[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 OCTOBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 OCTOBER 2018

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General Studies – 1


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Famous work related to dances”

1) Natya Shastra talks at length of “natya”, which provides the basic source of information on the intricacies of Indian theatre. Discuss and also explain  the rasa theory in Natyashastra? (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the kind of information we get from Natyashastra about the intricacies of Indian theatre, how Natyashastra sets the rule of theatre and the various aspects of theatre covered in Natyashastra. Thereafter, we need to explain the rasa theory in Natyashastra.

Directive word

Discuss – Here, your discussion should focus on bringing the different elements of theatre talked about in Natyashastra and explain the rasa theory.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Briefly explain about Natyashastra. The Natyashashtra of Bharat is an ancient treatise on theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BC to 200 AD. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and other aspects of theatre. It is called the foundation of the fine arts in India. It was based upon Gandhravaveda. Mention that The Natya Shastra talks at length of “natya”, a derivation from the word “nat”, meaning to dance or to act.

Body

  • Explain how Natyashastra gives us information on intricacies of Indian theatre – The mythic origin of dramatic art, the construction of playhouses, the detailed preliminaries, the treatment of “rasa” and “bhava”, the different types of abhinaya-aharya (costume and make-up), vachika (verbal), angika (gestures and dance movements) and sattvika (indicating mental reactions) — dances, footsteps, songs, modes of address, classification of the story (itivritta) which form the body of the theatre. Explain that the treatise is so detailed that even the role of audiences is explained in Natyashastra.
  • Explain the rasa theory in Natyashastra – The fountainhead of the rasa theory is Bharata’s Natyashastra. Rasa or essence refers to the dominant emotional theme of a performing art which is invoked in the audience. The Rasa Theory says that Rasa arises from a (proper) combination of the vibhavas (the stimulants), the anubhavas (the physical consequents) and the vyabhicharibhavas (the transient emotional states)”. The Natyashashtra describes the eight Rasas which are to be mentioned. Explain that Abhinavgupta, who is known for have written the best commentary on Natyashashtra called Abhinavabhāratī, had proposed a ninth Rasa called Śāntam which together with eight rasas in Natyashastra forms the Navras.

Conclusion – Mention that Indian drama from the earliest times was shaped by Bharata’s Natya Shastra. Not only were its rules strictly followed by eminent classical dramatists whose plays were performed in temples and palaces, but were also obeyed to the core in the common man’s theatre. The work remained a source book for scholars and writers of drama and inspired several other treatises.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Classical dance forms and their salient features”

2) Discuss the various sources which provide information about Bharatnatyam? Explain the role Rukmini Devi Arundale played in modern rebirth of Bharatnatyam?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to list down the various sources such as literary, paintings etc from which we get information about Bharatnatyam. Next, we need to explain how Rukmini Devi Arundale helped in raising the social status of Bharatnatyam and popularizing it.  

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion, you have to list out the different sources that provide information about Bharatnatyam.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain  in brief about the history of Bharatnatyam – Bharatanatyam originated in southern India in the state of Tamilnadu. It started as a temple dance tradition called Dasiyattam (the dance of the maid-servants) 2000 years ago and is perhaps the most advanced and evolved dance form of all the classical Indian dance forms.  Bharata Natyam is known for its grace,purity, tenderness, expression and sculpturesque poses.

Body

  • Discuss the various sources from which we get information about Bharatnatyam – Several texts beginning with Bharata Muni’s Natya Shastra (200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.) provide information on this dance form. The Abhinaya Darpana by Nandikesvara is one of the main sources of textual material, for the study of the technique and grammar of body movement in Bharatnatyam Dance. There is also a great deal of visual evidence of this dance form in paintings and stone and metal sculptures of ancient times. On the gopurams of the Chidambaram temple, one can see a series of Bharatnatyam poses, frozen in stone as it were, by the sculptor. In many other temples, the charis and karanas of the dance are represented in sculpture and one can make a study of the dance form.
  • Discuss the role that Rukmini Devi Arundale played in popularizing the movement – Rukmini Devi Arundale was also instrumental in modifying mainly the Pandanallur style of Bharata Natyam and bringing it to the attention of the West. According to Shri Sankara Menon, Rukmini Devi raised Bharata Natyam to a puritan art form, by removing certain emotional elements evocative of the erotic, such as hip, neck, lip and chest movements) from the Pandanallur style.  in 1936 Rukmini Devi Arundale founded the school Kalakshetra outside the city of Madras to teach it and to promote other studies in Indian music and art. She was one of first teachers to instruct a few men to perform the dance.

Conclusion – Comment on the status of Bharatnatyam today and the need to preserve and popularize Bharatnatyam style.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Nandikeswara’s Abhinaya Darpana (Three basic elements Nritta, Natya, Nritya)”

3) Explain with the help of examples the difference between Natya, Nritya and Nritta?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the basic difference between the three terms mentioned above. In examples, we can take any of the classical Indian dance forms and examine the style in which it is performed, falls under which of the three – Nritya, Natya and Nritta

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that according to the Abhinaya Darpanam, the Sangitaratnakara and other medieval treatises, dance is divided into three distinct categories, that is, natya, nritya and nritta.

