[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 SEPTEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic – part of static series under the heading – “peninsular plateau”

1) On the basis of relief features, what are the broad groups in which peninsular plateau be divided, and explain their physiography?(250 words)

NCERT Physical Geography Pg 16

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. We have to mention the broad divisions of peninsular plateau on the basis of relief and explain their physical features.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the peninsular plateau.

Body – explain the three major division of peninsular plateau on the basis of relief – Deccan plateau, central highlands and north eastern plateau. Explain the distinctive physiography of each of these regions.


General Studies – 2


Topic-   India and its neighborhood- relations.

2) Ties between India and Nepal have witnessed a downfall in the recent times  and continue to be a cause for concern. Critically analyze.(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

India and Nepal share a long history and close association. However the ties have a witnessed a downfall in recent times. It is important to discuss the reasons behind it and the need to ameliorate the situation.

Directive word

Critically analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the issue and bring out the reasons behind the downfall in the Indo-Nepal ties, as witnessed in the recent times. We also have to form a personal opinion on the issue as to how should we proceed in this regard.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the Indo-Nepal relationship- shared culture and long historic ties, open border etc.

Body-

  • Bring out the reasons behind the downfall in the relationship. E.g briefly discuss the Madhesi agitation, the resultant economic blockade and India’s open criticism of the Nepal at that time; mention India’s discomfiture with the volume of Chinese investment in hydropower and infrastructure and transport projects in Nepal; India is also seen as being interfering in Nepal’s internal politics and policy making;  etc.
  • Discuss how should we proceed further. E.g briefly discuss the need to revitalize communication with Nepal; respecting each others’ sovereignty and non-interference in domestic affairs; restricting diplomatically sensitive statements; Nepal’s decision to join China for a 12-day Mt Everest Friendship Exercise in Sichuan province etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Separation of powers between various organs

3) Critically examine whether MPLADS has helped in bridging the gaps in provisioning of public services?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article highlights the issues faced by MPLADS scheme, the findings of the performance of this scheme by agencies such as CAG etc and gives suggestions over the future of this scheme. This issue has been discussed in 2nd ARC as well.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the pros and cons of MPLADS scheme in bridging gaps in provisioning of public services and explain whether the scheme needs to be abolished or reformed.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about MPLADS scheme.

Body – Discuss the status quo wrt MPLADS scheme. Highlight the findings of CAG report and 2nd ARC regarding the performance of the scheme. Highlight the pros and cons of what the scheme is trying to achieve and the process followed in achieving those and issues with it. Finally, we need to provide our opinion as to whether the scheme needs to be reformed, or scrapped.

Conclusion – Give your view on the future of the scheme based on reasoned arguments made above.


TOPIC: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance-
applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency &
accountability and institutional and other measures.

4) Discuss the draft Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018. Also examine how the provisions of the draft bill will affect press freedom.(250 words)

Reference

Indian express

Why this question

With the growth of the digital economy and increasing concerns for privacy, data protection measures are much needed. The draft Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018  has been recently submitted in this regard. However, the draft bill raises several other questions affecting press freedom. It is essential to discuss the bill and its effect on press freedom.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the salient provisions of the draft bill. It also wants us to look deeper and examine how the bill will affect press freedom in the country.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about growing digitization of human life and the pressing concerns of data privacy. Also mention that the draft  Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018 has been recently submitted by the Justice BN Srikrishna committee etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the salient provisions of the bill. E.g The report straddles three aspects – citizens, the state and the industry; it notes that “the right to privacy is a fundamental right and it is necessary to protect personal data as an essential facet of informational privacy;  it calls for protecting the autonomy of individuals in relation with their personal data, to specify where the flow and usage of personal data is appropriate, to create a relationship of trust between persons and entities processing their personal data etc.
  • Discuss how the bill is supposed to affect the press freedom. E.g According to section 27 of the Bill, a data principal has a right to prevent data processor or data fiduciary from using such data that has served its purpose for which it was made or which is no longer necessary, or for which consent given earlier has been withdrawn, or if it is contrary to any law; Section 27(2) states that the adjudicating officer can decide on the question of disclosure when he thinks that such disclosure will override the freedom of speech and the right to information of a citizen. In determining this, the adjudicating officer has to consider five factors listed in sub-section (3);  the freedom to criticise public personalities for their public policies based on their past statements and activities will be in jeopardy, and a journalist has to wait for the decision of the adjudicating officer to get permission for writing about it. A citizen seeking access to such information will be confused about whether to approach the Central Information Commission or the Data Protection Authority (DPA). Adjudicating officers are subordinate to members of the DPA etc.

conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


Topic Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

5) Despite an Act designed specifically for the same purpose, the death of manual scavengers has continued as per data released by NCSK. Examine. (250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question

The article examines the reasons behind the plight of manual scavengers and the reasons behind the same. Despite, an Act designed specifically to ban employment of people as manual scavengers, their continued deaths reflects our apathy and indifference. The question expects us to reflect on these issues, for it is important from GS2 perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the provisions of the Act meant to safeguard the interests of manual scavengers, highlight their status quo and then explain why their status continues to see no improvement. Finally, we have to discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention about the spate of deaths of manual scavengers in recent past. Explain about the purpose of the the employment of manual scavengers and Construction of dry latrines (prohibition) Act, 2013.

