[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 AUGUST 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Indian Diaspora

1) Examine the evolution of India’s policy towards its diaspora over the years and the specific interventions made to mobilize Indian diaspora for India’s advantage? (250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question

The article lists the achievement of Vajpayee regime in mobilizing India’s diaspora for India’s benefit. It lists several important initiatives undertaken by the government to engage our diaspora. The article will help in preparing the aforementioned topic for GS2.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the how our policy regarding our diaspora has evolved over the years. We also need to highlight and explain the specific steps taken by the government to engage Indian diaspora and the advantages it has had.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that diasporas have emerged as powerful entities since they are recognized as ‘soft power’ in the realm of foreign policy strategy and also as an agent or catalyst of economic development of countries of origin beside their active role in the host countries.

Body

  • Highlight that Indian Diaspora has increasingly become more influential over India’s foreign policy and has evolved as a strategic asset for India in the recent decades. Mention that around roughly about 25 million people spread across 135 countries form a part of Indian diaspora.
  • Discuss the evolution of our policy wrt our diaspora –
  • ethnic Indians who chose to remain abroad would consider themselves as citizens or nationals of their respective host lands. In fact, they were encouraged to integrate with host culture and fight for the liberation of their adopted lands
  • Later, when there was a switch of foreign policy priorities from realism to inter- third world cooperation under the regime of Rajiv Gandhi, there was a slight shift in Diaspora policy as well. He offered his amicable support and tried to handle Fiji Indian crisis in 1986, which had strained our relationship with Fiji. Besides, having realized Indian Diaspora as a strategic asset, he invited Indian diasporic talents like Sam Pitroda to realize his vision of 21st century India and took administrative measures like the establishment of Indian Overseas Affairs department in 1984.At the same time, there were no constructive steps or consistent and clear-cut policies to deal or tap the overseas Indians until the coming of National Democratic Alliance government led by BJP.
  • Diaspora  was able to participate in the plethora of economic opportunities of  the unregulated and open Indian economy. It resolved the foreign currency crisis due to substantial investment and remittance from the Indian Diaspora. Subsequently, the Indian government changed its outlook towards Diaspora and reviewed its Diaspora policy. The NDA government led by BJP had initiated major steps to leverage upon the Indian Diaspora for economic growth and also as part of its larger vision of cultural nationalism.
  • Discuss the specific measures undertaken to engage diaspora such as the ones mentioned in the article.

Conclusion – Highlight how significant diaspora is for the development of our country and the way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Money-laundering and its prevention.

2) What do you understand by Money laundering. Discuss. Also, examine the need to revisit the Prevention of Money Laundering Act.(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Money laundering is a key concern for the governments across the globe and India is not immune to it. It is therefore important to know the meaning of the concept and discuss the need to modify the law related to it.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about money laundering- definition, purpose, means etc. It also wants us to discuss why there is a need to relook the PMLA.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few lines about the meaning of money laundering- e.g Money laundering is the process of creating the appearance that large amounts of money obtained from criminal activity, such as drug trafficking or terrorist activity, originated from a legitimate source. The money from the illicit activity is considered dirty, and the process “launders” the money to make it look clean.

Body-

  • Discuss the steps in money laundering- Placement-criminally derived funds are introduced in the financial system; Layering-the property is ‘washed’ and its ownership and source is disguised; Integration-‘laundered’ property is re-introduced into the legitimate economy;This three staged definition of money laundering is highly simplistic. The reality is that the so called stages often overlap and in some cases, for example in cases of financial crimes, there is no requirement for the proceeds of crime to be ‘placed’.
  • Discuss why there is a need to relook the PMLA. e.g The term “reason to believe” is a vague term, which is not defined in the PMLA, thus giving wide powers to the enforcement directorate to attach the properties; The concerned authorities appear more interested in putting the accused behind bars and attaching their properties, thus bringing a big stretch of offences covered under Indian Penal Code, Income-tax Act, Wildlife Act, Copyright Act, etc, as shoots of the parent money laundering offences.  Banks also become the “victims of crimes” as they are not able to alienate or dispose of secured assets into their hands to recover the money and bring liquidity and finances into the market, thus increasing NPAs and bad debt etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment;

Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc

3) Greater diversification of energy will be imperative for Indian refining and marketing companies in order to mitigate the disruptive potential of EVs over the longer term. Comment.(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Growing pollution concerns and increasing demand and adoption of EVs which is bound to increase to 40% on medium term basis, are serious threats to the refining and marketing companies of India. Thus it is important to discuss what are the  risks and how to mitigate them.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss the disruptive potential of EVs in the long run and express our opinion as to how risks are posed by them to the Indian refining and marketing companies and how they can be mitigated by energy diversification.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few lines about the growing need to combat air pollution, of which the automobile sector is a major source, and the growing popularity of EVs. Mention their anticipated growth rate.

