SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 NOVEMBER 2018

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 NOVEMBER 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


Topic- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) The paucity of health infrastructure at the cutting edge level will be the biggest stumbling block for POSHAN scheme. Discuss.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The poor performance of India on nutrition parameters has been a source of much charging for the country and off late Global Nutrition Reports erc established what we already knew. In this backdrop, there are certain challenges which POSHAN scheme needs to overcome to achieve its aims. The article highlights those challenges which will help you build a critical perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what do we understand by health infrastructure at cutting edge level and how they might turn out to be the biggest stumbling block for POSHAN scheme. Thereafter, we need to discuss the other potential challenges that the scheme faces. Finally, we need to end on a hopeful vision as to how these obstacles can be overcome.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain POSHAN scheme.

Body

  • Explain what the question means when it uses the term that paucity of health infrastructure will be an obstacle. here discuss about the challenges faced by Anganwadi centres and workers
  • Examine whether there are other challenges also that the scheme will possibly face such as that there is much left to do in terms of achieving universalization of coverage and advanced service delivery
  • Thereafter, discuss the ways in which these challenges can be addressed

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of tackling the problems of under/malnutrition and discuss the way forward.

Background:-

  • India has historically fared poorly on child nutrition indicators and has been plagued by periodical waves of malnutrition-related deaths in tribal areas. 
  • With 17 per cent of the world’s population, India is home to a quarter of the world’s hungry. The dismal health of Indian women and children is primarily due to lack of food security. 

Poshan Abhiyan :-

  • National Nutrition Mission, launched recently now christened POSHAN Abhiyaan aims to drastically reduce the prevailing high incidence of malnutrition, stunted growth and anaemia.
  • The intention is to do this through convergence, mass movements and leveraging technology.
  • Anganwadi workers (AWWs) are required to feed in details of the beneficiaries and monitor their growth in real time during pregnancy, as well as height and weight of the child once born, in the mobile phones given to them and follow up with SMS alerts to those who are at risk.
  • It is to ensure that malnutrition doesn’t affect children’s cognitive development or physical growth.
  • The initiative seeks to reduce the level of stunting, undernutrition and low birth weight by 2% each, and anaemia by 3%.
  • The programme aims to ensure service delivery and interventions by use of technology, behavioural change and lays down specific targets to be achieved over the next few years. 
  • To ensure a holistic approach, all 36 states/UTs and districts will be covered in a phased manner. More than 10 crore people will be benefitted by this programme. 
  • Ministry of Women and Child Development is the nodal ministry for anchoring overall 

How POSHAN abhiyan tackles malnutrition:-

  • Complete approach towards malnutrition:-
    • The programme through use of technology, a targeted approach and convergence strives to reduce the level of stunting, under-nutrition, anaemia and low birth weight in children, also focus on adolescent girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers, thus holistically addressing malnutrition. 
  • It targets to reduce level of under-nutrition and other related problems by ensuring convergence of various nutrition related schemes and provide performance based incentives to states and community nutrition and health workers, facilitating a focus on results.
  • It will monitor and review implementation of all such schemes and utilize existing structural arrangements of line ministries wherever available.
  • Its large component involves gradual scaling-up of the interventions supported by ongoing World Bank assisted Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Project (ISSNIP) to all districts in the country by 2022.
  • Union Government has signed $200 million loan agreement with World Bank for National Nutrition Mission (POSHAN Abhiyaan) for 315 districts across all states and union territories.
    • The World Bank loan will be used for improving coverage and quality of ICDS nutrition services to pregnant and lactating women and children under 3 years of age.
    • It will be also used for project in improving skills and capacities of ICDS staff and community nutrition workers, instituting mechanisms of community mobilization and behaviour change communication, strengthening systems of citizen engagement and grievance redress.
    • It will be also used for establishing mobile technology based tools for improved monitoring and management of services for better outreach to beneficiaries during critical 1,000 day window for nutrition impact.
  • POSHAN Convergence Matrix looks at deploying a multi-pronged approach to mobilise the masses towards creating a nutritionally aware society. 
  • Community based events at anganwadi centres to engage the beneficiaries and their families towards nutritional awareness; sustained mass media, multimedia, outdoor campaigns; mobilisation of all frontline functionaries; SHGs and volunteers towards nutrition are the methods to be adopted. The aim is to generate a Jan Andolan towards Nutrition
  • Thus the POSHAN Abhiyan is to bring all of us together, put accountability and responsibilities on all stakeholders to help the country accomplish its desired potential in terms of its demographic dividend. 

However, certain fundamental issues need fixing for the programme to be successfully implemented:-

  • Anganwadi centres :-
    • Anganwadi centres(AWC) lack basic amenities and face infrastructure problems. Around 24% of them lacked their own building and operated from small rented premises. The cumulative effect was that children were forced into cramped, poorly lit and unhygienic spaces, often in searing heat.
    • Administrative duties like organizing functions, and conducting exams and surveys distracted them from their core health and nutrition responsibilities. Thus, overburdened with work, undervalued and underpaid, Anganwadi women have become demotivated and demoralized.
  • Despite improvements, there is still much left to do in terms of achieving universalization of coverage and advanced service delivery.
    • A 2015 evaluation carried out by NITI Aayog had found that over 24% of the AWCs surveyed maintained poor records
  • Technology constraints :-
    • Information and communications technology-enabled real time monitoring (ICT-RTM) has been rolled out in POSHAN Abhiyaan districts. The programme will be ineffective due to the limited capacities of AWCs to handle smartphones owing to their lack of technological literacy.
  • Technical issues :-
    • This is compounded by technical issues like slow servers and data deletion problems, resulting in irregular and improper recording of growth data of children.
  • Financial constraints:-
    • Despite their indispensability, nearly 40% of Anganwadi women had to use their personal money to run the AWCs, 35% of them complained of delayed payments .

o    Many schemes in India, including those tackling malnutrition, fails because states do not utilise funds allocated for the scheme. Although the states under will be provided with funds and technology for the new nutrition scheme, the effective use of these funds cannot be guaranteed.

·         Possible problems with implementation

o    The scheme provides hope that the problems arising due to malnutrition could be curbed in the next three years. However, this will only occur with effective implementation of the schemes that are aimed at tackling the problem.

