[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 SEPTEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian society

1) The status of elderly in India has transformed a lot from the era gone by, in part because the society is in the throes of turbulent change. Examine and discuss the role played by Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article talks about the status of elderly people in India, the factors which have led to the change in the status of elderly, the issues plaguing them and the efforts made by the government in addressing their challenges. UPSC in the past has asked about the effect of globalisation on elderly people in India , and thus preparing this topic would bode well for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the status of elderly people in India. Thereafter, we need to examine how the changes in society has affected their status. Next, we need to highlight the issues faced by them, followed by the effort taken by the government through the mentioned Act in improving their status. Finally, way forward has to be mentioned.

Directive word

Examine – The status quo of the elderly, and the reasons for that status quo need to be discussed in this part.

Discuss – Here the focus has to be on the impact of the legislation brought in by the government and how it can be made more effective.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the status quo of the elderly. Mention that the share of the elderly in India living alone or only with a spouse increased from 9 per cent in 1992 to 19 per cent in 2006. Both the share and size of elderly population is increasing over time.

Body

  • Highlight the issues plaguing them and the changes that have taken place in society which is responsible for their current status. Discuss factors that have affected them like lack of infrastructure, changing family structure (mention that Since 1991, the number of households has grown faster than the population. Nuclear families now constitute 70 per cent of all households), lack of social support, social inequality, Availability, Accessibility and Affordability of Healthcare, economic dependency.
  • Discuss how the government through Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act made an attempt to ensure that the elderly in India do not suffer. Thereafter mention that the act made it a legal obligation for children to provide maintenance to parents in the form of a monthly allowance. In 2018, the revised Act seeks to increase the jail term for negligent children, broaden responsibility beyond biological children and grandchildren and expand the definition of maintenance to include safety and security.
  • Highlight the limitations of the Act and discuss way forward

Conclusion – Mention that the share of elderly in population is set to increase and its imperative that we act to protect their interest.


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Effects of globalization on Indian society

2) As the trends of smaller families and reductions in the cost of mobility continue, the present generation of Indians faces a unique challenge on how it approaches its filial obligations. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Directive word

Critically analyze-  Here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.Based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into how the trends of smaller families and reductions in the cost of mobility affect the relationship between the elderly and the young people. It also wants us to highlight the unique challenge faced by the present generation of Indians in how they approach towards their obligations towards the elderly.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the characteristics of traditional Indian family system- joint family, primary role of elders, mutual coexistence and help etc. and mention the growing trends of smaller families and reduced costs of mobility etc.

Body

  • Discuss the trends of  smaller families and reduced costs of mobility e.g Since 1991, the number of households has grown faster than the population. Nuclear families now constitute 70 per cent of all households;  better economic opportunities mean that children are leaving home earlier than they used to, migrating not to the neighbouring town, but across states and countries;Urban living is predominantly nuclear, and only 8.3 percent of the urban elderly live in joint families etc.
  • Discuss the unique challenge faced by the present generation. E.g traditional values have withered faster than in any other generation due to growth-induced geographic mobility and a sense of individualism. On the other hand the elderly population is growing considerable and by 20150 One in every five people will be above the age of 60. Thus the present generations will either prefer modified extended families to replace joint families, or seek social support the elderly etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic– India and its bilateral relations

3) The India-U.S. relationship shouldn’t be allowed to define India’s geopolitical character, strategic future or the limits of its other bilateral relationships. Discuss in light of the recent 2+2 meeting between India and USA?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

India USA 2+2 dialogue has just concluded, and the outcome of the summit needs to be prepared alongwith the overall direction in which India USA relation is heading, and the cautions that India should take going ahead. The article discusses these issues and hence needs to be analyzed in depth.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the outcomes of 2+2 dialogue, keeping in light how the outcomes of the summit affect the issues being faced in this bilateral relationship. We need to bring out the pros and cons of India making compromises to further its relations with USA. Our discussion should also yield the course of action that India should take.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Bring out the overall purpose of the 2+2 dialogue, the background in which it was held, and why the dialogue holds such crucial importance.

Body

  • Discuss in brief the outcomes of the dialogue – expand their bilateral trade and economic partnership with a view to promoting investment and job creation, committed to work together on regional and global issues, including in bilateral, trilateral, and quadrilateral formats. The two sides further decided to establish secure communication between the Minister of External Affairs of India and the U.S. Secretary of State, and between the Minister of Defence of India and the U.S. Secretary of Defense, to help maintain regular high-level communication on emerging developments with a view to strengthen the Defense and Security Partnership etc
  • Discuss the pros and cons of the outcome of the summit in light of the concerns highlighted in the linked article. For instance, discuss why India should have full independence in pursuing foreign policy keeping domestic imperatives in mind, discuss the issues in deepening defence relationship and the impact of COMCASA etc
  • Give your view on the relationship in light of the special nature of the relationship, coupled with the geopolitical challenges being faced etc

Conclusion – Being out the cautions that India should exercise going forward in its bilateral relationship with USA.


