order. Although still not completely matured, India and China should cooperate in shiting the centre of geo-political power to the east and stand together to check US and western hegemony.
    Similar interest are also shared in respect to combatting climate change and advocating the doctrine of “common but differentiated responsibility”. The two must provide common leadership to the developing nations in securing a fair deal with the developed world.
    India and China, find them on the same side on numerous occasions in the WTO and Bretton Woods institutions. Their interests converge in enabling free and fair trade.
    China is a manufacturing hub, whereas India is a service hub. Both can learn from each other here as well.
    There is a need to have greater people to people exchange and strenthening of educational and cultural ties.
    The elephant and the dragon have several stage set to dance together. All that is needed is plitical will to make this happen.

  • 2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    Ans- India & china not only share geographical boundaries but also imperialist history, a developing stance & more importanly a strategic position in global politics. All this opens up wide areas of cooperation between the two nations.
    First is education & research. With passage of time, both nations have emerged as an educational hub.Joining hands in this field will not only prove to be gainful for both of them, but will also help in improving relations by cultural sharing. Frequent tours, seminars, joint research institutes & universities will also attract student from all over asia & hence will help them in strenthening their position amongst asian neighbors.
    Second is exploration of minerals & rare earths. India & china are mutual competitors in this field, but if they join hands, they can fully control the market of rare earth which is gaining more & more importance day after day.
    Third is tourism. Buddhism is a unifying bond between the two nation. Not only India & China, but other buddhist nations of ASEAN should make up a tourism net that will attract tourists from all over the world & also will enable tourism in between them.
    The strategic position that is shared by India & china can be materialized only through mutual cooperation & understanding & will benefit both the nations in their development.

    • You have missed important areas of mutual cooperation: Climate change, Energy Security, combating terrorism, striving towards reducing economic inequalities in the region, maintaining/providing global economic stability, cooperation in the multilateral fora – ex, announcement of BRICS development Bank(as an alternative to WB and IMF) etc.

  • Nikku

    1) Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.

    The regular nuclear power plants use enriched uranium for power generation i.e the naturally occuring U-238 with greater concentration of U-235. ALongside, generating energy the U-238 is also converted to Plutonium-239.
    Wheras in a fast breeder reactor, Plutonium-239 is used as a fuel along with naturally occuring Uranium. While Plutonium generates energy it also converts U-238 into more Plutonium-239.
    The entire strategy of India’s nuclear energy is based on the three stage plan of Homi Bhaba.
    India is not very rich in Uranium and even lesser in enriched Uranium. Thus the country needed an alternate fuel. Thorium seemed to fit the bill as it was widely available in Monazite sand of Kerala and the country possesed almost 30% of the world’s reserves.
    However Thorium was not readily fissible, but had the potential to be converted to a fissile isotope of Uranium ( U-233). But this process of conversion needed some other fissile material like Plutonium-239.
    Thus, the First stage was conceived to use the naturally occuring Uranium in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor to generate sufficient Plutonium-239 that could be used in the second stage.
    The second stage envisioned the use of Plutonium-239 along with natural Uranium to generate more of Plutonium-239 and energy.
    When sufficient Plutonium-239 had been generated, it was proposed to introduce Thorium into the cycle so that it could be irradiated to U-233 and thus provide energy security to the Nation for centuries.
    Thus the first two stages are crtical to the success of India’s nuclear energy programme as they provide the eddfice for the thrid and final stages.
    Besides quenching the country’s thrist for energy, the success of the plan could help India share it’s methodoloygy with 3rd world energy starved country and help them attain self sufficiency.

    • Amudhan

      Hey Nikku
      Your answer shows a very sound understanding of the techinical process however the questions asks us to ‘comment’ on FBR in relation to our nuclear program which should be the Main body of the essay rather than at the end.
      otherwise it was good

      • Nikku

        Thanks for the review Amudhan!

  • 1) Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.
    India follows a 3 tier program for its nuclear energy development as envisaged in the vision of Dr. Homi Bhabha. That includes normal water heater reactors at the first stage, fast breeder reactor at the second and subsequently thorium based reactor. The first two stages have been completed and third stage is in the process of development.
    Fast Breeder reactor produces the same kind of fissile material as it burns. It uses Pu as a fuel and reproduces more Pu than it consumes by converting non fissionable U 238 that predominates in natural Uranium ore. Further they do not require the use of moderator to slow down nuclear reactors and therefore radioactive waste is also less. While in case of regular nuclear reactors, natural uranium enriched with U 235 is used as a fuel for generation of electricity. There is a requirement to moderator for controlled fission reaction and produces large amount of radioactive waste.
    The production of nuclear energy through FBR is necessary for the energy security of the country. With the fast depleting non conventional sources of energy, nuclear energy is the only way to bypass huge energy demand of the economy. Secondly, India is not a signatory of NPT and there has been strong opposition from various quarters and organizations like NSG, Wassener allies. They oppose any move for exporting enriched uranium to India until it signs the treaty. This led to an embargo on the import of fissile material from Australia, Japan etc.
    As India is self sufficient in production of U 238 and more sites are excavated, FBR can be a boon which uses non fissionable material for the production of nuclear energy. This will not jeopardize India’s security concerns with regard to Nuclear Proliferation Treaty.

    • Dear insight,
      i think the question does not demand us to consider thorium based nuclear reactor. it simply ask for the difference between FBR and normal nuclear reactors and the significance of FBR in nuclear energy program. The most imp. significance is that it provides an opportunity to India to reduce its dependence on import of uranium from other countries and India can abstain itself from the pressure of NSG and NPT.

      • Ya you are right Considering first half of he question. The second half should be explained from India’s perspective, so importance of thorium should be stressed.

    • Amudhan

      Hey Sahil
      i have a few creservations
      1)The NSG waiver allows countries to exports Uranium to India. I have a attached a Reuters article to support the claim.
      2) could you give me sources for “embargo on the import of fissile material from Australia, Japan”

      • Many countries in NSG including China are opposing the move to export enriched uranium to India. Further Japan is reluctant to deploy its nuclear equipment to India through US. The signing of nuclear pact between india and US opened the gate for other countries to revoke the ban of export of fissile material to India. However still there is not much headway progress in the initiative.
        Second, if countries would supply India the required enriched fissile material, India would have to open its nuclear reactors to international scrutiny. I addition to that, many strong lobbies are still asking India to sign NPT which is against India’s security interest as Pakistan is also not a signatory.
        In Your second question, m not saying that there is complete ban or embargo on import of Uranium, it is just that in the past decades there has not been much progress in this sphere.
        I just want to conclude that FBR are better as it does not require India to get mired in international nuclear politics and help the production and reproduction of fissile material (through the breeding of fissile pu 239). Further thorium based reactors may, in the future, provide the required energy security as India is self sufficient in thorium. But that is still a dream in the pipeline.

        • Amudhan

          that cleared it up… 🙂

  • 2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    India and china have emerged as new leaders of developing and underdeveloped world in the past two decades due to their strong economic strength and core competence in various sectors. This led to competition and cooperation between the two at regional and international forums. Despite contentious regional issues both share similar view and strategic interest in international geo politics due to similar historical imperialist background and demographic profile.
    Many areas like climate change provide a platform for both to uphold the principle of Kyoto protocol and common but differential treatment to preserve the interest of second and third world countries. The conservation of biodiversity is another forum in which both can cooperate to press for better fund allocation from developed world.
    On economic side, both share a common view for the transformation and reform of world’s finance institutions which are currently polarized towards west. Further both being stakeholders in BRICS and its idea of development bank, there is a need for greater cooperation. Both can assist each other in WTO negotiation and bring consensus on Doha Development Round.
    Political sphere calls upon both to combat terrorism at regional and international level, strengthening Afghanistan to bring normalcy in South Asia, reiterating their demand for a Syrian led political transition in order to avoid blood bath, and opposing any western led sanctions on Iran and provide a window of consensus through UN. Further in order to avoid any war like situation in Asia with US pivot, both needs to bring a consensual roadmap for better geo politics.
    Despite some challenges on border issues and trade disparity, there is much scope for India and China to cooperate in political, social, economic, environment front in world diplomacy.

  • It has in no way diluted the pardoning power of president. While pardoning someone, there is a chance that president does not have the true objective knowledge and facts about the person. There is also chances that pardoning or rejection may be based on political reasons as President have to work in aid and advice of CoM who are none but politically elected representatives. Thus in order to prevent president to act in malafide manner, SC in SK Roy case evolved a proper mechanism through which a pardoning petition may be dealt with. Further Judicial review in the basic feature of constitution and president cannot override it.
    I just gave u a brief. U can add the way you like.

  • Ananya Basu

    1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.
    -In the age of industrial and economic revolution ,each nation is competing to be the best. Nuclear energy programmes is the fastest way to achieve and maintain it. Nuclear reactors bring about a controlled chain reaction and the available energy is used for power generation. Hence the more power a country has, the more it’s development without depending on other countries.
    Nuclear reactor is a proven source of clean, abundant energy. Besides, since energy is obtained by fission, it is a renewable source of energy. A fission reaction is a process by which a nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. When a uranium nucleus splits into two, it produces two neutrons that can be used to initiate a nuclear reaction . Neutrons produced by fission have high energy and move extremely fast. Due to this a chain reaction takes place in the reactor and energy obtained is used for power generation. A liquid or gas moderator(water or helium) cools the neutrons to optimum energies for optimum fission.
    A breeder reactor is a type of nuclear specifically designed to create more fissile material (nuclear fuel) than it consumes. It was considered a good option until the fissile material created was uranium. Natural uranium consists primarily of U238, which does not fission readily, and U235, which does. Although the U235 does most of the fissioning, more than 90 percent of the atoms in the fuel are U238, potential neutron capture targets and future plutonium atoms. A nuclear reactor can derive a significant amount of energy from such plutonium fission. But because this plutonium fissions, it reduces the amount that is left in the fuel. To maximize plutonium production, therefore, a reactor must create as much plutonium as possible while minimizing the amount that splits. A breeder reactor thus creates more fuel ,however it a concerning because the plutonium can be used to make nuclear weapons.
    India should weigh the pros and cons of nuclear reactors before coming to any conclusion. Though they significantly contribute to growth and development ,it’s hazards shouldn’t be ignored. Strikes of people near Kudankulam NPP shouldn’t be blindly dismissed as they are really worried after the Fukushima NPP accident in Japan. They should be educated and taken into confidence as they deserve to know the merits and demerits of nuclear energy. After all , the price we pay for security is insecurity.

  • sai

    sir, thank you for such a wonderful initiative. This is one of the most useful forum of all the available ones. Right now I am not able to participate in answer writing as i don’t have enough understanding of the topics. Soon i would be able to do so. But i am following the posts regularly.
    I would like to ask you
    1. If answers, by all members of each day, can be made available to download as a pdf? so that they can be printed and revised later.
    2. If you can spend time on writing your thoughts on each question? it will really enrich our understanding

    • Sai,

      Thanks a lot. Though you are short of understanding about some topics, you can still participate by going through materials on net. Try it once. 🙂

      1) After 30 days, I will publish articles as PDF by putting best answers on top. If you have observed, all answers are already available here.

      2) I thought of writing model answers, but it is not a good idea. The major intention is to generate ideas and content – not feed it. Some people may differ in their opinions also. I will give my honest feedback only if someone seeks it or when I see someone has missed important points. Thanks 🙂

      Looking forward to read your answers soon. Start from tomorrow itself.

      • sai

        Thank you for your encouragement and I respect your views. Yes i will try soon may not be from tomorrow. 🙁

    • sai

      cryosphere represents the areas of earth which are frozen, viz ice, snow, permafrost, glaciers, this is an imp part of global climate system. it affects the global climate in a significant way by feedback and interlinkages that are generated by ocean circulation, atmospheric circulation, clouds, moisture and energy content.

      cryosphere affects the global wind circulation and hence rainfall pattern, moderates the temperature of low latitude areas, sequestrates greenhouse gases

      But in recent times melting of glaciers, receding ice sheets in antarctica, which can have devastating effects like rise in sea level and more global warming, has brought the significance of cryosphere to the fore. So understanding and protection of cryosphere has assumed importance for the survival and growth of mankind

      • sai

        @insights: Sir, kindly comment on the answer
        @all: Dear all, please provide your valuable comments

        • Can you write answers to today’s questions. I will definitely go through and comment 🙂

          • Shweta

            1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?

            In a country with a large section of population which has been oppressed on the premises of caste, sex etc, it was felt necessary to bring in some measures to undo some of the historical wrongs. It is with this bonafide notion of achieving equality that the framers of our constitution while envisaging “Equality of opputunity to all” (Art 16) made certain provisions for affirmative action in the form of reservations in jobs and education for the socially and economically backward classes of citizens.

            The reservations policy ensures that these underprivileged sections of society have access to the hitherto elusive opportunities for education in higher institutions, posts in government jobs and seats in legislatures. Considering that SCs, STs and OBCs have lacked access to resources historically, it provides the latter with a chance to be a part of the progressive democracy’s policy making apparatus. It enables the “have-nots” to compete with the so called “haves” on an equal footing. Moreover, it prevents the usurpation of all political, educational and employment oppurtunities by the advantaged sections.

            Keeping in view the lowly status of women in India’s patriarchal society, steps are needed to ensure their equality with the other other sex. Reservation of seats in PRIs and Urban local bodies (93rd amendment) was a step forward in this direction and further provision for reservation for women in legislatures would do much justice to the cause of women’s empowerment.

            However, care should be taken to prevent “affirmative action” turning into “reverse discrimination” or misuse of reservations as a tool for vote bank politics, because this would fail to acheive the objective of equality while contrarily perpetuating inequality.

            • Excellent answer. Even the one on Gandhian model is very good.

    • sai

      3.sea floor spreading
      sea floor spreading is a process whereby new ocean crust is formed. This theory proposed by Henry Hess explains the mechanism of continental drift. Convectional currents below the earth crust keeps it in continuous motion. This rising magma pushes through faults and moves the continental plates away and the solidified lava creates new crust.

      Earlier Wegener proposed ploughing through mechanism to explain continental drift. But the presence of mid oceanic ridges supports the seafloor spreading theory and by now seafloor spreading is well accepted.

      Because of seafloor spreading atlantic ocean is expanding and pacific ocean is shrinking. It also causes subduction of continental plates which in turn cause earthquakes and tsunamis

      @all:kindly comment on the answer

      • sai

        3.ethnic conflicts in South Asia
        Ethnic conflicts are the conflicts between two ethnic groups. There are economic, religious, political and cultural reasons for such conflicts. Emergence of modern nation-states brought different ‘nations’ under one state. And with marginalisation of one group either by state or by other group conflicts are bound to happen.

        south asia being more diverse there are many ethnic conflicts occur. The issue of Sinhala-Tamil in srilanka, Clashes between Rohingyas and Buddhists In Myanmar, clashes between Bodos and Muslims in Assam, nagas and kukis in Nagaland are some examples

        In the wake of globalisation and liberalisation as inequality is increasing and as people are losing their identities there is urgent need to address the issue of ethnic conflicts. Of the available approaches (assimilation, integration and isolation) integrationist approach would make these ethnic groups secure and make them part of the development.