Body

  • Explain the provisions of the Act meant to safeguard the interest of manual scavengers –
  • The new Act looks at manual scavenging from the point of view of restoring human dignity and human rights and talks about rehabilitation
  • Section 7 of the Act which prohibits employment of manual scavengers and prescribes punishment for the same
  • The provisions related to NCSK etc
  • Discuss the status quo – although manual scavenging is illegal, Maharashtra employs 35% of 180,657 Indian families whose livelihood depends on unblocking excreta-packed sewers in those dank lanes, railways is also a huge employer. Moreover, more than 300 people died due to manual scavenging in 2017 alone. Reflects issues with the act and in its implementation
  • Discuss the reasons why the Act is failing – does not spell out the  responsibilities and accountability of the local authorities that will supervise rehabilitation, the law is not being enforced, and there is no fear of penalties, Mechanised cleaning of septic tanks is the prescribed norm. But in spite of a well-funded programme such as the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in operation, little attention is devoted to this aspect of sanitation. The requirements of worker safety and provision of safety gear for rare instances when human intervention is unavoidable are often ignored etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the continued violation of the rights of manual scavengers and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 3


TopicConservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6) Examine the factors behind the high levels of pollution in Indian rivers. What can be done to protect our rivers from degradation and slow death. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Rivers are the lifeline of any society and these lifelines have been subjected to pollution, overexploitation to the levels that many of them are beyond restoration. In this context it is important to discuss the state of the major rivers in India and discuss the strategy needed to prevent them from being degraded and dead.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the state of the major rivers in India- their pollution levels, encroachment and major issues affecting them. It then wants us to discuss the strategy needed to prevent them from being degraded and dead.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the importance of rivers for agriculture, domestic use, industry etc. Mention some of the schemes formulated for river conservation- Namami Ganga; AMRUT; National River Conservation Plan etc. mention that most of the rivers in India are in bad health, highly polluted etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the state of indian rivers. Mention the findings of some authentic reports and studies e.g A Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) report of 2015 brought out the fact that 61,948 million litres of urban sewage is generated on a daily basis in India. But the cities have an installed sewage treatment capacity of only 38 percent of this. In reality more than this amount goes untreated into the rivers or water bodies as the treatment capacity of major sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the country is around 66 per cent of the installed capacity as per CPCB findings of 2013. As a result, more than 38,000 million litres of waste water goes into the major rivers, water bodies and even percolates into the ground every day. Over and above this there is industrial effluent. The data on the raw sewage from rural areas is not available; The top five states showing maximum number of polluted stretches are Maharashtra, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and West Bengal. Estimated polluted riverine length is 12,363 km, which is almost five times the length of Ganga main stem etc.
  • Discuss the strategy needed to protect the rivers in India. E.g building adequate no. of STPs; creating awareness about the importance of the rivers and involving civil society in conservation programmes; Decentralized In-situ treatment is simple and easy-to-operate and does not require major modification of the drain; On the industrial side, the plan to bring all liquid effluent discharge from textile units and tanneries to zero has to be pursued vigorously, giving industries the assistance to help them choose the best technologies for the recovery of wastewater for reuse etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

7) What do you understand by Tolerance and why is it an important value. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning of the term tolerance and also discuss in detail as to why it is an essential value.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a simple definition of tolerance- e.g Simply stated, tolerance is “recognizing and respecting others’ beliefs and practices ,without sharing in them”.

Body-

  • Discuss the meaning of the term further in detail. E.g Tolerance is respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world’s cultures, our forms of expression and ways of being human. It is fostered by knowledge, openness, communication, and freedom of thought, conscience and belief. Tolerance is harmony in difference. It is not only a moral duty, it is also a political and legal requirement. Tolerance, the virtue that makes peace possible, contributes to the replacement of the culture of war by a culture of peace etc.
  • Discuss why the value is important. E.g Being tolerant of each other and caring for each other is what makes us human.  By teaching tolerance, we allow individuality and diversity while promoting peace and a civil society; Being kind and accepting of others, regardless of their race, religion, culture, gender, or economic background is at the heart of every philanthropic act. Being tolerant of others is acting for the common good etc.

Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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