[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 SEPTEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) Discuss the contribution of India to war efforts during world war 1? How was India awarded by the British for war efforts?(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question

The article highlights the role played by Indian soldiers in liberating Palestine from turkish hold during world war 1. The contribution of Indian soldiers to war efforts on World war 1 is often unrecognised and has come to the forefront only in recent years. This makes it one of the lesser asked questions, yet quite important for history section of GS1.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer the following points for this question

  • The situation in India at the time of world war and the response of INC to India’s participation in world war 1
  • The detailed summary of how Indian army contributed to war efforts in World war 1
  • The response of the British post the war – whether they made any efforts for granting self government to India post the war

Directive word

Discuss – Here, your discussion should bring out the situation prevailing in India during world war 1, the conditions for support if any, and the detailed contribution of Indian soldiers to world war 1.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – mention that when war broke out in 1914, India was in a state of growing political unrest. The Indian National Congress had gone from being a group that simply discussed issues to a body that was pushing for more self-government. Before the war started, the Germans had spent a great deal of time and energy trying to stir up an anti-British movement in India. Many shared the view that if Britain got involved in a crisis somewhere in the world, Indian separatists would use this as an opportunity to advance their cause.

Body

  • Mention that these fears were unfounded. When war was declared on August 4th, India rallied to the cause. Those with influence within India believed that the cause of Indian independence would best be served by helping out Britain in whatever capacity India could – including the Indian National Congress.
  • Highlight the contribution of Indian soldiers in world war 1 – India made a huge contribution to Britain’s war effort. It sent staggering numbers of volunteers to fight and die on behalf of the allied forces. Almost 1.5 million Muslim, Sikh and Hindu men from regions such as the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Bihar volunteered in the Indian Expeditionary Force , which saw fighting on the Western Front, in East Africa, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Gallipoli. Volunteering offered a chance to break through the caste system, because becoming a soldier paid well and meant becoming part of the ‘warrior’ caste, which gave high status. However, of these men, around 50,000 died, 65,000 were wounded, and 10,000 were reported missing, while 98 Indian army nurses were killed. The country also supplied 170,000 animals, 3,7 million tonnes of supplies, jute for sandbags, and a large loan (the equivalent of about £2 billion today) to the British government.
  • Discuss how British government “rewarded” India for the war efforts – government of India Act. Mention that because no substantial steps were taken for self government, Gandhi responded with khilafat and non Cooperation movement

Conclusion – Mention that Indian contribution is often unrecognised and it is only recently that India has started creating awareness of the role played by it in both world wars.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Climate of India”

2) How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes? Comment. (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the impact that human intervention has had on altering monsoons of India and also requires us to explain how and why those interventions have impacted the monsoons.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what humanizing landscape means – Humanizing the landscape can be defined as changing the natural landscape architecture as per requirement of human beings like Urbanization or Industrialization. All these make disturbances in hydrological cycle of atmosphere either reducing or increasing the rate of evaporation and ultimately cause to change the pattern of Indian Monsoon

Body

  • Explain the impact that humanizing landscape has had – bring out the impacts such as destruction of wetlands, deforestation, use of concrete, agriculture, dam construction etc
  • Explain how these factors have impacted the monsoons – explain that Devastation of wetlands in urban areas such as lake or ponds is one of major reason of irregular rain pattern in big cities like Chennai or Srinagar, deforestation has caused changes in carbon budget impacting rainfalls etc

Conclusion – discuss that anthropogenic factors are a major factor leading to climate change.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – Role of civil services in a democracy.

3) One of the neglected areas of reforms of India’s senior civil services relates to the rationalisation of its branching structure and the related debate of generalist vs specialist services. Comment.(250 words)

epw

Why this question

Civil services in India are in dire need for reforms on various fronts. This article discusses the aspect of inter-services disparity in India higher civil services and discusses the implications of the same as well as how to end this problem practically.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  .