·         Issues with monitoring:-

o    The recent scheme merely establishes a real-time monitoring system for the schemes that are currently in place. A large number of these schemes have been in existence for over a decade, and yet have failed to reduce malnutrition in India significantly.

o     A monitoring system would indeed help in the better implementation of these schemes on the grass-root level. However, it will not solve the pre-existing problems in those schemes which make them ineffective.

·         The scheme however is most likely to suffer from the same implementation defects as the previous schemes. The government has however, set very ambitious goals to be achieved, which are unlikely to be met in merely three years.

Way forward:-

  • Strategy of actively involving panchayatleaders in construction of AWCs and improvement in the quality of village health sanitation and nutrition, will make POSHAN Abhiyaan more effective
  • Further, if the government vests more powers in the district administration to fill vacant posts in AWCs, it would be a significant step towards overcoming the problem of shortage of staff. This is especially so at the supervisory level.
  • Comprehensive periodical and refresher training of AWWs, especially when it comes to usage of tablets for monitoring growth among malnourished children and high risk pregnant mothers, is crucial.
  • Further, supply of iron/folic acid tablets, allotment of ‘take-home rations’ and supplementary nutrition needs to be regular.
  • Supply side investments need to be complemented with the enhancement of the traditionally weak demand for health and nutrition services.
  • Package of basic measures like including programmes to encourage mothers to exclusively breastfeed their children for up to six months, fortifying basic foods with essential minerals and vitamins, and increased cash transfers with payments targeted at the poorest families can turn the tide.
  • Universal access to infant and young childcare, including ICDS and crèches, provisions to provide biannual critical nutrient supplements and programmes aimed at deworming children need to be implemented effectively.

Topic – Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2) Government litigation places a huge burden on the citizens of India and there is a need for India to  take inspiration from other model litigant countries in this respect.(250 words)

Economictimes

Reference

The hindu

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  volume of government litigation out of all the litigation cases in the country’s courts. E.g According to the Ministry of Law and Justice, government departments are a party to around “46 percent” of court cases.

Body-

  1. Discuss how such a large volume of litigations places a burden on the citizens of India. E.g mention that it costs huge public funds to pursue such huge number of litigations; the number and nature of writ petitions filed before a High Court are indicative of the extent of friction between citizens and the government; it gives an idea about the violation of individuals’ rights, breach of contracts and abdication of obligations on part of the state etc.
  2. Discuss about the litigation models from other countries, which should be adopted in India. E.g discuss the French litigation model; mention that Brown & Garner have cleared the position of law in the French system in respect of government liability in the following words: “The activity of the state is carried on in the interest of the entire community; the burden that it entails should not weigh more heavily on some than on others. If then state action results in individual damage to particular citizens, the state should make redress, whether or not there be a fault committed by the public officers concerned. The state is, in some ways, an insurer of what is often called social risk etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • According to the Ministry of Law and Justice, government departments are a party to around 46 percent of court cases
  • Seeking to reduce the number of cases in which it is a party, the government may not approach the Supreme Courtagainst high court orders where the financial implication is less than Rs 50 lakh.

Why government is the biggest litigant:-

  • Public vs government:-
    • Data for the year 2016 show that writ petitions constitute nearly 60% of all fresh cases filedbefore the Karnataka High Court.
    • Further, a study of the respondent profile of writ petitions filed over five years (2012-16) shows that nearly 80% of them are filed against a combination of the State Government; parastatal agencies.
  • Various government departments prefer to settle their disputes in courtsand that there was a lack of coordination between them.
  • There exists no mechanism to deal with these acts of the government.
    • The draft National Litigation Policy which seeks to address the issue through a multi-pronged strategy appears to have been lost in oblivionafter being passed by the committee of secretaries.
  • The tendency of the government to automatically make appeal for the 
    decisions adversary to it and then pursue this litigation relentlessly all the way to the highest reachable judicial system of courts. 

    • In its 1988 report, the Law Commission of India cited “utter indifference and callousness bordering on vendetta” as reasons for the government pursuing “tortuous litigation” against its employees and retired persons.
  • Also the purpose and objective of Section 80 of the CPC was to develop a system which gave the government time to settle disputes out of court, but this rarely happens.

Consequences:-

  • The fact that so many Indian citizens have grievances against the State is a consequence of poor governance.
  • This is responsible for nearly half of the three crore cases pending in courts across the country.
    • The cases which can  easily resolved through internal arbitration especially within the departments also go to courts increasing the burden on courts.
    • Every case filed irrespective of merits is burdening the judiciary, costing the exchequer and increasing the pendency of case.
  • Government litigation crowds out the private citizen from the court system.
  • People lose trust in government apparatus when government itself is the highest litigant.

Solutions needed:-

  • International examples:-
    • Inspiration has to be taken from other countries who are following a model approach toward government ligation. 
      • Mainly France, which has effectively achieved a system dealing with government litigation 
      • A distinction between service liability and personal liability is clearly established and the government carries out state activities in the interest of the entire community offering redress even in case where the government’s fault is not proved.
    • Multi-pronged approach needs to be adopted to tackle the issue of government litigation depending on the kind of litigation.
      • For example, to reduce writ petitions filed under service and labour classifications, the state must put in place robust internal dispute resolution mechanisms within each departmentwhich inspire confidence in its workers as a means of addressing their grievances against the management.
      • To reduce the incidence of writ petitions related to land, the state must either ensure that quasi-judicial authorities are judicially trained or create a separate class of judicial officers to discharge quasi-judicial functions.
    • What is needed is an implementable action plan to ensure that citizens are not forced to file cases against the government and its agencies in the first placThis will require a relook at the functioning of litigation-prone departments and formulating solutions unique to each department.
    • The draft litigation policywould take
      • preventive measures to reduce the filing of new cases by prescribing a procedure to properly deal with them
      • extend the benefit to similarly placed people and avoid litigation between government departments and PSUs through intervention of empowered agencies
      • Restrict appeals to minimum by careful scrutiny of the implications of the judgment and make appeal an exception unless it affects policy of the government.
    • The government’s decision to introduce arbitration and mediation clauses in work contracts of its staff will not only relieve the courts
    • The centre government is formulating its own policy which would include measures such as appointment of officers to closely scrutinize whether a matter is worth litigating, and encourage resolving disputes outside of courts. This needs to be passed quickly.

