PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGES

 

2016


Mains – 2016: Challenge – Nov 09

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Nov 08

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Nov 07

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Nov 05

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Nov 03

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Nov 01

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 29

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 28

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 27

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 26

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 25

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 24

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 22

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 21

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 19

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 18

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 17

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 15

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 14

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 13

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 12

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 11

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 10

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 08

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 07

SYNOPSIS – Public Administration (Aug 17 to Oct 05)

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 06

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 05

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 04

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 03

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Oct 01

Mains – 2016: Challenge –  Sep 30

Mains – 2016: Challenge – Sep 29

Mains – 2016: Challenge –  Aug 30

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 10, Aug 29

Weekly Test – 1

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 9, Aug 26

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 8, Aug 25

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 7, Aug 24

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 6, Aug 23

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 5, Aug 22

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 4 Aug 20

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 3 Aug 19

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 2 Aug 18

Mains – 2016: Challenge – 1 Aug 17

2015

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 1 Sept 07

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 2 Sept 08

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 3 Sept 09

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 4: Sept 10

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 5: Sept 11

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 6: Sept 14

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 7: Sept 15

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 8: Sept 16

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 9: Sept 17

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 10: Sept 18

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 11: Sept 21

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 12: Sept 22

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 13: Sept 23

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 14: Sept 26

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 15: Sept 28

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 16: Sept 29

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 17: Sept 30

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 18: Oct 06

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 19: Oct 07

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 20: Oct 08

Mains – 2015: Challenge – 21: Oct 09

Mains-2015: Challenge-22: Oct 12

Mains-2015: Challenge-23: Oct 14

Mains-2015: Challenge-24: Oct 15

Mains-2015: Challenge-25: Oct 16

Mains-2015: Challenge-26: Oct 19

Mains-2015: Challenge-27: Oct 20

Mains-2015: Challenge-28: Oct 21

Mains-2015: Challenge-29: Oct 22

Mains-2015: Challenge-30: Oct 26

Mains-2015: Challenge-31: Oct 27

Mains-2015: Challenge-32: Oct 29

Mains-2015: Challenge-33: Oct 30

 

 

 2014

 

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 1

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 2

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 3

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 4

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 5

Mains –2014 – Challenge – 6

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 7

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 8

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 9

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 10

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 11

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 12

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 13

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 14

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 15

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 16

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 17

Mains – 2014 –  Challenge – 18

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 19

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 20

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 21

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 22

Mains – 2014  – Challenge – 23

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 24

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 25

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 26

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 27

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 28

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 29

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 30

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 31

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 32

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 33

Mains – 2014 – Challenge – 34

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 35

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 36

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 37

 Mains – 2014 Challenge – 38

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 39

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 40

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 41

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 42

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 43

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 44

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 45

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 46

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 47

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 48

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 49

Mains – 2014 Challenge – 50

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Challenge 1

  Introduction:

Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration;

Question 1

“In its broadest sense, the administration can be defined as the activities of group cooperating to accomplish common goals.” Evaluate.

Question 2

 “..it would appear that any definition of this field [Public Administration] would be either so encompassing as to call forth the wrath or ridicule of others, or so limiting as to stultify its own disciples.”  Mosher. Critically comment.

ANSWERS

Challenge 2

Question 1

 Comment on the importance of sense of Public interest as a wider ethical commitment in public administration. (200 Words)

Question 2

Public administration is not just implementation of laws; it is also a means of social justice and social change”. Comment. (200 Words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 3

Question 1

“While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.

n the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century. (200 Words)

Question 2

 “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 4

  1. New paradigms in public administration do not look at the discipline from a fresh perspective but merely rehash the old concepts.” Critically evaluate (200 Words)
  2. “A public administration which fails to work for changes which tries to redress the deprivation of minorities will likely be eventually used to repress those minorities.” Frederickson.Evaluate with respect to the importance of values in public administration.

ANSWERS

Challenge 5

Question 1

 Do you think that over reliance on rules has sidelined emotive rationality of administrators? Do you think switching over to market oriented approach could change the scenario? (200 Words)

Question 2

How do you rate the Public Choice’s ‘pleasure pain calculus of individuals’ to Benthamite public interest in public administration. Also explain the challenges faced by the bureaucracy to reorient itself for methodological individualism. (200 Words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 6

Question 1

“The state is essential for putting in place the appropriate institutional foundations for markets”. Comment. (200 Words)

Question 2

What according to you are the most important changes brought into public administration by Privatization movement. (200 Words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 7

Question 1

“The actions of public administrators have the forces of law and coercive power of government behind them”. Do you think administrators could claim similar authority in a globalized world?

Question 2

Examine the implications of globalization for administrative ethics and development ethics.

ANSWERS

Challenge 8

Question 1

 “The equity and legitimacy aspects are as important, or perhaps more important, than good management.” Comment. (200 words)

Question 2

 Do you think good governance is a throwback to the classical theory of ‘one best way of governance’? How is it, if any, different from neo-wilsonism? (200 words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 9

Question 1

 “Participation in authentic discourse requires ‘warrants for discourse’.” In the light of above statement explain the broader democratic consequences of a pro-active citizenry? (200 Words)

Question 2

 “We don’t need more government; we need better government.” Comment. (200 Words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 10

Question 1

Do you think Scientific management offers any solution to the issues in public administration of a developing country like India? Elaborate.

Question 2

The Scientific management is blamed to create a monopoly of knowledge and de-personalization of work. What issues arise due to these? Is the threat real? Evaluate.

Question 3

How has scientific management approach widened the horizon of public administration?

ANSWERS

Challenge 11

Question 1

Is the top down approach necessarily outdated? What are the aspects in which you shall favor ‘administrative management approach’?

Question 2

The classical principals “…form neither a coherent conceptual pattern of determination nor an accurate description of concrete empirical reality” Comment.

Question 3

Co-ordination is the fundamental principle of any organization. Comment.

ANSWERS

Challenge 12

Question 1.

Human relations approach has enlarged the role of social ethics in management philosophy. Evaluate. [200 words]

Question 2.

“The man possessing the knowledge demanded by a certain situation tends in the best managed business, and other things being equal, becomes the leader of that movement.” Comment. [200 words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 13

Question 1.

Leadership is the ‘influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization’ [Katz and Kahn]. Analyze. (150 WORDS) [CSM 2012]

Question 2

Human relations approach urges co-operation over competition and inter dependence over individualism. Examine. (200 words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 14

Question 1

“While Taylor and his associates concentrated on improving the task efficiency of the individual, Barnard  on the other hand, started with individual, moved to cooperative effort, and ended  with executive functions.” Comment.

Question 2

“… a more thorough consideration leads to the understanding that communication, authority, specialization and purpose are all aspects comprehended in coordination.” – (Chester I. Barnard). Comment. [Civil Services 2000/20 Marks]

ANSWERS

Challenge 15

Question 1

“Barnard emphasizes on purpose as a  central  question  but  pays no attention  to the  choice  of the  purpose in  a  changing  world or to  the  processes  of formulating goals and  objectives for the  organization”. Comment [200 words]

Question 2

What is the nature of psychological contract pursued by organizational management through authority and the employees through the exertion of upward influence? [CSM 2013/15 MARKS]

ANSWERS

Challenge 16

Question  1

Define the term ‘civil society’. How does civil society influence the public policy? (200 Words/2002, Accountability and Control – P1)

 Question  2

‘The Arthashastra is India’s oldest complete text on public administration.” Comment. (200 Words/2003, Evolution of Indian Administration – P2)

ANSWERS

Challenge 17

Question 1

“Decisions are something more than factual propositions. They have an ethical as well as a factual content.” Comment. [200 Words]

Question 2

“Administrative efficiency is enhanced by keeping at a minimum the number of organizational levels through which a matter must pass before it is acted upon.” – (Herbert A. Simon) [CSM 2000/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 18

Question 1

“Three features characterize Simon’s original view of bounded rationality : search for alternatives, satisfying, and aspiration adaptation.” Elucidate. [CSM 2012/200 Words]

Question 2

” Simon’s indentifying decision-making as the core field of public administration appears logically acceptable but his positivist underpinning is problematic.” Critically examine the statement. [CSM 2010/300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 19

Question 1

Weberian bureaucracy refers to the sociological concept of rationalization of collective activities. Examine [200 words]

Question 2

“Censorship, is a bureaucratic instrument for maintaining politics as a private and reserved domain of a particular class.” Examine. [250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 20

Question 1

“Bureaucracy is the medium through which particular interests were translated into general interests”. Critically analyze. [250 Words]

Question 2

“ Bureaucracy changes knowledge into secrecy and competence into mystery”. Comment. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 21

Question 1

All big organizations tend to develop a bureaucratic structure which ruled out the possibility of internal democracy. Do you agree? [200 Words]

Question 2

“…[Bureaucracy].. offers for carrying through the principle of specializing administrative functions according to purely objective considerations” . Comment [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 22

Question 1

 “..public service must be representative if the state is to liberate rather than to enslave” -Donald J Kingsley. Comment [200 Words]

Question 2

What are the practical issues in establishing a representative bureaucracy in a third world country like India? [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 23

Question 1

An administrative state must have a bureaucracy whose fundamental values must include, anonymity, neutrality and commitment. Analyze. [250 Words]

Question 2

What is co-governance? How is it different from representative bureaucracy? [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 24

Question 1

” The successful management leaders are found in Likerts’s ‘System-4′ approach to organizational leadership.” Examine. [CSM 2010/250 Words]

Question 2

“Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.” Comment  [150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 25

Question 1

 Examine the evolution of conflict management from integration approach of M.P. Follett to remedial approach of participative management. [200 Words]

Question 2

“The managerial cosmology meaningfully addresses the understanding of manager and his role perceptions.” Explain. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 26

Question 1

 “Organizations are willing to pay high wages and provide adequate seniority if mature adults will behave in a less than mature manner”. Comment. [200 Words]

Question 2

“Self-actualization is a utopia, without any precise operational indicators”. Comment [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 27

Question 1

 Critically evaluate Chris Argyris views on human personality and its impact on the working of organization.  [200 Words]

Question 2

The theory of ‘organizational incompetence’ has two separate and distinct faces. Examine Chris Argyris’ view on this. [CSM 2013/150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 28

Question 1

Whereas Downs’ model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light of the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision-making. [CSM 2011/250 Words]

Question 2

The Systems Approach is relevant even today for organizational analysis. Discuss how Chester Barnard and David Easton adopted this approach in their respective areas of study.[CSM 2011/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 29

Topic: Multiple thinker’s & latest trends of UPSC

Question

“Decisions are not made by ‘organizations’, but by ‘human beings’ behaving as members of organizations”. How do Bernard and Simon conceptualize the relation between decisions of the individual employee and the organizational authority? [CSM 2013/ 250-300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 30

 Topic:Multiple thinkers & latest trends of UPSC

Question

“Specialization belongs to the natural order. The object of specialization is to produce more and better work with the same effort”.