General Studies – 3


TopicIndian economy – issues

4) PSBs are currently dealing with difficult issues with no easy solutions. But the current situation is also an opportunity to undertake reforms and strengthen state-run banks. Critically analyze the recommendations of standing committee on finance in this regard?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

NPA is a huge issue being faced by banks since long. Despite several steps having already been taken place to address this issue, results have not come. In this light, the recommendations by the standing committee tries to deal with the problem holistically and needs to be studies while preparing NPA related issues for GS3.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the recommendations of the committee and do a critical analysis of the same. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the issue of NPA being faced by the PSBs and bring out the seriousness of the issue.

Body

  • Discuss the recommendations of the standing committee on finance headed by Veerappa Moily in dealing with the NPA issue – committee has questioned the capital adequacy rules imposed by RBI, particularly for banks that do not have international exposure and are under the prompt corrective action framework, committee has suggested that RBI should consider separate treatment for NPAs arising due to wilful defaults and those because of external shocks, such as policy or judicial interventions, Third, to avoid large haircuts, the committee has recommended fixing a base price for bidding of assets under the bankruptcy process, committee has noted that banks lack the resource base and expertise to engage in long-term project financing, recommended constituting a high-powered committee to evaluate the powers and authority of RBI, among other things
  • Discuss the pros and cons of these recommendations in light of the impact they would have in resolving the problem of NPA for PSBs

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view on the effectiveness of the recommendations and discuss the way forward.


TopicLinkages between development and spread of extremism; Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5) The ambiguous nature of Unlawful Activities Prevention Act,1967 (UAPA)  gives unreasonable power to authorities. Examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Reference

Why this question

UAPA and AFSPA are one of the controversial legislations which have been criticized on various fronts. Recently some activists were arrested under UAPA. The move was highly criticized and so were the provisions of UAPA. It is therefore necessary to understand the controvesory and find out why UAPA gives unreasonable powers to the concerned authorities.

Directive word

Examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the provisions of UAPA, highlight its ambiguous nature and discuss why the law confers unreasonable powers on the authorities.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about UAPA- e.g The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 is India’s anti-terrorism law. The UAPA, along with the National Security Act, 1980, are the two swords of the law that are used to combat terrorism.

Body-

Discuss the ambiguous nature of the provisions of UAPA and how they give unreasonable power to the authorities.

E.g the terms terrorist activities and unlawful activities are vaguely and broadly defined  and the provisions can be used not only against criminals and terrorists but also against the academicians, journalists, lawyers etc.; No definition of membership of an unlawful or terrorist organization which gives scope of flimsy grounds of booking under the act ( briefly discuss the Arup Bhuyan case here); extended detention periods; no anticipatory bail; no bail if prima facie evidence is available etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Tides”

6) What are tides and explain the factors that lead to the occurrence of tides? Explain the various types of tides?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. We need to explain the various factors that lead to the formation of tides as well as the various types of tides based on frequency and based on sun, moon and Earth’s position.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what tides are. Tide are the periodical rise and fall of the sea levels, once or twice a day, caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the sun, the moon and the rotation of the earth.

Body

  • Explain the various factors which are gravitational forces exerted by the sun, the moon and the rotation of the earth. Explain why gravitational pull of moon has a predominant effect
  • Explain the various types of tide
  • Based on frequency – semi diurnal, diurnal and mixed
  • Based on position of sun, moon and earth – spring tides and neap tides. In this also explain what happens to tides during perigee, apogee, perihelion and aphelion

 


General Studies – 4


Topic-Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) What do you understand by the term ethos. Discuss. Also discuss the salient constituents of the Indian ethos.(250 words)

Reference

Wikipedia

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning of the term ethos. It also wants us to write in detail about the salient constituents of Indian ethos.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a simple definition of the term, ethos. E.g Ethos can be defined as the moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society.

Body-

  • Explain the term further in detail. E.g th term is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions, behaviours, and even morals etc.
  • Briefly discuss in points, the basic ethos of the Indian society. E.g : Indian ethos places emphasis on both spirit and matter. Both these are interlinked in holistic approach; Indian ethos emphasizes the holistic aspect between men and cosmic. There is intimate relationship between man and universe, between men and nature. This view states that all human beings and nature are interconnected and interdependent;  Indian ethos stresses on co-operation amongst other at work and otherwise etc.

Conclusion-  sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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