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve into the branching structure and division of India’s higher civil services into generalists and specialists, and express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and bring out the need for reforms in this aspect of civil services.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the need for reform in India’s higher civil services. E.g need to reform method and mode of recruitment and selection, promotion and performance evaluation, tenure and stability, job security and time-bound promotion, lateral entry and equal opportunity etc.

Body-

Discuss the need rationalisation of its branching structure and the related debate of generalist vs specialist services. E.g  The periodic restructuring of individual branches has hardly achieved any objective goal with a long-term reform focus. Essentially, these exercises have been reduced to the rigmarole of inter-service comparison and then trying to ensure career/promotion prospects vis-à-vis other branches, often resulting in increasing the size of the service/branch, and creating a redundant structure and superfluous posts, especially at the senior management level. The result has been that no meaningful or rational end has been achieved, to say nothing of visionary change; Further, as all these services have a theoretical parity with the IAS, the very different reality that actually prevails has a further dampening effect. A recent Government of India study itself has rightly identified that at the national level, the issue of IAS officers occupying most of the senior management-level posts is a cause of deep concern and resentment among other branches; mention that  in this era of highly dynamic social and economic challenges of our country, and also in light of the fact that these challenges are no less humongous or complex than they were at the time of independence etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) The National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) stresses on the preventive and promotive aspects of healthcare. Discuss.(250 words)

pib

Reference

Why this question

Non-communicable and lifestyle diseases have become increasingly common and there is an urgent need to address such diseases along with the communicable diseases. NPCDCS is one of such efforts of the GOI aimed and it is important to discuss in detail as to how the scheme stresses on preventive as well as promotive aspects of healthcare in India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the NPCDCS scheme and its salient provisions. It wants us to write in detail as to how the scheme caters to the preventive as well as promotive aspects of healthcare.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the burden of non communicable diseases in india and their increasing prevalence due to lifestyle changes, environmental pollution etc. e.g In 2008, out of the 57 million global deaths, 36 million deaths, or 63%, were due to NCDs, principally cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases. Nearly 80% of NCD deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. It is projected that globally NCDs will account for nearly 44 million deaths in 2020.

Body

  • Discuss in detail about the provisions of the  National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS). E.g briefly discuss the objectives of the scheme- Health promotion through behavior change with involvement of community, civil society, community based organizations, media etc. Opportunistic screening at all levels in the health care delivery system from sub-centre and above for early detection of diabetes, hypertension and common cancers. To build capacity at various levels of health care for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, IEC/BCC, operational research and rehabilitation. To support for diagnosis and cost effective treatment at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health care. To support for development of database of NCDs through Surveillance System and to monitor NCD morbidity and mortality and risk factors.
  • Discuss the strategy envisaged by the scheme. E.g Health promotion, awareness generation and promotion of healthy lifestyle Screening and early detection Timely, affordable and accurate diagnosis Access to affordable treatment, Rehabilitation the focus of the programme is on health promotion, prevention, detection, treatment and rehabilitative services at decentralized level up to district hospital under the overall umbrella of National Health Mission for primary and secondary level health care services. The programme division at the national level will develop broad guidelines and strategy for implementation of different components of the programme. The States may adopt and modify these guidelines as per their need and circumstances for implementation of the programme. Involvement of community, civil society and private sector partnership would be vital, and suitable guidelines would be made for the same etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


Topic– Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

5) Analyze the factors that have caused weakening of WTO and the impact it would have on India?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article highlights the various factors that have led to the weakening of WTO and how the policies of WTO have impacted developing countries such as India. At a time when trade war between us and China has had significant bearing on economies of countries such as India and India is in the process of negotiating in mega regional trade deals, the significance, impact and future of WTO becomes important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the the factors off late that have led to dwindling consensus over the principles of WTO, an analysis of what this means for the future of WTO, and how India should respond based on its experiences with WTO.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the current geoeconomic climate and why consensus over trading principles and institutions is dwindling.