        • athi

          South asian countries have a wide range of religious,cultural and ethical diversity.It makes this region a centre of ethnic conflicts also.
          In India ethnic conflicts are common in north eastern states,Punjab etc.Different tribes are there in north east.They frequently creates cultural , political and military issues.In srilanka a violent conflict undergone between simhalas and tamils.After effects of this conflict does not subside yet. Karens, Shans,and Rohingyas conflicts in Myanmar,shiya sunni conflict in Pakistan are examples of other ethnic clashes.
          Discrimination,oppression and insecurity are the main causes of these ethnic conflicts.

          • athi

            insights please review my answer….please

          • athi

            please review my answer….please…..

  • Ananya Basu

    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    The areas of co-operation for the neighbouring countries india and china can be many yet not devoid of many problems. Our relationship with china dates back to historical times and the silk route is a testimony to it. But we can’t say so as china claimed it’s power over the south china sea citing historical references.
    However for two countries vying for regional supremacy in south east asia, tensions are abound.
    The areas for co-operation can be trade, respect for each other’s territorial extent,non-invasionist policies, respect for other’s culture and traditional integrity. Merely saying “hindi-chini bhai bhai “ is not enough. Despite being larger in size,china often acts like a small brother to tolerant India. Carrying peace talks on one hand and threatening to close the chicken neck corridor(siliguri) is not good for maintaining regional peace. Similarly to help Pakistan just to contain india or showing Arunachal Pradesh as a part of china are not healthy ways to deal with india for being pro US.
    With the look east policy of the US, the pivot of power is shifting to the east.in such a scenario when there is cut throat competition for power and oil reserves,india and china should stand together than against. It is high time to be tolerant towards each other and create their own niche in the world economy.

    • Hey ananya,
      you have enumerated the areas of cooperation more in regional issues rather than international forums.

      • Ananya Basu

        Thank you Sahil,realised it just now after reading other answers.i did not touch international forums at all!!


    Nuclear energy is produced due to the fission reaction of U235 atom.
    During fission, U235 atom splits in to two smaller nuclei and small mass is converted in to enrgy.
    Fission process releases enormous amount of energy & 3 neutrons.Neutron released during fission reacts with another
    U235 atom and chain reaction starts thereafter.If Chain reaction is completed in a controlled
    environment ,energy thus released can be utlised for commercial purposes as well.

    Regular nuclear reactor:
    Naturally found uranium is U238 (an isotope of u235) which has only 0.7 % of U235 by weight.
    U238 found naturally is enriched to increase the percentage of U235 to 3-4 percent, before being used in Normal reactos.
    At present in india ,most of the nuclear reactors are PHWR (Pressurized Heavy water reactor).In normal reactors, neutrons
    released during fission reaction are slowed down using moderator.Slowed down neutron are called thermal neutron.
    Thermal neutron reacts with u235 atoms more efficiently and chain reaction is continue.

    Fast breeder reactor:
    Fast Neutrons released after fissions are captured by U238 and it converts it in to Plutonium 239.
    This plutonium isotope can be reprocessed and used as more reactor fuel. Reactors can be designed to maximize plutonium production,
    and in some cases they can actually produce more fuel than they consume.That is the reason
    such reactors are called breeder reactors.

    Nuclear program in India:

    Nuclear program in India was started under the guidance of Visionary, Dr Homi Jehnagir Baba way back in 1950s.
    We have acheived the prowess in nuclear technology over a period of time.But limited availability of natural
    uranium in India is still the biggest challenge for future nuclear policies.At present,nuclear power contribution is
    miniscule in India’s total power supply.

    Fast breeder reactors offer an opprtunity to use the reprocessed fuel as extra fuel.Fast breeder reactors are not without concerns.
    To extract the plutonium, the fuel must be reprocessed that can create more radioactive waste and potentially high radiations.
    prototype fast breeder reactors at Kalpakkam is alomst ready to contribute towards the development of country.

    • Ananya Basu

      hey Vipul, your answer is good but don’t you think you crossed the word limit??

  • lakshmi prasanna

    2.India and china international cooperation and friendly consultations was strengthened on controversial issue and disagreements in exchanges. It is evident from cooperation in WTO, Doha round; climate change at the world level appointed joint cooperation commission and improved trade targets.
    India and china has historical relations through silk route. India was the first non communist country in recognising PRC and 16th country in establishing diplomatic relations. Both expounded panchasheel. But 1962 war deteriorated relations on both sides. In 1978 again officially trade was resumed. In 2003 first bilateral relationship document at highest level was signed. Their cooperation includes; multilateral cooperation in BRICS, BASIC, SCO, G20, during the Copenhagen climate change summit good cooperation was witnessed, to increase bilateral trade to $100 bn by 2015,banking, cultural cooperation, student exchange, tourism, infrastructure development, S&T agreements, pharmaceutical companies, economic policy research and development, cooperation in IT sector etc. 2011 considered as year of India china exchange. They also work jointly in curbing terrorism, drug traffic and maritime problems.
    Despite of all these cooperation’s, differences also exist in border sharing, trans border rivers, china dumping goods, insurgence of china soldiers into India, granting visas to Kashmir’s, supporting Arunachal Pradesh for independence, strengthening Pakistan against India, affecting our relations with Africa, exploration of India in south china sea with support of Vietnam.
    Recent visit of Indian defence minister to china for two days discussed on improving trust defence cooperation, and possibility of introducing an additional route for the Kailash Mansarovar yatra.
    Therefore fields in which cooperation can be impacted include S&T, banking, trade etc. people to people exchange is in great need. High level visits between governments for improving trust.

    • hi lakshmi,
      The second last paragraph was not required. Rather, i think, you should have explained briefly about the areas of cooperation on international front. The recent visit of chinese premier was to promoting regional goodwill in areas of border, trade and transnational river issue. They are not related to international cooperation. Most of the things you mentioned are the review of india-china local issue. What is take of both countries, standing together, in international diplomacy???

      • lakshmi prasanna

        when they can settle their disputes then only they can strengthen cooperation. if locally they are not well how can we expect better coordination in international level. so strong cooperation comes on better diplomatic relations locally so i mentioned it.

        • u are right lakshmi that settlement of outstanding disputes are necessary for cooperation but this is not the demand of the question. It asks, what are the areas of cooperation only. you can mention disputes in one line.

          • lakshmi prasanna

            i think indirectly question means it sahil. when the two rivals are cooperating each other then it automatically demands reasons for it, which is nothing but china changed its policy towards India.

            • you may be right. hope for the best. by the way i tried to answer your question(though not precisely) regarding judiciary curtailing president’s pardoning power. did u give your prelims?

              • lakshmi prasanna

                thanks sahil for good discussion

        • As Sahil said, that paragraph was not needed. What you are saying above would have itself made a good conclusion. You have excellently covered many points. Again, you should organize them well. If you read your answer again, conclusion though is valid when seen in isolation, is not related to the body of your answer. I totally agree to what you have said above -“so strong cooperation comes on better diplomatic relations locally” – just it would have been good if it was part of your answer.

          • lakshmi prasanna

            thanks sir, for giving opportunity to do mistakes and learn from it. i am trying to clarify my doubts on doing mistakes. thanks once again.

  • Ashish Mandal

    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.
    Ans. India and China being two emerging economies with huge market potential have much to offer in international arena. Following are the areas where India and china could cooperate :-

    a) After cold war world has become unipolar and in order to minimise hegemony of USA which often is against interests of developing world. Together India and China can aim for a multipolar world by cooperating in various international and regional fora like IMF reforms etc.

    b) Cooperation in order to suit interests of developing world at WTO which often works against the interests of developing world under developed nations dictat.

    c) In order to maintain peace and security in Indian Ocean by protecting sea lines of communication especially against piracy and maritime threat, Sino-China cooperation is must .

    d) World peace is always at stake due to various threats like climate change, terrorism (religious, cyber), territorial conflicts etc. Both India and china can help resolve or mitigate such issues.

    e) Future Arctic melt due to global warming have much to offer, together India and china can put pressure to declare it as global commons.

    f) In Afghanistan, together by increased investments and cooperation in security both can help in creating peaceful in south central Asian region. Same hold true for middle east and north Africa.

    g) In Africa together India and China can help in upliftment of Africa by cooperating in trade, commerce, aid and security.

    h) There is much to offer for BRICS to international arena which again can be a success by Sino-China cooperation.

    To conclude, India and China cooperation is not only necessary but essential for world peace as well as prosperity.

  • Vijay Pateriya

    QUES. Briefly explain how FBRs differ from Regular Nuclear Power Reactors?comment briefly on their significance for India’s Nuclear energy programme.

    Energy or Power is the lifeline for development of any Nation.With increasing requirements for energy as a result of rapid industrialization,energy sustainability is becoming a challenge task for Nations.In this crave for enegy security ,nuclear power offers a viable option.Nuclear Power Generation uses nuclear fission as a process whereby one giant nuclei gets fissioned into smaller nuclei and in the process lost mass converting into useful energy.Nuclear power reactors are the structures which allows the process to be carried out in a controlled manner.These requires U-235 as fuel but as U-235 is limited in nature hence everyday new improved versions of these reactors are developed. FBR is one which is promising alternative with lots of advantages over regular reactors.
    Regular reactors uses U-235 as fissionable material,because of scarce U-235 in nature it is necessary to use it efficiently thus they uses moderators to slow down neutrons hence making them more efficient at extracting energy.In the process,radioactive waste is generated.With the advancement in R&D,FBRs came to the stage.these replaces U-235 with U-238 which is readily available in nature moreover they produce Pu-239 which can be reprocessed to be used as a fuel hence decreasing the fuel requirement.Also in these FBRs actinides wastes particularly plutonium and minor actinides are reduced .In addition these reactors uses fast neutrons thus no need of moderators.Cited above are beneficials of FBRs over normal reactors.
    India with world’s largest Thorium reserves hopes a lot from FBRs which can convert Thorium into useful U-233 which is even better than U-235.India’s BHAVINI is almost on the verge of completing its first FBR at Kalpakkam,Tamilnadu.Further India plans to build 6 more FBRs over next 15 years.
    Although Nuclear technology offers a lot but it is not without evils Nuclear waste is one of the biggest problem owing to it many nations like UK,France has stopped there reactors.Today only India,Japan,Russia and China have operational FBRs.
    Radiation exposure is also a problem.So in the future more R&D is to be carried in order to make it a safe and solid waste free,less polluting and efficient form of Energy generation.

    • Amudhan

      Hey Vijay

      really liked that you brought the Kalpakkan reactor into your answer.
      i have a few reservations regarding your penultimate paragraph.
      France, UK shut down their reactors since it was no longer economically feasible. By the end of the 80’s vast amount of Uranium-238 (and 235) were found ending fears that we would run out. Which was the motivation for developing for DEVEloping FBR’s in the first place.

      • Vijay Pateriya

        Thanks Amudhan for correcting it if I was at wrong but as per my reading i got that point that radiation and nuclear waste problem was an issue regarding their closure in the mentioned countries.
        but really thanks for correction hopes your further support.

        • Vijay Pateriya

          sir, i need your feedback….. waiting

          • Vijay,

            First you have written it in 347 words (limit is 250 words).

            Few observations:

            First two lines would have made an introduction. Third line starts with a different idea, so it should be next paragraph.

            Second, in your second paragraph you have repetition. You would have just directly talked about breeder reactors.

            Third, you mentioned FBRs generate fast neutrons – you would have just added ‘that is why these reactors are called as Fast Breeder Reactors'(from layman’s perspective)

            Fourth, as Amudhan pointed out, actually FBRs reduce nuclear waste, so that point is not relevant.

            Your conclusion is wrong in the context of the question. Always, conclusion should logically follow the body of your answer. Here it should be about FBR and India. Ideally, it should have talked about India’s nuclear commerce, energy security, self reliance for fuel etc. (I agree that points you have mentioned in last two paragraphs are valid, but have a look at the question again – they are not required here)

            Keep writing. 🙂

            • Vijay Pateriya

              a lot of thanks for reviewing and pointing out the faults.
              i will try to improve.
              thanks again sir.

  • Amudhan

    Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment on their Significance towards India’s Nuclear Energy Program?
    Normal Nuclear reactor converts U-235 into radioactive material and fissile Pu-239 whereas FBR’s use Pu-239 as fuel along with U-238, during the fission reaction in the FBR U-238 converts into additional Pu-239. FBR reactors have more nuclear fuel at the end of the reaction cycle than the start.
    Stage 1 of the nuclear program involved using U-235 as fuel in a heavy water reactor. Pu-239, which is the byproduct of stage one will be used in FBR reactors for stage 2 of the program. When Sufficient quantities of Pu-239 is stockpiled we can use the Pu-239 nuclear reaction to convert Thorium into the U-233 which an artificial fissile material, which is Stage 3 of the Program.
    India has one the largest reserves of Thorium in the world and Thorium based reaction are far superior to FBR due Thorium’s greater atomic stability. India’s nuclear program is a sequential process where one stage must be successfully completed before initiating the next. Therefore stage 2 is a critical component and a perhaps the hardest stage due to difficulties with ‘doubling time’ of Pu-239 in FBR reactors which decreases our stockpiling abilities.
    With India-US civil nuclear agreement the importance of this stage has declined due to market access to U-235 from Australia, and availability of new technology due to the NSG waiver. These options however carry the risk of compromising India’s Energy security which was and is a fundamental aspect of our Nuclear Program and any decisions must not compromise this.

  • Biman Ghosh

    2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.

    India and China have enshrined as the two most significant countries not only in Asia,but in world too.midst the current scenario of the world(,Euro debt,slowdown of US economy,Kyoto2,etc)India-China have a very large field of scope for cooperation.such fields of scope can be discussed under following subheads:

    *IN REVIVING WORLD ECONOMY-China and India has grown very firstly and still have one of the highest growth rates.Euro zone debt and slowdown of US economy has appalling effects over world economy.India-China economic cooperation can revive world economy up to greater extent.their fair cooperation can be proved as a “stimulus package” for Euro zone and growth engine for world economy.

    *COUNTER TERRORISM AND WORLD PEACE: there must be anticipation of massive violence in Afghanistan in post 2014 US-exit.India and China have greater roles there to bring peace and counter terrorism attacks.their cooperation will be proved as a boon for Afghanistan.

    *TOWARDS MDGs-There is a substantial part of world population living in these two developing countries.India- China can adhere to great co-operation and endeavors to fulfill these MDGs. These two countries have immense potential to achieve the MDGs and hence it will be resulted the overall achievement of MDGs in the world.

    *ENVIRONMENT CONCERNS AND POLLUTION- India and China are among the countries,which emit a substantial part of global pollutants,like Co2.No2 etc.also these two countries are in industrial transition phase so,they polluting the environment substantially.they can form a framework together and can work towards the less pollution.its one of the largest fields,where the cooperation between both countries will drag the pollution level down immediately.

    India and China with impressive cooperation can help the world to tackle the major challenges, it is facing.they have very much potential to bring peace,prosperity and sustainable growth across the world.

    • Biman Ghosh

      waiting fr ur inputs…:P

      • Your answer is good. I don’t find any major mistakes.

