[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 SEPTEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Monsoons”

1) What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the defining features of the climate of monsoons as experienced in Asia. here we don’t have to focus on the mechanism of monsoon but the character of monsoon. So writing about ITCZ shift etc is useless.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention the regions in Asia where monsoon climate is found and mention that the following are the chief characteristic of monsoon.

Body

  • Bring out the various characterstic of monsoons such as
  • The seasons of monsoons – hot weather season, cold weather season, advancing south west monsoon, retreating monsoon
  • Vegetation of monsoon climate – vegetation ranges from forests to thickets, and from savanna to scrubland, the trees in this climatic zone are usually deciduous
  • Bring out the diversity in Temperature, vegetation etc experienced in monsoons
  • Culture, agriculture of monsoon climate

Conclusion – mention that among all the climate regions of the world, the Monsoon climate is unique for its temperature, precipitation and the resultant seasons, which in turn have profound impact on the vegetation of the associated countries and the lifestyle and economic habits of its inhabitants.


Topic – History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) Why did the Central powers lose the first world war. Discuss.(250 words)

Norman Lowe; Mastering World History; The First World War and its aftermath.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the main reasons which were responsible for the loss of the central powers in the first world war.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the first world war- when it started, what were the two rivalling groups of countries.

Body-

Discuss in points about the reasons responsible for the loss of the central powers in the first world war. E.g Schlieffen plan of the Germany failed; Allied seapower was decisive enforcing a deadly blockade Which caused desperate food shortage and crippled exports  of the central powers; The German submarine campaign failed in the face of convoys protected by British American and Japanese Destroyers; entry of USA brought new resources to the allies which made up for the departure of Russia from the war; Allied political leaders at the critical time where more competent than those of the central powers;  continuous strain of heavy losses told on the Germans and made them lose their best troops in the 1918 offensive and the new troops were young and inexperienced etc.

conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

3) Discuss the structure, priority areas and various achievements of the Food and Agriculture organization.(250 words)

Reference

Wikipedia

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the structure of FAO. It also wants us to write in detail about the priority areas of FAO and its various programmes and achievements.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about FAO. e.g The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger; Its goal is to achieve food security for all and make sure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives. With over 194 member states, FAO works in over 130 countries worldwide etc.

Body

  • Discuss the structure of FAO. e.g The agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states (serve three-year rotating terms) that acts as an interim governing body, and the Director-General, that heads the agency.FAO is composed of eight departments: Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Climate, Biodiversity, Land and Water Department, Economic and Social Development, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Forestry, Corporate Services and Technical Cooperation and Programme Management.
  • Discuss the priority areas of FAO. e.g Help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; Make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable; Reduce rural poverty etc.
  • Discuss the achievements of FAO. e.g FAO and the World Health Organization created the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1961 to develop food standards, guidelines and texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/ WHO Food Standards Programme. The main aims of the programme are protecting consumer health, ensuring fair trade and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; World Food Summit; International Plant Protection Convention etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


Topic– Issues related to health

4) Universal health coverage is getting prioritised as a part of political reform with the launch of two pillars of the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY). Explain these pillars and analyze how the insurance model under NHPM be implemented to cover maximum people at lowest cost?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The focus of the government is on improving the health outcomes for which PMJAY rests on two pillars. The article discusses the issues with the insurance model adopted under NHPM and suggests how the insurance model can lead to enhanced coverage for maximum people at lower price. Issues related to healthcare, and particularly the closer examination and analysis of aforementioned scheme is quite important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer the following points

  • Explain the two key pillars of PMJAY – what it seeks to achieve and how
  • Discuss NHPM in greater detail and being out the issues with the insurance model as envisaged
  • Discuss how the coverage and effectiveness of insurance model under NHPM be enhanced

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the two pillars of PMJAY and emphasize that the focus has shifted on universalizing healthcare with the launch of these schemes

Body

  • Explain the details of AB and NHPM – their aim, how these schemes plan to achieve these goals, the principles of the working of these schemes.
  • Discuss National Health Protection Scheme in greater detail. Bring out the issues with the current health insurance model. Discuss why achieving the targets under NHPM would be challenging considering the inefficiencies at various levels in the system and the limitations with the capacity of the company and the government.
  • Discuss how the outcomes under the NHPM be enhanced to ensure more robust insurance coverage

Conclusion – Give your view on these programs launched and discuss the way forward for enhancing effectiveness.