“Specialized division of labour and the accompanying fragmentation of tasks result in alienation of work”.

Analyse these statements and evaluate the contributions of the respective approaches to administration theory.  (200 words) 

ANSWERS

Challenge 31

 Topic:Multiple thinker’s & latest trends of UPSC

Question 

Structural theory is, by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. Explain [CSM 2013/300-350 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 32

 Topic: Multiple thinkers & latest trends of UPSC

Question 

“The design of the physical structure, the anatomy of the organization came first, and was indeed the principal consideration.”

“An organization is a system of interrelated social behaviors of participants”

Analyse these statements and evaluate the contributions of the respective approaches to administration theory. [CSM 2013/300-350 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 33

 Topic: Multiple thinkers & latest trends of UPSC

Question

What light does Antonio Gramsci ‘s critique of Taylorism throw on its socio-psychological underpinnings ?  [CSM 2012/150-200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 34

Topic: Process and techniques of decision-making

Question

‘Policy judgements comprise reality judgements, value judgements and instrumental judgements’ [Geoffery Vickers]. Elucidate. [150 Words/CSM2012]

ANSWERS

Challenge 35

Topic: Process and techniques of decision-making

Question

“Creativity allows the decision maker to more fully appraise and understand the problem, including seeing problems others can’t see”. Elucidate.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 36

 Topic: Process and techniques of decision-making

Question

Discuss the importance of ecological factors in decision making.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 37

 Topic: Process and techniques of decision-making

Question

“The rational model of decision making makes no acknowledgement of cultural differences”. Critically Examine.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 38

Topic: Administrative Behaviour – Communication

Question

What is knowledge management in an organization. How is communication crucial for proper knowledge management in an organization? (200 words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 39

 Topic: Administrative Behaviour – Communication

Question 

Channels of communication must be definitely known. Comment.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 40

Topic:  Administrative Behaviour – MORALE

Question

“Non-financial incentives are the psychic rewards or the rewards of enhanced position that can be secured in the work organization”[Dubin]. Elucidate. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 41

Topic:  Administrative Behaviour – MORALE

Question

‘Job satisfaction is related to organizational effectiveness’. Comment.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 42

 Topic:  Administrative Behaviour:  Motivation Theories – content, process and contemporary

Question

‘Man’s motives… in different subparts of the same organization may be different’[Edgas Schein]. Discuss. [150 Words/CSM2012]

ANSWERS

Challenge 43

 Topic: Administrative Behaviour:  Motivation Theories – content, process and contemporary

Question

“Inspite of the criticism on two-factor theory it is unquestionable that herzberg’s contribution to work motivation is substantial.” Comment. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 44

Topic: Administrative Behaviour:  Theories of Leadership – Traditional and Modern.

Question 

‘Leaders do the right things, manager do them rightly.’[Bennis]. Comment.  [200 Words/CSM2008]

ANSWERS

Challenge 45

 Topic: Administrative Behaviour:  Theories of Leadership – Traditional and Modern.

Question 

Leadership is a socially constructed organizational reality. Explain. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 46

 Topic: Organisations – Theories-systems, contingency

Question

‘The essence, of the contingency theory paradigm is that organizational effectiveness results from fitting characteristics of the organization, such as its structure, to contingencies that reflect the situation of the organization.’ Give your reason for the statement.[CSM 2012/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 47

 Topic: Organisations- Theories-systems, contingency

Question 

‘The essence, of the contingency theory paradigm is that organizational effectiveness results from fitting characteristics of the organization, such as its structure, to contingencies that reflect the situation of the organization.’

In the light of your discussion on above, also show where and how this ‘fitting’ differs from ‘coping’ with ‘stress’ from environment emphasized by the systems theory of organization.[CSM 2012/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 48

 Topic: Organisations- Theories-systems, contingency

Question 

Structural theory is, by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness & productivity. Explain. [CSM 2013/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 49

 Topic: Organisations- Theories-systems, contingency

Question 

Systems view of organization provides us with macro paradigm for the study of organization. Comment. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 50

 Topic: Organisations- Theories-systems, contingency

Question 

Technology and environment are two potent forces of organizational change. [300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 51

Topic: Organisations- Theories-systems, contingency

Question

Do you think that open and closed model are two faces of the same coin? Elucidate.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 52

 Topic: Organisations- Structure and forms

Question 

 “A variety of different organizational arrangements can be used to provide different public goods & services”. Explain the theory underlying this proposition and its potential contribution.[CSM 2013/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 53

 Topic: Organisations- Structure and forms

Question 

“In order to make full use of the opportunities provided by globalization, developing countries need, among other things, to reinvest in their public sector and enhance their capacity for policy analysis, formulation and implementation.” Discuss.[300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 54

 Topic: Organisations- Structure and forms

Question 

What are the advantages of Boards? Give a short note on their success or failure in Indian administration paradigm. [300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 55

 Topic: Organisations- Structure and forms

Question

How do you rate the ministerial control over autonomy in the case of Public sector enterprises? Substantiate.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 56

 Topic: Organisations- Structure and forms

Question

Offer your opinion on disinvestment of public enterprises. Why has the disinvestment bandwagon slowed down in recent years, in India? Do you think it’s a welcome phenomenon.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 57

Topic: Organisations-Ad hoc and advisory bodies

Question

What is the utility of Ad hoc bodies? Explain with special reference to the functioning of Ad hoc committees in Indian parliament. [250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 58

 Topic: Organisations-Ad hoc and advisory bodies

Question

Recently it has been claimed that NAC wields more influence in policy making than planning commission. Do you think this is a healthy precedent? Explain by emphasizing on the working of advisory bodies in an organization.[250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 59

 Topic: Organisations- Regulatory Authorities

Question

Elucidate the need of a separate department of Regulatory affairs in Indian administrative set-up.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 60

Topic: Organisations- Regulatory Authorities

Question 

Evaluate the working of regulatory authorities in Indian administration. [300 words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 61

Topic: Organisations – Public-Private Partnerships

Question 

The idea of Public-Private partnership was introduced with great pomp and show. Why did it fail to provide the desired results? Also suggest some measures which could improve the performance of this administrative vehicle.[250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 62

Topic: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Meaning, Scope & significance

Question

Administrative law is a law related to administration. Comment. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 63

Topic: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Meaning, Scope & significance

Question

In India, administrative law has developed through judicial activism and creativity without much help from the legislature. Do you agree? Why do you think this is so? [250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 64

Topic: Dicey on Administrative Law

Question

 Would you agree that the strong Rechsstaat version of the rule of law found on the continent never existed in England because of its particular history? [CSM 2012/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 65

Topic: Dicey on Administrative Law

Question

Why is le droit administaitif regarded alongside the Napoleonic code as the most notable achievement of French legal science? [CSM 2012/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 66

Topic: DELEGATED LEGISLATION

Question 

Make out a case for Delegated Legislation. [CSM 2011/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 67

Topic: ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALS

Question

‘The development of administrative law in a welfare state has made administrative tribunals a necessity.’ Comment. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 68

Topic: Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems

Question 

“Truly comparative administration studies are empirical, nomothetic & ecological.”(Riggs)

In this perspective, examine the current status of comparative public administration. [CSM 2008/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 69

Topic: Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems

Question

“Not to be comparative is to be naively parochial” (Riggs). Comment [CSM 2007/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 70

Topic: Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems

Question 

The development administration approach to CPA tends to validate a Manichean view of administrative system. Comment [150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 71

Topic: Administration and politics in different countries

Question 

“No science of public administration is possible unless.. there is a body of comparative studies from which it may be possible to discover principles and generalities that transcend national boundaries and peculiar historical experiences.” Discuss [CSM 2005/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 72

Topic: Current status of Comparative Public Administration

Question

“Comparative Public administration both resembles and differs from modern organization theory.”  Elaborate. [CSM 2013/150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 73

 Topic: Current status of Comparative Public Administration

 Question

Comment on the reasons why universal theory remains elusive in comparative public administration. [CSM 2012/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 74

Topic: Ecology and administration

Question 

“…in most cases… newly independent states, of the nations of Africa, Asia and latin America, despite their differences… are in transition.”(Ferrel Heady). What common features are indicative of characteristics of their administrative patterns(cultures)? [CSM 2013/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 75

Topic: Ecology and administration

Question

“Comparative public administration” is the “quest for patterns and regularities in administrative action & behavior”. Elaborate. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 76

Topic: Riggsian models and their critique

Question

“Neither Edward Weidner nor Fred Riggs was able to describe the process of development administration adequately.”

 Explain the drawbacks and weakness in their theoretical analyses. [CSM 2011/400 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 77

Topic: Riggsian models and their critique

Question 

“The prismatic model of Riggs is equally applicable to developing as well as developed society.” Comment. [CSM 2010/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 78

Topic: Riggsian models and their critique

Question

Riggs failed to recognize the role of outside or external forces in the process of development. Do you agree? [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 79

Topic: Riggsian models and their critique

Question

Does the Indian social reality represent the characteristics of prismatic society? Explain with illustrations. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 80

Topic: Riggsian models and their critique

Question

“Riggs’ ecological approach is non-ecological.” Comment [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 81

Topic: Public Choice Approach, New Public Management 

Question 

“The advent of the concept of “roll back of the state” since the nineteen eighties has been altering the role of Public Administration but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society.” Discuss. (200 words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 82

Topic: Development Dynamics: Concept of development 

Question 

“The concept of development is multi-dimensional and ever-expanding”. Explain.[CSM 2010/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 83

Topic:  Development Dynamics: Concept of development 

Question

Which of the model in development administration is/are characterized by ‘selectivism’, ‘Attainment’ and ‘Poly-functionalism’? Describe the corresponding theoretical roots and attributes.[CSM 2009/300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 84

Topic: Development Dynamics: Concept of development 

Question 

“Development administration is characterized by its purpose, its loyalties and its attitudes.”Elaborate.[250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 85

Topic: Development Dynamics: Concept of development

Question

The immediate contribution of development administration is its exposure of the administrative obstacles to the planning and implementation of development. Comment.[150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 86

Topic: Development Dynamics: Changing profile of development administration

Question

The paradigm shift from the growth-centric approach to people-centric one needs corresponding institutional reshaping that is hard to bring about at one stroke. Elaborate. [250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 87

Topic: Development Dynamics: Changing profile of development administration

Question 

“For those who use the euphemism of ‘shared power’ for participation, the appropriate literature for guidance in practical politics, not organization and management”. Elaborate. [250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 88

Topic: Development Dynamics: Changing profile of development administration

Question

“Strong state and strong civil society are the need to develop both participatory democracy and responsive government as mutually reinforcing and supportive.”