  • Amudhan

    What are the Areas of Co-operation for India and China in the International Arena? Discuss
    India and China are large and populous developing countries. They require and aspire towards development and Security and it is on this plank that they co-operate internationally on strategic issues.
    India and China co-ordinated in the UNFCC to make Equity on Emissions as one of its fundamental values, ensuring that both countries are not unduly burdened by meeting climate change objective when pressing matter such as poverty need to be tackled.
    Security is another area of co-operation especially in Afghanistan. The SCO is expected to be a key player in the region in post-US Afghanistan. India is worried about the rise of Terrorism once US troops pull out and China is worried about the influx of Narcotics and increased rebellions in its Xinjiang province. Both Countries have a lot to gain from a stable Afghanistan.
    Bilateral Issues have been a serious hindrance to the development of strategic initiatives such as the South China Sea, Border Dispute and troop movements beyond the border facilitate distrust. However the potential for India-strategic co-operation is vast. These areas include Co-operation in the UN in matters of Geo-strategic importance, promoting regional stability, ensuring that the artic remains a commons and if necessary provide strategic limitation to the US tilt towards Asia.

  • Nirmal Singh

    Often referred as political and economic rivals, not so good relations of China and India has silver lining too especially when it comes to international forums.
    On economic front, Issue of farm subsidies given fresh life by G-33 recently, unfair tariff and non tariff barriers imposed by Developed countries at WTO are areas of mutual interests. The recent regional FTA proposed by Japan which will comprise China, India, S.Korea and Japan is a welcome step. Cooperation through BRICS and recently mooted BRICS Bank at Durban summit is another progressive act of cooperation.
    At strategic level, The security of Malacca strait is important for both China and India as majority of Oil imports and trade with rest of world occurs through it, although both are suspicious of one another yet forms an area of convergence .Another important area is Afghanistan security where both have heavily invested with important Pipelines. Recent turmoil in Syria and Egypt are also important considering fact that both countries have substantial Diaspora there. Further India supports BRICS position of non intervention in Syria in agreement with China. Further India bid for SCO can ensure further closeness on issue of Terrorism.
    Talks on Climate change seem to be the most important area of cooperation at international forums. Leading developing countries both have expressed concerns over inability of developed countries to provide funding and technology and have been vocal about their attempts to dilute responsibilities. Recent gain of observer status at arctic council will give stake in decision making over global warming issue and research to both.

    Although mutual rivalry at multiple fronts has created more gaps than bridges yet the sphere of cooperation cannot be held hostage to short term issues. The urgent need is to leverage common strengths to create win -win situation for both in the long term.

  • Nirmal Singh

    Often referred as political and economic rivals, not so good relations of China and India has silver lining too especially when it comes to international forums.
    On economic front, Issue of farm subsidies given fresh life by G-33 recently, unfair tariff and non tariff barriers imposed by Developed countries at WTO are areas of mutual interests. The recent regional FTA proposed by Japan which will comprise China, India, S.Korea and Japan is a welcome step. Cooperation through BRICS and recently mooted BRICS Bank at Durban summit is another progressive act of cooperation.
    At strategic level, The security of Malacca strait is important for both China and India as majority of Oil imports and trade with rest of world occurs through it, although both are suspicious of one another yet forms an area of convergence .Another important area is Afghanistan security where both have heavily invested with important Pipelines. Recent turmoil in Syria and Egypt are also important considering fact that both countries have substantial Diaspora there. Further India supports BRICS position of non intervention in Syria in agreement with China. Further India bid for SCO can ensure further closeness on issue of Terrorism.
    Talks on Climate change seem to be the most important area of cooperation at international forums. Leading developing countries both have expressed concerns over inability of developed countries to provide funding and technology and have been vocal about their attempts to dilute responsibilities. Recent gain of observer status at arctic council will give stake in decision making over global warming issue and research to both.
    Although mutual rivalry at multiple fronts has created more gaps than bridges yet the sphere of cooperation cannot be held hostage to short term issues. The urgent need is to leverage common strengths to create win -win situation for both in the long term.

  • For those who are not clear with differences between Breeder Reactors and normal reactors – http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-do-fast-breeder-react

  • simran

    Russian revolution was 1st successful socialist revolution which changed the course of the world history decades.The Czars in Russia ruled in a highly autocratic manner. they believed in the Divine theory of kingship.Govt was not only despotic but also inefficient and weak. common people didnt enjoy the freedom of expression nor they were allowed to hold meetings or organise themselves. Russian bureaucracy was incompetent, corrupt and dishonest. Neither farmer not workers had any meaningful place in the society. There was a wide spread dissatisfaction among non-Russian. The liberals and radical ideas of the west penetrated into the country in a way or the other and gave birth to an intellectual ferment.In the last quarter of the 19th century the intellectuals started spreading their ideas to the peasants through a movement k/s ” going to the people”.
    During last decade of the 19th century there was a rapid spread of socialist ideology in Russia. Participation of Russia in the 1st world war proved fatal and brought about the final collapse of the Russia autocracy. This spirit of change was dampened which sets the stage of nihilism
    Nihilism was a youth movement a philosophical tendency and revolutionary impulse. It has new approaches to aesthetic, criticism and ethics.It was also a contradiction between studied materialism and desire to annihilate the social order. Nihilism effect is traceable through the history of Anardism through the function and modern practice of terrorism & through philosophical trends from destrction to existentialism.
    Irish nationalism in late 18th century inspired by french revolution demanded self govt and autonomy from british parliament particularly ponying law which allowed british to rule ireland.
    The socio religious reforms movement of 19th century triggers the resolution of the Indian national consciousness. The Indian nationalist movement was the political expression of rational and religious uproar and social and economic develop.
    Indian nationalistic movements with the goals of autonomy and self rule were the circumstance which lead to the unification or the division of a place were alike. The catalysts for nationalism based on the corruption or in effectiveness of a govt on its subjects.
    Indian nationalistic movements for independence were a direct reaction to imperialism. India had experienced long periods of imperialism.which programmed nationalistic movement rose up in an attempt to throw out foreign influence and gain independence.

  • simran

    Decolonization is the undoing of colonialism, the unequal relation of policies where by one people or nation establishes and maintained dependent territory over another. It can be understood politically or culturally. The terms refers particularly to the dismantlement in he years of the world war II throughout Africa and Asia. Decolonization is a political process frequently involving violence.The process of decolonization coincide with the new cold war between soviet-union and united states and with the early develop of new UN. Decolonization was often effected by superpower competition and lead a definite impact on the evaluation of that competition.
    3 key elements played a major role in the process of decolonization:
    i… colonized peoples : thirst for independence.
    ii… 2nd world war which demonstrated that colonical power were no longer invulnerable.
    iii… New focus on anti colonialism in international area are such as United nation.
    United Nation having objectives regarding the decolonization i.e. settle the population:UN objective is to settle the population of the country without any loss of their life.: End of civil war within country : the UN wants to end the war within and outside and solve the problems with mutual track.: Promote social infrastructure which was damaged by war, the UN helping the promotion of social infrastructure which include health, wealth and sanitation.: Complete freedom of newly born countries.: Help new born country for growth in every matter.: settle boundaries line.

  • simran

    Both are nuclear reactors i.e , FBR (fast breeder reactors) and regular nuclear power. The difference is in the overall sophistication of the technologies involved.
    Generation II and generation III nuclear reactor used low or unenriched uranium and produce high level radioactive waste than remains dangerous for many many years.
    Breeder reactors are the next generation. These are supposed to “burn” the uranium fuel hunger and break it into different isotopes which can also be burned. This extends the life of the fuel inc power output and creates a waste product that is far less dangerous than previous generation reactors.
    India follows 3 stages program for it nuclear energy development under Dr. Homi Bhabha . Stage 1st and 2nd has been completed and 3rd stage is in the process of development.
    1st stage :: pressurized heavy water reactor
    2nd stage:: fast breeder reactor
    3rd stage:: thorium based reactor or an advance nuclear power system involves a self sustaining series of thorium 232-uranium-233 fueled reactors.
    India has an active development program featuring both fast and terminal breeder reactors. India’s 1st 40mwt fast breeder test reactor(FBTR) attained critical on 18 oct,1985.
    At the present the scientist of Indira Gandhi center for Atomic Research (IGCAR) one of the nuclear R&D institution of INDIA, are engaged in the constructional of another FBR 5000mwt prototype FBR with plans to build more apart of its 3 stage nuclear power programme.
    India has the capacity to use thorium cycle based processes to extract nuclear fuel. This is of special to the Indian Nuclear Power Generation strategy as India has one of the world’s largest reserves of thorium, which could provide power for more than 10000 yr and perhaps as long as 60000 years

    • simran

      kindly help me by point out my mistakes…. i know still i have done many mistakes but plz guide me regarding where i m lacking now … plz help meeee…
      Thank u

  • Nikku

    “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”. Critically comment.
    Post the 1991 reforms, India has opened up several of its sector to foreign investment and integrated itself more deeply with the international economy.
    The foreign investment flowing into India are generally classified as “Foreign Direct Investment” which are long term, and “Foreign Institutional Investment” which are basically portfolio investment and are genrally short term and volatile.
    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is generally encouraged as it brings in new and better technology, best practices of global management, the much needed capital for infrastructure development and generates employment thus providing impetus to overall development and growth.
    However, FDI too isnt without it flaws. Experts argue that foreign companies are generally insensitive to needs of the local environment. They exploit natural resource of the country and drain it’s raw material. Moreover, their intervention in strategic sectors like telecommunication could be a challenge with regard to security concerns.
    On the other hand, the portfolio investment done via FII are relatively less benificial as they are considered to be volatile and are very susceptible to the global market trends. Checks need to be in place to ensure that these investments do not destabilize the currency by making a quick flight as happened in the south east asian crisis in the 1990s.
    India needs foreign investment at the moment, as the domestic mobilisation of savings is not sufficient to pump in the capital that is needed to sustain the high rate of growth that the country needs to bring its masses out from the clutches of poverty.
    The govt needs to provide a stable and enabling policy and legislative framework while ensuring that the domestic needs of the country are not compromised in the zeal to attract to foreign investment.
    At the same time, we should also ensure that we do not become completely dependent on foreign investment. Efforts should be sustained parallely to generate domestic capital and entreprenuiral skills so that the country can achieve the desired degree of self sufficiency in case the foreign investments dry up.

    • Nikku

      Would be great if you could give your feedback

  • Amudhan

    Discuss the demands and Expectation of the Indian Diaspora in North America from their Host countries. Are these demands justified? Critically examine
    Indians in the North American countries are predominantly engaged in highly skilled labor unlike Indians on work permits to Singapore or Dubai. These labors in in North America require Job security from their employers and in case of termination a period of respite to find new jobs and stable visa regime.
    There have also been demands by the Indian government to provide social security to these workers which flatly refused by US government. Additional the Diaspora wants equal treatment in Taxes and benefits arising from them; and equality in the job selection process along with ability to hold a broader range of jobs.
    The US government allows for a highly skilled labor force to come and work but its objectives are not to create to new citizens but procurement of a temporary skilled workforce for its aging population. It is very hard to judge the legitimacy of these since each country treats immigrants according to their own laws and values. The Indian Diaspora as foreigners must abide by them as we expect foreigners to abide by ours. These aspirations can however be reached by Bi-lateral government level talks rather than lobbying by the Diaspora itself.

  • Amudhan

    “Foreign Investments is far from being critical to India’s economic growth” Critically comment
    India’s CAD is currently at levels of 4% and sometimes touching 5% mark. However our balance of payments has been marginally positive, for which we owe some level of stability in our foreign exchange market, is due to foreign investments. India has high savings rate and sufficient domestic capital to meet most of its own demand however in the present context foreign is averting a BOP crisis – concurrent to which economic growth will not happen.
    The RBI allowed access to ECB’s for domestic companies during the liquidity crisis which galvanized our growth story through the liquidity crunch however a sizable amount of their foreign loans are due in March 2014, which in the absence of foreign capital will precipitate a BOP crisis and a spiraling exchange rate not auguring well for the economy. Foreign capital also brings in new technology and provides competition.
    However some circles point out to a positive cycle triggering this situation where in foreign capital creates a bubble in the real estate and finance markets triggering a wealth effect which increases our imports. Subsequently the rupee will also be overvalued leading to a higher CAD and the need for more capital. In which case we would need lower our dependence on capital and devalue the rupee to appropriate levels and brace for the long haul. Our politicians and the RBI for political and humanistic reasons consideration (33% of our imports is Oil – with a low exchange rate the common man will feel the pinch of price rises) have decided to pursue both in a phased manner in the medium term.

    • You are not critically commenting on the statement. Does foreign investment help India’s economic growth or not? I see some ambiguity in your answer.

      • In how much words are we supposed to write the answers?? Marks?? 25/15/10 markers??

        • Please read the instructions above.

          • Please may I get your critical feedback on the answer I wrote above on India-China border issue affecting trade?

            Please keep up the good work. I have seriously started following your blog and intend to follow all that you have said for various GS papers. Thanks

  • Anjali Motghare

    Insights this is my humble request, if u can please frame question by paper wise, topic wise first finish any one paper then start next.
    Means it will give a sense of completing one paper and the like. It will also help in collecting data on one paper at a time. Other aspirants needs also be taken care of. Think for larger interest and decide. This my request purely.

    • lakshmi prasanna

      sir i to feel the same, pls let us choose a systematic and planned path. so that it fills confidence. thank u

    • Ok I will do that. From next week, I will do that but alternately – three days from paper-I and next three days from paper-II, Sunday holiday!

      I will see if I can increase number of questions to 3 or 4 (with varying word limits – 250, 150, 50)

      But questions won’t be asked topic-wise – they can be asked from any topics within a paper. (if not, it becomes boring, predictable and monotonous, an element of surprise should be there. Also I assume that most of you have covered paper-I and II already in your preparation)

      I started this in your interest only – ok, larger interest. Thanks. (You have asked a 5 Star question!) 😉

      • lakshmi prasanna

        thank u sir

      • Anjali Motghare

        Thanks a lot Sir !!! ya you are right paper 1 and 2 are already familiar to everyone.

  • Nirmal Singh

    Indian Diaspora forming a large chunk of population of N.America has a number of issues and demands seeking to be addressed by host country.
    Incidents like recent attack on Sikhs through firing on Gurudwara motivated by racial discrimination raises important security raises reservation and need immediate attention. The immigration issue is another area which need reforms considering its discriminatory character and rigid conditions to sponsor one’s relatives. Indians are demanding parity in rights with fellow citizens in certain areas like more Political representation .The denial religious rights and freedom for Muslims and Sikhs is a matter of concern. The low wage migrants suffers from exploitation by employers and especially diplomats abusing diplomatic immunity under Vienna convention. They are demanding grievance redressal measures like ombudsman and helpline to address the same. Related issue is legalisation of undocumentated migrants gaining entry through illegal means.
    It is indeed a tragedy that USA and Canada has done little to prevent anti-racial attacks ,turning back to their constitutional obligation to guarantee security to its residents. The approach to minimise immigration considering its influence on demographic transition and economy must be replaced by transparent ,anti discriminatory measures. The religious freedom should be viewed in light for liberal civic rights of which USA is a ardent supporter rather than security needs. The issue of diplomatic abuse is more serious and complex as it is out of their domain and needed to solved through source country negotiations to include provisions for applying host country laws under special circumstances. The ombudsman and helpline would be a good step here. Further issue of legalisation of illegal migrants has no grounds since it is against country laws.
    The Diaspora seems to have reasonable and justifiable demands which every country is supposed and must give heed to considering the Diaspora contribution to country economy, human resources and secular credentials

    • Anjali Motghare

      Nirmal Good answer. Could u please tell me the source for diaspora related data.

