[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 OCTOBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 OCTOBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic–  Urbanization – their problems and their remedies.

1) Migration from rural areas to urban spaces in search of livelihood opportunities has transformed human society, and still continues to drive economic and social development. Critically examine. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses FAO’s report SOFA which discusses the impact migration has on improving food security and change in policy paradigm which is required in migration control strategies. Off late, the thrust on sociology in GS1 has increased and hence this question which will help you prepare a critical analysis of the benefits of migration.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the reasons and impacts of migration from rural to urban areas. The impact should also discuss the impact that SOFA report says that migration has on food security. Finally, we need to conclude by mentioning the change that must be brought in our approach to migration related policies for maximum benefit.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that as a result of rapid economic growth for past few decades, since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, India has been experiencing the rapid urbanization flow from rural to urban migration which is having multiple impacts.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons for rural to urban migration – marriage, better socio economic opportunities etc
  • Discuss the impact that such migration has on the lives of the migrants. First highlight the positive aspects such as better quality of life etc. Here, also explain the linkage discussed in the article between migration and food security. Next, discuss the issues with rural to urban migration.

Conclusion – Give your view on the utility of rural to urban migration and discuss way forward – priority is to have policy coherence among migration, agriculture and rural development to ensure safe, orderly, and regular migration. Policies should not aim at reducing or accelerating migratory flows, but rather maximising the economic and social benefits while minimising costs to migrants and societies.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2) India needs to look beyond the Supreme Court’s recommended police reforms and undertake an early review of the entire criminal justice system. Examine.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

Police reforms are critical for any country aspiring to be the world power and for India the assertion is doubly true, given the outdated and anachronistic way of working of the Indian police and criminal law. In this context it is important to examine the need to review the criminal justice system in India.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out as to why review of India’s criminal justice system is essential.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Prakash Singh guidelines from SC.

Body-

Bring out the need to review India’s criminal justice system. E.g In our legal system, more or less every action of the police has to come under judicial scrutiny. This is also a basic requirement specified in all the state police rules. Since the police is a vital part of our criminal justice system, it is necessary to institute a wider spectrum of reforms rather than focusing simply on police reforms. In fact, the National Police Commission, in one of its reports, had made a specific suggestion for the constitution of a criminal justice review commission; the thrust of the existing directives of the Supreme Court is limited to postings, transfers, personnel, policies, the creation of security commissions at the state and the national levels, the separation of investigation from law and order, and, the constitution of a police complaints authority at various levels. A closer look at all these recommendations reveals that none of them would be able to address the expectations of the general public for a speedy and inexpensive justice delivery system. As such, these reforms can be taken to be only the first step towards the larger goal of reforming the entire criminal justice system; There are several other police procedures of investigation including recording of statements, confessions, etc which have now become outdated, considering that they were codified in 1898. The Code of Criminal Procedure was indeed amended in 1973, but the police procedures did not undergo much change etc.

Take the help of the article attached to the question to frame your answer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

3) Critically examine whether the offset guidelines in Defence Procurement Policy 2016 help in development of an indigenous defence sector?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article delves deep into the issues involved in Offset guidelines in Defence Procurement Policy 2016. The issue has dominated headlines due to the controversy associated with Rafale deal and hence preparing a critical examination of the offset policy would serve us in good stead while preparing for GS2.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the offset guidelines of Defence Procurement Policy. Thereafter, we need to bring out how the guidelines help in promoting indigenous manufacturing of defence goods and also the issues in these guidelines. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced conclusion on the offset guidelines and its merit and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the Rafale controversy and how it’s related to the offset guidelines. Explain objective of these guidelines.

Body

  • Explain what the offset guidelines are – offsets are a portion of a contracted price with a foreign supplier that must be re-invested in the Indian defence sector, or against which the government can purchase technology etc
  • Discuss how these guidelines aim to ensure that procurement is undertaken in a manner that takes India closer to the goal of developing a world-class domestic defence and aerospace industry.
  • Discuss the issues with these guidelines as discussed in the article

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion on the issue and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic–  Part of static series under the heading – “Industrial regions”

4) Analyze the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what do we mean by decentralised cotton textile industry in India. Next we need to explain the reasons why  cotton textile industry in India is decentralised in India

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that At present, cotton textile industry is largest organised modem industry of India. There has been a phenomenal growth of this industry during the last four decades. About 16 per cent of the industrial capital and over 20 per cent of the industrial labour of the country is engaged in this industry.

