[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 SEPTEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic-  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Deporting all illegal migrants from India is not a feasible and recommended solution. Comment.(250 words) 

Economic times

Why this question

Citizenship in India has been subjected to many upheavals recently. NCR exercise and the proposed decision to deport all immigrants have been at the core of this controversy alongwith the discussion to scrap Article 35. But the issue of deportation of all immigrants is not a feasible and recommended solution, as has been discussed in the article.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our understanding as to whether deportation of all illegal immigrants is a feasible and a recommended solution, or not. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid facts/ arguments/ examples.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the illegal immigrants in India- e.g An illegal immigrant in India is a person residing in the country without an official permission as prescribed by relevant Indian law. Those who are explicitly granted refugee status do not fall under this category.

Body-

Discuss in points why deporting all immigrants from India is not a feasible and recommended solution. all migrants from India is not a feasible and recommended solution. E.g mention the problems associated with the exercise to demarcate legal and illegal immigrants- like the problems of exclusion as seen in the Assam NRC exercise; some illegal immigrants would be difficult if not impossible to deport- like the Tamilians from the Sri Lanka; Gorkhas and Lepchas from Nepal; India has no agreement with nearby governments for large-scale deportation etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian economy: Issues

2) The falling value of rupee will lead to several problems in Indian economy. Examine the causes of the problem and suggest steps to deal with this challenge?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article talks about the reasons why rupee has been depreciating in value, the impact of falling value of rupee on inflation and other economic factors and ways in which the current slide can be attested. Since the falling value of rupee, and rising oil prices have been dominating the news headlines for some time now, getting into the depth of reasons behind the same would be useful for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer three aspects

  • The reason behind the falling value of rupee
  • The impact of the falling value of rupee
  • Steps to arrest the slide in rupee’e value or mitigate the ill effects of rupee’s slide

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the issue in brief.

Body

  • Discuss reasons for the falling value of rupee
    • External factors such as rising interest rates in USA, which means that flight of capital has taken place from developing countries like India. Discuss that dollar has appreciated against other currencies
    • Developing economies are typically even harder hit since global portfolio investors tend to withdraw from these markets, perhaps because their economic or political fundamentals are relatively more unstable. Countries such as Turkey and South Africa have experienced significantly higher rates of devaluation than India.
    • Increasing crude oil prices which is impacting our CAD etc
  • Discuss the impact of falling rupee value on inflation, cad, price of essential imports etc
  • Suggest steps through which the after effects can be mitigated or the slide in the value of rupee be mitigated – RBI intervening by offloading large amount of dollars,  raise interest rates, borrow from NRIs by floating NRI bonds etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the impact being faced as a result of sliding value in rupee and discuss the way forward.

 


Topic– Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies

3) Examine the issues in Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana and discuss ways through which the coverage under this scheme can be enhanced?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article talks about the challenges faced by one of the most important scheme initiated by this government for improving the status of farmers and suggests ways through which the scheme can be made more effective. Since PMFBY, has already been asked in UPSC in the past couple of years, the scheme and the challenges faced in its implementation needs to be prepared in depth.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer the following points

  • Details of PMFBY and status quo
  • Issues in PMFBY
  • Suggestions to make the scheme more efficient and effective such that the coverage under the scheme be increased

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give details about PMFBY and the status of coverage under the scheme.

Body

  • Discuss how PMFBY has been an improvement over past schemes – more farmer friendly, with sums insured being closer to the cost of production. The scheme’s linkage with parallel programmes like the ‘Jan Dhan Yojana’ and ‘Digital India’ makes it a truly inclusive and welfare-based scheme. The scheme therefore led to increased coverage of 5.7 crore farmers in 2016 and the sum insured crossed Rs. 200,000 crore.
  • Discuss the issues remaining still in the scheme – outmoded method of crop loss assessment; inadequate and delayed claim payment; high premium rates; and poor execution. Consequently, in 2017, the expansive coverage of the scheme suffered some setback as seen in a drop of nearly one crore farmers in enrolment (about 17%). Such shortcomings have inspired recent announcements such as that of Bihar to start its own scheme, the “Bihar Rajya Fasal Sahayata Yojna”.
  • Suggest ways to improve the scheme – Faster and appropriate claim settlement:Timely estimate of loss assessment is the biggest challenge before the PMFBY; To improve the efficacy of the PMFBY, technology use must be intensified. With options such as available today, such as detailed weather data, remote sensing, modelling and big data analytics; The whole process of monitoring can be made accessible and transparent to farmers, policy-makers and insuring agencies alike through an online portal etc

Conclusion – Give your view on how PMFBY can be improved and suggest way forward.


Topic– Disaster and disaster management.

4) Recent cases of bridge collapses in India call for a prompt institutional revamp and close oversight. Critically Analyze.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question

India has recently witnessed a series of cases of bridge collapses. In this connection it is important to analyze the reasons behind the same and identify the possible solutions in this regard.

Directive word

Critically analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue of collapsing bridges in India and analyze its important aspects- what are the reasons behind this and what could be the plausible solutions in this regard.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about bridge collapses in India and across the world.