Body

  • Explain the factors that have led to a considerable decline in the status of WTO – bring out the opposition of USA under Trump, lack of any significant achievement even two decades post Doha round, the rising number of bilateral and multilateral treaties etc
  • Give your view on whether the status of WTO has actually declined or is it just a minor blip
  • Discuss the impact that policies of WTO has had on India – on the issue of food security, the issue of solar cells, the multiple disputes at the WTO dispute settlement body, the lack of inroads made in services agreement etc

Conclusion – Give your view on what should be India’s response to this – become a part of multilateral trade deals such as RCEP etc , or resort to protectionism or build consensus over WTO’s policies.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6) Fuel (oil)  pricing in this country is more a political statement than an economic exercise. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Epw

Livemint

Why this question

Oil prices in India have been all time high, dragging inflation and inflicting huge expenditure pressure on the common man. It is essential to understand how oil prices are decided in India and whether there is any need of a change in the regime.

Directive word

Critically analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the oil pricing regime in India and discuss in detail as to how it is more a political statement rather than an economic exercise.Based on our discussion we have to form a substantial opinion on the issue as to how should we proceed in this regard.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Mention about the recent spike in global oil prices which has followed a global slump in oil prices.

Body-

  • Discuss the oil pricing regime in the country. Mention that Fuel price were deregulated in 2010 and 2014. The great global oil price slump of 2014 pushed prices below the levels set by the Indian government. So when India abolished price controls that year, local prices actually fell. The government made the most of oil’s continued tailspin by adding a tax on oil rather than passing on the entire reduction to consumers; In India, fuel is priced as if it, and not crude oil, is imported. Though, in reality, India is a net exporter of fuel, with the export value in 2017–18 being almost 32 times the import value of fuel, thanks to the expansion in refinery capacity. But, premised on the misplaced assumption, the calculation of Refinery Gate Price (RGP) and, hence, losses/profits of oil manufacturing companies/refiners assign higher weightage to the import parity price of fuel.
  • Discuss its impact on the economy and the people briefly. E.g whenever international oil prices rise, the oil manufacturers in India make a windfall gain etc. Also discuss the impact on inflation and rise in prices and cost of living etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g India could reinstate its formula for subsidizing the fuels by asking upstream companies to share a part of the burden. Currently, prices of gasoline and diesel are fixed through a complex formula, which is not fully understood. It is based on what the government terms “trade parity price,” or the estimated price of the fuel if it were to be imported and exported in the ratio of 80:20. For now, the government is said to have asked the state-owned oil marketing companies to absorb some of the pain and not pass higher costs on to consumers.


Topic-   Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

7) What do you think are the barriers to achieve financial inclusion in India. Discuss. Also discuss the steps taken by India to improve financial inclusion in the country.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

FInancial inclusion is an essential ingredient for an inclusive development and meaningful participation of all the citizens in the economy. India has been striving hard to become an inclusive society. In this context it is essential to discuss what are the challenges faced by the government in achieving financial inclusion as well as discuss various initiatives taken by the government to ameliorate the situation.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problems faced in achieving financial inclusion in India. It also wants us to discuss in detail about the initiatives taken by the government to improve the situation.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– briefly discuss the importance of financial inclusion for a modern economy- channelizing household savings, forwarding institutional credit, providing opportunities for development etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the barriers to financial inclusion- e.g  low income, poverty and illiteracy and lack of awareness; e branch proximity, timings, cumbersome documentation and procedures, attitude of the bank staff and language.  Low penetration of financial services, less efficiency of business correspondents also limits the success of financial inclusion. Marginal farmers, landless labourers, oral lessees, self-employed and unorganised sector enterprises, urban slum dwellers, migrants or ethnic minorities and socially excluded groups, senior citizens and women are out of the preview of financial inclusion.  Lack of financial literacy and poor marketing of financial products etc.
  • Discuss the programmes initiated by the GOI to promote financial inclusion in the country. E.g National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (NBCFDC); National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC); National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSCFDC);  National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC); National Minorities Finance and Development Corporation (NMDFC). National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation (NHFDC). Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK). MUDRA Yojana etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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