      • Nirmal Singh

        I gathered all data from The Hindu specially opinions over the year.Another good source can be mrunal.com website.He has given excellent strategy for diaspora section.Hope it helps

        • Anjali Motghare

          Thanks Nirmal.

    • Very good answer.

  • shanti

    Foreign investment is needed for any country in two cases. 1) When domestic investment is inadequate. 2) When foreign exchange is required. In domestic investment front, position of India is fairly sound. As for foreign exchange, it can either be an asset or a liability depending on its repatriability. If it is repatriable it is liability foreign exchange else an asset.
    This way only three types of foreign exchange can be considered as assets – exchange earned from exports, NRO deposits of NRI’s, foreign aid from other countries or agencies. The rest are liabilities like foreign direct investment (FDI), foreign portfolio investment (FPI), foreign currency loans from other countries etc.
    FPI is investment in the capital markets by foreign institutional investors for quick and short term gains. It is called ‘hot money’ or ‘fly by night money’ since it can be withdrawn overnight. FDI is investment in the plant or enterprise by a foreign investor which is part of the paid up capital. It is a debt inflow or a liability foreign exchange because the profits it generates will have to be repatriated in foreign exchange.
    Foreign investment should be avoided unless the yields are more than the repayments. . It is not to be forgotten that the South East Asian crisis in 1997 was due to capital flight. In Indian context, in retail sector, if supply side management or technology was what we needed, strengthening these would have been better than opening it to FDI.
    No economy ever developed with FDI alone. Sustainable economic growth takes place only when the foreign investment is coupled with domestic technological development and application, indigenous mobilization of resources with the help of government’s support and regulation.

    • shanti

      Sir, its heartening to see your efforts to help us. Thank you.

      Regarding my answer. It’s one of the first answers i have written. Realised that i havent added many points relevant to India. I should have mentioned CAD atleast. waiting for your review.


    • Shanti,

      Your answer is too technical and everything you have mentioned is correct and valid. But it partially answers the question.

      Read the question again – the statement simply means that foreign investment is not critical for India’s economic growth. You have to ‘comment’ on this statement ‘critically’. When you are asked to comment, you have to take a stand – either support the statement and strongly defend it, or oppose it and justify it.

      So you should make your stand clear in the introduction and give a logical flow to your answer.

      This question, though was asked by UPSC in 2009, is very relevant today also(last month we saw easing of FDI norms, increase in capping etc). Going through India’s history – in economic policy making regarding foreign investments – to present scenario and its effect on economic growth, you have to either defend or oppose it. You will get points to justify both stances. Choose one and defend it with reason and logic.

      • shanti

        Your review and others answers gave me a perspective of approaching this answer. But i was clueless when i started to write the answer. Nonetheless i will keep writing. I love the way things are happening here.

  • lakshmi prasanna

    2. During last few decades FDI has become important, as it improves savings and investments for improving production capacity which in turn causes economic development. FDI mostly greater between OECD countries, but recently attracted by developing economies ie BRICS. India started FDI in 1991 through FEMA act. Recent survey revealed India stood in second position after china in attracting FDI. Moreover FDI showed marginal significance in Indian economic growth.

    FDI improves economic growth of a country by bringing capital, technology, managerial skills and capacity and access to foreign markets etc. But the host country should have certain conditions like good per capita income, trade openness, educated labor, developed financial markets and absorptive capacity in order to see FDI impact on economic growth.

    The survey shows reasons for negative impact of FDI on Indian economic growth. The fact is increase in growth rate of FDI is much higher than GDP growth rate. To absorb this excess FDI inflow employment generation is needed. But unfortunately employment growth rate is lower than FDI growth rate. Resulted high inflation pressure and dropped economic growth. Therefore allowing FDI inflow into economy only cannot warrant economic growth minimal level of economic growth should be there in the economy to absorb the excess FDI inflow.

    So government should come up with a policy where FDI enhances domestic production, savings and exports. conclusion is FDI in exports oriented sector is advisable for better economic growth.

    • lakshmi prasanna

      sir comment pls is this answer relevant or any drawbacks

      • In the introduction OPEC, BRICS is not necessary. You have given valid points like FDI should generate employment, productivity etc. But you are arguing that economic growth is the precondition for attracting FDI. You should have substantiated it further. Also it is wrong that India is receiving ‘excessive’ FDI. Check the data, it is going downhill (not because of low economic growth, but because of government policies). Also, you should mention the name and year of the ‘survey’ you are referring to – gives authenticity to your argument.

        • lakshmi prasanna

          sir pls have a look into this article. it is a comparison between FDI growth rate and GDP growth rate.the facts i mentioned above is from this.

          • lakshmi prasanna

            sorry sir i’m not clear about the data u r referring pls give some clarity

        • Ya I read that paper. In third paragraph you have mentioned that – ” The fact is increase in growth rate of FDI is much higher than GDP growth rate” – which gives a wrong idea.

          In the link you gave it is said that FDI had negative impact on GDP because India did not generate enough employment during that time period to absorb ‘excess; FDI. (your sentence should have been on this line)

          Read this again:

          “The negative impact of FDI on GDP is based on the fact that during this period the cumulative growth rate of FDI inflow into the economy was much greater than the cumulative growth rate of GDP. To absorb this higher rate of FDI inflow, immediate translation of FDI into employment generation was very much needed. But, unfortunately, the growth rate employment in the economy during this period was much lesser than the growth rate of FDI. As a result, excess capital inflow into the economy remained unabsorbed, which led to inflationary pressure, whichin turn, ate away the growth in the real sector, establishing a negative impact of FDI on GDP”

          The data I talked about is: http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/fdi-dips-by-38-to-224-bn-in-201213/article4775276.ece

          (I thought you gave your answer citing some very recent survey).

          • lakshmi prasanna

            so problem is the way i expressed the sentence but not with data. is this right? can i use this data in future?

            • Ya right. Yes you can use but do mention your source.

              • lakshmi prasanna

                but sir can u give some idea of authenticating a source like things we need to mention. is it based on author or name of survey or time period or news paper names. i do avoid authenticating due to this confusion. pls educate me in this lines.and thanks for everything.

                • You need to do this when you mention data (lest examiner thinks it is all cooked up) It is better to cite widely accepted, neutral and respected reports – economic survey, UN reports, WB/IMF reports, NFHS etc. In some cases reports of reputed NGOs can be cited. You don’t have name newspapers in your answer.(papers follow a set of ideologies) It depends lot on context too.

                  By chance if there is a question on leaked diplomatic cables related to India, depending upon the question you may have to mention Guardian/The Hindu newspaper names. It all depends on the nature of the question and quality of your source.

                  • lakshmi prasanna

                    thanks sir for patiently answering

  • premkumar

    Paper wise question makes easier to understand it s feels easier to aspirnts like pls consider this request

  • phani

    1) Discuss the demands and expectations of Indian Diaspora in the North America from their host countries. Are these demands justified? Critically examine.

    The immigration of Indians to North America particularly USA and Canada has been happening from pre independent times. After independence many people from india belong to all kinds of skill sets migrated to these countries temporarily and permanently. The lucrative idea of “American dream “ and the development of those countries with relatively less accommodation in Indian industry based on their skill set many young IT professionals and especially IIT graduates migrated to north America and are in all walks of life .
    Out of total population, though Indians account for only a mere 0.7% , 75% of them continue to held very important positions in both private sector and public life. But they continue to face racial and cultural discrimination in some parts of North America. The recent attacks on Sikh gurudwara in USA are a standing testimony of the racial prejudice of some sections of the American population. Especially in times of economic hurdles and growing unemployment Indians are being seen as the biggest job snatchers. Many students are doing a less than skilled jobs like pizza delivery, working in grocery shops and petrol pumps to meet their ends meet. They do not come under any social security programs. They lose their jobs as and when their employer wishes.
    There is a difference in the wages too. A recent study says a Canadian Indian is getting an average income less than 10% of a Canadian though are endowed with the same skill set. With increasing terrorist threats, sometimes Indian Muslims are facing a hard time to clear the immigration checks at the airports is increasing the trust deficit. The NRI’S AND PIO’S expect not less than a fair and equal treatment in employment form countries which boast of equality and freedom. There is a need to increase the trust and value their contributions in the development of north America and constantly pursue the goal of safeguarding them by allying their fears and by providing a social security and stricter punishments against racial discrimination, the onus is on the host countries.

    • Good answer. But you are not answering the second half of the question – whether demands justified? if yes, why? I think their contributions to host countries should be stressed in the conclusion.

  • Vijay Pateriya

    QUES. Discuss the demands and expectations of Indian diaspora in the N.America from their host country.Are these demands justified?Critically examine.

    In this era of globalization when the world is turning into a global village,Indians are also spreading their wings to other countries in search of better prospects.The Indian Diaspora is expanding with time.North America is one of the leading recipient of the Indians because of economic chances and values offered .

    But this is not so harmoniously every now and then there comes complaints regarding continous discriminations Indians are being subjected in these countries.The concerning issues broadly refers to 3 categories –
    Social security- This covers issues related to attacks on Indians in workplaces or educational institutions on racial lines like Dot busters gang of New jersey.This is currently most burning topic.
    Religious issues –like relating to observance of ritual rites by certain religious communities ,for ex.bearing of turban by Sikhs,recent attack on gurudwara.
    Economic problems-this relates to problems like job security,wage security etc.
    Some other problems raising heads refers to visa problems and providing of basic facilities to Indians.
    Pointing to these lithora of problems,Indians in alien countries continues to seek support from their host countries as well as their Homeland.Host countries can try and sort out these problems at their levels by opening helplines ,extending support facilities to Indians ,discussing issues like religious ones with concerned religious heads and home countries through diplomatic channels while at the same time Indians diaspora must refrain from making any demands which prejudices the local laws and rules of the country concerned.On the whole Diasporas could well be a part of devt. Process as it participates in economic prospects and integrations process of the host countries as well thus they must try and protects foreign diasporas within their borders.

    • Vijay Pateriya

      sir please,
      corrections and anallysis is welcomed & awaited
      thanking you all.

      • Vijay Pateriya

        sir please …………all of you
        any feedbacks
        i want to build upon my ability …….humble request

        • Second half of the questions is not answered. First half is good. For specific information please have a look at this: http://indiandiaspora.nic.in/diasporapdf/chapter14.pdf (page 188).

          Your conclusion is not related to the question or introduction. From introduction to the conclusion the whole answer must flow logically.

          After writing each paragraph, have a look at the question. See if your answer is in the right direction and write accordingly. Your answer is good one, but try to make it the best one. 🙂

  • Nik

    “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”. Critically comment.
    What got started in the late 80’s had its result in 1991, when India announced itself to be Liberalized, Privatized and Globalized (LPG reforms). The concept was clear in itself to prove India being a part of the Global Village. The doubts, however still hover around whether the foreign investment is critical for India’s economic growth? Certainly, a country’s growth in this era cannot be in isolation. It needs to have the benchmark practices of the world in order to be a real competitor. This is not at all possible unless the foreign players are actively involved in the country.
    We cannot deny the fact that our process of industrialization started very late as compared to the developed nations. Idea of getting started from the scratch and development by its own was rejected thoroughly at the time of independence. Help from foreign countries and their companies certainly helped in improving the condition of the people along with improving the economic growth of the country. Adding to it was the era of 1991. Results came slow but steady when India saw the GDP riding at 8% in 11th Five Year Plan.
    Yes, the reason was rise in internal demand but had not foreign players been active, fulfilling of demand was not at all possible. Indian rural market as an untapped niche market was also realized by the foreign investment when the companies started selling sachet packets of bigger brands at affordable prices. The overall result not only profited the companies but the Indian economy as a whole.
    It is this investment which will bring necessary changes to the infrastructure, logistics support and overall policy framing. Raising doubts about it being critical is like looking backwards to old economic era. Foreign investment has proved itself worthy before and will continue to do so.

  • Q Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”. Critically comment
    Foreign Investment may be temporary or permanent. It may be speculation based or industrial based. It is poised to bring foreign currency into an economy thereby bringing economic stability, competition, technology, capital etc. However most of them whether long term or short term, are profit oriented and do not reflect the local demands of the economy.
    After 1991 economic reforms, India opened its floodgates for foreign investors. This led to an increase in growth figures in past two decades. Though government opened many sectors in a phased manner, there was not much headway in long term capital inflow, and most was limited to speculative financial markets. In addition to that those who established much awaited industrial base did not bring in the required world class technology. This can be understood from India’s manufacturing base which still constitutes abysmal 14% of GDP which shows reluctance of foreign investors in spurring Indian economic growth.
    There has been low investment in infrastructure by foreign companies which require atleast $ 1 trillion during 12 FYP. Further recent lukewarm response and opposition to policy issues by foreign retailers regarding Multi Brand retail trade, which are critical to India’s domestic growth and establishing sound small and medium industries, shows the hawkish attitude. They have advocated for watering down of certain provisions of procurement and back end infrastructure. Most of the funds in financial market are speculative and short term gain oriented leading to destabilization of Indian currency. There is also a lack of CSR on the part of foreign investors.
    Hence, despite creating a business friendly environment by the government, foreign investors are least concerned about Indian growth and betting for more liquidation of norms according to their self interest.

    • Feedback welcomed…!!!

      • Nirmal Singh

        Hello Sahil
        I have few reservations regarding some of your arguments.First it is said there was no technology bought by FDI ,I think it is more to do with government restrictive regulations like cap on FDI. No company will ever pour its hard work of decades of research and billions of money without getting any ownership and say in company decisions which is low thanks to FDI caps.Secondly the government has not created friendly environment so important for Direct Investments .The GARR and DTC code ,not fully convertible rupee and unpredictability in laws ensured Foreign investors will think twice before entering India

        • Hey nirmal,
          i did not say that fdi brought no technology. i only said it is not upto the global level or of obsolete nature. Many sectors have more than 50% of fdi allowed which provides access to ownership. Secondly, some legislations are in the pipeline for allowing more investment limits. The GAAR provisions may not be clear and government is working on it but it a genuine demand due to unscrupulous use through tax havens. Further GAAR has been in economic circles for the past 1 or 2 years only. Government has opened e Biz window for better facilitation and one window clearances. In addition, funds in the financial markets are completely speculative due to fiscal stimulus in america. the recent volatility in the market proves this.

          • Nirmal Singh

            Thanks for clarifications!!

  • Q. Discuss the demands and expectations of Indian Diaspora in the North America from their host countries. Are these demands justified? Critically examine.
    Indian Diaspora is one the major immigrant community in North America especially USA and Canada. Due to lack of opportunities at home, these Indians who are skilled laborers are looking abroad especially in American markets. However lately, there has been a sense of alienation among them due to growing intolerance of the Americans towards outsiders and rising protectionist attitude of the governments.
    Most of the Indian population present in America suffers from racial threats, economic constraints and religious fanaticism. This can be seen in context of the racial attacks on students studying in different educational institutions, racial biasness in the period of recession etc. In addition to this our diaspora still demands a level playing field for both domestic and immigrant labor force as most of them, being professionals working in trans frontier companies, are suffering from visa policy regime of US etc. Other issues involve the attacks on religious places like gurudwaras etc. There has been growing concern from community about the rising fanaticism from the indigenous people. This may lead to the rise of religious extremism.
    With these concerns Indian diaspora is expecting the host governments to take a pragmatic view of some of their legitimate demands like racial biasness and religious intolerance that are more of a real threat to the very existence of the community which has took the relations between Americans and Indians governments to a new height. However, visa policy regime is more a technical issue with the increasing slowdown in American economy and must be dealt at the inter-governmental level.