Topic–  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability,

3) India recently slipped to number 6 in global RTI rankings despite the RTI statute in India remaining the same along with its legal framework. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the slip in India’s global RTI ratings from no. 2 in 2011 to no. 6 in 2018.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the nature of the index. E.g global RTI ratings is a programme founded by the Centre for Law and Democracy (CLD), a Canada-based non-governmental organisation, along with Access Info Europe; he global RTI rating is a system for assessing the strength of the legal framework for guaranteeing the right to information in a given country. It is, however, limited to measuring the legal framework only and does not gauge the quality of implementation etc.
  2. Discuss why India has slipped to a lower position. E.g The seventh indicator is the non-exclusion of executive and administrative units like ministries, local bodies, police, armed forces and bodies controlled or owned by the above. Our public authority definition covered these aspects, but CLD says that jurisdiction exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and broad exemption to 18 bodies under Section 24 reduced India’s points; Legal protections against imposing sanctions on those who, in good faith, release information which discloses wrongdoing (whistleblowers) is criterion 53. The rating agency maintains that in India there are no such protections, while Afghanistan and Serbia do have them. Section 21 of the Indian RTI Act says, “No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done under this Act or any rule made thereunder”. This gives immunity to all persons who give information under this Act. But this is ignored etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • In the recent global RTI ratings in a programme founded by the Centre for Law and Democracy (CLD), India has slipped a rung further this year to the sixth position.
  • Ironically, India ranks lower than smaller nations like Afghanistan which adopted the RTI later than India
  • Out of the 61 indicators, there are nine indicator categories under which India’s points have been downgraded.

RTI did wonders in India :-

  • Ever since its adoption in 2005, in more than a decade, it has had far-reaching consequences on the governance of the country. It played a very crucial role in highlighting several scams and has helped bring about accountability and transparency in the governance of the country.

Why did India’s rank slip :-

  • Faulty implementation:-
    • India lags behind smaller countries mostly because of the negligent and faulty implementation of the law.
    • According to Transparency International India, which carried out the survey, the total numberof RTI pleas received during 2005-16 were 2,43,94,951 and during the same period, the number of second appeals filed to the CIC were 18.5 lakh.
  • Shortage of staff:-
    • There is an increasing vacancy in multiple state information commissions including the CIC over 30.8 per cent or 48 out of total 156 posts are vacant for information commissioners at the Union and state level.
    • Only 12 states have filled all posts like state chief information commissioners and information commissioners in their commission, leading to no vacancy.
    • No state chief information commissioners have been appointed for Andhra Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Nagaland.
  • Digitisation issues:-
    • Despite a push for digitisation by the government, most states are yet to make RTI accessible online.
    • For instance, only 11 out of a total of 29 states have provisions for online appeals/complaints.
    • Also, only 10 (out of total 29) have updated their annual reports.
  • Lack of information sharing with citizens:-
    • In India there has been a tendency to decline giving information due to which, between 2005 and 2016, more than 18 lakh people had to knock on the door of the information commissions for the second appeal.
  • Many institutions including the CBI in India are still not within the purview of RTI Act. Information is withheld under the garb of confidentiality and privacy, even in those matters that in no way violates national security or an individual’s privacy.
  • Latest findings:-
    • The seventh indicator is the non-exclusion of executive and administrative units .Our public authority definition covered these aspects, but the study says that jurisdiction exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and broad exemption to 18 bodies under Section 24 reduced India’s points
    • Legal protections against imposing sanctions on those who, in good faith, release information which discloses wrongdoing (whistleblowers) is criterion 53.
    • The rating agency maintains that in India there are no such protections, while Afghanistan and Serbia do have them.
    • Section 21 of the Indian RTI Act gives immunity to all persons who give information under this Act. But this is ignored .
  • Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2018 empowers the Central government to decide the tenure, salaries, allowances and other terms of service of information commissioners at the Centre and states.
    • Currently, their salaries and tenures are statutorily protected and are at par with those of the Chief Election Commissioner and election commissioners.
    • RTI activists and Opposition parties have been expressing their strong reservation against the proposed amendments.

Conclusion:-

  • Due to lack of political will, the RTI Act is not being implemented in letter and spirit. To empower the legislative framework is the foremost responsibility of the government, but this can only be ensured when political parties and citizens are guarded and are constantly pushing the government to not dilute such a citizen-empowering law

General Studies – 3


Topic– Land reforms in India.

4) What were the objectives of land reforms in independent india. Discuss. Also Discuss why those reforms have failed to achieve the desired results.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  land reforms done in post-independent India. E.g The Indian Government was committed to land reforms and consequently laws were passed by all the State Governments during the Fifties with the avowed aim of abolishing landlordism, distributing land through imposition of ceilings, protection of tenants and consolidation of land-holdings. One of the significant achievements of these acts was the abolition of absentee landlordism in several parts of India.

Body-

  1. Discuss the objectives of land reforms. E.g (1) to enhance the productivity of land by improving the economic conditions of farmers and tenants so that they may have the interest to invest in and improve agriculture, (2) to ensure distributive justice and to create an egalitarian society by eliminating all forms of exploitation, (3) to create a system of peasant proprietorship with the motto of land to the tiller and (4) to transfer the incomes of the few to many so that the demand for consumer goods would be created.
  2. Discuss why land reforms could not achieve the desired results. E.g The act did not benefit sub-tenants and sharecroppers, as they did not have occupancy rights on the land they cultivated; Intermediaries were abolished, but the rent receiving class continued to exist; Many landlords managed to retain considerable land areas under the various provisions of the laws. Benami holdings became the order of the day in many States;The problems of transferring ownership rights from the actual cultivators of the land, the tenants, the sub-tenants, sharecroppers, therefore, remained far from resolved etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Nearly two-thirds of all pending cases in Indian courts are related to property disputes. NITI Aayog has said that such property cases take an average of 20 years to settle. The result is that millions of Indians cannot use their principal asset as collateral to borrow from the formal financial system. Hence the need for land reforms in India. The government has now pushed the year of completion to 2021.

Objectives of land reforms:-

  • To enhance the productivity of land by improving the economic conditions of farmers and tenants so that they may have the interest to invest in and improve agriculture
  • To ensure distributive justice and to create an egalitarian society by eliminating all forms of exploitation
  • To create a system of peasant proprietorship with the motto of land to the tiller
  • To transfer the incomes of the few to many so that the demand for consumer goods would be created.