Bring out the myths and realities associated with public participation.[CSM 2013/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 89

Topic: Development Dynamics: Changing profile of development administration

Question

“To talk about regulatory framework is to talk about governance.” Analyse the statement in the context of Public-private partnerships and identify the elements of regulation.[CSM 2013/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 90

Topic: Development Dynamics – Changing profile of development administration

Question

Development is above all else a question of human values. Comment[150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 91

Topic: Development Dynamics – ‘Antidevelopment thesis’

Question

The Anti-development approach attempts to overcome the inequality in perception and definition of development by opening up spaces for non-western peoples and their concerns. Comment [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 92

Topic: Development Dynamics – ‘Antidevelopment thesis’

Question

‘The anti-development’ thesis… reduces development to an idea without history, impervious to change’, but ‘fails to take account of the fact for its faults development could be empowering.’ Discuss.[CSM 2012/150 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 93

Topic: Development Dynamics – Bureaucracy and development

Question

Bureaucracy has a two-way relationship with development. Comment[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 94

Topic: Development Dynamics – Bureaucracy and development

Question

What according to you are the three biggest obstacles which is presented by bureaucracy in the path of development. Elaborate.[300 Words] 

ANSWERS

Challenge 95

Topic: Development Dynamics – Bureaucracy and development

Question 

Attaining optimum regulation is a challaging task, as a balance has to be achieved between individual’s freedom and society’s interest. Explain.[200 words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 96

Topic: Development Dynamics – Strong state versus  the market

Question

“The Market has become the new icon of developmentalism.” Comment. [CSM 2010/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 97

Topic: Development Dynamics – Strong state versus  the market

Question

“..the balanced administrative state has been replaced by the corporate-coercive state.” Comment. [200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 98

Topic: Development Dynamics – Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries

Question 

Indicate the milestones in the story of development from the Nehruvian Model to Liberalization Model.[CSM 2011/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 99

Topic:  Development Dynamics – Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries

Question

We need to create a balance between the state, market and civil society to ensure good governance.[300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 100

Topic: Development Dynamics – Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries

Question 

‘The idea of civil society is intrinsically linked to liberal democratic discourse esposing plurality of social views’. Comment.[200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 101

Topic: Development Dynamics –  Women and development : The self-help group movement.

Question

Given the importance of issue of sex equality in development do you think the self help group movement adequately addresses absence of women in the former mainstream development agenda? [CSM 2012/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 102

Topic: Development Dynamics –  Women and development : The self-help group movement.

Question

“Self-Help Groups(SHGs) enables women to realize their full potential in some spheres of life.”

“SHGs are providing avenues of political mobilization.”

Examine the implication these two statements and assess the potential of SHgs for development.[300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 103

Topic: Development Dynamics –  Women and development : The self-help group movement.

Question

Why has the performance of SHGs been uneven in different states of India? Elaborate some successful models of SHGs in India.[300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 104

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism

Question

“The liberal-democratic ideology of the West influenced the shaping of value premises of the Indian Constitution.” Discuss. [250 Words/CSM 2013]

ANSWERS

Challenge 105

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism

Question

“India at its independence established an electoral democracy in conditions of relative social ‘backwardness’, accentuating the extent of its apparent ‘democratic exceptionalism’.” Comment.[250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 106

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism

Question

“Value of Indian administration must be rooted in the preamble of the Indian constitution.” Discuss[CSM 2009/250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 107

 Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism

Question

Analyze the following statements from D D Basu,

 “The preamble to our Constitution serves, two purposes:

(a) it indicates the source from which the constitution derives its authority;

(b) it also states the objects which constitution seeks to establish and promote. “

In the light of above statement elaborate the importance of preamble in the working of ourconstitution. [250 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 108

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: POLITICAL CULTURE

Question

Analyze the following statement by Pratap Bhanu Mehta,

“With political parties serving as vehicles of Individual ambition rather than ideological or programmatic goals, the resulting political promiscuity has led to a landscape in which Indian political parties form a constantly shifting kaleidoscope of fission and fusion”

Do you think that this phenomenon, of political parties ultimately becoming ‘vehicles of Individual ambition’ is unique to Indian political culture or an inherent disadvantage of multi-party democracy?  (200 words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 109

 Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: POLITICAL CULTURE

Question

Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regards to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. [CSM {GS-II} 2013/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 110

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: POLITICAL CULTURE

Question

The role of legislators has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law which was legislated but with a different intention? [CSM {GS-II} 2013/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 111

 Topic:  Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: POLITICAL CULTURE

Question 

Analyze the following two contradicting statements,

“Energies are dissipated in managing the coalition itself rather than in governing more broadly and, as a result, both the pace and the quality of reform suffer”

“..stability[by a majority government] itself can simply result in the persistence of poor policies.”

Considering the above statements comment on the political culture of Indian democracy emphasizing on the link between stability and growth. (200 words)

ANSWERS

Challenge 112

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: BUREAUCRACY and DEMOCRACY

Question

Explain with appropriate illustrations the interface between ‘political culture and bureaucratic culture’ in contemporary India. [CSM 2011/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 113

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: BUREAUCRACY and DEMOCRACY

Question

“The weakest aspect of Indian administration is grievance Redressal machinery.” Discuss [CSM 2009/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 114

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: BUREAUCRACY and DEMOCRACY

Question

“There is a constant and continuous collision between bureaucratic values and democratic values which adversely affects development.” In the light of this statement examine the role of bureaucracy in development. [CSM 2008/300 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 115

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: BUREAUCRACY and DEVELOPMENT

Question

“Over dependence on bureaucracy for bringing about socio-economic development in India has proved to be dysfunctional.” Comment. [CSM 2011/200 Words]

ANSWERS

Challenge 116

Topic: Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: BUREAUCRACY and DEVELOPMENT

Question

Analyze the following two statements,

“The more developmental an administrative system becomes, the greater the likelihood that it would have more developmental effects”

“The thrust of development administration failed to energise the Indian bureaucracy.”

In the light of above statements analyze the role of Indian bureaucracy in achieving development goals. [CSM 2010/300 Words]

ANSWERS

 

CHALLENGES – 2013

31) Challenge 20/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 20/11/2013

  1. Development administration focused on development activities also needs administrative development. Elaborate. (300 Words)
  2. Define the term civil society.? How does civil society influence public policy.? (300 Words)

ANSWERS

30) Challenge 19/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 19/11/2013

  1.  Give reasons for the failure of the GoI to introduce the performance programme budgetary technique in Union Ministries. What type of budgetary system is being currently practised in India and why?(CSE 2000/300 words)
  2.  ”Legislative control over finances are inadequate and incomplete.” Comment. (CSE 2003/200 words)
  3. while the classical theorist of administration consider organisation as a set of individual a humanist such as Bernard that organisation is a set of activity. Elaborate. (250 words)

ANSWERS

29) Challenge 18/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 18/11/2013

  1.  ”There is little difference in Maslow’s and  Herzberg’s theories except that the latter is derived empirically.” Examine.(150 words)
  2. How can the behavioural school of thought be made instrumental in achieving ‘Good Governance’ in India? (250 words)

ANSWERS

28) Challenge 16/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 16/11/2013

  1.  ’Man’s motives … in different subparts of the same organization may be different’ [Edgar Schein]. Discuss. (CSE 2012/150 words)
  2.  Leadership is the ‘influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization’ [Katz and Kahn]. Analyze. (150 words)
  3. In the era of neo-liberalism there is an emphasis on a strong state and a vibrant market. Ironically this phenomena which is contemporary could be dealt by a classical theorist such as Gullick’s view on the nature of the state and the role of the administration. Discuss (250 words)

ANSWERS

27) Challenge 15/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 15/11/2013

  1.  The administrator needs autonomy and discretion in much the same way as the politician needs control and intervention. Discuss. (2004/ 200 words)
  2. How is the performance of the Indian government evaluated? Do you think these tools have proved their utility? (250 words)

ANSWERS

26) Challenge 14/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 14/11/2013

  1. The concept of Civil Service neutrality is outdated and does not augur well for a developing society. Comment.(20 Words)
  2. The Systems approach is relevant even today for organizational analysis. Discuss how Barnard and David Easton adopted this approach in their respective areas of study. (CSE 2011/300 Words).