  • Ashish Mandal

    “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”. Critically comment.
    Foreign investment, comprising of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Foreign Institutional Investment (FII), in the current environment of economic turmoil in India, is seen as augmenter of economic growth. However, critics argue that foreign investment is no panacea but a toll of neocolonialism.

    FDI being a stable and much sought investment helps in getting much needed foreign reserves, transfer of technology and generation of employment . FDI also helps in improving quality of goods and services by inducing competition, thus indirectly helps in increasing export potential. Thus, FDI can be said to be helpful in boosting economic growth of a country.

    Even FII adds to foreign reserve by bringing global liquidity into the equity markets. FII being non-debt creating flows reduces cost of capital and raises price earning ratio and supplements domestic savings. Thus, FII indicates a positive relationship with the economic growth of a country. Large FII flow often indicates good economic prospects of a country and reinforces further investments.

    However, critics point that FII being ‘fly by night’ or ‘hot’ money is a risky and poses potential threat of destabilization of economy due to its nature of short term gains.Even for FDI, it is argued that FDI indulges in cut throat competition and monopoly and is a threat to domestic firms. In long term, profits flow out of country just like colonial ‘economic drain’ and thus can be detrimental to the national interests.

    But in India macro-economic concerns of high current account and rupee depreciation calls for foreign investment, as India desperately need foreign currency. FII is no doubt accepted as risky so more focus should be more on FDI, evident from the current FDI policy reforms. Opening up market in new sector will boost economic growth of India as seen in 90s reform especially in telecom sector.

  • RV

    Foreign investment in the form of Foreign Direct Investment , FII , QFI are deemed to bring much needed foreign capital , enhance technology transfer and establish world class management and industry competetiveness.
    There has been much hue and cry over the recent “tapering” fiasco in the Indian markets and many have questioned the wisdom of foreign Investment citing reasons from low technology transfer to not so efficient management . I find this view myopic and stand by the long term gains the country stands to hold from Foreign Investments .
    India is destined to be the global growth engine and for this it requires huge injection into the infrastructure and the capital market which need to be partially sufficed from foreign investment as has been the case in the past. Foreign Investments have undoubtedly brought in competitiveness in the markets thereby reducing the inefficiency if not totally eliminating it and has brought in customer centric good practices.They have shown interest time and again in the Indian bond markets and still hold a considerable weight in that area. The condition of Indian economy had it not been for the 1991 reforms would have been abysmal .
    The belief in Foreign Investment has been aptly reflected by the competent authorities like SEBI and RBI which have proposed to ease the norms for foreign Investors and club them into a new profile of Foreign Portfolio Investors and is considering of increasing the avenues for tax benefits to furthen their interest in the Indian market. India would do well to not repeat another Vodafone and bring on amicable legislative and market reforms to augur well in the new era of Indo-China led growth.

  • RV

    The Indian Diaspora in the North America has been one of the main contributors for their resounding success on all the fronts today. The plethora of success they have achieved as doctors , entrepreneurs , engineers and of late legislators and judges in the U.S. has established them as a strong aspiring community and has filled all Indians with a sense of pride.
    However the recent cases of racial discrimination , crackdown on Muslims post 9/11 , increased attacks on Indians and the violent attack on the Gurudwara in Canada , paints a not so rosy picture when it comes to effective protection and grant of rights on equal footing by the host countries . The Indian Diaspora’s demand for greater security both political and socio economic is justified and has rightly been taken up by the Indian Government through bilateral talks. Indian Diaspora also contributes to our economic growth through remittances , NRI deposits and investment in the bond markets and the recent case of Totalisation agreement talks with U.S. shows prudence on our Governments part. The dotting cases of abuse of Diplomatic Immunity especially in case of low wage migrants needs to be taken up at the world forums due to their universal nature under Vienna Convention.
    The U.S. and Canadian Governments preaching moral values standing on the high pedestal of being liberal and biggest supporters of civil rights would do well to address these issues . They should realize the importance of the Vikram Pandits , Bobby Jindals and Sunita Williams of the country and the prospect the Gen-next holds for the country which needs their free , peaceful and non-discriminatory environment to realize their full potential.

  • For the first question (Indian diaspora in North America), please refer this: http://indiandiaspora.nic.in/diasporapdf/chapter14.pdf (page 188)

    • RV

      Thanx a lot Sir ! My answer now seems way off the mark and very generalistic !

  • phani

    2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.
    Non communicable diseases like cancer , diabetes , cardio vascular diseases , stroke ,lung problems ,respiratory infections ,hyper tensions , stress , heart problems etc are a growing in India with changing life styles and food habits . Though the trend is similar in all developing countries but the south asia accounts for majority of deaths due to the combiled effect of both infectionery and non communicable diseases. The recent study says Over 52 lakh people died in India of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which accounted for 53% of all deaths. Among men, 38% of the deaths were under 60 years the most productive age, while among women it was 32%.Cardiovascular diseases tops the list.
    Different to the popular belief NCD’s are not urban phenomena alone. A recent study published in Hindu says the rural population who might not have migrated to the urban centers but are effected by its culture are at the increasing risk of getting NCDS. These diseases are different from others as they demand a lifelong treatment and related life style changes which are normally ignored by the subsistent rural population due to the cash crunch and lack of awareness. With increasing out of pocket expenditures, these diseases effecting the productivity of the people and thereby the national growth. A report says every year the amount of loss due to NCDS is around 54trillin worldwide.
    The geographical spread of NCDS is also a factor to reckon with. Out of all deaths in tamilnadu 10 % are due to diabetes in 2012. Up,Maharashtra ,assam , Karnataka,kerala are among the highest. Kerala, the most progressive of all the states in terms of socio economic indicators is at the top in the list of states with NCDS.
    Understanding the importance of prevention, GOI has come out with a national programme to prevent cancer , diabetes , cardiovuscular diseases , stroke (NPCDCVS) to sensitize people and to urge the state governments to take care of the medicinal needs of the people. Tobacco use , alcohol consumption are the main causes of cancer and premature deaths before 60 are effecting the life span of the populations and the death of the food winners is increasing the vulnerability of the elderly. Whatever the GOI’s intervention could be ,NCDS can only be managed by a sensitive and cautious population and changing life styles ,reduced consumption of intoxicants with proper exercise and diet.

  • Nikku

    1)“India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”. In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.

    The Indian Ocean region is critical for India on two basic fronts. One, the securing of sea lanes of communication that carry most of India’s energy needs and trade that feeds the burgeoning economy. And two, the strategic importance from security perspective given India’s vast coastline.

    Off late, there has been a growing presence of China in the Indian Ocean region triggering apprehension in Indian strategic circles. The “strings of pearl” theory of China surrounding India via naval bases, China’s role in the infrastructure development of the small states has built up an atmosphere of suspicion. The recent cancellation of the GMR deal by Maldives and the subsequent visit of Maldives defence minister to China has accentuated the problem.
    On the other hand, the US “pivot to Asia” policy to contain China and recognising India as a strategic partner in the region has flared up doubts in the minds of Chinese of a possible Chinese encirclement.
    This has led to a race of naval modernisation between India and China that has acted like a vicious circle in conflict escalation.

    While some experts believe that the Indian stronghold in the region is loosening as China makes further inroads, India too has been active in securing it’s strategic position.
    The growing military relationship with island nations, the frequent visit of Indian Navy and Coast guards to assist Seychelles, Maldives, Mauritius etc, The DOSTI excercise with Maldives and adding Sri Lanka in this earlier bilateral engagement are all signs of healthy activism.
    India is also assuming a greater leadership role in the Indian Ocean institutions like IOR-ARC and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium.

    The need of the hour is to realize that this is not a zero sum game. China’s increasing influence does not necessarily translate to India loosing it’s strategic advantage.
    India’s geographic advantage in the region is unmatched and its deep ethnic and historical ties with smaller nation add to it’s strategic armour.
    At the moment, we need to work towards establishing institutional engagement that can address India’s concerns with regards to China’s growing influence in the high seas, as well as assuage China’s fear of encirclement which only makes it more aggressive.

    • Nikku

      Insights, please give your feedback.

    • You have exceeded word limit by 100 words. Otherwise answer is good. The conclusion should have been about India’s increasing/decreasing influence instead of China’s.

      • Nikku

        Thanks for the feedback. Would take care going forward.

  • Very bad introduction. You have to introduce your reader to the answer. Mentioning Indian ocean’s location doesn’t do that.

    Actually, your conclusion would have made a great introduction to your answer which has all the points.

    The question asks you to answer in the light of the recent events – you have not explained any of them. Critical analysis demands insightful examination of each issue concerned.

  • neeraj

    Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.

    Fast breeder reactors(FBR) are second generation reactors in the Indian Nuclear Program. These reactors are plutonium based reactors generated by fission of uranium in the first phase of Indian Nuclear program instead of uranium used in regular nuclear power plants. FBR also differ from regular plant in use of coolant. They use liquid sodium for cooling instead of heavy water.

    India’s nuclear energy program is a three phase program based on the vision on great nuclear scientist Homi J Bhaba. The three phases are Pressuriesed Heavy water reactor, Fast Breeder reactor and Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. As we have 2nd largest proved reserves of thorium in form of monzite found in sand of South India and very small amount of Uranium reserves, we need this three phase program to be self sufficient in energy requirements. In view of volatile international scenario and unreasonable demands put by NSG with backing of the western countries for procuring uranium, it would be prudent to develop indigenous program which will utilize our huge thorium deposits and help us to be self sufficient.

    • good answer neeraj.
      But it would be much better if give better elaboration on your first part. second part of answer is very good.

  • Ananya Basu

    2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.
    Non communicable diseases are the diseases which are not transferred through contact from one person to another. Due to the advancements in medical science communicable diseases are controlled but non-communicable diseases which are mainly life style related diseases are gaining strength.
    The UN reports states that the NCDs are the leading causes of death worldwide. They can be classified into two types-
    The genetic diseases are hereditary i.e. they are passed generations after generations through genes.eg-muscular dystrophy, color blindeness, c ystic fibrosis, downs syndrome etc. genetic engineering experts are trying to prevent genes related diseases by gene mapping. They plan to identify the causative gene and then remove /modify it’s DNA with another .
    The environmental NCDs are a serious cause of concern.it simply mirrors the ills of our so called development and modernisation. Man has found many ways to reduce his work.in his quest to simplify life, he has invited many troubles. Due to the day to day stress, he is subjected to insomnia, ulcers, acidity, hairfall, hypertension and even migraine. Sedentary life leads to obesity,diabetes, arterosclerosis. Lack of exercise ,faulty eating habits have given rise to CANCER which was unheard of in the past few decades.
    Despite having a inverted demographic pyramid, we are facing a grave issue of caring for our children and looking after the elderly and disabled.Though we cannot completely eradicate NCDs,inculcating good habits of hygiene,health ,lifestyle ,daily exercise,consumption of fresh fruits on a daily basis will definitely make NCDs less lethal.

    • You have not answered the question. There is no mention of India in the whole answer. The question asks NCDs’ extent, scope and implications in India. Except last paragraph, where ‘we’ implies India, the rest of the answer is not related to Indian context.

  • Anjali Motghare

    India has a strong footholds in Indian Ocean though recently there are issues of voting against Sri-Lanka in UN resolution and Maldive crisis, it doesn’t affect to that level of loosing strategic interests in the region.

    China’s “string of pearl policy” and its growing influence in Sri-Lanks
    and Maldives is a matter of concern but so far India has been successful in
    its foreign policy in Indian Ocean due to its multipronged strategy of trade
    and investment; concessional loans; diplomacy; multi lateral initiatives such
    as India Africa forum and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium; education training placements for foreign students through the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation; Tele education, Tele-medicine and Pan African E-Network programmes; training billets in Indian military academies for foreign military personnel; capacity building programmes in education; government and military affairs ; and defence cooperation.

    India has a high level bilateral relation with immediate neighborhood Myanmar, where it is buliding a port, with Bangladesh it has solved its boundary disputes. It is bulding homes in Sri-Lanka for IDP’S. It held bilateral and multilaterl naval exercises with Maldive and Sri-Lanka.
    The Indian Navy and Coast Guard frequently assist Seychelles, Maldives and Mauritius in maintaining security by providing maritime surveillance,
    hydrographic surveys, training, and maritime military equipment and repair,
    in addition to engaging these countries in exercises.

    In the extended neighbourhood it shares economic ties with west Asian
    nations. With African countries it relations mainly focused on development.
    India provides security to trade vessels of many countries from Strait of
    Hormuz to Malacca strait.

    India is a rising naval power but things should not be taken granted and focus shoud be on restoring estranged relations to keep its influence intact.

    • good answer. u encompassed everything what is required to prove your stance.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Thanks Sahil.

  • Q. “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”. In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.
    India is one of the largest littoral states in Indian Ocean. Due to its sheer size, a booming economic capability, sound democratic credentials and a reliable defense deterrent capacity, it has long been seen as an elder brother in Indian Ocean region. However there have been incidents of skirmishes between India and its neighborhood countries due to India’s inept foreign policy, lack of political will, growing influence of china which have tried to sideline the role of India but proved futile and tenuous.

    The recent confrontations between India and Maldives over GMR row; India and Sri Lanka over 13th amendment which gives autonomy to Northern Province are some of the examples of trust deficit in these countries and increasing influence of china. The political scrambles over land and water sharing agreement with Bangladesh may make India an odd in the latter. These issues however, cannot take the toll on India’s image as a strategic partner.
    The growing influence of china in the region also came as a positive signal for India to renew its ties with Japan, Vietnam and other south East Asian nations, who are looking towards India as a defense ally and a source of backing for their legitimate demand with regard to growing aggression of china. India has promoted its interest in the areas of trade, commerce, investment, maritime security through institutional mechanisms like IOR ARC. Further it has also setup a framework for better connection with African nations and is an important partner of Iran in the development of its port and is helping establishing a prosperous Afghanistan.
    Therefore, though India faced some topsy-turvy path in its foreign relations, it has not outlived its utility as an important stakeholder and strategic country in the ocean region.

    • whosoever is giving five stars to my answers, i would request him/her to give valuable feedback. That would be helpful rather than stars.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Your answer structure is very good so u may getting five star, but the person is not observing facts in it.
        Afghanistan is not Indian ocean country. Indian economy was booming now slowing down. Iran port finalization not over. Japan pacific nation.
        clarify this
        One good point 13th amendment but Tamilnadu furious not India as a whole. Explain.

        • Thank you Anjali for correcting me. I may have overlooked the afghanistan mention. India may be slowing down , but still on a high growth trajectory in relation of western countries. Further it has a huge market base. Though Iran port’s finalisation is not over, India is an important stakeholder and even Iran is substantiating that. On Japan i mentioned with the flow in regard to China.
          Sri Lankan issue should be understood in completely different context. Actually the regional parties are looking for political gain in the upcoming elections. The recent controversy on Kathacheevu island is another issue on which DMK is betting. The coalition poitics has rendered ineffective india’s foreign policy on many fronts(in case of WB , Teesta water; in case of tamil nadu, 13th amendment and UNHRC resolution).

