[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 AUGUST 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1) Analyze the trends and patterns of internal migration in India. Discuss the factors responsible for internal migration in India.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

Migration is an important issue in the present times given the economic and social implications it has on the places of emigrations as well as immigration. The regular censuses conducted by the government of India describe the trends and patterns of such migrations. It is important to analyse them and derive conclusions which will then help in policy formulation and better planning.

Directive word

Analyze-Here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the issue of internal migration in India and bring out the trends and patterns observed therein. It then wants us to write in detail about the factors that drive this internal migration.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention article 15 of the constitution, and write a few lines about internal migration in India. E.g 309 million internal migrants or 30 percent of the population (Census of India 2001), and by more recent estimates 326 million or 28.5 percent of the population (NSSO 2007–2008). You can cite more recent data from any reliable source.

Body-

  • Mention the two broad types of internal migration- Long term and seasonal migration. Discuss in points the trends and patterns of internal migration. E.g  Most short-term migrants belong to socioeconomically deprived groups, such as Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes, having negligible educational attainment, limited assets and resource deficits; Females  (70%) more than males (30%); And a significant portion is child migrants; The shares of inter-district and interstate migrants are 24 and 13 per cent, respectively. Interstate migration has increased at the fastest rate since economic liberalization; Key destination states: Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Karnataka; Migrants are mostly employed in the following subsectors: construction, domestic work, textile, brick-kilns, transportation, mines, quarries and agriculture.
  • Discuss the factors which drive India’s internal migrants. E.g marriage; work, employment, business, education; movement with household; Factors such as low income, low literacy, high poverty and dependence on agriculture are cited as some examples of push factors associated with places of origin. By contrast, high income, high literacy, the dominance of industries, and services are among the pull factors associated with places of destination etc.

Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Role of civil services in a democracy

2) India’s lateral entry programme has the potential to introduce new thinking and new expertise into key ministries. In this context, discuss how the idea can be successfully implemented on the ground.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Although the topic has already been extensively covered (discussed in previous questions), the above-cited article provides new insights into the issue. It provides us with a guide, as to how the scheme can be implemented more effectively on the ground.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to briefly highlight the importance of allowing lateral entry into civil services and then discuss in detail as to how the scheme can be effectively implemented on the ground.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few lines about the positive implications of allowing lateral entry into civil services- e.g bringing fresh talent with different experiences from outside, introduce new thinking and new expertise into key ministries; enthusing competition among civil servants etc.

Body-

Discuss in points, what needs to be done in order to ensure that the idea is successfully implemented on the ground.

E.g Establish objective criteria- The key decision makers involved in making a senior appointment need to pre-determine what skills, qualities and experiences the role requires; Having objective criteria also gives decision makers confidence that their appointments will be able to stand up to public scrutiny without fear of seeming biased towards or against candidates.

Target the talent you need- It must proactively identify and approach executives with the desired skills and experience.

Look for potential to succeed in this environment- resilience, ability to engage with others, curiosity etc.

Conclusionsum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


Topic– India and its bilateral relations

3) A hasty normalization of the Taliban into Afghan polity could leave New Delhi as a spectator in the great game in Afghanistan. Critically analyze. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Afghanistan has huge significance for Indian foreign policy as well as domestic security. Trump administration has been making several knee-jerk changes in their foreign policy which has implications for India in the Afghan great game. This article analyzes these aspects in great detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to analyze the causes why Taliban is being reintegrated into the peace process in Afghanistan, the role various actors are playing in Afghanistan with special emphasis on India’s role and goals. Finally we need to discuss the impact on India of the recent developments and how we should go about handling it.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. You need to conclude with  a fair judgement, after analyzing the nature of each component part and interrelationship between them.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the current status of India’s relation with Afghanistan and the significance of Afghanistan for India’s foreign policy and domestic security.

Body

  • Give a brief explanation of the significance of Taliban in Afghan polity and how they are being included in the peace process – first by USA, next in the Heart of Asia conference, and again based on feelers received from Trump’s policy.
  • Explain the role played by various actors in Afghanistan like NATO, USA, china, Russia and particularly India.
  • Discuss whether it would be in India’s interest to take part in negotiation process with Taliban , or India should continue with its current policy of distinction between good and bad terrorists
  • Discuss the impact on India if it is left out of the peace process in Afghanistan

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view on how should India’s Afghan policy be.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

4) What do you understand by a “Hothouse Earth” scenario. Discuss. Also, critically analyze whether such a scenario is our destiny, or mere speculation.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

“Hothouse earth” scenario was recently a buzzing topic  all across the global media. The public response has been triggered by a recent research on the topic, which has put forward a similar but more nuanced picture. It is hence essential to know about the concept as well its significance.