ANSWERS

25) Challenge 13/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 13/11/2013

  1. The concept of accountability has only widened during the last century. Examine. (150 words)
  2. The line between Administrative adjudication and judicial process is becoming increasingly blurred. Why? (300 words)

ANSWERS

24) Challenge 12/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 12/11/2013

  1. “Cost-benefit analysis is a very unsatisfactory view of analysing public policy.” Comment.(2010/200 words)
  2.  There is a separate ministry Central ministry or Department on each subject allocated to State List. Does it mean supremacy of the Union Government or an emphasis on development administration? Analyse. (2007/300 words)

ANSWERS

23) Challenge 11/11/2013

QUESTIONS:11/11/2013

  1. “The Cabinet Secretary’s is a very general staff function, not a line function in relation to the ministries. His business is to help not to oversee. Comment. ( 300 Words)
  2. With respect to Globalization and its administrative challenges, explain state capacity deficit and its implications. (200 words)

ANSWERS

22) Challenge 09/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 09/11/2013

  1.  ”The headquarters-field relationship is fraught with complexities. To arrive at a general principle, thus, is nearly impossible. Therefore, this should be more of a practitioner’s domain rather than of academician’s.” Comment. (250 words)
  2. Do you agree with the view that in the wake of increasing role of local bodies, the District Collector be absolved largely of his development functions to focus more on regulatory functions? Justify. (250 words)

ANSWERS

21) Challenge 08/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 08/11/2013

  1.  ”Simon’s work has had major implications for the study of administration and the practice of administration professionalism.”Comment.(2006/200 words)
  2. “Bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed from the common political life of the people, its chiefs as well as rank and file. Its motives, its objectives, its policy, its standards must be bureaucratic.”- Discuss. (2004/200 words)
  3.  ”Taylor’s scientific management ignored social and psychological factors.” Comment.(2007/200 words)

ANSWERS

20) Challenge – 07/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 07/11/2013

  1. ” Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks empirical validity when applied to modern democratic administration.” Examine. (2003/200 words)
  2.  Critically examine the models of Max Weber and Chester Barnard with reference to Bureaucratic authority. (2001/200 words)

ANSWERS

19. Challenge – 06/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 06/11/2013

  1. Make a critical assessment of Dicey’s understanding of the Rule of
    Law Droit Administratif.(2011/150 words)
  2. Analyse McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, his message has become more relevant and
    more important? Substantiate your answer. (2007/300 words)
  3. “Community policing has become a victim of elite capture.” Discuss
    the concept of community policing and bring out the implications of
    the above statement.(2011/300 words)

ANSWERS

18. Challenge – 05/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 05/11/2013

  1.  Critically comment on the recent Supreme Court directive on fixed tenure for Bureaucrats. (200 words)
  2.  Simon’s decision-making theories and techniques are of little use to Public Administration. Critically Examine.(250 words)
  3. “Laxity in monitoring and evaluation can render even best policies infructuous.” Discuss. (Mains 2008/ 200 words)
  4. The period of British rule generated most of the structural and behavioural values of Indian administration not by initiation but through interaction.  Examine (Mains 2000/ 200 words)

ANSWERS

17. Challenge – 04/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 04/11/2013

  1.  ”Coalition politics of contemporary time is,at times, at war with the ideas of planning commission.” Comment. (200 Words)
  2. “Kautilya was a political realist rather than an Idealist. Comment.(300 Words)
  3. Independence of judiciary is sacrosanct but seeking a broader collegium based judicial appointment needs serious exploration. Give your views. (300 Words)

ANSWERS

16. Challenge 02/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 02/11/2013

  1. The study of Administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law. Explain. (CSE 2010/200 marks)
  2. Do you think there is a sort of paradox between e-governance and good governance. Explain fully. (CSE 2012/200 marks)

ANSWERS

15. Challenge 01/11/2013

QUESTIONS: 01/11/2013

  1. “Attempts to solve administrative problems in isolation from the structure of power and purpose in the polity are bound to be illusory.” (Norton Long) Comment. (300 Words)
  2. “Administrative reforms form a part of larger political process and should be considered in relation to it.” Examine. (300 Words)
  3. “Public administration is ultimately problem of political theory.” (Wallace Sayre) Comment.(300 Words)

ANSWERS

14. Challenge 31/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 31/10/2013 (Paper I and II)

  1.  ”The prismatic model of Riggs is equally applicable to developing as well as developed society.” Comment. (2010/200 words)
  2.  ”The real problem of administrative reforms in India at the state and local levels in that they are imposed from above.” Comment. (2011/300 words)

ANSWERS

13. Challenge 30/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 30/10/2013 (Paper I and II)

  1.  ”The main problem with Mary Parker Follett’s work is that her idealism is showing.”. Explain.(CSE 2006/20 marks/200 words)
  2.  Does the emergence of an Empowered group of Ministers at the Central Level impair the doctrine of Cabinet responsibility?(CSE 2010/20 marks/200 words)

ANSWERS

12. Challenge – 29/10/2013

QUESTIONS:29/10/2013 (Paper I and II)

  1. Indicate the milestones in the story of development from the Nehruvian Model to the Liberalization model. (CSM 20011/300 words)
  2. “The blame for out poor public sector performance can be laid on the way our bureaucracy is structured,”Comment (CSM 2007/200 words)

ANSWERS

11. Challenge – 28/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 28/10/2013 (Paper-II – 2009 questions)

  1. “Bureaucracy developed by the British stifled the village self-rule.” Comment (200 Words)
  2. “There is no basic contradiction between civil service neutrality and civil service activism.” Comment. (200 Words)
  3. Do State Services suffer in comparison with the All India and Central Services? Suggest measures for enhancing the role, competence and impact of State Services. (300 Words)
  4. India has failed to devise a long term strategy for drought management.” Comment (200 Words)

ANSWERS

10. Challenge – 26/10/2013

QUESTIONS:26/10/2013 (Paper II and I )

  1.  What are the two biggest challenges in the coming years for Indian Administration? Justify your position. (200 words)
  2. Piffner point out that the constitution of a country is a plan. Every planning and purposeful activity is preceded by preparation for action. Do you agree with the assessment of Piffner about the constitution? Discuss. (2007 Pakistan Civil Services/ 200 words)

ANSWERS

9. Challenge – 25/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 25/10/2013 (Paper I and II –Techniques of Administrative Improvement)

  1.  The available techniques of administrative improvements(CPM, PERT) are too ‘mechanical’ and ‘simplistic’ to be applied in the real world of governance. Comment. (150 words)
  2.  Examine the role of MGNREGA in improving lower-tier governance in India? (150 words)

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8.  Challenge – 24/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 24/10/2013 (Paper-II – Topic: Significant issues in Indian Administration, Administrative reforms since Independence)

  1. Looking at the state of criminal justice administration, we do not need a Human Rights Commission, but a human rights court. Comment.(200 words)
  2. Broadly in which direction have administrative reforms moved since Independence? Has it changed the situation on ground? (150 words)

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7.  Challenge – 23/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 23/10/2013 [Paper I – Administrative thought]

  1. The ‘Neo’ approach in classical and behavioral theories have brought classist and behaviorist very close to each other. Critically comment.(200 words)
  2.  Weber’s theories were essentially an attempt to ensure social acceptance of  bureaucracy. Do you agree? Discuss. (200 words)

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. Challenge –  22/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 22/10/2013 -[ Paper- I and II TopicComparative Public Administration(CPA), Evolution of Indian Administration)]

  1. The categorization of ‘Balanced’ and ‘Unbalanced’ polities is nothing but an attempt to vindicate futile academic theorisation of Comparative Public Administration. Comment. (200 words)
  2. “The rule of King depends primarily on written orders….”Why did Kautilya favour codification of laws? (CSE 2010/200 words)

5. Challenge –  21/10/2013

QUESTIONS: 21/10/2013 (Paper-I)

  1.  ”Taylor’s Contribution was not a set of general principles for organizing work efficiency, but a set of operating procedures that could be employed in each concrete situation to secure their application.” Comment((2009/ 200 Words)
  2.  ”The Barnard-Simon Theory of Organisation is essentially a theory of motivation.” Comment (2009/200 Words)

4.  Challenge Day-4 (19/10/2013)

QUESTIONS: 19/10/2013 (Paper- II – Union Government and Administration, Civil Service)

  1.  The proliferation of delegated legislation should not pose a problem in the Indian Parliamentary system of government. Critically comment. (200 Words)
  2.  Civil Service neutrality is a fiction. How can any thinking person be neutral? (CSE 2010/20 marks/200 Words)

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3.  Challenge Day-3   (18/10/2013)

QUESTIONS: 18/10/2013 – (Paper-IAdministrative thought -Weber’s bureaucratic model- its critiques and post-Weberian developments)

  1.  E-governance is the final arrival of Max Weber’s iron cage of rationality. Discuss. (CSE 2011/20 marks/200 Words)
  2. In what way is Weber’s ‘legal-rational’ model of bureaucracy seemingly ‘irrational’?  (15 marks/150 words)

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2. Challenge Day – 2 (17/10/2013)

QUESTIONS: 17/10/2013; Paper-I Topic– Introduction (Evolution), Administrative Thinkers(Scientific Management)
  1.  The theoretical evolution of Public Administration is essentially ‘ecological’. Elucidate. (250 Words)
  2.  The criticisms stating Fayol’s principles as ‘cold-blooded engineering’ with no regard for human element seem selective and exaggerated. Critically Comment. (250 Words)

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1.Challenge Day1 (16/10/2013)

QUESTIONS: Day-1 (Paper-I Topic- Introduction (Wilson’s view of Public administration)

  1.  “The field of Public Administration is a field of business.”(Woodrow Wilson) Comment. (CSE 2009/20 marks)
  2. “Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.” Comment. (CSE 2008/ 20 marks)

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  • Q2.“Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.” Comment. (CSE 2008/ 20 marks)

    Administration is not a modern activity. It has been practised since ages, if not studied systematically, as Wilson proposed to do. It was then considered an art and is conspicuous in the writings of Kautilya, Machiavelli and the conduct of German political system.

    Wilson’s writing sparked a debate on a discipline of Public Administration and how it be carried out effectively, efficiently and economically. But, it is found that the Arthashashtra written by Kautilya in 3rd BC was a much detailed and insightful work on the state and its organs. It discusses methodologies, techniques and prescriptions based upon them to make administration efficient, ethical and economic.

    Similarily, Machiavellis The Prince was an equally if not more significant treatise on administration and the duties of the King. Also, the administration practised in Europe in the early 19th century was very efficient. in fact, Wilson even proposed to borrow their techniques if not motives. For, it was a despotic system.

    Thus, there can be little doubt that the concerns and questions Wilson raised in his ‘seminal’ essay “The Study of Administration”, were dealt with historically. However, it is to his credit that he proposed to study, analyse and generalize administrative activity. This was unprecedented and no other writer or practitioner ever even thought of this. His insights on the changing character of the state, which provoked this thought, is remarkable.

    To conclude, it is recognized that the earlier contributions to the field of PA were indeed brilliant. But, their nature and character was more practical than theoretical. The later was proposed by Wilson and thus he is rightly called the Father of PA, as the ‘discipline’ is known today.