Body-

  1. Discuss the reasons behind such bridge collapses. E.g All reinforced concrete (RCC) structures, including bridges, are prone to corrosive deterioration; under hot and humid conditions, the build-up of internal pressure can reduce concrete stiffness and strength, particularly in bridges with huge moving loads on their decks; corruption and use of sub-standard material, usually in collusion of the government officials etc.
  2. Discuss what could be the possible solutions. E.g There’s an urgent need to systematically and thoroughly fill up gaps in bridge maintenance and renewal nationwide; swiftly identify structurally deficient bridges, especially those in dense urban centres with speedily rising vehicular traffic, and better allocate resources for the specific and express purpose of repair and replacement; New avenues for resource allocation for bridge maintenance need to be explored and acted upon; public-private partnerships need to be duly formalised; need for central oversight for bridge maintenance. Modern satellite systems can now monitor bridge deformations down to the millimetre level in real time.
    The use of such systems for bridge monitoring must be made routine etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion form a fair and balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Security challenges and their management in border areas

5) Defence modernization, though for long a stated aim, must be taken up with priority. Analyze.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article talks about the status of military in India, the recommendations of the committees formed for military modernization and the shortcomings along with way forward for the modernization drive military. This question would enable you to prepare for military modernization section of paper 3.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to provide an answer to the following issues

  • The nature and type of modernization expected
  • Status quo related to military modernization
  • Recommendations of the committee formed for the said purpose
  • Issues in the current scenario
  • Way forward

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – India has millions of military personnel, billions of dollars in arms spending and grave threats on its borders, and yet the project of defence modernization has been progressing at less than desired pace.

Body

  • Explain that according to Parliament’s Standing Committee on Defence, some 68% of the army’s equipment holdings belong to the “vintage” category, 24% current and 8% state of the art. A modern, war winning military needs to be state of the art in every dimension – doctrine, organisation, equipment and quality of its personnel.
  • Highlight that various committees formed in the past like shekatkar committee have given wide ranging suggestions for military’s modernization – recommendations related to roll on defence budgets for capital expenditures, performance audit, downsizing or rationalization of manpower, joint services war college etc
  • Highlight that apart from these measures, the country has also went on an indigenization drive in defence manufacturing with reforms brought about in FDI sector in defence as well as Dhirendra Singh committee was formed for giving suggestions in this regard
  • Highlight the issues – suggestions that cuts will take place in Signals and Supply units actually goes against the grain of modern warfare, which emphasises quick moving forces and long range precision strikes, reducing numbers does not necessarily translate into reducing expenditure. Indeed, in the short run, it will be the other way around. The reason is that there is need to invest in getting higher quality personnel, pay to train them into their new jobs and re-equip the army with an entire new range of weapons and systems.
  • Discuss the way forward – implementation of shekatkar and Dhirendra Singh committee recommendations

Conclusion – Highlight the tough neighborhood that India lives in and the foreign policy aim of being a net security provider for which modernization of India’s military is a strategic imperative.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “northern plains”

6) How did Northern Plains of India originate? Describe their prominent features and their importance to India’s economy.(250 words)

NCERT India Physical environment Ch 2

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to describe about the northern plains of India, highlight their origin and discuss their contribution to India’s economy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that great northern plains are characterized by their extreme horizontal relief, are divided into four distinct divisions – bhabhar belt, Terai belt, Bangar belt and Khadar belt.

Body

  • Explain the origin of Himalayas – comparatively of recent origin and are believed to have formed by the filling up of a depression resulting from the uplifting of the Himalayas, by deposition of sediments brought by swift-flowing Himalayan rivers, originated in Himalayas.
  • Explain the origin and formation of the four belts mentioned above
  • Bhabhar – made up of pebbles and boulders, the streams flow underground, adjacent to foothills
  • Terai belt: composed of new alluvium, region is damped and thickly forested and receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and has a variety of wildlife.
  • Bangar Belt: composed of old alluvium, forms Gangetic delta, covered by laterite deposits
  • Khadar Belt: made up of new alluvium of the flood zones.
  • Explain its economic significance – discuss the importance of northern plains as the food basket of India, rivers provide an opportunity for inland transportation etc

General Studies – 4


Topic– Lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators

7) Discuss the character and moral attributes of Mahatma Gandhi, which according to you are the reason for his great personality.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about those character and moral attributes of M.K Gandhi which we think are the reasons why Gandhiji is/ should be regarded a great personality.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about M.K Gandhi- e.g He was a great leader with a mass following whose methods were most vital in India’s struggle for independence etc.  

Body– discuss in points/ paragraphs about the character and moral attributes of Mahatma Gandhi, which according to you are the reason for his great personality.

E.g He had the blend of sincerity and efficiency bringing forth the most positive strength Gandhiji accomplished any given task with honesty and diligence. Once a decision was made he gave his all to it; He used to follow up till the end of the task He used to be positive even under all difficult circumstances and had an optimistic view about life and never lost hope ; Looked at life holistically and worked with utmost concentration Treated all work as God given gift and all jobs were of equal importance; Advanced on the path of morality, spirituality and his ethical progress was by being firm on Truth He maintained impeccable integrity in individual life and public conduct etc.

conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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