[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 AUGUST 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

1) The court can strike down an unfair law but it cannot reform the society. Comment in the light of the recent Delhi HC judgement decriminalising begging.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Begging is currently banned in around 20 states of India but at the same time it is a fact of life that we witness everyday on the streets of India. The legislation dealing with begging is a colonial legacy that was recently deemed as unconstitutional by the Delhi HC and hence it is important to discuss the judgment.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion for or against the judgement and present our opinion on whether the anti begging laws in India are unfair or not and why courts can’t reform the society even though it may strike down the law.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the anti begging legislation in India, its relationship with colonialism etc.

Body-

  • Discuss how the anti-begging law in India is unfair. E.g  It gives the police the power to arrest individuals without a warrant. It gives magistrates the power to commit them to a “certified institution” for up to three years on the commission of the first “offence”, and up to 10 years upon the second “offence”. The Act also authorises the detention of people “dependant” upon the “beggar” (read: family), and the separation of children over the age of five. Certified institutions have absolute power over detainees, including the power of punishment, and the power to exact “manual work”. Disobeying the rules of the institution can land an individual in jail. Vague definition of begging etc
  • Discuss the Delhi HC  judgement in detail- and bring out the significance of the ruling.
  • Discuss the limitations in terms of how other states will handle the issue and discuss the imperative of the state to provide the basic necessities of life and a decent quality of living to its people, need for socio-economic development of India’s marginal sections etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic– Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India’s interests

2) Evaluate whether a new refocused Africa strategy is emerging in Indian foreign policy? Discuss the contours of such a policy?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

Modi’s recent visit to Africa for bilateral visits as well as the BRICS summit came at a critical juncture when several countries are vying for establishing a secure foothold in Africa. In this backdrop, India’s Africa Policy has gathered some momentum which merits discussion.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the need for reevaluation of our African outreach, the key challenges therein and how are we responding through those challenges.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the growing competition amongst nations like India, China, USA etc for securing foothold in Africa and PM Modi’s visit to African nations which comes at an opportune time.

Body

  • Explain the need for a reevaluation of our policy for African outreach – highlight the competition and how despite similar goals and challenges, India and Africa relations leave a lot to be desired.
  • Explain the challenges that India has to overcome and the strengths that India can leverage such as presence of Indian diaspora, huge experience in solving similar challenges at home etc
  • Discuss the changes made by India in its policy – India has tried to differentiate itself by engaging with its diaspora and private sector links to build development partnerships, India-Africa forums and is working with Japan on an Asia Africa Growth Corridor etc
  • Discuss the impact of these

Conclusion – Evaluate whether India’s policy counts as a refocused African strategy and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


TopicAwareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

3) What do you understand by open access. Discuss. Also discuss the present and future of open access initiatives in India.(250 words)

Indian express

Reference

Why this question

The way scholars present their research work and communicate with their peers has changed significantly and internet has become the primary medium of communication. Open access initiatives (OA) is built on the foundations of an open and  free knowledge space, which comes with several benefits for developing countries like India as well as the world in general. It is thus essential to know about the concept and its present status and scope for India.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and significance of the “open access”. It then wants us to discuss at length the present status and the future of OAI in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few lines about the OA- Open access is a new trend in scholarly communication which has gained enormous momentum in the recent years In order  to overcome ‘commercialization of scholarly publication’ or ‘serials crisis’ and to communicate the fruits of scholarly literature to a world wide community of researchers and scientists the OA initiative emerged as a revolutionary movement that promotes free access to scholarly publications over the Internet, removes the price and permission barriers and ensures the widest possible dissemination of research. OA literature and journals and are expected to be read more often than those with subscriptions thereby having a higher impact rate.

Body-

  • Discuss the present status of OAI in India. E.g In India poor access to international journals and the low visibility of research papers are the major problems facing Indian researchers. To meet this challenge and to generate a national R&D resource base, an open access approach in line with the Budapest Open Access Initiative is being promoted. Various Indian R&D organizations, leading scientific research institutions (such as Indian Institute of Science, IITs, ISI, institutes under the CSIR and Indian Council of Medical Research etc.) are now taking part in the open access movement by establishing institutional and digital repositories to provide worldwide access to their research literature. Several Indian publishers have already adopted the open-access philosophy for the electronic versions of their journals. Unlike some open-access journals in other countries, in which authors pay to publish their papers, Indian open-access journals use government grants and subscriptions to their print version to cover publishing costs. Another significant development in open access scenario has been the Open-Course-Ware (OCW) which has gain momentum with the announcement of availability of learning resources on the Internet by two important national level organizations, namely IGNOU and NCERT.
  • Discuss the future of such initiatives. E.g mention the challenges involved- low popularity, limited content, Intellectual property issues continue to dominate the OA landscape. As a result many archives are either in the development stage or on the intranets pending clarification of IPR issues etc.