Land reforms in India :-

  • The process of land reform after independence basically occurred in two broad phases.
    • The first phase also called the phase of institutional reforms started soon after independence and continued till the early 1960s focussed on the following features:
      • Abolition of intermediaries like zamindars, jagirdars, etc.
      • Tenancy reforms involving providing security of tenure to the tenants, decrease in rents and conferment of ownership rights to tenants
      • Ceilings on size of landholdings
      • Cooperativization and community development programmes.
    • The second phase beginning around the mid- or late 1960s saw the gradual ushering in of the so-called Green Revolution and has been seen as the phase of technological reforms.
    • Digitisation of land records:
      • Making land records available to all, to contain/check property frauds, became one of the objectives of the government of India in the late 1980s.
      • To address the same, the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) was launched by the government of India in August 2008.
        • The main aim of the programme, was to computerise all land records, including mutations, improve transparency in the land record maintenance system, digitise maps and surveys, update all settlement records and minimise the scope of land disputes.
      • Digitisation would provide clear titles of land ownership that could be monitored easily by government officials, to facilitate quicker transactions. This will also reduce construction timelines and the overall cost for the developer, the benefits of which can be transferred to the consumer, making property prices more attractive.

Failure of land reforms:-

1.Weaknesses with the zamindari abolition:

  • The absence of adequate land records made implementation of these acts difficult.
  • Personal cultivation:
    • ‘personal cultivation’ was very loosely defined which led to not only those who tilled the soil, but also those who supervised the land personally or did so through a relative, or provided capital and credit to the land, to call themselves a cultivator.
    • Also in Uttar Pradesh, the zamindars were permitted to retain lands that were declared to be under their ‘personal cultivation’.
    • Moreover, in states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madras there was no limit on the size of the lands that could be declared to be under the ‘personal cultivation’ of the zamindar
  • Zamindars resorted to large-scale eviction of tenants, mainly the less secure small tenants.
  • Even after the laws were enacted the landlords used the judicial system to defer the implementation of the laws.
  • Zamindars refused to hand over the land records in their possession, forcing the government to go through the lengthy procedure of reconstructing the records.
  • Implementation of the law was made difficult with the collusion between the landlords and lower-level revenue officials.
  1. Weaknesses of tenancy reforms:
  • The provisions introduced to protect the small landowners were misused by the larger landlords with the active connivance of the revenue officials.
  • In fact, the right of resumption and the loose definition of ‘personal cultivation’ was used for eviction of tenants on a massive scale.
  • The inordinate delays in enacting and implementing the legislations enabled the zamindars to evict potential beneficiaries before the law came into force.
  • Even after the tenants got legal protection against eviction, large-scale evictions occurred.
  • Voluntary surrenders by tenants also took place as they was ‘persuaded’ under threat to give up their tenancy rights ‘voluntarily ’.
  • To avoid evictions,the Fourth Plan was constrained to recommend that all voluntary surrenders should only be in favour of the government, which could allot such lands to eligible persons. However, only a handful of states acted upon this recommendation.
  • No tenancy rights to sharecroppers.
    • In some states such as Uttar Pradesh ,only cash rent payers were treated as tenants and not others who were termed as sharecroppers
  • In many cases tenancy legislations led to tenancy being continued in a concealed form.
    • The tenants were now called ‘farm servants’ though they continued in exactly the same status.
  • In West Bengal sharecroppers, known as bargadars received no protection till as late as July 1970 when the West Bengal Land Reforms Act was amended to accord limited protection to them
  • Most tenancies were oral and informal and were not recorded.
  • Providing security of tenure to all tenants, met with only limited success. There were still large numbers who remained unprotected. So reducing rents to a ‘fair’ level was almost impossible to achieve.
  • The market rates of rent tended to be around 50 per cent of gross produce and it was only the poor insecure tenants or sharecroppers who paid it
  • The tenant often ended up bearing the cost of the production inputs either fully or to a substantial extent.
  • The Green Revolution which started in some parts of India in the late 1960s aggravated the problems, with land values and rentals rising further.
  • The acquisition of ownership rights by tenants was achieved only partially.
  • Tenants hardly had any motivation to try and acquire full ownership which would involve not only raising capital but legal and other complications.
  1. Weaknesses in Land Ceiling Legislation:-
  • The long delay and the nature of the legislation, ensured that the ceilings would have a very muted impact as by the time the ceiling legislations were in place, there were barely any holdings left above the ceiling .
  • Post independence India had more than 70 per cent of landholdings in India  under 5 acres so the ceiling fixed on existing holdings by the states were very high.
  • In most states the ceilings were imposed on individual and not family holdings, enabling landowners to divide up their holdings in the names of relatives or make benami transfers merely to avoid the ceiling.
  • Further, in many states the ceiling could be raised if the size of the family of the landholder exceeded five.
  • A large number of exemptions to the ceiling limits were permitted by most states following the Second Plan recommendations that certain categories of land could be exempted from ceilings.
    • The exemptions were often carried to absurd limits with Tamil Nadu reportedly permitting twenty -six kinds of exemptions
  • Exemption to land held by cooperatives was open to great misuse with landlords transferring their lands to bogus cooperatives.
  • The ceiling laws led to at least some landowners shifting to direct efficient farming in order to avoid alienation of their lands.
  • The landowners also resorted to mass eviction of tenants, resuming their lands at least up to the ceiling limit, and claimed to have shifted to progressive farming under their direct supervision.
    • In fact, despite the ceiling legislations which were passed by most states by 1961, till the end of 1970 not a single acre was declared surplus in large states like Bihar, Mysore, Kerala, Orissa and Rajasthan.
  1. Digitization of land records failed :-
  • Insufficient data:-
    • Although the government wants complete digitisation of land records, due to the lack of clear and sufficient data and mismanagement between the various agencies handling land records, the data registered at various government levels is not identical.
  • Statistics from the DILRMP show that in most states, the digital land record database has not been synced with the digitised land registration database.
  • Experience from states:-
    • Progress over the past decade has been uneven, with some states, such as Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, doing better than the others. However, there are challenges, even in advanced states such as Maharashtra.
  • New digitized land records do a good job in reflecting ownership of land, but less so when it comes to recording encumbrances and area of land parcels.
  1. Weaknesses of consolidation of land holdings:
  • The programme failed to achieve its desired objective because the farmers are reluctant to exchange their lands for the new one. The arguments given by the farmers is that there existing land is much more fertile and productive than the new land provided under land consolidation.
  • The farmers also complained about nepotism and corruption in the process of consolidation. The farmers complained that the rich and influential often bribes and manage to get fertile and well-situated land, whereas the poor farmers get unfertile land.
  • Due to lack of adequate political and administrative support, the progress made in terms of consolidation of holding was not very satisfactory.
  1. Failure of cooperative farming:
  • Attachment With Land :-
    • The farmers are not willing to surrender the rights of land infavour of the society because they have too much attachment with it.
  • Lack of Cooperative Spirit :-
    • The spirit of cooperation and love is lacking among farmers. They are divided in various sections on caste basis.
  • Illiteracy :-
    • some of them are using the old methods of cultivation.
  • Lack of Capital :-
    • The co-operative farming societies are also facing the capital shortage problem and these are unable to meet the growing needs of agriculture. Credit facilities to these societies are also not sufficient.
  • Re-Payment of Debt :-
    • Sometimes debt is not re-paid in time which creates many problems for the financial institutions. Some members do not realize their responsibility and it becomes the cause of failure.