General Studies – 3


Topic-  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges

5) What do you understand by data localisation? Discuss the importance of data localisation for India and analyze India’s present and proposed policies related to data localisation with respect to their effectiveness?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Data, it is said, is the new capital in digital age. The article discusses why the issue of data localization is important for a country and the issues with the policies related to data localization. Such issues have become important, because of the debates raised by Srikrishna committee. The article would help us prepare the issue of data localisation which has been an issue of debate.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer the following points

  • The meaning of data localization and what it entails
  • The benefits that get accrued out of data localization
  • The issues and challenges faced as a result of policies – present and proposed, related to data localization. We have to bring out how the provisions related to data localisation be made more effective.

Directive word

Discuss – Here the importance of data localization for a country is to be brought out.

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – In the introduction, explain what is meant by data localisation.

Body

  • Bring out the reasons why data localization is important – security, data as a resource, socio economic benefits. The reasons have to brought out in detail. Mention that reports suggest that cross-border data flows contributed $2.8 trillion to the global economy in 2014, which is expected to touch $11 trillion by 2025. Data has often been referred to as the new oil, an economic resource, that is fuelling the fourth industrial revolution.
  • Thereafter, we need to analyse the policies related to data localisation. Mention that like in many other countries, the political narrative in India also seems to be tilting towards data localisation. This may be gauged from recent developments in the regulatory and policy frameworks on data governance, which may compel companies to set up their data centres within Indian shores.
  • Highlight the indian policies related to data localisation – Goals set in the Draft National Digital Communications Policy 2018, along with various government notifications and guidelines such as Reserve Bank of India’s notification on Payment Data Storage 2018, and the Guidelines for Government Departments for Contractual Terms related to Cloud Storage 2017, show signs of data localisation. Discuss the rationale behind them and also analyze whether they help in furtherance of the objective of data localization. Also mention Srikrishna committee recommendations related to data localisation

Conclusion – Give your view on the present policies related to data localisation and the way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic: Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;

6) Discuss some of the philosophical dilemmas faced by the present generation, as part of a modern society.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about some of the philosophical dilemmas faced by the present generation, as part of a modern society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about how the present age is different from the previous ages- growing consumerism; increasing role of technology; stress on individualism etc.

Body-

Discuss in points/ paragraphs, the philosophical dilemmas faced by the present generation. E.g We all like to be free to say what we think – nobody should have the right to censor us, or to threaten us with harm if we don’t shut up. At the same time, most of us would accept that context matters, and that what some people say can cause harm to others; In a globalised world where supply chains reach all around the globe, it’s almost impossible to know the stories behind the assembly of all the items in your wardrobe and office- Given our general awareness of these facts, is it wrong to buy a product whose production probably depends on harsh conditions further up the supply chain? Should we, for example, boycott products until those selling them provide assurances about how they were made, even if that bumps the price up a bit?;  the dilemma of immigration and immigration controls; when social norms appal us, we should realise that those who obey them are typically conforming. Not conforming can lead to ostracisation, sometimes for entire families, which can then impact on the next generation when trying to find spouses of their own. Strange as it may sound to us, conformity, hard as it may be, can still be the rational choice etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions

7) Object of the law should be maximum happiness of maximum number. Comment in the context of India.(250 words)

Why this question

The World Happiness Report (WHR) 2018, which ranked 156 countries, placed India at the 133rd place on the index of global happiness. While India’s performance on this can be attributed to several factors, there’s no denying the fact that there is an intrinsic relationship between law and people’s happiness. The article has explored this interrelationship between law and people’s happiness which is important in India’s context.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first bring out the meaning of the statement mentioned which is that the objective of law should be maximum happiness for maximum number. We have to bring out what is the linkage between law and happiness of maximum number. Next, we have to bring out that relationship in the context of India.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Initially we have to mention that the statement mentioned is a part of utilitarian philosophy.

Body

  • Explain what is meant by maximum happiness of maximum number and how law can bring about happiness.
  • Analyse the pros and cons of the statement and give your view on whether that is indeed the object of law, or is it something else. Debate over the ‘object of law” and give your interpretation
  • Discuss in the context of India whether laws are designed to ensure maximum happiness of ten greatest number.

Conclusion – Give your view on the statement asked.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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