          • Anjali Motghare

            good clarification.

        • i will definately correct my factual knowledge by the way. thank you for pointing out. 🙂

  • Q. Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.
    Non communicable Diseases cannot transmit from one person to another through any medium like air, water etc. Some examples of NCDs include cancer, asthma, diabetes, heart problems etc. According to WHO, there has been a shift in health burden of NCDs in India due to growing culture of consumerism and lack of adequate health facilities. This led to an increase in the number of people infected by the chronic yet deadly diseases.
    The extent of NCDs lies in the changing behavioral pattern of the Indian society with economic prosperity and rise of income which led to marked shift in eating habits. The unhealthy diet pattern, tobacco and alcohol use, insufficient physical activities coupled with urbanization and increased pollution have enormously contributed for loaded numbers.
    The NCDs have infested to every social group whether rich or poor. The stressed social life leading to hypertensions has increased the death, diseases, disability to the people. The limited scope due to insufficient hospitals data and political will to enforce rules regulating sale of harmful substances have added to the woes of the government. In addition to that, lack of better and affordable health care infrastructure and human expertise with lack of awareness about the diseases have made India a rising global disease hub.
    The prevalence of NCDs results in a higher burden with low productive labor having high mortality and morbidity. It leads to high out of pocket expanses resulting in extreme poverty accelerating a vicious cycle. It has social costs in the form of lack of education facilities to children, lack of employment opportunities etc.
    India needs a practical approach for establishment state of art facilities for early diagnosis and treatment coupled with proper legal measure for containing the sale of tobacco products and creating awareness about healthy dietary fibrous food.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Sahil again very good structure and language you use but extent u missed. I m critically commenting.

      • i think extent and scope is one and same thing. No??
        i mentioned the extent in second paragraph.I request you to give me some data on what i should mention , if possible. Thank you

        • Anjali Motghare

          Article in sci-tech The Hindu on NCD so sir may have asked the question.
          According to study conducted in 2010 suggest that one in every ten Tamilians is diabetic and another eight percent of the population is pre-diabetic.
          The leading cause of death in middle aged men is heart disease, even in poorer states such as Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

  • neeraj

    “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”. In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.
    Alfred Mahan’s statement ‘Whoever controls the Indian Ocean will dominate Asia, the destiny of the world will be decided on its waters.’ , describe the importance of Indian Ocean. India’s relation with countries in Indian Ocean has gotten sour.

    India’s vote against Sri Lanka in the UN combined with China’s support vote in the UN has aggravated the relations between the two countries. Also the politics at home is playing against the relationship between the two countries. The DMK and AIDMK parties are supporting the Tamils against the Sri Lankan Govt. AIDMK went as far as banning the Sri Lankan Players from playing in IPL in their state. This combined with China’s aggressive policy has brought the relations to a new low. Chinese companies are grabbing new contracts in Sri Lanka thereby reducing the Indian influence.

    Also, relations with Maldives are also on a low ebb since the new govt. has come to power. The new govt. reneged on the deal with GMR for the development of new airport in the capital. Also the national police academy has been put on back burner. The rouge attitude of the new govt and the increasing Chinese influence is a huge concern for India.

    Also, the problem with Mauritius being the tax heaven for companies like tata docomo has been a big dent. Though Mauritius govt. has shown some interest in regulating the misuse of the concessions provided to it, things still need to be sorted out.

    With China gaining influence in the Indian ocean, and Maldives, Srilanka and Mauritus being strategic islands, care must be taken in formulating policies regarding the future with these countries.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Neeraj new govt in Maldives reiterated its stand to have strong relations with India as before . GMR executive decision yet to come. Mauritius best relations we have. Tax issue because of double taxation agreement not because of that govt.

      • Anjali is right. GMR issue is under consideration in Singapore court. Further it is not good to strain relations with a nation for a petty private company. There is consultation between the two governments(India and Mauritius) over a better tax avoidance regime in consonance with global practices outlined by FATF

        • neeraj

          thanks sahil and anjali.. it seems i need to update myself.. thanks

          • phani

            1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”. Critically examine.

            British conquered india as part of their expansionary colonial policy , they never intended to make india their homeland unlike the previous rulers.in order to fuel their industrial revolution ,the economic policies pursued by them has adversely effected the traditional Indian agrarian economy,handicrafts and social system.
            The zamindari , ryotwari,mahalwari systems introduced were mainly designed to extract as much tax as possible from the land holdings with out giving any surety of tenure and ownership to the peasant folk made Indian agriculture commercial and increased the rural indebtedness , power of money lenders , and eventual loss of dignity of the peasants.
            Though they agitated against the might of british to secure some concessions , the movements became largely confined to some regions. Be it , the indigo revolt against the existing tinkathia system, pabna revolt against the tax beyond the legal limits , and the Deccan riots in pune and ahmadnar etc were largely regional basis an dnever spread across their boundaries. The uprisings got subsided as and when they got some concessions and lack os support from the intelligentia and not so popular press. The mode of communication was also primitive and largely through the publication of books. The lack of central leadership , political agitation ,mass based organization severy dented the the possibility of inciting a national consciousness unlike the peasant movements of 20th century.
            The decline of mughal empire and division of india into various princely states too negatively impacted the psyche of people to think in a pan india sense. But though the peasant movements of 19th century never became big national movements , they could able to pave the way for the next generation moderate congress leadership to protest with the british taking the exploitation doctrine forward.

  • rahul aggarwal

    1)Despite some unfavourable recent developments in the indian ocean region(IOR),India still enjoys its deep strategic influence in the region.

    India’s strategic influence in the IOR depends upon following factors:
    a)its geographical location,
    b)naval capabilities,
    c)relations with countries of IOR

    As far its geographical location is concerned India would always continue to enjoy the benefit of its vast coastline in influencing the affairs of IOR.

    The naval capabilities of indian navy is ever expanding due to its regular modernisation programme eg.-indigenous submarine Arihant,INS Vikramaditya, indigenous aircraft carrier Vikrant.And in cooperation with Indian COAST Guard it is capable to take up any challenge in indian ocean.

    The only factor which is of concern in recent past is its relation with other countries of IOR and increased engagement of China with the countries of IOR.

    China is aggresively engaged in developing various ports in the immediate neighbourhood of India which includes Gwadar, Hambantota, Sitwee, Chittagong, Marao .Also it has increased its engagement levels with Maldives,Srilanka,Mauritius and Sychelles by providing aids and assistance.
    Even India’s intelligence agency RAW has shown concern in this regard.

    In addition to in recent past there has been some concerns over india’s relation with srilanka over tamil issue and some minor concerns with maldives like indian company losing airport contract

    Despite all these facts india enjoys strong relations and influence with the countries of IOR, some examples to show it are:this year india concluded DOSTI exercise with maldives and even included srilanka this year, maldive’s former president nasheed took refuge in india’s embassy, srilanka regularly shares with india its situation with regards to tamils,indian navy and coast guard often assist seychelles,maldives and mauritius in maintaining security by providing maritime surveillence.

    Thus we can conclude ,though india can’t take its central position for granted ,presently it enjoys strategic influence as far as affairs of IOR are concerned and it has to carry on the good work to maintain it.

    • Nascent Writer

      A good answer rahul. I understand the lacunae in my answer on reading urs.

  • vipul

    Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India

    Deaths in India due to Non communicable diseases are almost double of deaths due to communicable diseases.Four leading chronic NCDs in India are Cardiovascular,cancer,diabetes,Chronic,obstructive pulmonary disease.Major causes of NCDs are smoking,alcohol,lifestyle and unhealthy life which are preventable.

    Indian people spend handsome amount of their earning on tests,treatment and medical devices for NCDs.As per reports,total expenditure by Indian people on NCDs is nearly four time the total government expenditure on health (3.6 % of GDP).NCDs affect mostly the people in age-group (35-64 years).It means many productive life are lost due to NCDs.

    Displacement of communicable disease with NCDS is generally regarded as good but India case is far away from making such claim.Reality of the India is that large population is suffering from NCDs and they remain unaware of it till the last moment.Like in many developed countries ,India must increase their expenditure on health to prevent the chronic disease.Early detection,new medical treatment,prevention of NCDs are essential for health of India and India’s economic progress.

  • Biman Ghosh

    “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”. In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement

    Indian Ocean Region(IOR) is one of the most important regions across the Ocean.The importance of IOR can be understood by the fact that once a wise British thinker had said that the “Asia will be ruled by, who rules over IOR”
    Amid recent turmoil in Pacific region,IOR also has not been “Insulated” anymore.China has taken a number of steps to get Pivot role in region. India on the other hand, has lose its influence steadily In southern part of IOR .Though,India still have very good command over North-eastern part of IOR,yet In recent years,India has got numerous setbacks in its strategic advances in the southern region.The most important one is China’s “String of Pearls” policy,which apparently shook the complete Indian Influence over IOR. China’s most touted policy has not only created the possible threats to Indian maritime security but also reduced the Indian influence from the IOR substantially.It provided an alternative to Indian neighbors in order to make Indian influences inferior as happened in the case of Lanka’s Hambantota Port,where the minor deleyance in Indian responses took heavy toll in it’s diplomacy.
    In a recent Business tycoon’s summit in China some south Asian countries,like Maldives,Srilanka,Bangladesh.etc. strongly advocated to increase the bilateral ties with China,instead of India.
    To some extent.Indian diplomacy in itself is responsible for loosing influences over southern IOR.In fact.India has failed to make a cohesive relationship of trust among it’s neighbours.unlike the north-eastern part of region where India has developed a significant relationship with ASEANs.
    The frequent assertive call from Vietnam for India further strengthen it.so,while India has strengthen its command over northern part of IOR it lose significant Indian influence over southern IOR and its neighbourhood countries.To have a holistic command over entire IOR india should be cautious while handling its southern neighbours..India’s geographical location lies in the very heart of this important region and if the strategical advances,that India have by its location could be applied properly,India can easily influence almost every activities that take place in IOR.

    • Biman Ghosh

      waiting fr ur opinion sir..

      • Biman,

        You have made sweeping statements at many places (“India still have very good command over North-eastern part of IOR”, “China’s “String of Pearls” policy,which apparently shook the complete Indian Influence over IOR”, “India can easily influence almost every activities that take place in IOR” ) Also, Vietnam was needed here. You have repeated – “while India has strengthen its command over northern part of IOR it lose significant Indian influence over southern IOR and its neighbourhood countries.To have a holistic command over entire IOR”

        Words you have used is 332. Answer quality has to improve. Keep writing. 🙂

  • Nascent Writer

    Nascent Writer

    1)“India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”. In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.

    India, being a littoral state with projected land mass into the Indian ocean and with her distant islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands, has an immense economic, strategic and geopolitical advantage in the Indian ocean region.
    Owing to this advantage, India has developed a strong navy with 150+ warships and naval bases in her littoral region and Andaman and Nicobar islands. Recently she has also announced building of a naval port in her western island group of Lakshadweep.
    Although India had been and is being a dominant player in Indian ocean region, recent developments in this region has brought in many more international players due to the growing importance of Indian ocean.
    China, a growing economic power, claiming to satiate its energy security has deployed a number of naval vessels to protect its commercial interest (fighting anti piracy) in the Indian ocean region. This deployment along with building of ports at Gwadhar in Pakistan, Humbantotta in Srilanka and Chittagong in Bangladesh is seen as Chinese encircling of India and is dubbed as the “String of Pearl Policy”.
    Also China’s recent securing of deep ocean exploring license in south western Indian ocean region for poly metallic sulpide nodules is viewed as China’s keen interest to dominate Indian ocean region.
    Barrack Obama’s “Pivot to the east” policy, announced recently, to counter the rising Chinese influence, has also increased the insecurities in Indian ocean region as America has increased its naval presence in its Diego Garcia islands.
    These recent developments seem to jeopardize India’s influence in the Indian ocean region. However, merely considering the geographical location, India has a lot of room to increase its presence and dominate the situation in this region. So it would be incorrect to say that India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region. Only India has step up its activities.

    • Your answer considers contribution of external forces in weakening India’s influence in the region. Recent developments have indicated that India is itself blundering in the region. You would have considered this also in your answer.And word limit is crossed. (+/- 20 words is ok). Overall good answer.

  • Nascent Writer

    Insights Sir
    Please help me evaluating my answer.

  • Mohit

    Foreign investment in India was allowed for the first time in independent India in 1991, as a part of economic reforms. It comes through two routes: Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) and Foreign Portfolio Investment(FPI). In 2011-12, FDI in India was U.S. $33 billion while FPI was US$ 18 billion. In comparison to these meagre amounts of foreign investment, India’s GDP(nominal) for 2011-12 was approx. US$ 1.5 trillion.
    The economic growth in India broadly depends on the growth of 3 sectors: Agricultural sector, Industrial sector and Services sector. In agriculture, there has been no foreign investment since independence and whatever growth has been witnessed is due to the investment by government or Indian farmers.
    However, in the industrial and service sector, the situation has been different. The economic reforms of 1991 led to the flow of foreign investment in both the sectors. In the industrial sector, there has been foreign direct investment mainly in oil-and-gas industry (BP-Reliance deal) and manufacturing sector. But the contribution of FDI in the growth of this sector has been negligible. The growth has been mainly driven by domestic capital of public and private sector. In the services sector, there has been relatively more FDI than that in industrial sector. Over the years, telecom, insurance, banking, hotel, and single-brand retail sectors have witnessed considerable FDI but the contribution of FDI in growth of service sector was also negligible.
    The foreign portfolio investment goes in the equity and debt markets. Thus it doesn’t contribute directly to economic growth.
    Thus from the time of economic reforms in 1991 till today, foreign investment has not been a critical factor in driving economic growth in India. However, in the years to come, as the government moves to liberalize the economy more to FDI, it might play a critical role. For more FDI to actually come in the first place, it would be important to remove the bureaucratic bottlenecks that investors face today.

  • Optimist

    Q. Critically comment on the extent, scope and implication of non communicable diseases.
    Ans:- Diseases which do not spread from person to person by some form of communication i.e. touch, air, water etc. are called non communicable diseases (NCDs) e.g. Diabetes, Cancer, Heart diseases, migraine and other mental diseases.
    India has now become a hub of all NCDs having maximum number of patients.
    These diseases are the product of life style change. Urban life restrict physical labour and also expose humans to pollution. Changing food habits involving more intake of fat & carbohydrate is making the situation worse. Fast food culture is a serious threat. Use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide is also a probable factor of cancer.
    The spread of such diseases is more in urban areas while manual working rural people are still on the lower side off it. But heavy use of pesticide etc. in agricultural has affected rural and urban areas of Punjab equally and make it the cancer capital of India.
    Previously these diseases were related to mature and old age group but now youth and children are also affecting. Heavy pressure to perform in different fields and less outdoor activities have resulted into this situation.
    The symptom of these diseases were mostly ignored until it becomes too late to cure the disease.
    NCDs are affecting India’s growth story. On one hand, they are decreasing productivity of our workforce while the expenditure on the treatment is also wiping the saving of affected people. Govt. has also need to allot more funds to meet the challenges.
    But the actual solution lies within. Awareness campaign to make people realize the importance of healthy life style, avoiding fast food, opting for organic food and more health facilities to diagnose early and treatment will be few important steps in this direction. Government of India has already launched a special programme to fight NCDs.