    • Asha Goud

      Oops, refer below Aditya for my comment on your answer. 🙂

    • I do agree with your contents. But, then i also acknowledge the remarks of Ms.Asha as for as the scope for argument in her remarks is concerned.. To speak about your argument, i personally cherished your answer, as i have concluded to myself that politics and administration is nothing but dialectical in nature. Chanakya and Machiavelli both have written about political nature of a state as i know little bit about them personally because of my superficial reading on them. However, i’m pretty sure about Chanakya’s over all ideology. And i regret of not being same to Machiavelli.
      It is the corrupt, inefficient and lethargic bureaucracy made Wilson work on dichotomy. Perhaps, he wouldn’t have done so had been the politics was clean then. As such, he is the one who really provided a breakthrough in the field of Public Administration.And there is no exaggeration if he is called “the Father of P.A”

  • Administrations somewhere along the way caters to the needs of everybody in a society. It implies that all type of administrations have to deal with mainly three M’s, viz.,Men, Money, Material. So It is based on this premise, that one can conceptualize the basic necessity of administration. Men with different interests are the part of different organizations that are broadly classified into two types, namely – the public administration and the private administration.

    In the context of Woodrow Wilson’s ‘dichotomy theory’, it has to be understood that at that point of time the Government of America was severely suffering from political – bureaucratic nexus. Each of them were serving their own purposes by helping each other. The general interests of the public administration was alienated substantially. Particularly, the efficiency and economy were subsided due to lethargic attitude of both political and bureaucratic leadership.

    Therefore, it is at this juncture Wilson came out with his seminal work in a Political Quarterly, titled as, The Study of Administration. In which he explicitly emphasized three aspects, that are – ‘politics- administration dichotomy’, ‘science of administration’ and ‘comparative study’. While speaking about Science of Administration he underpinned the need of principles to ensure ‘efficiency and economy’ .

    He knew that business or private administration has, in fact inherits the very features as their motives can be well served only when they are sure of them. Because it is all about profit making process to private bodies. He, however pressed hard for normative values, that also shows how committed he was to the renaissance of public administration to meet public interests.It is, in this occasion he says that, public administration should function as a business.

  • Asha Goud

    Hi Aditya,
    Do you really think Arthashastra and The Prince were treatise on administration, these were more of political documents focussed on The King, and are these comparable to the what Woodrow Wilson advocated.?
    Public administration was studied widely in Europe during same time and was more developed in Europe and even Wilson acknowledged it.
    I think we should discuss here contributions by other scholars like Frank Goodnow who wrote Politics and Administration during the same time.
    I do agree that Wilson indeed laid the stepping stone for Public Administration, however I am not sure about the content of your answer.

    • I didn’t know your optional was Public Administration. 🙂

      Anyway, yes they are treatise on Administration. A part of my opinion flows from Prasad and Prasad: and Rajini Goyal and Arora. Both these books consider Kautilya as an administrative thinker. The book Arthashastra is not only a political document, but also contains personnel recruitment strategies, placement, rules, budgeting, lessons about integrity, planning etc. Machavelli’s book is also considered as a contribution to administration.

      European political and administrative system prior to Wilson’s time is not in the syllabus, so i really have no idea about Frank Goodnow’s writings. They are definitely relevant here. But, the question pointed also to these earlier contributions in essence.

      • Abhishek Pandey

        The Arthshastra or the Prince were not administration centric. Though they contained administrative maxims they were more focused on politics of the day. Hence to call them admn. treatises would be not correct in my opinion.

        • I agree with you Abhishek. But the meaning of politics and administration as we understand today is different from the historical understanding, where both were nearly the same. I have mentioned them because Prasad and Prasad mentions them.

          • godslonelyman

            Chanakya has discussed Public Admin in great detail like Aditya rightly mentioned. But yea, he was not interested in development of Public admin as a separate subject but that doesnt undermine his contribution 2 pub ad

  • kumar deepak

    The public administration and private administration (business) has a lot of similarities at the same time they have differences too. Both public administration and private administration searches for efficiency and effectiveness. In past the scientific management principles, administrative principles and others, now new public management paradigms have depicted the convergence of public administration and business. In the recent time with the coming of concepts like value of public money, entrepreneurial government, contracting out, public private partnership, agency like structure of government department etc. we are moving closer to convergence of public administration and business.
    But there are differences too. With the propagation of new public administration (NPA) paradigm which sought for the equity, value, relevance and change. This means public administration have certain values for the marginalized people of society not only quest for efficiency. The equity and relevance to present socio-economic condition of the country and its people should also be taken care of.
    Thus we can say that the public administration is field of business within its execution(operational) parameter but for the policy formulation and guidelines it has democratic ethos.

  • Dear Kumar
    Your answer is really dynamic as you tried to provide contrast and contradictions of two fields quite well.However, i feel , when it comes to Wilson we need to analyse this particular concept keeping his period in mind.It is crystal clear that he was so much concerned about efficiency and economy which was actually the hall mark of private administrration..And that is the reason he pressed hard for the business type administration.

    • kumar deepak

      Dear Raghavan

      I am really finding it difficult to understand this type of question how to approach. problems are:
      1. Should we remain with the thoughts of thinker mentioned in the question but questions like
      ‘On a more sophisticated plane public choice is
      concerned with “Pareto optimality”, or at least
      with “Pareto improvements”.’ Comment.
      Our normal expectation should be that new
      programs will fail to get off the ground and that,
      at best, they will take considerable time to get
      started. The cards in this world are stacked against
      things happening’ [Pressman and Wildaysky].
      Comment.
      both CSE 2012 problem UPSC is not expecting that we ll know these people’s statement.
      2. The time of these people also we don’t know.

      I want discussion on this. What I understand by this type of question is to answer with all relevant possible paradigms.
      I wish INSIGHT should also suggest for this.

      • Hello Deepak,

        I agree with your argument that one may not know about the thinkers personally.

        One has to understand that we are asked to opine on these statements. And, in this context we must follow an approach similar to yours.

        But, if one knows about the thinkers then answering in the context of their thought framework would fetch extra marks.

        • Dear Kumar
          Our friend Aditya is right in a way. When it comes to not so obvious thinkers we have limitations and ,it is here one has to “react” to the statement, i.e. discussing the statement in the light of our understanding of the subject. But,the hitch is that no one can take Wilson for granted because most of the books have write ups on his historical background, in which, he set in the theory of “dichotomy”. As a matter of fact. dichotomy underpinned by the concepts of “efficiency” & “economy”. And it is in this context, i commented then.

      • Ninika Dhawan

        Q: ‘Our normal expectation should be that new programs will fail to get off the ground and that, at best, they will take considerable time to get started. The cards in this world are stacked against things happening’ [Pressman and Wildavsky]. Comment. 12

        A: Pressman and Wildavasky made the above statement in the context of federal policy that had several participants engaged. In a large population with diverse interests, new programs may often face stumbling blocks of subjective interests. They see the biggest challenge with policy of implementation and hence opine that policy must include goal setting along with actions towards achieving the same so that a causal relationship can be established. In their experience, they have stated that failure of policy especially in the context of a federal structure is due to lack of a top down system of control and communications and provision of resources to do the job. They visualize it more as a problem of co-ordination and linkages between the different departments at the local level.eg. Aadhar programme started in India, faced hurdles from several quarters on grounds of privacy, expenditure, no legitimacy among others things. It implementation had to be largely facilitated through a top down model which if not done would not have reaper the result of 69 crore/690 million cards issued till date.

        p.S- Kinldy evaluate, My approach, dig up the scholars-internet, coaching notes, books, IGNOU (most imp it seems), read what they have to say and then try and compile my own understanding. Helps broaden by perspective through an engaging process

  • Abhishek Pandey

    Friends, I have my own doubts. The question says that the “field of administration is a field of business”.”Now I interpret two different meaning out of it. Firstly, PA is business like. Secondly, PA is a business in itself.

    It is with these perspectives I have approached the question in tow different ways. I would like you to share your opinion on the matter. Further the second approach has various commonalities with the second question of the day. Please feel free to whip me.

    “The field of administration is a field of business.”(Woodrow Wilson). Comment.
    CSM 2009, 20 mks, 200 words.

    Ans. 1 : (In this answer I assume business to mean business)

    Woodrow Wilson was deeply troubled by the prevalence of spoils system in US administration and the concomitant negative effects like inefficiency etc. plaguing the working of the government. It was in this context that he called for initiating administrative reforms to make it more “business like”.

    While urging for initiating reforms, Wilson underscored the importance of developing a science of administration to facilitate the process. Such a science in Wilson’s view would provide a framework for the administrators to work on unpartisan lines and weed out the evils of nepotism and favouritism. This in turn would add to the credibility of the administrative system and build trust in people. A science of administration would also help the administrators from the trouble of “trial and errors” in their working. All this together would make the system efficient and effective akin to a business. For the purpose, Wilson called for divorcing administration from politics and for pursuing the former as a different intellectual discipline, just like business.

    Hence, in pursuit of making the system more efficient and non-partisan, Wilson sought to make administration more business like and removed from the “hurry and strife of politics.”

    Ans. 2: (In this answer I have assumed business to mean a separate line of occupation in itself).

    Public administration as an activity has existed since the inception of society itself. However, till the advent of the nineteenth century it was taken to be a part of the larger political system and was studied as such. It was Woodrow Wilson’s seminal essay “The Study of Administration” that initiated the pursuit of public administration as an independent discipline.

    Woodrow Wilson was distressed by the political system existent at those times which was characterised by the evils of spoils system. Administration was built on patronage lines and was hence inefficient, partisan and had lost all credibility. He therefore underscored the importance of initiating comprehensive administrative reforms.

    Towards this, Wilson called for a divorce of public administration from politics. He saw administration to be a different enterprise from politics. While politics in his scheme was more concerned with laying of policies, administration was responsible for execution of such policies. Such dichotomy was also important because of the emerging complexities in the society that was adding to the responsibilities of the state. The effective fulfilment of the various expectations too required non-partisan and efficient administrative machinery free from political interference. To facilitate emergence of such an administrative system he called for development of a separate science of administration.

    It was therefore Wilson who initiated the study of public administration as an independent, intellectual discipline.

    • Abhishek,

      As the directive is ‘comment’ ,which means opinion, both the approaches are fine. CSE contains ‘subjective’ questions and there are bound to be dissimilarities in approaches as one understands the subject.

      As long as they are within the contours of the discipline and pertinent to the question, it is fine.

      i found both the answers equally good. However, you need to mention how his views changed after publishing his second essay, “The New Meaning of Government”. Here, he considers Administration to be welfare oriented and for this purpose be efficient and effective.

      • Abhishek Pandey

        Where can I learn more about his second essay? Have not come across it in the standard texts..

        • A cursory mention has been made in Prasad and Prasad. I don’t think anything much would be required in this case -just an overview.