Directive word

Discuss- Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Critically analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue and identify and discuss about all the related and important aspects and correlate them to satisfy the key demand of the question.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Hothouse Earth scenario. It then wants us to dig deep into the issue and discuss whether such a scenario is our destiny ( that can’t be avoided or can be avoided) or is it a mere speculation- i.e we have to analyze the veracity of the findings and then form an opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write a few lines about the meaning and the significance of the term HE scenario. E.g mention that there is a threshold temperature above which the Earth Climate system would lose their feedback system, which keeps it cool, and a cascade of climate events will thrust the planet into a “hothouse” state. The threshold temperature is speculated to be 2 degree Celsius higher than the preindustrial levels, which could be reached at the turn of 2050 etc. Discuss the triggers that could lead to such scenario. Preferably draw the diagram as given in the article attached to the question.

Body-

  • Discuss the nuances involved in the findings. E.g it is an already familiar though in scientific circle which just got more media and public attention; the research is theoretical; the earth climate system is highly complex and unpredictable; human interventions or a major climatic event could change the possibility of the scenario etc.
  • Discuss the high possibility of a warmer earth with all its implications in the near future even though the scenario may not be as extreme as HE scenario.

Conclusion– stress upon the need to reduce our emissions, use sustainable technologies  etc in order to preserve our earth and its life etc.


Topic–  Indian economy – issues

5) Comment on the major issues confronting Indian macro economy today and discuss how we should deal with these challenges?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Off late, there have several challenges confronting Indian economy. The article discusses these challenges, analyzes the steps taken. Understanding the main challenges confronting Indian macro economy today, when there are conflicting views on performance of India’s macro economy is thus important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the major challenges to India’s macro-economy, in your opinion. Discuss what steps are being taken and what should be the way forward.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the status of India’s macro-economy. give facts and figures on India’s GDP, growth rate, inflation etc

Body – Discuss the main challenges to India’s macro-economy in your opinion. You can either discuss the challenges mentioned in the article such as NPA, rupee depreciation etc. Also discuss the positives. You can also discuss other issues plaguing India’s macro-economy and give justification as to why those issues are critical. Next we need to highlight the steps government has been taking and the way forward. For instance, in case of NPA, mention that government has been taking a string of measures like S4A, asset recapitalisation etc but without much of a dent. Discuss the way forward in brief for each of these challenge.

Conclusion – comment on the robustness of India’s macro-economy.


Topic Part of static series under the heading – “Continental Drift Theory”

6) Discuss the limitations of the theory of Continental Drift and show how the theory of Plate Tectonics is an improvement over it?(250 words)

NCERT Physical geography Ch4, Class XI

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the limitations of the theory due to which scientists were unwilling to accept the theory, and bring out the reasons why the Theory of Plate Tectonics is an improvement over continental drift theory

Directive word

Discuss – here in your discussion , you need to bring out the reasons why continental drift theory faced resistance and the reasons why plate tectonics provides a better explanation for the Earth’s Structure.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain continental drift theory along with the person who gave this theory.

Body – discuss the limitations of the theory why there was reluctance in accepting the theory – not enough satisfactory explanation to the forces or mechanism that caused these continents to move such great distances. explain what Wegner had to say in this regard and why it was non explanatory. Explain how the theory of plate tectonics covers this aspect thus becoming an improvement over continental drift theory. When the Plate Tectonics Theory was proposed, mantle convection currents was the given mechanism to explain what made them move. Since the continents floated on the plates, the Plate Tectonic Theory provided the much needed mechanism for Wegner’s Continental Drift theory. At once it was readily accepted by most all geologists.

Conclusion – Mention that plate tectonics is the most widely accepted theory.


General Studies – 4


Topic-Challenges of corruption.

7) In order to tackle corruption in a better way, it should be viewed as a collective action problem rather than recognizing it as a principal-agent problem. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

The article brings in a paradigm shift in our perception of corruption and provides a possibly better way of handling it.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to think carefully about the given statement and make an opinion in favour or against it-  whether in order to tackle corruption in a better way, it should be viewed as a collective action problem rather than recognizing it as a principal-agent problem. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion elucidating our arguments in its support.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- briefly describe the concept of principal-agent problem. E.g A principal-agent problem is a problem in which one or more actors (individuals, organizations etc. )–the “agents”–are entrusted with authority to act on behalf of some other individual, group, or cause (the “principal”). Anti corruption measures under this understanding provide solutions which typically include oversight mechanisms to inform the ‘principals’ and sanctions to incentivize the ‘agents’.

Body-

  • Briefly discuss the and collective action problem. E.g A collective action problem involves a situation in which some group of actors would all be better off if they could all choose some action, but for any one individual, that individual would be better off “defecting”.
  • Discuss whether it is better to recognize corruption as a collective action problem rather than a principal-agent problem.  Take the help of the articles attached to the question to frame your discussion.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.E.g corruption is both a principal-agent problem as well as the collective action problem and needs to be tackled on both the fronts by devising proper strategies and policies and involving all the sections of the society etc.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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