  • shanti

    Non- communicable diseases are non infectious or non transmissible i.e., they cannot be transferred from a human being to another human being. Some of the examples are diabetes, obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer etc. They are called ‘life style’ diseases in common parlance because they are known to be caused by changes in life style. Some examples include exposure to radiation, unbalanced diet, pressure due to deadlines etc.
    The recent “lancet report” on diseases indicates that the infectious diseases in India and elsewhere are on the decline owing to developed health care facilities while the non communicable diseases are on the rise. It is a myth that these NCDs are common only among only the rich in India. The studies indicate that the poor are more vulnerable to NCDs but the only difference is that they do not take notice to most of the NCDs.
    India is only second after China in diabetes. The recent studies show that about 60 million people live with diabetes. Cardiovascular and cancer contribute to more than 60 percent of deaths due to NCDs. It is projected that the deaths due to NCDs are to be doubled by 2020. It is important to avoid these premature deaths.
    Health ministry has undertaken a program in 2010 to screen the entire population above 30 years for NCDs. Such programs are to be effectively and inclusively implemented by integrating them with programs like National Rural Health Mission along with the awareness programs particularly among the marginalized and under privileged sections.

    • Implications? Otherwise answer is good and is structured well.

      • shanti

        Yes sir, should have included them. I realised it after reading others answers. Thanks for the review. I am feeling so lucky for having found this site.

  • Nascent Writer

    2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.

    Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, mental disorders, stroke, respiratory diseases, etc., which don’t spread for one to another have been showing an increasing trend in taking human toll in India.
    According to a WHO report, NCDs accounted for 53% of all deaths in India in 2008. Cardiovascular diseases topped the list accounting for 24% of all deaths.
    Most of NCDs also called Life style diseases was thought to be prevalent among the rich. But its now proved to be a myth by a recent report which showed poor people are more affected by NCDs. NCDs, unlike Communicable diseases can be easily prevented if precautionary measures are taken sufficiently. Government of India, in these lines has taken several steps to curb the NCDs.
    Many state governments have banned tobacco products in their states which are major causes of cancers and respiratory diseases. In a recent verdict, Supreme Court has also banned advertising of tobacco products. Free medical checkup for citizens over 30 years of age to identify, disorders like high blood pressure, high blood glucose level, etc is carried out regularly by the state run hospitals. Awareness drives about necessity of exercise, avoidance of alcohol and healthy food consumption are taken periodically.
    NCDs bring heavy implications on country’s economic growth by increasing the health subsidy bill, creating problems with procuring and distributing the required medicines (Most medicines are patented and have high costs). Also NCDs increase the out of pocket spending of the individuals pushing many towards poverty. NCDs reduce the individual and national productivity
    Giving due precautionary care to NCDs would not only help individuals but also the country as a whole.

    • Very good answer. Within the given word limit you have answered it well. National Programme for Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases & Stroke which was started on pilot basis in 100 districts in October, 2010, and which is extended to the entire country during the 12th Plan should have been mentioned in a line.

  • Please evaluate my answer sir.

  • cppcontrol

    “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”. In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement

    India has been a dominant force in the Indian Ocean Region. The recent developments in these region has led many to think about India losing its strategic influence. These has cast a doubt about India’s maritime cooperation with the littoral countries of the IOR.

    India voted in favour of the UN sponsored human rights resolution against Sri Lanka recently. India could not oppose the resolution due the actual human rights violation by Sri Lanka and also due to pressure from political parties like DMK, AIADMK,CPI. Moreover, India did not go for amendments in the resolution regarding crime and genocide against the ethnic Tamils by Sri Lanka as desired by these parties. Thus, India avoided a full scale confrontation with Sri Lanka.

    The recent cancellation of 500 million dollar contract by Maldives government to India’s GMR has led many to think about India’s shrinking influence in this country. However, the silver lining is that the with presidential election around and if Nasheed happens to win it, it would revitalize the relationship with India.

    With China investing heavily in countries like Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka which wants to secure its energy routes, there is ample scope for both countries i.e India and China to work peacefully. India has also renewed its vision and has had detailed talks and bilateral cooperation with countries like Madagascar, Seychelles, Maldives, Mauritius. With India co-hosting the recently held meeting of IOR-ARC , there has been call for enhancing maritime security control as well as economic cooperation.

    India, in fact is trying to assert its influence in the Indian ocean. With capable defense capabilities including the recently included INS arihant, India’s interest in these region is immense. This can be gauged by the fact that India’s navy has on many occasion confronted with the Somali pirates and saved many lives. India is trying to actively work with all the IOR countries as the geo strategic importance of the regions has increased over the years.

  • Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.

    There has been a big shift in the health burden of India with a change from communicable to non communicable diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart diseases etc. With change in the life style of India’s relatively young population these diseases are set to rise in near future.

    NCD’s was initially assumed to occur mainly in the urban places. However, these perception has changed and people from rural areas are also equally vulnerable to NCD’s. Also, relatively young people are also found to be affected along with people in their mid ages. Change in lifestyle, eating habits, unbalanced diets, use of tobacco along with very less physical work and exercises are the main reasons. National Programme on Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, CVD & Stroke has been formulated by government and it has been increasing its share on prevention, early detection and new medical treatments to reduce the health burden.

    Implications of NCD’s include gradual health related issues of vital working population of the country including widespread deaths. There is an overall increase in the spending of the common masses for treatment of these diseases which indirectly leads to children not been sent to school and child labour due to decrease in the earning capabilities of the family. Many superstitious belief and rituals have been relevant till today for treatment of these diseases due to lack of healthcare access in remote places. High scale unawareness , inadequate information , expensive treatment are major constraints for the people.

    India’s economic development should be coupled with increase in government’s spending in the education and the health sector. Both these are the primary forces that would dictate the future of the country. Emphasis should be given for better awareness to maintain good health and healthy eating habits among the young population of the country so that burden on these diseases come down in near future.

  • Prashant S

    2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India
    Non communicable diseases are distinguished by their nature of being non infectious and non transmissive. They include a range of diseases from cancers, heart diseases, cataracts and rising diseases of obesity and diabetes. A host of factors like age, gender, food, exposure to pollution and physical activities are responsible for the occurrence of NCD.
    NCD is widely prevalent in India in its many manifestations. Traditionally we only had the problem of mal and under nourishment of our children and citizens. As per reports of WHO and Health Ministry more than 48% of our children are undernourished and we have far left behind sub Saharan Africa in this respect.
    With the recent changes in the income and living patterns a major chunk of our population is seeing problems of over eating and obesity. More than 22% of our population is reported to be obese with 40% being diabetic. Hence we now have a twin paradoxical battle of addressing malnourishment and obesity of our children and citizens. There has been more than 60% increase in the incidences of heart attacks and diabetes amongst our citizens.
    Thus the challenge that was once concerned with feeding our teaming population has now grown to address the issue of regulating the consumption pattern of a section of our population. Hence our policy makers are saddled with the twin and diametrically opposite challenge of under and over consumption.
    This is further attested by the influx of health and yoga centers, gyms, weight loss clinics and fitness centers. This unhealthy trend cannot be addressed only at the level of policy makers. Rather what is needed is to spread an awareness & importance of dietary requirements so that a health conscious generation evolves. This would also go a long way in addressing the problems of food scarcity.

  • Daily Answer Writing Challenge – 11th August 2013
    Q. Do you think china’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem?

    India and China understands that settlement of any international border disputes takes time and hence the India-China model entails focusing on scaling up trade while resolving outstanding issues in a “step-by-step” incremental manner. Border disputes involve sensitive nationalism factors which need to weighed in carefully lest it can give rise to domestic unrest.

    Last decade saw multi-fold increase in India-China bilateral trade which increased from $3.5 Billion in 2001-02 to around $75 Billion recently. Today China is the biggest trading partner of India and the two countries have much to gain from each other and have pledged to increase their bilateral trade to $100 Billion by 2015. It was during the same time that there has been significant development towards resolving Sino-Indian border dispute. Apart from recent hiccups (Chinese incursions in Ladakh, stapled visa for Arunachal military general, terming Arunachal Pradesh as South Tibet), overall there has been positive developments like acknowledging Tibet and Sikkim being part of respective countries, setup of 3-stage political agreement and guiding principles to resolve border disputes and appointment of Special Representatives (SR) to resolve border disputes were some path-breaking initiatives. It is also to be noted that majority of the trade currently happens over the seas, there is an urgent need to use border to trade, which will help development in NER of India. Opening of Nathula pass is a positive welcome.
    The possibility of china using force to resolve border dispute is rare, we hope SRs arrive at a mutually agreeable solution soon.

    • Answer end rather abruptly – there is no conclusion in the end. This question particularly demands your opinion to be registered. Though its very clear what is your stand in your answer, may be a line or two in the end would have been good. Otherwise, answer is superb.

  • Hello Insights,
    Sir will u please tell the kind of books one should rely for science and tech part for the upcoming mains exam. The kind of questions UPSC asks is very basic. What should be my approach.
    Thank You

    • Sahil,

      I don’t think reading a book helps for S&T. For non-science grads, reading NCERT from 6th to 10th std is advised that too only for getting basic concepts cleared.

      Mains syllabus has this – “Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.” – from core S&T. If one gets ‘Basic Understanding’ of these concepts from Wikipedia and other sources, it is enough. If you observe Mains previous year questions, all have been asked from syllabus. Anyway, I am putting strategy for Paper-IV in two days. That might help you all.

  • Anjali Motghare

    I don’t think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem. Instead of that it helped in building opinion to bring
    out peaceful solution to border problem.If we observe relations in the 21st century are driven by economic interests.

    The China-India boundary question is a problem left over from history. It dates back to 1950’s,and efforts to bring out peaceful negotiations started in 90’s. High level exchanges between two started in 2000’s.

    Since 2003, 15 rounds of talks on the boundary question between the Special Representatives of China and India have held , and made positive progress. The two sides have signed the Agreement on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of China-India Boundary Question, and reached an 18-point consensus on the resolution framework.

    In 2006 boundary question was included as one of “outstanding issues” in the “Ten-pronged Strategy”. In 2012 both the countries signed the ” Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs. Recently there was flare-up in Depsang area but that was solved within existing mechanisms.

    The current Chinese leadership have a different stance. They have indicated that they would like to move forward as soon as possible. During the recent visit of Defence Minister to China, they agreed to increase both the frequency and number of locations of border personnel meetings held along the LAC.

    Both countries want stability and prioritise economic development,
    so they don’t want to clash with each other.A mutually acceptable agreement requires perseverance and patience and more importantly needs a friendly and favourable atmosphere.

    Trade resulted in strong economic ties which helped to create mutually cooperative and favourable atmosphere between the two countries.

    • Anjali Motghare

      Insights I know Sunday holiday tom read my answer and find mistakes.
      Your suggestions helping me lot to improve.

    • Good answer. Good introduction as well.

    • phani

      superb answer anjali..i liked the conclusion part.

      • Anjali Motghare

        thanks phani, and suggestions are always welcome.

    • Babu Rao

      The answer is Majorly No and Partially Yes. When it comes to Asia, China and India being two major giants always tries to assert the influence over the subcontinent. When we observe china’s string of pearls strategy, this is clearly evident that ,China uses its heavy economy in building the relations with the countries in Indian Ocean adjacent to India,example china aiding the hambatato port construction in SriLanka, aiding the civil groups in Nepal, aiding Chittagong port in Bangladesh. Actually china is asserting the influence over India using the unresolved Boarder disputes. Its main aim is not grab the land, but to show the world its mighty power. The same behaviour we can observe in china’s alleged claim over Sankaku islands to assert the influence over Japan, an another major economy in Asia. By doing China likes to send signals to the world that it conquered the Asia, and ready take over the Big Brother role in world affairs at par with United states. India ofcourse doing its own effort to contain china from this agressive Asian cold war by closely working with US, Japan and other interested groups. But the question is ‘Can India succeed in this?’.

       gone are the days that alliances are made on idealogical base. Now all alliances are made by once economic power. Thanks to the Capitalism that enroaded into all the developing countries.  Every country inorder to achive now fully depend on the global money supplies(Private investment).

      Two things that India has to do 1)Strengthen the economy byway of improved indigenous manufacturing, thereby reducing imports, thereby increasing exports. Automatically our foreign currency reserves will increase. Create self sustained industries like Food processing, empower the Self Helf groups, Youths with skills and entrepreneurial platforms. Bythe way reduce the corruption and bring the back money into India as an investment. 2) But still India and US ideologies are same in containing china ,use that as source to contain china along side with Japan.

      3) But the big fat china already has its economic influence over ASEAN countries and thats one thing where India can encourage its entrepreneurs in those respective countries and use them for our national building process. Encourage our civillion enterpreneourship outside India by way of bilateral talks and use that economy to invest in India too.

      So, when India matches to the size of China interms of economy, India gains its international leadership position alongside china, and boarder disputes will automatically be resolved[Then strategy of US may change].

  • 1)Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.

    Ans- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) works in the field of space technology which ranges from research to manufacture of equipment & their operation. The role played by it in making India a space power is huge since due to it’s efforts, India is about to enter the club of countries which have send their astronauts in space that includes US, Russia & China only. Apart from this, a number of satellites have been launched by it, both indigenous & foreign which help in information & technology, remote sensing, climate monitoring etc. It has succeeded in making it’s own substitute for USA’s GPS called IRNSS. It has much improved resolution that can be used for military & intelligence purposes. The DTH services, digitisation of cable networks are also the result of efforts of ISRO. Not only in space, but in society too, services like tele-medicine, tele-education (via satellite) , village resources centres have proved the mettle of ISRO. By sending Chandrayan I on moon, India too touched the heights of space tech.

    ISRO is in continuous development stage. After the success of Chandrayan I, now the preparations for Chandrayan II are going on full thrust. Aftter moon, we are going to explore mars by 2016. Planning is going to send astronaut in space very soon & for that ISRO has already begun the designing of space suits etc. Now the focus is shifting on more & more internation cooperations which will enable technology transfers & will be helpful in handling capital expenditures. Apart from this, It is planning to engage many industries for the manufactuing of equipments. Note only will it benefit the society by creating employment & encouraging new companies in market but will also free the manpower of ISRo to engage in research & development. Launch vehicles are being developed to launch much larger & heavier satellites which will ultimately culminate into better monitoring & e-services.

    No doubt ISRO is the charioteer of the chariot of India’s space program which do not focusses on extravagant space missions but to use the space technology for a hi-tech & socially developed India.

    • your answer is very good but u missed most of the future programs(like satellite launches)except MOON and MARS mission of ISRO and went on to describe the benefits that will accrue from these missions. GSAT 7 for navy, ADITYA for sun, ASTROSAT etc should have been mentioned

      • Thank you for your review. Yes i missed those developments. It becomes tough to recapitulate everything while writing. I will try to improve on that.

  • 2)Do you think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem?

    Ans- India & China are having a bilateral relationship of $66 billion. While the economic relation between the two countries are on a rise & are sought to $100 billion in very near future. But the ongoing disputes on border related issues & increasing Chinese assertiveness in south east asia are creative a sense of insecurity & discomfort in the mind of India. But, In my view, China’s emergence as largest trading partner don’t have much effect on settlement of outstanding border disputes.

    The first reason behind this is China’s demonstration of isolation between disputes & economic relations. It has political disputes with Britain & Norway whereas it has territorial disputes with Japan, Vietnam & Philippines. Disputes are not small & has taken the shape of some serious skirmishes. In spite of that, the bilateral trade between China & these nations have only increased in the past 10 years.