Body – Explain that initially textile industry developed in certain major centres such as Mumbai, Surat etc which had all the factors that are responsible for location of textile industries. Mention factors such as easy transportation, cheap labour, closer to market etc. Next, discuss the reasons for decentralization of cotton textile industry such as – Dispersal of industry from the old nuclei started after 1921 with railway lines penetrating into the peninsular region. New centres like Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara were favourably located in respect to raw material, market and labour than places of original locations. This industry also reached some places with some additional advantages, such as nearness to coal (Nagpur), financial facilities (Kanpur) and wide market with port facilities (Kolkata); Dispersal of cotton textile industry was further boosted with the development of hydroelectricity. The growth of this industry in Coimbatore, Madurai and Tirunelveli is largely due to the availability of hydroelectricity from Pykara dam. The industry also tended to shift from areas of high labour cost to those with low labour cost. The labour cost factor played a crucial role in establishing this industry at Madurai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore etc.


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5) India can emulate innovative solutions from across the world to tackle the problem of ghost gear. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Ghost fishing gear is a serious environmental hazard which poses risks to marine animals. India had recently mooted the idea of bringing an official policy to deal with the matter.In this context it is essential to understand the problem in depth.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the ghost gear- what it means, magnitude of the problem and solutions required.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  ghost gear.

Body

Discuss in detail the risks and problems posed by ghost gear and also discuss the possible solutions to the problem.  E.g there are still no data pertaining to the extent of prevalence of ghost gear off India’s coast. And data is crucial here, for the detrimental effects of these nets also spillover into other countries and oceans; Ghost nets are often ‘ghost fishers’. Ocean currents carry them for thousands of km across the ocean floor, ensnaring, injuring and drowning marine life and damaging live corals along the way; Discarded Indian and Thai fishing nets, for instance, have been fished out of Maldivian coasts; Entire fishing communities are affected by these actions, especially in developing countries like India where the demand for fish keeps rising etc.

Discuss the possible solutions. E.g In countries like Canada and Thailand, fishermen retain their used nets; these are recycled into yarn to craft socks and even carpet tiles; Outreach and education among fishing communities would be crucial along with policy-level changes etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism

6) A smart combination of creativity, capacity-building and collaboration can provide answers to technology-driven challenge to India’s border security. Analyze. (250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question

India shares a long and a varied terrain border with many south Asian countries and is susceptible to severe cross border crimes like terrorism, money laundering, narcotics smuggling etc. In this context it is important to analyze the relevance of technology driven solutions to our border problems.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and highlight India’s border security concerns and discuss the role technology driven solutions can play in better border management.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  long border shared by India and mention the problems like terrorism, narcotics smuggling, wildlife trade etc which are related to the border protection.

Body

Bring out the need for technology driven solutions for India’s border management. E.g technical limitations, topographic, demographic and local environmental factors impact the performance of modern border security architecture, leaving the border vulnerable to various threats; Given the sophisticated nature of the threat, the only way to effectively secure India’s border with Pakistan from drug trafficking and weapons smuggling is to conceptualize and put in place an omnidirectional border security with a mix of air and underground detection system; This issue also underlines the need to have a sound national border control strategy, with the setting-up of quantified benchmarks, and performance and effectiveness metrics. There is no shortage of new and potentially useful technologies for use in border security, and the same needs to be adopted along with a clear vision to adequately train the manpower which will eventually handle the gadgets. You can give examples of some technological solutions here.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic – part of the case studies on Ethics.

7) Lawrence Kohlberg was interested in one of the stickier areas of the human mind – morality. As a psychologist, he wanted to know how morality developed over time. To do this he made up a now-famous thought experiment and posed it to children, young adults, and adults.

The Heinz Dilemma
Heinz’s wife is dying. There is a medicine that can cure her, but it costs $2000, and Heinz only has $1000. That covers the costs of the pharmacist who makes the medicine, but the pharmacist insists that he discovered the cure, and will charge what he wants for it. Should Heinz steal the medicine, or shouldn’t he?

Discuss the various options available to Heinz and the moral and ethical questions raised by those options. (250 words)

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Highlight the possible solutions available here- requesting the chemist for a concession or allow to be paid later; collect money from family, friends etc; steal the drug; do nothing and wait for fate to take its toll.

Body

Discuss all the possible solutions and the ethical and moral problems involved in choosing any one of them. Take the help of the article attached to the question as well as other related study material to frame your answer.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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