Conclusion–  sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


Topic–  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.

4) In light of the threats from climate change, building a “greener” finance market for India is necessary. Examine.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses about the need for green funds, the problems associated with it, and ways in which the more green funds can be raised and the purposes they can be utilized for. As we see the effects of climate change slowly unfold, green finance is going to become very important and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine the need for a better finance market in India, discuss the issues faced by the sector, and suggest improvements and the impact that green finance will have.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what green finance is.

Body

  • Discuss the need for green finance – discuss the financial aspect of climate change adaptation and mitigation, the environmental aspects and the associated economic aspects.
  • Discuss the status quo wrt green finance – India is among the top issuers of green bonds, total issuances in 2017 stood at $6 billion—a fraction of what’s needed.
  • Examine the issues that are faced by this sector – need for overseeing the expenditure of such funds , diversification of the source of such funds, incentivizing and penalizing companies to ensure that standards set are being met etc

Conclusion – Discuss the impact that mobilizing more green finance would have and the way forward for that.


Topic Part of static series under the heading – “Oceans, continents and landforms”

5) Explain the concept of seafloor spreading and how is it related to the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes?(250 words)

NCERT Class XI Physical Geography – Pg33

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what sea floor spreading is, the evidences that led to the acceptance of this theory by Hess and how the movement of seafloor leads to earthquakes and volcanoes.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what sea floor spreading is.

Body – Give evidences in favour of seafloor spreading which led Hess to give this theory. Discuss how and why earthquakes and volcanoes are common at the oceanic trenches and mid oceanic ridges respectively. Draw a diagram to explain the mechanism more clearly.


TopicPart of static series under the heading – “Gravitation and geo-magnetism

6) What do you understand by the term ‘geomagnetism’? What causes the earth to behave as a magnet? Has earth’s magnetic field changed in it’s geological past? Discuss its implications.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. Answer each part accordingly.

Structure of the answer

Answer the parts of the question in sequence of how they are asked. Keep your answer brief and to the point. Discuss the impacts of reversal of Earth’s magnetic field like – During switching, harmful solar winds might penetrate the magnetic field, causing damage to life on Earth. This is the key point, others you can think of and add.


General Studies – 4


TopicWork culture, Quality of service delivery,

7) Commitment, coordination, and cooperation are the three core functions of institutions that are needed to ensure that development policies yield the desired outcomes. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to express our opinion as to what extent commitment, coordination, and cooperation are the three core functions of institutions that are needed to ensure that rules and resources yield the desired outcomes. We have to form our opinion on the basis of a proper discussion elucidating our arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about how even good policies and solutions fail to intend their desired objectives and even best-practices don’t work well in other places or situations. Bring out the complexity of the problems of the society and governance and the need to realize the maximum out of our resources and efforts.

Body-

Discuss the importance of commitment, coordination, and cooperation as the three core functions of institutions that are needed to ensure that development policies yield the desired outcomes. E.g

Commitment- Commitment enables actors to rely on the credibility of policies so they can calibrate their behavior accordingly. Circumstances change, policy objectives may extend beyond the political cycle, and resources may fail to match, changing the incentives to implement previously chosen policies. In line with the economic theory of incomplete contracts, policies require commitment devices to ensure their credibility. Commitment can be achieved by establishing institutional arrangements that provide sufficient incentives for all stake-holders etc.

Coordination- Credible commitment alone, however, is not sufficient; coordination is also needed. Briefly discuss the problem of lack of coordination between various ministries and departments in India.

Cooperation- Cooperation- policy effectiveness to achieve equitable development requires cooperation, particularly citizens’ willingness to contribute to public goods and not free-ride on others. Cooperation is enhanced by commitment because credible and consistent enforcement of laws is also needed to expand opportunities and level the playing field etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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