    Second reason is the race toward being a superpower. If China betrays India in trade matters not only will it affect one of its largest market in neighborhood but also it will degrade the confidence in investors. At this juncture, China cannot risk that.

    Lastly, India is also growing very fast. With its participation in a number of multilateral groupings like BRICS, ASEAN, SAARC etc India has secured a number of trading partners. India’s service sector is very much developed too which always opens up gates for new opportunities.

    • your reasons are not justifying your standpoint.

      • Thank you for your review. But i can’t understand how my reasons are not justifying my standpoint. Can you please elaborate further?

        • Sudha

          Nicely written. I feel its more from Chinese view point. It would have been even nicer from Indian perspective.

          • Sagar

            Thank you sudha for your review.

  • Manish

    Since it’s inception in 1969, ISRO has been committed to its objective to apply advance technologies in real problems of men and society. In last five decades Indian space program has provided many jewels in India’s glory. Today, ISRO is 6th largest government space agency and among the leaders in advance space technologies. It’s INSAT series is one of the largest domestic satellite system in Asia-pecific region. The IRS series is one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation.

    It was the vision of father of Indian space program, Dr. Vikram sarabhai, that today India has achieved self reliance and developed the capability of build and launch communication satellites and remote sensing satellites.

    At present, ISRO has polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV) and Geo satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) to launch IRS type and INSAT type satellites respectively. ISRO is in final stages of developing GSLV-MK III series vehicles to launch heavier satellites in orbit.

    Under ISRO’s INSAT series, it has currently 10 satellites which application ranging from DTH services, telephone connectivity in remote areas, e-commerce and e-governance through 20,000 VSATs. Kalpana-I is India’s first dedicated meteorological satellite for weather forecast. In 2004, launch of EDUSAT has opened the distance education service.

    ISRO’s IRS series, has 11 satellites for effective management of natural resources. It has application from agriculture to disaster management. ISRO also started village resource centers (VRC) which combines the services of IRS and INSAT to provide tele-medicine, tele-education etc in more than 500 villages of India.

    Today ISRO has established its role in making India a space power. It is a member of UN committee on peaceful uses of outer space. Sensing its progress, even U.S. has removed ISRO from entity list to drive hi-tech trage and forge closer strategic ties. It’s marketing wing Atrix is now among the ‘mini-navratna’ and helped ISRO to achieve self-reliance.

    ISRO is continuing it’s commitment for explore the space and after its successful ‘Chandrayan I’ mission in 2008, it is now being ready for its Mars orbiter mission (Oct. 2013) and Chandrayaan II mission. The GSLV MK III series is in its final testing stages which will make ISRO to carry heavier satellites. It is also developing ASTROSAT, a national observatory for astronomical observations. Finally, ISRO is range of satellites which will be launched in near future.

    To summarize, while the world is being mesmerized and envied by India’s space power ISRO, it is quietly working on it’s commitment to make India second to none in advance space technologies which can be used in solving real problems.

    • You answer is good but you should give brief detail about everything. Crossing double the word limit.

  • Asha Goud

    Q Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.

    A: ISRO is India’s national space agency dedicated to attaining self reliance in the field of Space research and development and utilizing technology for development of society. Major areas of activity are developing launch vehicles, satellites, payloads and instruments for the purpose of communication, broadcasting, meteorology, remote sensing and navigation.

    ISRO has achieved excellence in Polar launch vehicle technology through PSLV. PSLV is preferred as a launch vehicle for satellites by many countries because of its precise satellite deployment and low cost. ISRO now ready to launch GSLV with indigenously developed cryogenic engine that would make India capable of launching heavier satellites in higher orbits
    ISRO has developed for India a series of satellites, the INSAT and GSAT series of communication satellite and the IRS series of remote sensing satellites. Communication satellites provide services like telecommunication, broad casting, meteorology and innovative use in field of tele-education and tele-medicine. Remote sensing satellites provide services in field of resource mapping and planning, earth observation, disaster management surveillance. Also ISRO is developing a constellation of 7 satellites that would be similar to GPS but will be dedicated to the Indian subcontinent, therefore reducing India’s dependence on other nations.

    ISRO is working in collaboration with space agencies of USA, France and Russia on various projects. ISRO and NASA have in past collaborated for Chandrayaan 1 and planning future cooperation in Indian Mars mission. ISRO and Russia are working together for development of Chandrayan 2 that includes a lander, rover and a orbiter. India and France have collaborated in development of 2 meteorological satellites, Megha-Tropiques and SarAl that will study tropical climate and various parameters of oceans respectively.

    With all these indigenous developments and bilateral collaborations, ISRO is charting way for India to become a important player is global space research.

    • Asha Goud

      Q Do you think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem? (GS 2012)

      A: The India China border dispute is a long standing issue. The two share a long boundary that is not demarcated with consensus and both having individual stands. In 1996 mutually agreed LAC was accepted and since then negotiations are being carried out at various levels but with of no avail. In the midst of this the trade relations between India and China increased many fold from $4.8 bn in 2002 to $70 bn at present and both countries are working towards reaching $100 bn mark by 2015.

      It is important here to understand the nature of trade relations between the two countries. China is emerging as India’s largest trade partner. China majorly imports iron ore and raw materials from India, with iron ore consisting of 50% of imports. India on the other hand imports manufactured goods, such as engineering equipments and machinery. Also India is experiencing huge trade deficit of around $30 bn, the issue was also taken up by Indian PM with visiting Chinese Premier Li Keqiang. India should diversify its trade market and decrease its dependence on China. India should utilize its large coastline and advantage of proximity to the South East Asian countries as well as Africa.

      Increasing the trade relations and putting the border dispute in the background is a very pragmatic approach adopted by the two countries. However it must me noted that Chinese military incursions too have increased, with more than 150 reported incursion in last ten months. Chinese authorities provided stapled visa to people from Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh. China is therefore becoming more assertive about its stand on the border.

      A healthy trade relation between two countries does help to keep the border negotiations on track but if China emerges as India’s largest trading partner, India might have to soften its stand and therefore India should focus on diversifying its trade market.

  • Kirthi

    India and china have significant border disputes and any border settlement might involve significant give and takes. Both countries tend to wait for the right moment favorable to them to settle the issue and meanwhile have instituted talks between special representatives.

    However, the rise of china as the largest trading partner with potential to exceed 100 Bn dollar was taught to provide a solid base to the bilateral relationship, interlink their economies and contribute positively to the relationship that would bring in conducive climate for future border talks
    However nature of the trade with enormous trade balance in favor of china, with 40 Bn dollar deficit at a time when india is fighting on widening CAD and macro economic stability, rising inflation, subdued global demand remained worrisome. The nature of trade with china resembles that of colonial era where india is supplier of raw materials and imports cheap manufactured articles in return which is unsustainable. Non trade Barriers to IT in name of security, Pharmaceuticals, phyto sanitary conditions on agricultural commodities etc. shows unwillingness on part of china to lessen the deficit..

    Though china,by and large, doesn’t mix political border dispute and settlement issues with trade evident from trade with Japan, Vietnam, phillipines etc, the nature of trade and deficit therein between India and china instead of contributing positively in the overall bilateral relationship and help the border settlement process has become an irritant in itself in the relationship.

    China emergence as largest trading partners, by and large, did not adversely affect the border problem and border settlement might depend mainly on the level of political commitment rather than on economic interdependencies.

  • Q Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.
    ISRO is the pioneering space research institution of the modern India which shoulders the responsibility of design, production and development of launch vehicles, propulsion systems and satellites. It has been instrumental in bringing India on par with industrialized arena in the space arena through its PSLV and GSLV models and successful missions. Its success can be gauged from the fact that it recently launched the 100th satellite mission in a short period of about 40 years.
    The success story lies with the growing attractiveness of India as a satellite launching junction with more countries looking forward to join hand in different areas. It had developed and launched many significant satellites from remote sensing which helped in data collection to providing services such as telecommunication, broadcasting etc through its geosynchronous base. It also launched mission to moon to collect data about the origin and evolution of moon. Its propulsion system is in advanced stage of development. The recent launching of Indian regional navigation system has brought it to elite group of nations. The success of re entry vehicle will provide India with much needed manned missions.
    The ISRO had many operations in pipeline with much awaited Chandrayaan II mission to moon and Mars orbital in near future. Further it is planning to launch the 6 more regional navigation satellites which will make India capable of indigenous navigation and increase its defense capability. In addition to that, ADITYA which is poised to study Sun; an exclusive satellite navy is in conduit. It has been working on producing its 3 stage cryogenic propulsion system that will reduce India’s dependence on other country for heavy satellites. Other missions include ASTROSAT, GAGAN payloads etc
    The success of ISRO is both historic and contemporary and its future missions will bring India as sense of security, pride and scientific advantage in this competitive world.

  • Sudha

    Do you think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem? (GS 2012)

    Indo China border dispute has been in history for decades. Despite that both the developing economies opted for Bilateral cooperation on trade through several institutional mechanisms which led to the emergence of china as the largest trading partner. Instead of having a setback in settling border issues, the urge to attain economic significance made both the countries to negotiate on peaceful terms to settle their border issues on LAC though minor disputes like intrusion into Ladakh region arises.

    The objective to reach $100billion Bilateral trade by 2015 will act as a motivating force to settle the border disputes in a fast pace which china has openly stated to move forward in settling the issue at the earliest. Recent developments like opening Nathula pass after decades to trade efficiency and appointing Special Representative’s to resolve and negotiate border issues is a positive move.

    The close ties of China’s neighbours including Japan, Vietnam and Philippines with US and India’s autonomic foreign policy with China will pave way for a good future between the nations. Though, India should be careful with the trading patterns of china as 21st century wars will be on economy and diplomacy. An informal boycott of Japanese products by china is a strategic move on the border problem with the former which India can avoid in future by not depending more on Chinese market alone. Hence the growing trade deficit of $29 billion with china needs attention.

    • Please provide your valuable feedback.

      • Anjali Motghare

        Sudha good point trade target of 100 billion will motivate to solve border dispute early.
        But you have to prove your stance with more points, which u missed.

        • Sudha

          Thanks Anjali. Yes on reading other answers I realized that. Also I am finding it bit difficult to prioritize and compress many information in the word limit. Please keep providing feedback to improve 🙂

    • Liked the different take in your answer. But your opinion is not clear here – whether you think China’s emergence as India’s largest trading partner affects border dispute settlement or not. This question explicitly demands your opinion – yes or no – to be registered.

      • Sudha

        Thanks Insights. Yes I should have done that 🙂 I was about to say that it dint affect till now but should make sure the same continues in the future. But ya dint put it up clearly. Thanks 🙂 Please let me know whether the structure or any other improvements I should concentrate on

  • Amudhan

    Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.

    Upon Independence the Sub-continents with a majority illiterate population and dismal progress on industrialization still decided to pursue space research. It was founded not on lofty ideals of competing with the developed nations but with the belief that space technology would be useful to the country in its developmental progress.
    As such ISRO’s contributions to the nation have been pragmatic in nature including satellites INSAT satellites for use in telecom, broadcasting and use for the IMD. IRNSS-1A is a navigational satellite and IRS for earth monitoring. ISRO’s played its role in package delivery and in development and deployment of these satellites being a critical component of this nation’s progress.
    The notion of India being a ‘space power’ is still to realize itself. Pundits have however noted the use of ‘Space diplomacy’ with smaller nation but in relation to the levels of the US and China we are yet to yet match them in Man missions to space and Lander technology. However the ISRO does have a vibrant plan to realize its potential to be ‘space power’. India is partnering with Russia to send a Lander to mars with the Russian providing the Lander and India providing the launch vehicle. In Oct/Nov 2013 there is a proposed mission to orbit Mars and we are also in progress towards making a successful GSLV launch which would reduce our dependence on foreign nations. We also have a ‘Human Space Flight’ Program which is still under development as well as GSLV III.

  • Amudhan

    Do you think China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partner of India has adversely affected the settlement the outstanding border dispute?

    The outstanding border dispute problem preceded India’s and China’s economic interactions. This emergence has likely strengthened the chance of a border settlement in the future due to increased interactions highlighting the interdependence of both nations and a need to find a peaceful solution.
    After the 1962 war, the ‘border dispute’ was unequivocally recognized and an equilibrium of sorts has been maintained over time. When the new Chinese leadership took over last year they were eager to settle the border dispute and renew India-China relationship on condition to meet them ‘halfway’. There has been a tacit compliance by both countries to functionally separate political and economic interactions and realize the benefits for both countries in each separately. Even in this de-linked scenario progress made in one field allows for improvement in the other. Consider the ‘India-China Strategic economic dialogue’ as a stepping stone for the ‘working mechanism for consultation and co-ordination’ between India and China that recently resolved incursions on Depsang.
    One can appreciate the progress on one field creating an environment for progress in another reducing the trust-deficit and historical transgressions by both nations. Increased economic co-operation has also increased the need for peace to play a central part in conflict resolution. Trade breeds a substantial population of peoples in both countries that require a peaceful resolution. Therefore the emergence of China as the largest trading partner has positively affected the outstanding border dispute.

  • lrlevin

    1)Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the space agency of India, has been instrumental in augmenting India’s space power and facilitating her to join the Elite group of Space power Nations like the USA, Russia, EU, Japan and China.
    Established in 1969, the ISRO, till today has launched more than 100 mission starting from Aryabhatta to recent launches like Kalpana-1, Cartosat, Oceansat, Mega tropiques, SARAL, Risat, INSAT series of satellites, etc.
    Chandrayan-1, the first Moon orbiter, requires a special mention which brought worldwide fame to our country. Chandrayaan-2 is to follow soon.
    Currently ISRO is working with GAGAN project which is a GPS based Navigation system to improve the Navigation of Aircrafts.
    Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system being developed by ISRO under which plans are to launch a constellation of satellites. The first IRNSS satellite IRNSS-1A was launched in july 2013 and the remaining 6 satellites are to be launched by 2014.
    ISRO plans to undertake 58 missions, 25 launch vehicles and 33 satellites, during the 12th Plan
    The future projects of ISRO include
    1. Mangalyaan – The mars orbiter which is set to be launched in Nov 2013 to study the Mars environment and about the possibility of life there
    2. Aditya-1 – This mission is to study the solar Corona in visible and IR range and Coronal mass ejection of the Sun. Planned in 2015-2016
    3. Astrosat – It’s the first Astronomy satellite mission of India for multi-wavelength observation of celestial bodies and cosmic rays. Planned in 2014
    ISRO is not just a space agency for India, it’s a “Pride House”

  • Insights sir… Please give your comment.

    • Your answer is again good. You have stuck to word limit. Structure is there. Mention of how India is becoming hub for space products and services marketing (global context) is missing. I understand one can not remember all points while writing. Good going 🙂

  • Prashant S

    1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”. Critically examine
    Ans – The peasant movements of the second half of the 19th century was an outcome of the economic and political lacunae due to the imposition of an alien rule over the indian peasants. It emerged as an expression of resentment against the arbitrary & unjust taxes which was excessive in character and led to increasing land alienation and indebtedness. It was further compounded by the role of moneylenders. Thus the movement was aimed at addressing the immediate local grievances and lacked a pan india character.
    The introduction of permanent settlem