  • Abhishek Pandey

    “Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or more eminent contributions made prior to him: Comment

    CSM, 2008, 20 marks, 200 words.

    Public administration as an activity has existed since the inception of society itself. However, till the advent of the nineteenth century it was taken to be a part of the larger political system and was studied as such. It was Woodrow Wilson’s seminal essay “The Study of Administration” that initiated the pursuit of public administration as an independent discipline.

    Various ancient Indian and international texts have written on different attributes of administration. Kautilya, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Confucius, Aristotle and Machiavelli are some of the sources of ancient wisdom for the field of administration. They have highlighted various aspects of the administrative system and thus contributed to its growth. However, in all such writings administrative thought remains undifferentiated from political or other thoughts propounded by such authorities.

    It was Wilson who first called for a divorce of public administration from politics. He saw administration to be a different enterprise from politics. While politics in his scheme was more concerned with laying of policies, administration was responsible for execution of such policies. He was compelled by the needs of administrative reforms to seek a separate intellectual space for administration.

    However, he too based his writings on older administrative thoughts prevalent in Prussia and France. So while he may be called the harbinger of independent administrative studies, it does not belittle the contribution of older authorities.

    • You missed a very important aspect of Wilson’s thinking : studying, analysing and generalising Administration as a science. No thinker ever proposed this. And, it is on these lines that the whole discipline of Pub Ad has been enriched as we know it today. Thus, while others contributed to the field of Public Administration, he contributed to start a separate field of Public Administration. This is why he is called the father of Pub Ad.

  • Asha Goud

    1 .“Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.” Comment. (CSE 2008/ 20 marks)
    A: Woodrow Wilson contributed to the emergence of Public Administration as a distinct field of study by demanding it to be completely disassociated from Political Science. Woodrow Wilson focused on four important dimensions of study of public administration that is Science of Administration, focus on Efficiency, Comparative study and politics administration Dichotomy. These defining criteria had the most significant impact on the future study of Administration.
    It needs to be appreciated here that Public Administration as a activity has been practiced in Europe as an crucial state activity and studied in detail by European scholars. Also Administrative structure along with political structure has been explained in detail by Kautilya in his magnificent work on state administration Arthashastra. Similar perusal of administration is made by Machiavelli in The Prince. However these treatises have prominently focused on The King and his authority. These no where describe administrative activity as an activity independent from politics.
    However It is important here to acknowledge the contribution made by scholars like Frank Goodnow, who advocated Public administration as a separate activity in his book “Politics and Administation”, Richard Elley, Dormon Eaton who were contemporaries of Woodrow Wilson and who advocated reforms in Public Administration but their contribution is rarely discussed.
    Similarly contributions by Prussian and French Scholars are not discussed in detail who were the first to advocate Public administration as execution of political decision and therefore separate from politics. This is acknowledged by Wilson himself.
    Woodrow Wilson’s contribution to the Study of Public Administration is path breaking, however contribution made by other scholars should be highlighted in the same manner.

    2 “The field of Public Administration is a field of business.”(Woodrow Wilson) Comment. (CSE 2009/20 marks)
    A: Any study of public administration must be conducted with respect to the existing social and political condition. There was prevalence so spoils system in USA and administration was highly corrupt, political instrument and inefficient. The resulting disillusionment led Woodrow Wilson to propound his theory of Politics Administration Dichotomy.
    The inefficiency that had become characteristic of administration disturbed Wilson and he therefore advocated focusing on achieving efficiency in Public administration. As private business concerns are focused on achieving goals in the most economic, effective and efficient manner, Wilson visualized Public administration as a separate activity aimed at efficiency, economy and effectiveness. Thus Wilson wished to direct public administration towards professionalism in functioning.
    Like private business that solely is driven in maximizing profits and achieving its goals, Public Administration should be driven towards its goals. Goals should be achieved by adopting a scientific framework of functioning and therefore it should be objective and unbiased.
    Therefore in the given statement, Wilson has attempted to give his view regarding Public administration in a very comprehensive manner, focusing on bringing in efficiency and professionalism of business into Public Administration.

    • Abhishek Pandey

      Your first answer needs to be more organised. The flow is distrubed.. otherwise it includes all relevant points.

      The second answer is good.

    • godslonelyman

      i think first ans is perfect content wise. u are answering the ques 2 the point

  • Peeyush

    The theoretical evolution of Public Administration is essentially ‘ecological’. Elucidate

    The father of public administration Woodrow Wilson recognized the need of “study of public administration” in order to adapt to the changing realities & consequent complex functioning of government.
    Classical Theorist in general & Taylor & Fayol in particular tried to gave the subject a scientific flavor so as to determine one best way of functioning & universal scientific managerial principles. It was necessitated in special context of traditional obsolete practices of rule of thumb & ad hoc responses to the the managerial problems.
    However, fairly mechanistic orientation of these thinkers earned them the wrath of behavioral & human relation thinkers. These thinkers emphasized on the human elements specially after the revelations by “Hawthorne Studies”. Behavioural revolutionists identified the yawning gulf between principles & practice & thus recognized the need for adequate attention to motivation, decision making, team morale & job characteristics among others.
    1st minnowbrook laid the foundation of New Public Administration in order to make it relevant to human cause & prosperity. It advocated relevance,values,social equity, change, participation & client orientation to make the subject more ecologically oriented .
    Later, the growth of comparative studies further reinforced the ecological outlook of the subjects.However the dysfunctional weberian bureaucracy & the wave of liberalization pushed the discipline towards Public Choice Theory & New Public Management.
    Now, the discipline is in the quest of soul searching & is trying to adapt to the sweeping wave of good governance, decentralization & democracy. The efforts are being made to make the discipline relevant to the ecological needs & aspiration while not loosing its identity.

  • 1. “The field of Public Administration is a field of business.”(Woodrow Wilson) Comment. (CSE 2009/20 marks)

    Administration is the most important part of any activity. It encompasses the organisation and management to properly and effectively carry out the tasks in the respective settings. Public Administration is concerned with the activities of Government whereas, Business, in the general sense deals with Private Administration.

    Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration, opines that the field of Public Administration is a field of business. He is of the view which maintains the Politics-Administration Dichotomy, that is politics is the sphere of policymakers and administration is to implement the policies made by them.

    Wilson considers that like business, public administration also strives for efficiency, economy and effectiveness. Both the fields require a certain number of skills like communication, account maintenance, public relations, advertisement etc. Both are similarly organised, they maintain hierarchy, communication channels, structure and most importantly the men, material and money power.

    The scope and activities of public and private administration may differ at the central stage as one works for service with profit and the other works for profit with service. But, as Wilson commented, they maintain many things in common which form the basis for any organisation, and as we see the interdependence of both the fields in the modern era, we can say that Public Administration is a field of Business.

  • 2. “Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.” Comment.

    Public Administration is carried on from centuries in some or the other form according to the respective time, territory and form of government. Many intellectual persons have written or talked about administration as an art, science and profession. Kautilya in ‘Arthashastra’, Machiavelli in ‘The Prince’, and many others like St Auguste, Abul Fazal etc have dealt with the subject.

    The intellectuals before Wilson indeed had talked about administration but not specifically or categorically as Wilson did. The society which progressed from the primitive to feudalism to capitalism did not require and so did not deal with administration as a separate subject of study. It was around the period of Industrial revolution that its scope of activities started to increase from just revenue collection and law & order maintenance.

    At the time when people were thinking about law and governance, Wilson came with his essay “The Study Of Public Administration”, recognizing Administration as a separate field of study and practice. Through his essay he covered various aspects such as democracy, civil service, politics-administration dichotomy, historical and comparative methods of administration, etc.

    Looking at his seminal and great contribution in the discovery and development of the subject, if he is called the Father of Public Administration does not lead to any injustice to the eminent personalities before him, rather it is a gift to those luminaries who contributed in one or other kind to strengthen the politics and administration of their time.

    • awaiting your feedback..

      • Abhishek Pandey

        Fair enough…u could.have.skipped the.society transition phase.and be.more.specific.abt.wilsons.achievement..

  • Gaurav

    @insights… where should I write the answer of day 7. Both the links direct to this page only. Please help.

  • Sherlock Holmes

    @Insight
    Sir the title for Challenge 26 and 27 is wrong. It is mentioned at 26/11/2013 and 27/11/2013 while it should be 14/11/2013 and 15/11/2013

  • Savyasachi

    The concept of accountability has only widened during the last century. Examine. (150 words)

    Romzek And Dubnick defines Public Administration accountability as the means by which public institution and its employees manage diverse expectations generated from within and outside. This broadens the horizon of accountability.

    Classical democratic theorues that held true in earlier years of 20th century does not hold true anymore. That time, the line of accountability was simple – politicians accountable to people, and bureaucrats to politicians. Thus, parliament, elections were the tools. As World Bank observes, historically, accountability was concerned with micro accountability, internal controls, and focus tended to be on inputs.
    With Neo – Rights philosophy, NPM and LPG, and Good Governance, abrupt changes were induced into social and economic arena. There is greater focus on efficiency, productivity and profit. Older administrative structure needs greater changes to tackle the questions of nre requirements of accountability.
    Administrator today are not only accountable to political bosses, but to legislature, judiciary, and citizen themselves, and more so to media. Greater democratisation, decentralisation and participation and rise of Civil Society has brought about this favourable change.
    Today, with RTI, Social Audit, Judicial activism, Citizen Charter, GRM, NGOs, e-Governance, Civil service activism, citizen oversight committees, technological changes, press and education has given rise to informational and argumentative dimensions of accountability.
    A greater demand for ethicality and morality from administrators also is leading them to look within.

  • Siya219

    @Insights,

    You being my virtual guide, my typical day starts with answering ur questions..plz consider continue this initiative.. 🙂 Thank you for all that you have done 🙂 🙂

  • ravi

    sir plz prefer to provide the consolidated ques wid their answers at the end of every month ( pub add) just like ur current events magazine ……
    it would be highly beneficial for 2014 aspirant .

    it will be of great help for us……n to have a record well organise

  • amit undirwade

    Sir first of all lot thanks to u for taking such type of miscellaneous job.
    I want to ask u y u didn’t post questions for public administration from 20/11/2013.

  • amit undirwade

    Sir y u didn’t post questions for public administration from 20/11/2013

    • My Lord, we will investigate and let you know the reasons.

    • Because Mains were nearing by and everyone was busy revising.