Topic – Basics of cyber security

5) Cyber-attacks have grown in terms of sophistication and reach in the recent times. Evaluate India’s performance in tackling cybersecurity threats and whether India needs an army of ethical hackers?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article discusses the risk posed by a bug in IRCTC website and the importance of beefening up our cybersecurity infrastructure. The sheer magnitude of the risk posed by this is immense and it’s a pressing problem for the country from an internal security point of view.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the status quo of incidents related to cybersecurity breaches that have plagued the country. Thereafter, we need to evaluate how has India responded to such breaches and how successful we have been in such efforts. Finally, we need to examine whether having an army of white hat hackers would help alleviate the problem.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight the IRCTC incident to establish that this is a problem which needs serious consideration. Also explain who ethical hackers are.

Body

  • Discuss the current situation in India with respect to such attacks – India faces the highest number of cybersecurity threats in the Asia-Pacific region with over 500,000 alerts daily
  • Discuss the policy issues, infrastructural issues, capacity issues etc
  • Explain how can an army of white hat hackers help in preventing such security breaches. Highlight the examples of countries such as China which have already treaded on this path. Discuss any issues with this idea. You can also suggest a couple of other screws that need to be tightened for a holistic improvement.

Conclusion – Highlight that is an emerging and potentially crippling risk that the country faces and we should do everything possible to hedge ourselves against such risks.

Background:-

  • Cyber-attacks have grown in terms of sophistication and reach in the recent times. India was one of the worst hit countries by the WannaCry ransomwaremalware affecting sectors such as banking, finance and manufacturing last year.
  • Attacks are often anonymous and difficult to attributeto specific actors, state or non-state. Advanced Precision Threats (APTs) carried out by anonymous hackers are often silent and go unnoticed for long periods.

India’s readiness and performance with respect to cyber threats :-

  • The government is stepping up authority around cyber security to check the rising menace of financial frauds.Global Conference on Cyberspace was conducted in India for first time with a view to establish internationally agreed ‘rules of the road’ for behaviour in cyberspace and create a more focused and inclusive dialogue between all stakeholders on how to implement them.
  • To combat cyber threat, the government is coming up with more cyber security labs.
  • The government has earlier launched Digital Investigation Training and Analysis Centre (DITAC)to tackle these crimes.
    • DITACs will monitor and police cyber-crimes committed through different platforms such as mobile, email, computer and social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook.
  • Apart from DITACs, the government also established National Cyber Coordination Centre, an operational cyber security and e-surveillance agency in India.

Criticism of India’s readiness:-

  • India emerged as the third most vulnerable country in terms of risk of cyber threats, such as malware, spam and ransomware, in 2017, moving up one place over previous year, according to a report by Symantec.
    • As per the report, India continues to be second most impacted by spam and bots, third most impacted by network attacks, and fourth most impacted by ransomware.
  • India faces the highest number of cybersecurity threats in the Asia-Pacific region with over 500,000 alerts daily, according to cybersecurity report, Cisco 2018 Asia-Pacific Security Capabilities Benchmark.
    • Union ministries and elite security agencies, apart from government bodies, have been victims of a wide range of cyber attacks, from website defacement to ransomware. 
  • The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), the governmental nodal agency for dealing and handling of cybersecurity threats, had less than 1% of the reported number of incidents come from security researchers.
  • With the growing adoption of the Internet and smart-phones, India has emerged as one of the favourite countries among cyber criminals.
  • There is growing threat from online radicalization.
  • Lack of coordination among different government agencies.
  • India is not a signatory to the Budapest convention which is the only multilateral convention on cyber security.

Why India needs ethical hackers :-

  • Need for efficient information security systems :-
    • With more and more companies entering the e-commerce ecosystem and adopting new technologies like cloud computing, the threat from imminent security breaches is clearly demanding the need for efficient information security systems.
    • Cyber crimes are becoming more common and attackers more sophisticated with rouge nation-states and terrorist organisations funding criminals to breech security networks either to extort hefty ransoms or compromise national security features.
  • Shortage of manpower:-
    • The rising threat from cyber-attacks has exposed the severe shortage of talent in this sector.
    • As per 2015 figures reported by Nasscom, India needed more than 77,000 white hat hackers as against only a mere 15,000 certified professional ethical hackers in that year.
  • Advantages of having ethical hackers:-
    • These professionals employ methods similar to that used by malicious hackers, but they are required to be a step or two ahead of their vicious counterparts.
    • Ethical or white hat hackers may be employed by the government, banks, or private firms to prevent cyber crime.
    • They hack the system with the permission from the client and present a maturity scorecard for the network that highlights their overall risk.
  • Ethical hacking firms with specially trained professionals come to the rescue of businesses while ensuring effectiveness of service and confidentiality.
    • Businesses are faced with the challenge of dealing with complex security requirements that need to be updated as per changing hacking tactics, handling hidden vulnerabilities and evolving technologies.
  • Will help many sectors:-
    • While many new businesses are better prepared in case of cyber attacks, traditional businesses still lack the proactive understanding of the need for ethical hacking. For example, in India, banks having faced the brunt many-a-times are hiring professional help to secure their networks.
    • Hotels and other service wings of the industry seem to be lagging behind.