Body – Explain the difference between the three

  • Natya – Natya corresponds to drama. Natya means dramatic representation or drama with speech, music and dancing. According to Abhinaya Darpanam, Natya or Nataka has some traditional story for its theme is an adorable (art).
  • Nritya – Nritya corresponds to the mime performed to the song. That is in other words, it is the Interpretative dance. The vaachikaabhinaya of natya where the actors themselves use speech, is replaced by the music and song which accompanies dance. According to Abhinaya Darpanam that dance which relates to Sentiment (rasa) and Psychological Staes (bhaava) is called nritya.
  • Nritta – Nritta corresponds to pure dance steps performed rhythmically. Here the movements of the body do not convey any mood or meaning and its purpose is just creating beauty by making various patterns, lines in space and time. According to Abhinaya Darpanam, dance which does not relate to any Psychological State (bhaava) is called nritta.
  • For example, mention that while learning the art of Bharatnatyam, the sequence of Nritta, Nritya, and Natya are followed. The starting items, Alarippu, Kauthuvam, Jathiswaram all come under Nritta. These are followed by Swarajathi, Sabdam and Varnam which come under Nritya and finally the Padams come under the Natya category.

Conclusion – Explain that the movements of Nritta, Nritya and Natya should always be in concordance with the primary standards of Dance. Laya found in Nritta in combination with Bhava becomes Nritya, which in turn when combined with gestures and actions becomes Natya. Natya will ultimately be impressive as well as effective only when there is a harmony between the bodily movements of the dance and emotional expressions of the abhinaya. All great dancers display a perfect blend of all three in each of their performances.


Topic – poverty and developmental issues

4) Economic Survey last year highlighted that India has one of the highest intra country migration among its peers, yet there are several problems faced by migrant workers in India, particularly in unorganized sector. Examine the issues involved and suggest remedial measures?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article highlights the plight of migrant workers, their poor working conditions, wages etc. The article also explains that the existing mechanism hardly take into cognizance these plights and thus corrective actions are not taken. Migration is a reality in India and people travel in the look out for better opportunities to work, improve their standard of life etc. The issue faced by such people and their remedial actions are important for GS1 – Sociology section.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the issues of different kinds faced by the migrant workers. Thereafter, we need to examine the existing checks and balances in the system and explain their shortcomings and suggest corrective actions.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Paint a brief picture of the status and nature of migration in the country along with the reasons. Highlight that the constitution grants us freedom of movement. Highlight the recent incident of attack against UP and Bihari migrants in Gujarat.

Body –

  • Bring out the issues faced by the migrants – poor working conditions, less than minimum wages, segmenting local and migrant population for work, resentment from local workers etc
  • Discuss the importance of migrants in running India’s mega cities and how they contribute to economic growth
  • Highlight the existing regulations and legislations to protect the migrants – Under the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act and other labour laws (for unorganised workers), migrant workers in Gujarat are legally entitled to all their basic labour rights. These include minimum wages, regular wage payment, regular working hours and overtime payment, and decent working and living conditions which include taking care of the health and education of their children. Under the same Act, the governments of the States from where migrant workforce originate are expected to issue licences to contractors who take workers away, register such workers and also monitor their working and living conditions in other States.
  • Discuss the lacunae in the Act and implementation of the Act due to which the problem persists

Conclusion – Discuss the importance  of migrants and the need to protect freedom of movement of these workers and suggest corrective measures.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

5) In view of the increased role of payments banks, is there a need to create a separate regulator for the sector. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

The govt has recently mooted the idea of a separate regulator for the rapidly developing payments bank sector. Therefore it is important to examine the need for a separate regulator for the sector.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form an opinion as to whether there is a need for a separate regulator for payments banks. We have to look into the issue and discuss the role of the other regulator and form an opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a simple definition of a payments bank- can accept deposits but can’t lend etc. mention a few big players like Airtel, paytm which have entered the business.

Body-

Discuss why there is no need for a separate regulator for payment banks. E.g the activities of payments banks come well within the purview of the traditional banking system, which the central bank oversees as the overarching financial regulator. Soit might make better sense to have the RBI oversee the activities of payments banks as well instead of creating a brand new regulator for the growing industry; Regulation of the banking systems and payment system by the same regulator provides synergy; a new regulator may decrease synergy with the functioning of the RBI etc.

Take the help of other relevant articles, study material to form your answer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) Indian economy is at the crossroads where its economic might and potential is increasing but at the cost of its environment and quality of life.Discuss.(250 words)

economic times

Why this question

Indian economy is growing at a faster pace than any other major economy but at the same time it is important to appreciate the damage to our environment which comes at the cost of development. The article provides a meaningful summary of the position in which India finds itself today.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the state and position of Indian economy. It wants us to discuss about the rise of Indian economy and its environmental implications.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  state of Indian economy- rank in terms of GDP, fastest growing major economy.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the strength and robustness of Indian economy- well functioning democracy, one of the highest growth rate which is poised to jump to double digits; a huge demographic dividend etc.
  2. Discuss the environmental impacts of development. Mention about the need for coal as a source of energy; growing transport emissions; urban and construction waste etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. mention the importance of programmes like National Solar Mission and other renewable energy missions; Clean Ganga and other such river rejuvenation programmes etc.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic-Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

7) What do you think are the core values in public administration. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to decide as to what are the core values in public administration and then write at length about their role and importance for the ethical perspective.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the growing  complexity and increasing demands for greater efficiency of public administration. Mention the role of values as a source of guidance in policy formulation, decision making and execution.

Body-

Discuss individually the core values that you think are necessary as far as public administration is concerned. Discuss the role and importance of-

  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • Professionalism
  • Objectivity
  • Compassion
  • Justice

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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