      Anyways, please refer to my reply to NIshant below.

  • Nishant

    Hi Sir please start posting the Public Administration questions on daily basis…don’t stop this initiative…..plzz

    • NIshant,

      It would be more beneficial now to thoroughly read and revise the subject. Mains 2014 is more than an year away. If we keep posting questions, we would not be left with quality questions when it matters the most – August to December 2014.

      I hope you understand, Till then, you can write answers to previous year question papers of CSE.

      Thanks.

  • sir plz give the question of pub ad becoz i prepare from here

  • Nikita

    “because of several judicial pronouncements governors in states are no longer viewed as agents of party in power at the central level “.evaluate??

  • Nikita

    could anybody please help me with its answer…..it has to written in 200 words

    • kumar deepak

      i think this should be answered in following way:
      1. introduction- state-cantre relationship and governor, view of constitution assembly on governor role etc.
      how governor acts as agent of centre like appointment of CM in fragmented majority, art- 356 for president rule,dissolution of assembly without exhausting options, giving assent to bills.
      2. supreme court judgement with regard to art-356, dissolution of assembly the famous cases like s.r. bommai vs union of india, similarily sc order in bihar case 2005 etc. then u can also mention the conventions emerging.
      3. here u can discuss legislative relationship view of punchi commission about granting of assent to state bills, then still active politician appointed as governor then reco of sarkaria commission and punchi commission etc.
      4. finally u can conclude with ur own views and suggestions to remove anomalies etc.

      i think to write in 200 words requires little bit extra effort as it will exceed word limit though u can give a try.

  • Mohan

    ” In the globalized public administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves…..” comment. ( 2013 / 150 words )
    The aftermath of LPG witnessed the emergence of globalized public administration. This made the public administration to change according to the developments at the global level.
    But, unfortunately, in the third world countries , where the administrative system is based on their respective colonial administrative set up, the bureaucracy is status-quo oriented and resists change. One of the area where it resists change is hierarchy.
    The continuation of hierarchy is antithetical to the developmental process. It expands the strength of lethargic bureaucracy. In the era of globalization, the role of public administration should be limited to the developmental activities. But the hierarchy encourages red-tapism and as a result the developmental works remain on paper.
    To conclude, in the globalised era, the continuation of hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves.

  • Mohan

    How did traditional public administration resolve a fundamentally irresolvable problem–

    “creating an administration strong enough to be effective but not so strong enough to endanger accountability” ? ( 2013 / 150 words )
    Public administration in any country is based on the principles of rules, hierarchy etc. With the emergence of Development administration as a sub-field in the study of public administration , the traditional administration lost its salience to some extent if not fully.
    This traditional public administration is based on outdated principles. One of such principles is authoritative and directive style of administration. Also, it is status-quo oriented and resists change. Its scope of operations is limited. Further, it believes in centralisation of power.
    However, traditional public administration is effective in the sense that it emphasised economy and efficiency in administration. Also, it does not endanger accountability as it focussed on rules, hierarchy, there by making the lower level officials accountable to the higher authorities.

  • Mohan

    ” Finance commission in India performs the job of statistics aggression.” comment. ( 2013 / 150 words )
    The constitution of India guaranteed establishment of Finance commission through Article 280. Initially, this institution was established as an agency to distribute the taxes and grants in aid between the centre and the states.
    But, the emergence of its rival institution i.e., planning commission made it a mere constitutional body in distributing the taxes between the centre and states. The members of the planning commission being former civil servants and reputed political masters, made the central government tune to the recommendations of planning commission.
    Moreover, in recent decades, it transformed into sole custodian of the centre-state financial relations encroaching into the domain of Finance commission i.e., distribution of discretionary funds to the states, share of central taxes etc.
    To sum up, the emergence of an extra constitutional body ( planning commission ) made the constitutional body ( Finance commission ) a mere statistics aggregator in the domain of finance.

  • Mohan

    ” The second generation reforms in the panchayati Raj institutions have changed panchayats from an agency of development at local level into a political institution.” Discuss. ( 2013 / 150 words )
    After independence many state governments in India established PRIs to give good governance to the local people. Unfortunately this did not happened due to many reasons viz., bureaucratic hurdles, political gains, lack of financial resources etc. This necessitated a common and comprehensive PRI Act across India. The 73rd constitutional Amendment Act of 1992 changed the scenario that persisted.
    This Act guaranteed free and fair elections to PRIs , transfer of grants in aid, share in central and state taxes etc. Over a period of time, the local PRIs transformed themselves into competing political institutions. Further, the emergence of a Gram sabhas made the local political leaders and lower rung of bureaucracy accountable on their part to the people. Moreover, the reservation of women in PRIs made them, free from gender bias in contesting elections.
    The second generation reforms unfortunately made this PRIs petty political institutions for capturing power. With the result there emerged factionalism and groupism in the local politics neglecting the developmental activities. However, in recent decades the situation has been changing as a result of Rural developmental programmes allaying PRIs in giving good governance as a whole to the rural India.

    • kumar deepak

      dear mohan
      i think 1st generation reform: balwant mehta committe.
      2nd generation : ashok mehta committee
      3rd generation : 73rd and 74th amendment.
      intention for effective community development program and other development related.
      the recommendation regarding election based on party needs special mention.
      then competitive politics mla vs jila parishad etc.
      local leader creation.
      not effective development agenda, election not hold, funds not given.
      background of 73rd amendment.

      i think this should be in answer.

      • Mohan

        my dear friend……..refer the following link….

        Constitution amendment for Panchayat Raj reforms

        PTI Apr 13, 2002, 04.25pm IST

        panaji: a new constitutional amendment would be brought to carry out next phase of reforms in panchayat raj for devolution of powers at the grassroot level, rural development minister m venkaiah naidu said on saturday. “new constitution amendment will be brought to bring in second generation of panchayat raj reforms,” naidu told a news conference after the bjp national executive adopted its economic resolution on the second day of the three-day meeting. naidu said by december end this year, the government plans to complete consitutional mandate of reforming the panchayat through, “decentralisation of powers, devolution of fund and development.” while all states have set up election and finance commission as per the provisions made under the 73rd and 74th constitution amendment, he said several states were yet to establish district planning commission, gram sabhas and social audit. only 11 states have set up district planning commission, he said, adding efforts would be made to ensure remaining states established it by december end.

      • Mohan

        first generation reforms refer to 73 rd constitutional amendment and the first twelve years that succeeding it with the central theme being creation and empowerment of strong panchayats…
        second generation reforms would be characterised by a focus on building mechanisms for increased participation of the people in decision making, strengthening the fiscal mechanisms that fuel the functioning of panchayats and strengthening administrative mechanisms that enhance the efficiency and capabilities of panchayats…

        • kumar deepak

          ok. it might be correct. but in books and even some hand written class notes of coaching say this.
          http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=87004

          The Minister of Panchayati Raj Shri V. Kishore Chandra Deo has said that in 1957, a Committee under the Chairmanship of Balwantrai Mehta on Community Development Projects and National Extension Services recommended that public participation in community works should be organized through statutory representative bodies. Subsequently, the NDC endorsed the basic principles of democratic decentralization enunciated in the report and laid on States the duty of working out the structures suitable to each States.

          Replying to a question in Rajya Sabha today, he said, the Ashok Mehta Committee Report of 1978 recommended that Panchayati Raj may be included in the Constitution. In keeping with the spirit of the Ashok Mehta Committee recommendations, some states, including West Bengal, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, revisited their respective Panchayati Raj systems and undertook several new initiatives to endow local bodies with more powers, leading to these initiatives being cited as “second generation” panchayats, which served as a prime inspiration and example for subsequent reform i.e. Constitution (Seventy Third Amendment) Act, 1992 which came into force on 24th April, 1993.

          Shri Deo said, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj have constituted an Expert Committee to examine how Panchayats could be leveraged for more efficient delivery of public goods and services under the Chairmanship of Shri Mani Shankar Aiyar, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha).

          in question it seems second generation reform have been completed. no clue about how panchyat not development institution instead only political.that’s why i thought this.

          still don’t know the exact answer.

  • Mohan

    ” civil service neutrality is founded on the application of the principles of Rule of Law.” comment ( 2013/ 150 words )
    India inherited the rule bound and service ridden bureaucracy that is neutral to politics and based on the concept of Rule of Law. Rule of law implies that no one is above the law including the highest government functionaries.
    In order to make civil service tune to nation building activities and developmental activities the framers of constitution envisaged certain privileges to civil servants in Articles 311, 312. Unfortunately, with the passage of time civil service has taken its own course to the old colonial mentality taking advantage of loopholes in the provisions of constitution.
    Further, in the recent decades there is a increase in criminalisation of politics and politicisation of higher civil services. With the result, civil service became an agency above the rule of law and it disturbed the civil service neutrality to some extent if not fully.
    However, the organs of the Indian state from time to time kept a check on the erosion of neutrality. The very recent judgement of SC to insulate civil servants from political pressures will go a long way in furthering civil service neutrality.

    • kumar deepak

      i think this question is basically about civil servent responsible to law nothing else.also how equality be4 law not hampered by restricting certain rights of civil servant like political etc.
      permanent component provide stability to govt. etc.
      then how in recent yr committed cs vs neutral cs debate.
      finally suggestion and reco of arc or other committee.
      what u think if any can be written.

      • Mohan

        I agree with u that a civil servant is responsible to law……..but I think question required to explain the other side of the coin i.e., how this civil service neutrality is affected by various factors which resulted in erosion of the commitment of civil servant to rule of law….

    • rukmini

      I think the crux of the answer should be how civil servants twists the principles of “rule of law” in its application.Here neutrality and APPLICATION of rule of law is underlined. This is what I feel,writing principles of rule of law and neutrality will not fetch more marks.
      Articles are rightly mentioned by you.

  • Mohan

    friends……..please review my answers…..I have written this year questions….im appearing for 201 exam……..