Issues that need to be addressed:-

  • There are chances that ethical hacker performs unethical actions during the course of the hacking job.
  • Solicited hacker may exceed the scope of work and venture into software sections not allowed as per the agreement.

Way Forward:

  • Institutions such as the National Cybersecurity Coordinator (NCC), National Technical Research Organisation, Computer Emergency Response Team and the National Cyber Security Coordinator Centre are all doing a reasonable job. There is a need for manpower and improved coordination in these agencies.
  • NCC, set up in 2015 as a part of the National Security Council Secretariat, should be strengthened to bring about a much-needed synergyamong various institutions and to work out a coordinated approach to cyber security, including cyber deterrence.
  • Coordination among CERTs of different countries
  • Nations must take responsibility to ensure that the digital space does not become a playground for the dark forces of terrorism and radicalization.

Topic–   Conservation of man animal conflict to the fore. The issue has gained significance in light of the living planet report that highlighted the massive wildlife destruction we have caused, shrinking habitats etc. Devising a strategy for dealing with this issue is necessary.

6) In current times, man animal conflict is a reality we have to deal with and thus proactive measures are required for a healthy human animal interface. Examine.(250 words)

Indian express

Key demand of the question

The question first expects us to highlight the reasons why man animal conflict has risen so much in recent times. Next, we need to discuss the current steps being taken for dealing with the problem and how effective they are. Explain what do you understand by proactive measures and how can they help in reducing such incidents.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the incident of killing of Avni to highlight why the issue is in news.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons why such incidents of man animal conflict are on the rise – poor land management, land diversion, poor state of our forests, conservation efforts leading to increased numbers more than what we can sustain etc
  • Discuss how are we dealing with the situation or man animal conflict at present – designating areas as national parks etc and further protection accorded in such zones etc
  • Discuss the proactive measures that are required to deal with the situation – National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has brought out several Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to deal with various challenges of the human-tiger interface.

Conclusion – Conclude with how you think this problem can be tackled.

Background:-

  • Man-animal conflict is an existential crisis not for the animals, but for human beings as well with data showing that about one person has been killed every day for the past three years by roaming tigers or rampaging elephants.

Reasons behind man animal conflict:-

  • Unsustainable development:-
    • Tiger reserves, national parks and sanctuaries exist only as islets in a vast sea of human, cattle and unsustainable land use.
    • People are increasingly encroaching into the country’s traditional wild spaces and animal sanctuaries, where people compete with wildlife for food and other resources.
    • These conflicts have increased as elephants increasingly find their usual corridors blocked by highways, railway tracks and factories
    • Urbanisation and growth agendas alter landscape dynamics, which has a cascading effect on the ecological dynamics of wildlife. This results in ecological dislocation of sorts, wherein endangered wild animals like tigers either cause distress or land themselves in trouble
  • Failure of government measures:-
    • ‘Human-Wildlife conflict mitigation’ said most of the measures are dysfunctional, haphazardly implemented and therefore not effective
    • Elephants are used to travelling long distances, most of which fall outside the protected areas.
    • Wildlife experts claim that territorial animals do not have enough space within reserves and their prey do not have enough fodder to thrive on. This is forcing the wild animals to move out and venture close to human habitation in search of food.
  • Primary reason for the increasing human-animal conflicts is the presence of a large number of animals and birds outside the notified protected areas. Wildlife experts estimate that 29 per cent of the tigers in India are outside the protected areas.
  • Road kill of wild animals is the new enemy to India’s wildlife
  • There is no proper land use planning and management ,cumulative impact assessments or wildlife management
  • There is n buffer zone between wildlife and human settlements
  • Monkeys along with grey langurs have adapted to urban habitats over the years.
  • Continued destruction and divergence of forest lands.

How is India dealing with man animal conflict :-

  • Awareness programmes to sensitize the people about the Do’s and Don’ts to minimize conflicts
  • Training programmes for forest staff and police to address the problems of human wildlife conflicts
  • Providing technical and financial support for development of necessary infrastructure and support facilities for immobilization of problematic animals
  • State governments:-
    • Assistance to state government for construction of boundary walls and solar fences around the sensitive areas to prevent the wild animal attacks
    • Supplementing the state government resources for payment of ex gratia to the people for injuries and loss of life in case of wild animal attacks
    • Encouraging state government for creation of a network of protected areas and wildlife corridors for conservation of wildlife.
  • Eco devlopment activities in villages around protected areas to elicit cooperation of local community in management of the protected areas.
  • Supporting involvement of the research and academic institutions and leading voluntary organisations having expertise in managing human wildlife conflict situations.
  • Technology:-
    • Information technology viz radio collars ,GPS, satellite uplink facilities are used by research institutions to monitor the movement of wild animals
  • Centrally sponsored schemes of project tiger, project elephant and integrated development of wildlife habitats

Measures further needed :-

 

  • Forest corridors linking protected areas must be maintained where they exist.
  • Existing habitats have to be surveyed and improved to provide food for the elephants
  • Local communities need to be educated to have reduced stress levels in elephants during conflict mitigation, no fire, no firecracker and no mob crowds.
  • There is a need for a monitoring mechanism which will record and disperse information on such conflicts
  • Experts suggest the other way to reduce the man-animal conflict is to increase the population of wild ungulates, namely hares and the wild boars, both of which are prolific breeders, as a prey for wild carnivores. Separate big enclosures can be made in the jungles to breed them. The excess stock can be released in the jungles at regular intervals for the wild carnivores to prey upon.

Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “land reforms in india”

7) Land reforms remain an unfinished agenda even after 70 years of independence. Do you agree? Critically analyse.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question first expects us to explain why land reforms are criticized so many years post its initiation as being incomplete. Discuss the reasons why the task of land reforms is still incomplete. Discuss the steps being taken to complete it.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the land reforms

Body

  • Discuss how land reforms were carried out post independence and their results. Discuss the fact that only some state implemented it properly while the other sought to preserve the status quo.
  • Discuss why land reform is an unfinished agenda – non modernization of land records, small size of land holdings
  • Discuss the steps being taken still to complete the task of land reforms – model land leasing law by Niti ayog etc

Conclusion – discuss the importance of completion of land reforms and highlight way forward.