Body-

  • Discuss further the growing popularity and reducing costs of EVs and mention that strong incentives by countries/governments such as lower taxes and toll exemptions auger well for EV growth. Nonetheless, the main challenge to growth is the need to build adequate infrastructure for charging EVs, which is bound to take time etc. mention that in the near future EVs will have a disruptive effect in automobile sector especially the  refining and marketing companies.
  • Discuss what are the risks posed. E.g mention the growing oil demand; domestic refining and marketing companies’ expansion of refineries to cater to the rising demand for petroleum products as the economy progresses; substitutes in the form of domestic gas and LNG could slow down the demand of other petroleum products like naphtha, furnace oil and LPG, which could put more pressure on profitability.
  • Bring out the need for energy diversification in order to mitigate the risks involved.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Conservation, environmental degradation

4) Examine the impact of increasing human footprint on world’s oceans? Also suggest ways through which we can tide over this crisis?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article talks about the impact humans have had on marine ecology which is a problem which has been in the limelight off late. The article discusses the issue in detail, examining the causes and the effects which makes it useful for preparing environment section in GS3.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the status of world’s oceans, the impact of growing human footprint on the world’s oceans and the ways in which we can mitigate this crisis. We also need to bring out what would happen if status quo is allowed to prevail.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the status of world’s oceans. According to a recent study by the Wildlife Conservation Society, only 13 percent of the planet’s oceans are untouched by human activity. The only unaffected portions are in remote protected parts of the Pacific Ocean and around the poles; even there, apparently, the tide is turning, making the waters unsafe for marine life. Also highlight that dead zones in the oceans have quadrupled.

Body

  • Discuss the ways in which human footprint impacts oceans – exploiting for resources, waste disposal, fishing
  • Discuss humanity’s impact on the oceans through activities such as fisheries, exploitation of other oceanic resources, global warming, plastic pollution etc
  • Bring out the various ways in which the condition can be made better – establishment of protected spaces – The United Nations believes that setting aside sanctuaries in the oceans will help improve the state of fish stocks and the health of marine habitats in general, waste management, lessening the use of plastic, focussing on Blue Economy where IORA has made several strides etc

Conclusion – Highlight why this issues needs our urgent attention and the way forward for cleaner oceans.


Topic – Disaster and disaster management

5) Discuss the reasons why Kerala is experiencing unprecedented flooding? Also, highlight how can we enhance our preparedness for such events?(250 words)

timesofindia

Reference

Why this question

Kerala is suffering from the worst flood the state has experienced in past 100 years. The loss to life and property is immense. We need to understand the reasons why Kerala is facing a situation of such unprecedented havoc, and the ways in which we can enhance our preparedness for such extreme weather events.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the various reasons why the situation in Kerala is so bad. Also we need to bring out the reforms needed in our disaster management efforts to help us better deal with such extreme weather events.

Directive word

Discuss – here your discussion should focus on bringing out the main reasons for such unprecedented disaster in that state.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the situation in Kerala as on date.

Body – Explain the various reasons behind the floods in Kerala – incessant rains, lesser dry spells in between, injudicious land utilisation, non implementation of Gadgil committee recommendations on Western Ghats etc. Highlight the reforms required to help is deal with such disasters effectively. You can discuss the recommendation of 2nd ARC committee with respect to reforms in the area of disaster management.

Conclusion – Highlight that with climate change, such extreme weather events are going to become a norm rather than exception and highlight the way forward.


Topic Part of static series under the heading – “Tsunami”

6) How are tsunamis caused and highlight the areas which are prone to tsunami? Discuss the working of tsunami early warning system? (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question has three parts which need answering. First of all we need to explain what causes tsunamis, the areas where tsunamis are more likely based on the geographical features which cause tsunami. Finally, we need to discuss the different kinds of tsunami early warning systems and their working.

Directive word

Discuss – In your discussion, the explanation to the various parts asked in the question is to be written.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what tsunamis are

Body – Discuss how tsunamis are caused. Examine what physical features are more likely to cause tsunami and mention the areas of the world where the likelihood of tsunami is more. The areas most prone to tsunamis are coastal areas that are near earthquake-prone regions or near areas of undersea volcanoes and face the open ocean. Thus, the coast of Japan, south-east Asia and coastal parts of south-east India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are prone to tsunamis, also Ring of fire in the pacific. Finally, mention the different kinds of tsunami early warning systems such as buoys floating in the ocean, through remote sensing satellites. Explain it as well.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions

7) There is a growing conflict on how public organizations try to balance competing or conflicting values: classical governmental or bureaucratic values vs the businesslike values. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding on the conflicting values of the public organizations and how this conflicts manifest themselves in the public administration.

Structure of the answer’

Introduction- mention the increasing stress on the importance of being pro-business for the governments as well as the increasing need for regulation and control over the complex  economic activities etc.

Body-

  • Discuss what are the conflicting values involved. Classical government/ Democratic values like integrity, neutrality, legality and impartiality on the one hand and ‘businesslike’ values such as efficiency, innovation, responsiveness and effectiveness on the other.
  • Discuss the three approaches to deal with such conflicts- universal approach, stakeholder approach, institutional perspective.
  • Mention the Stewart’s six strategies to manage tensions between competing public values: (1) ‘Cyclical’: attention to different values is distributed during the process; (2) ‘Firewalls’: in which the safeguarding of different values is distributed between different institutions; (3) Casuistry: gathering and consulting a taxonomy of specific cases where similar conflicts arose; (4) Hybridization: policies and practices, derived from different values, can coexist; (5) Incrementalism: conflicts are ‘softened’ through small, minor changes; (6) Bias: in which, dependent on the dominant discourse, preference is given to certain values.

ConclusionConclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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