  • Mohan

    2014 exam…

  • Girija h

    sir when will u start sociology answer writing challenge

  • mithun

    “..it would appear that any definition of this field [Public Administration] would be either so encompassing as to call forth the wrath or ridicule of others, or so limiting as to stultify its own disciples.” Mosher. Critically comment.
    Public Administration in larger sense deals with the management and distribution of resources and is also involved in managing distribution of goods and services from government to public. Even though it appears to be showing anger of others and giving them same set of definitions repeatedly, it is in larger sense and for their development.
    The decisions in the public administration are taken by an administrative man, who defines every conflict resolution such that it has majority acceptance. Good governance is of providing effective service delivery mechanism to the people through participation, responsiveness, accountability; consensus oriented etc. the discipline of pub. Ad is confined to its own area of action. But there are some situations where the scope extends to other areas for the welfare and development of public.
    Although definitions in the field of pub. Ad appears to be stultifying to its own disciplines and call forth the wrath of others, the definitions are dynamic and still evolving to make the field more scientific and to attain larger acceptance.

  • @insights
    please keep the current dated topic on the top…
    its highly inconvenient everytime one has to scroll down big time.. for the current topic… pls have it in the reverse way

    • DG

      u can press end button on your laptop to reach the end of the page

  • ratan

    please keep posting pub ad questions. @insights @aditya @akand @all need help. please post the questions. pubad is the most popular optional thsi should be the last one to stop. please post questions.

    • Manmohan

      yes right…………I have already put mail to insights to restart Public adm writing challenge……………….

  • VKN

    ादद सोमे ॅुेसतिोनस ोन ा रेगुलार बासिस।।।पलेासे िनसिगहत तेाम।। 🙁

  • mohan

    friends…….from two days there is no Public adm question……..so im here typing a question……interested can answer………..

    TOPIC : BUREAUCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT

    ” In the era of LPG, bureaucracy seems to be less bureaucratic and more development oriented “. Analyse the statement with reference to the Indian context. ( 200 words ).

    • rukmini

      Since 1991,LPG reforms have caused sea changes in the structural and procedural attributes of administrative bodies and bureaucracy.
      LPG has affected bureaucracy in two mains ways:
      1)Scope of administration and
      2)Character/form of administration
      A comparative view will throw light upon the evolved bureaucracy after LPG
      as follows:
      PRE-LPG POST-LPG
      -Inward looking with less global – Outward looking with more
      commitments global commitments
      -Resisted to major changes – Desires innovation
      -eg.Five year plan before LPG,more importance to physical and tangible attributes while after LPG,in five year plan more importance to intangible and qualitative aspects.
      Conclusion: According to Riggs,as prismatic society moves towards development,there is functional specificity ,just like that bureaucratic machinery in India has acquired ‘development’ as one of the specific function.
      The ‘caged parrot’ of administration was set free to undertake a greater economical and social change intune with requirement of time and LPG module.

      • mohan

        nice thoughts……..I think u didn’t wrote full answer………im here typing my answer……do review……….

      • mohan

        nice thoughts……do review mine…….

      • mohan

        Bureaucracy is an instrument of state which implements the policies of the government. After independence the bureaucracy became an institution in itself and wielded more power. This made the bureaucracy apathetic towards the concerns of the people.
        However, the retreat of the state in 1990s compelled bureaucracy to mend its colonial mentality and work for all round development of people. The way it changed its course towards working for a more inclusive society has been magnificent.
        The consistent competition from the private sector changed the functioning of bureaucracy, as can be seen from the efficient working of PSUs after liberalisation on par with private enterprises.
        The proliferation of e-governance gave an impetus for enhancing the transparency and accountability on the part of bureaucracy. Now-a-days, the bureaucracy is thinking of economy and efficiency in its functioning . Moreover, the emergence of development administration in the field of public administration attracted the bureaucracy to embrace its ideals and become more development oriented.
        The way the bureaucracy implemented the development programmes indicates that it has embraced development in its psyche. This can result in ushering in of good governance.

        • rukmini

          nice answer….but do you think the analysis is complete?

          • mohan

            I should have included more points here………anyways thanks for your review…….

    • mohan

      Article 44 of the Indian constitution envisages the establishment of uniform civil code. But, since independence for one reason or the other, it has taken a back seat because of the provocation of communal feelings by vested groups.
      Many among the minority communities feel that the implementation of uniform civil code may burry their religious practices and establish the procedures and practices of majority communities. But, in reality this is not the case. The intention behind the uniform civil code is to weed out the obsolete and discriminate practices of the respective religious laws and bring these backward communities to the mainstream, there by paving way for their overall development.
      However, taking advantage of the communal fears on the part of minority segments , the fundamentalists polarised and politicised this issue and blocked uniform civil code Bill from becoming a law. This acted as a major hurdle for the uplift of these communities. Hence, it is high time to debate the intention behind the novel code which is incorporated in the constitution but not yet implemented and allay the fears among minorities.

  • rukmini

    Q.Civil service neutrality is founded on the application of the principles of rule of law.
    A. “Rule of law” basically means:
    a.Law should govern people and not individual government officials.
    b.Everyone is subject to the law including the law makers themselves.
    Rule of law becomes baseless when its application is undertaken superficially thus giving just a ‘legal framework’ which is law compliant but which misses the real procedural attributes or guidelines.
    The neutrality of civil servant comes to test while making implementation of policies or decision making which should not only be in tandem with the principles of rule of law but also rightful application of these principles during:
    1.Exercise of discretion(where maximum scope for being non-neutral exists)
    2.Punitive functions(civil servant should not consider himself above law,he/she is equally subjugated to law)
    Thus,neutrality is inherently related to application of principles of rule of law.

  • mohan

    nice answer rukmini ……. 6/10…………keep writing

    • mohan

      if possible review my answers written above………I think I have written that questions in January………..they are 2013 Mains questions…..

    • rukmini

      Thanks Mohan. I will try my best.Switched to pub.ad from geography:)

  • mohan

    please review

  • mohan

    wow….it worked………..thanks insights for this wonderful initiative……

    • Glad that it is working! Your upload looks clean. Keep it up.

  • rukmini

    no new questions?..please post few questions insights..

  • arun lad

    sir
    send me usefull information for preparation for upsc

  • SANU

    can i use pointwise answer in mains

  • siri

    sir, can u provide all the challenges or questions of public administration in a pdf so that i can take copies for my writing practise,or else can u send to my mail id.

  • Ninika Dhawan

    Dear Insights,

    Is it possible to host an open discussion page for Previous year questions, where anyone interested can write their response and can also be searched out later. I face this challenge while answering the questions, that I wish to get more perspective on the same. Also, with one’s schedule gets difficult to cope with the daily answer writing challenges eg. I am doing Paper II and I concurrently therefore have to prioritize which ones to attempt in a day.

    For Starters, I would like perspective on this question, anyone feel free to give feedback

    Q: LSG in India is the interplay of several factors- historical, ideological and administrative. Critically examine these factors (30/2012)

    A: Local Self Government is influenced by several factors. The institution of LSG is not a modern development and has infact existed from time immemorial. There is written evidence of a LSG in the time of the Cholas. In the tribal societies also across the country a local form of governance has been in place through which they solve their local disputes, management of the natural resources and have customary norms by which they govern themselves. In the modern democratic state, a standard approach of a Local Self Government design has been applied across the country, however in many cases it has come in conflict with the traditional institutions. For the same the Constitution also allows for traditional structures like under Schedule VI areas and Panchayat Extension in Schedule V areas with greater autonomy.
    The Ideological factor is one that states that LSG must function as independent republics. The idea propounded by Gandhiji of Gramswaraj, where freedom came from the individual which was further manifest in the Village/Gram and further outwards with no concept of the State. On the other hand the Indian Polity designed federalism as two tier structure with the Centre and the State and only in 1993 did it formalize the third tier in the Constitution. The self governance of the Local bodies has become a competing ground for State’s to demand autonomy and actually see a strong LSG as a threat to themselves. This has led to different variations of LSG being formed across the country and there is constant demand for greater devolution of powers to LSG’s.
    Administrative: Despite being enshrined in the Constitution the LSG are subject to the legislations designed by the respective States. Also having elected representatives, they must be able to yield greater power, yet the constant resistance shown by the traditional bureaucracy at the grassroots also impedes their growth.
    At all three levels, there needs to be an acceptance of the importance of the LSG and greater empowerment of traditional structures with necessary capacity building to meet the needs of evolving polity in a globalized world. The State’s must facilitate bottom up planning of LSG’s which must reflect in State level plans. It is not a State v/s Local debate, rather a need to see the local as its constituent. Administratively the Bureaucracy must adopt the role of a facilitator rather than an obstruction to the empowerment of the LSG. A Model LSG must be adopted by the Union government for greater devolution of powers to LSG and State’s must enact on those lines. A specialized LSG cadre must be developed so that they can provide secretarial assistance to LSG like in the case of State and Union Government. The role and nature of LSG is constantly evolving and the above stated factors must be harnessed for it to truly becoming a self governing institution.

  • Sharan Basavaraj

    hi insights,
    it wud be wonderful if you cud upload the compliation of all these Q&A in a similar manner as the gs questions. if it is possible kindly do so thank you .
    regards,
    sharan
    good job boys !! 🙂

  • Nikhil

    hello friends,
    I m following these pub ad questions, but I dont see any activity here, is there anybody else active?
    for pub ad, these around 140 questions are really a good source. so anybody there to discuss above questions on their respective pages?
    kindly respond.

  • Thakshu…!

    Sir may i get these entire questions as archive???

  • BaaHuBali eNTERs

    Vinay Sir – a tribute to this platform
    refer https://raghavprasadkothari.wo… for pub ad comprehensive strategy, hope helps you!!

  • BaaHuBali eNTERs

    in fact, i was then present by two identities – M.S.Raghavan & prasadraghuprasad…..my comments are here below..

  • Kumar Rohit

    Dear Insight,

    Requesting you to please upload the public administration compilation for questions posted in 2014.
    It will be a great help for us.

    Regards…
    Rohit

  • Puneet

    @INSIGHTS…Kindly upload the monthly compilations for Public administration.
    Thanks

  • Phaalguni

    friends, i want to make a small group of cse aspirants who:
    1.followers of insight
    2.have Public Admin as optional
    3. not beginners but have given atleast one attempt.

  • Aj

    ‘Man’s motives … in different subparts of the same. organization may be different’ [Edgar Schein]

    can anyone address this question please??

  • archi

    koi meri bhi help kar do yr…my optional is also pub ad..i hv read the whole syllabus…now what to do…i dont know how to start answer writing practice…im totally confused….:(

    • Mahantesh S P

      start writing the answers by taking previous year question papers….read one topic n write answers for the questions asked from that topic….get them evaluated from experts….it helps a lot…good luck..

    • Kevin

      Give me your mail ID! Ill send you the whole plan