Background:-

  • The process of land reform after independence basically occurred in two broad phases.
  • The first phase also called the phase of institutional reforms started soon after independence and continued till the early 1960s focussed on the following features:
    • Abolition of intermediaries like zamindars, jagirdars, etc.
    • Tenancy reforms involving providing security of tenure to the tenants, decrease in rents and conferment of ownership rights to tenants:-
      • In the late 1960s a massive programme of conferment of titles to lands to hutment dwellers and tenants was undertaken in Kerala. The programme achieved considerable success.
      • Operation Barga:
        • Similarly in West Bengal Operation Barga was launched in 1978 with the objective of achieving the registration of sharecroppers and provide them permanent occupancy and heritable rights and a crop division of 1:3 between landowner and sharecropper.
      • Ceilings on size of landholdings
      • Cooperativization and community development programmes.
    • The second phase beginning around the mid- or late 1960s saw the gradual ushering in of the so-called Green Revolution and has been seen as the phase of technological reforms.
      • Digitisation of land records:
        • Making land records available to all, to contain/check property frauds, became one of the objectives of the government of India in the late 1980s.
        • To address the same, the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) was launched by the government of India in August 2008.
          • The main aim of the programme, was to computerise all land records, including mutations, improve transparency in the land record maintenance system, digitise maps and surveys, update all settlement records and minimise the scope of land disputes.
        • Digitisation would provide clear titles of land ownership that could be monitored easily by government officials, to facilitate quicker transactions. This will also reduce construction timelines and the overall cost for the developer, the benefits of which can be transferred to the consumer, making property prices more attractive.

Failure of land reforms :-

1.Weaknesses with the zamindari abolition:

  • The absence of adequate land records made implementation of these acts difficult.
  • Personal cultivation:
    • ‘personal cultivation’ was very loosely defined which led to not only those who tilled the soil, but also those who supervised the land personally or did so through a relative, or provided capital and credit to the land, to call themselves a cultivator.
    • Also in Uttar Pradesh, the zamindars were permitted to retain lands that were declared to be under their ‘personal cultivation’.
    • Moreover, in states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madras there was no limit on the size of the lands that could be declared to be under the ‘personal cultivation’ of the zamindar
  • Zamindars resorted to large-scale eviction of tenants, mainly the less secure small tenants.
  • Even after the laws were enacted the landlords used the judicial system to defer the implementation of the laws.
  • Zamindars refused to hand over the land records in their possession, forcing the government to go through the lengthy procedure of reconstructing the records.
  • Implementation of the law was made difficult with the collusion between the landlords and lower-level revenue officials.
  1. Weaknesses of tenancy reforms:
  • The provisions introduced to protect the small landowners were misused by the larger landlords with the active connivance of the revenue officials.
  • In fact, the right of resumption and the loose definition of ‘personal cultivation’ was used for eviction of tenants on a massive scale.
  • The inordinate delays in enacting and implementing the legislations enabled the zamindars to evict potential beneficiaries before the law came into force.
  • Even after the tenants got legal protection against eviction, large-scale evictions occurred.
  • Voluntary surrenders by tenants also took place as they was ‘persuaded’ under threat to give up their tenancy rights ‘voluntarily ’.
  • To avoid evictions,the Fourth Plan was constrained to recommend that all voluntary surrenders should only be in favour of the government, which could allot such lands to eligible persons. However, only a handful of states acted upon this recommendation.
  • No tenancy rights to sharecroppers.
    • In some states such as Uttar Pradesh ,only cash rent payers were treated as tenants and not others who were termed as sharecroppers
  • In many cases tenancy legislations led to tenancy being continued in a concealed form.
    • The tenants were now called ‘farm servants’ though they continued in exactly the same status.
  • In West Bengal sharecroppers, known as bargadars received no protection till as late as July 1970 when the West Bengal Land Reforms Act was amended to accord limited protection to them
  • Most tenancies were oral and informal and were not recorded.
  • Providing security of tenure to all tenants, met with only limited success. There were still large numbers who remained unprotected. So reducing rents to a ‘fair’ level was almost impossible to achieve.
  • The market rates of rent tended to be around 50 per cent of gross produce and it was only the poor insecure tenants or sharecroppers who paid it
  • The tenant often ended up bearing the cost of the production inputs either fully or to a substantial extent.
  • The Green Revolution which started in some parts of India in the late 1960s aggravated the problems, with land values and rentals rising further.
  • The acquisition of ownership rights by tenants was achieved only partially.
  • Tenants hardly had any motivation to try and acquire full ownership which would involve not only raising capital but legal and other complications.
  1. Weaknesses in Land Ceiling Legislation:-
  • The long delay and the nature of the legislation, ensured that the ceilings would have a very muted impact as by the time the ceiling legislations were in place, there were barely any holdings left above the ceiling .
  • Post independence India had more than 70 per cent of landholdings in India  under 5 acres so the ceiling fixed on existing holdings by the states were very high.
  • In most states the ceilings were imposed on individual and not family holdings, enabling landowners to divide up their holdings in the names of relatives or make benami transfers merely to avoid the ceiling.
  • Further, in many states the ceiling could be raised if the size of the family of the landholder exceeded five.
  • A large number of exemptions to the ceiling limits were permitted by most states following the Second Plan recommendations that certain categories of land could be exempted from ceilings.
    • The exemptions were often carried to absurd limits with Tamil Nadu reportedly permitting twenty -six kinds of exemptions
  • Exemption to land held by cooperatives was open to great misuse with landlords transferring their lands to bogus cooperatives.
  • The ceiling laws led to at least some landowners shifting to direct efficient farming in order to avoid alienation of their lands.
  • The landowners also resorted to mass eviction of tenants, resuming their lands at least up to the ceiling limit, and claimed to have shifted to progressive farming under their direct supervision.
    • In fact, despite the ceiling legislations which were passed by most states by 1961, till the end of 1970 not a single acre was declared surplus in large states like Bihar, Mysore, Kerala, Orissa and Rajasthan.
  1. Digitization of land records failed :-
  • Insufficient data:-
    • Although the government wants complete digitisation of land records, due to the lack of clear and sufficient data and mismanagement between the various agencies handling land records, the data registered at various government levels is not identical.
  • Statistics from the DILRMP show that in most states, the digital land record database has not been synced with the digitised land registration database.
  • Experience from states:-
    • Progress over the past decade has been uneven, with some states, such as Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, doing better than the others. However, there are challenges, even in advanced states such as Maharashtra.
  • New digitized land records do a good job in reflecting ownership of land, but less so when it comes to recording encumbrances and area of land parcels.
  1. Weaknesses of consolidation of land holdings:
  • The programme failed to achieve its desired objective because the farmers are reluctant to exchange their lands for the new one. The arguments given by the farmers is that there existing land is much more fertile and productive than the new land provided under land consolidation.
  • The farmers also complained about nepotism and corruption in the process of consolidation. The farmers complained that the rich and influential often bribes and manage to get fertile and well-situated land, whereas the poor farmers get unfertile land.
  • Due to lack of adequate political and administrative support, the progress made in terms of consolidation of holding was not very satisfactory.
  1. Failure of cooperative farming:
  • Attachment With Land :-
    • The farmers are not willing to surrender the rights of land infavour of the society because they have too much attachment with it.
  • Lack of Cooperative Spirit :-
    • The spirit of cooperation and love is lacking among farmers. They are divided in various sections on caste basis.
  • Illiteracy :-
    • some of them are using the old methods of cultivation.
  • Lack of Capital :-
    • The co-operative farming societies are also facing the capital shortage problem and these are unable to meet the growing needs of agriculture. Credit facilities to these societies are also not sufficient.
  • Re-Payment of Debt :-
    • Sometimes debt is not re-paid in time which creates many problems for the financial institutions. Some members do not realize their responsibility and it becomes the cause of failure.

However measures are being taken now :-

  • Nitit aayog came up with the Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016. The model Act seeks to permit and facilitate leasing of agricultural land to improve access to land by the landless and marginal farmers. It also provides for recognition of farmers cultivating on leased land to enable them to access loans through institutional credit.
  • The National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP) was launched by the Government of India in August 2008, aimed to modernize management of land records, minimize scope of land/property disputes, enhance transparency in the land records maintenance system, and facilitate moving eventually towards guaranteed conclusive titles to immovable properties in the country.
  • Currently land acquisition is governed by the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 which came into force on January 1, 2014.  Prior to this, the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 governed land acquisition.  
  • Some of the most interesting work of sorting out the land titling messhas been done by state governments, as has been the case with labour law reforms as well.
    • First, the Bhoomi Project in Karnatakaled the way even before the Union government got into the act.The state government began to digitize land records at the turn of the century.
    • Second, the Rajasthan legislature passed the Rajasthan Urban Land (Certification of Titles) Act in April 2016.
    • Third, Andhra Pradesh has taken a leap into the future. Its state government has tied up with a Swedish firm to use new blockchain technology to prevent property fraud.

General Studies – 4


Topic– Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

8) Discuss how attitudes are formed. Also Discuss what are the categories of attitudes.(250 words)

Lexicon Ethics Booklet; Attitude

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of attitude. E.g Attitude refers to a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular object/ person/ situation/ problem/ issue with some degree of favour or disfavour.

Body

  1. Discuss how attitude is formed. E.g Discuss about the theories of

 

  • Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
  • Instrumental Conditioning
  • Observational Learning
  • Genetic Factors etc.
  1. Discuss about the categories of attitudes. E.g
  • Explicit vs implicit attitude.
  • Political and moral attitude etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Answer:-

Attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols. It is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.

Attitude formation:-

The term attitude formation refers to the movement we make from having no attitude toward an object to having some positive or negative attitude toward that object. A range of mechanisms for attitude formation are involved. They are – mere exposure, direct personal experience, operant and classical conditioning and observational learning.

Mere Exposure

Some attitudes may be formed and shaped by what is known as mere exposure, which means that simply being exposed to an object increases our feelings, usually positive, toward that object. The limit to this the effect is most powerful when it occurs randomly over time and that too many exposures actually will decrease the effect.

Direct Personal Experience

Second way of formation of attitude is through direct personal experience. It has the power to create and change attitudes. They are likely to affect behavior strongly. Information to support such attitudes is also more likely to occur. Direct experience continues to form and shape our attitudes throughout life.

Conditioning Process

  • During the course of socialization a person’s attitudes may be formed through operant and classical conditioning, in the former the individual’s behavior is strengthened or weakened by means of reward or punishment.
  • In classical conditioning, when an attitude object (a person) was paired with positive or negative stimuli, they came to associate the person with the positive or negative
  • Observational learning occurs when we watch what people do and then model, or imitate, that behaviour. Observational learning does not depend on rewards, but rewards can strengthen the learning, further people are more likely to imitate behaviour that is rewarded. When there are discrepancies between what people say and what they do, children tend to imitate the behaviour.

The Heritability Factor

Attitudes and other complex social behaviors may have a genetic component. Genetics have an indirect effect on our attitudes. Characteristics that are biologically based might predispose us to certain behaviors and attitudes. Biologically based characteristic affects how one thinks, feels, and acts.

Categories of attitudes:-

  • Attitudes are divided into two categories. The basic difference between the two types of attitudes is conscious and unconscious cognition
  • Explicit attitudes:-
    • They are characterized as the attitudes which are the result of conscious cognition which means the person is aware of his /her attitude
    • Explicit attitudes are mostly affected by recent or more accessible events.
    • These types of attitudes represent cognitive and motivational factors behind the assigning of attitude , more deliberate thinking is involved in it
    • It is also known as self reported attitude
  • Implicit attitudes:-
    • These attitudes are derived from past memories which are rooted in unconscious cognition
    • Since cognitive part is absent in these attitudes so these are largely influenced by affective experiences .Due to this cultural biases have appreciable impact on these attitudes.
  • Other types:-
    • Moral attitude:-
      • Moral attitudes are grounded in moral beliefs of “Right” and “wrong” action. Moral attitudes are stronger than moral principles.
    • Political attitude:-
      • Political attitudes are the approaches of people to the areas of public life covered by political psychology such as views on nationalism, political conservatism, political liberalism, and political radicalism. Political attitudes fall on a range between extremely liberal and extremely conservative.