SECURE SYNOPSIS: 03 JULY 2018

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 03 JULY 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Discuss how Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA) impinges on  the personal liberty of citizens of India. (250 words)

The hindu

The hindu

Why this question

Personal liberty is an essential fundamental right and any incursion on this inalienable right is a important issue, especially as far as UPSC mains exam is concerned. The issue is related to GS- 2 syllabus under the following heading –

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the salient provisions and procedures of the UAPA act and write in detail about how they affect the personal liberty of the citizens.

Directive word

Discuss- here we have to dig deep into the question and write in detail about all the vital and related aspects of the question- need and evolution of the act, its implications on personal liberty

Structure of the answer

Introduction- mention that pursuant to the acceptance of recommendations of the Committee on National Integration and Regionalisation, the Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963 was enacted to impose, by law, reasonable restrictions in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India. In order to implement the provisions of 1963 Act, the Unlawful Activities act was passed.

Body- Discuss how the act impinges on personal liberty of the citizens.

  • The definition of “unlawful activities” includes “disclaiming” or “questioning” the territorial integrity of India, and causing “disaffection” against India. These words are staggeringly vague and broad, and come close to establishing a regime of thought-crimes.
  • “Membership” of unlawful and terrorist organisations is a criminal offence, and in the latter case, it can be punished with life imprisonment. But the Act fails entirely to define what “membership” entails.
  • Section 43D(5) of the Act prohibits courts from granting bail to a person if “on a perusal of the case diary or the [police] report etc.

Conclusion– Discuss the important cases related to UAPA and mention the imperative to eliminate excessive discretion and denial of judicial review under the act in order to realize the personal liberty of all the citizens of the modern India etc. You can also form your own conclusion.

Background :-

  • Recently five individuals were arrested ostensibly for instigating the riots at Bhima-Koregaon in early 2018 .They have been booked under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA).
  • The UAPA authorises the government to ban unlawful organisations and terrorist organisations (subject to judicial review), and penalises membership of such organisations.

How Unlawful activities prevention act impinges on personal liberty :-

  • The problems begin with the definitional clause itself:-
    • The definition of unlawful activities includes disclaiming or questioning the territorial integrity of India, and causing disaffection against India. These words are staggeringly vague and broad.
  • Membership of unlawful and terrorist organisations is a criminal offence, and in the latter case, it can be punished with life imprisonment. But the Act fails entirely to define what membership entails.Chargesheets under the UAPA often cite the seizure of books or magazines, and presence at meetings, as clinching evidence of membership.
  • Supreme Court attempted to narrow the scope of these provisions, holding that membership was limited to cases where an individual engaged in active incitement to violence. Anything broader than that would violate the constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and of association. The application of this ruling however has been patchy and arbitrary.
    • Under the UAPA, as long as the state’s version appears to make out an offence, a court cannot under law grant bail. Section 43D(5) of the UAPA is effectively a warrant for perpetual imprisonment without trial. For instance on more than one occasion in recent years, terror accused have been acquitted after spending more than a decade in jail.
  • The wide and vague provisions of the UAPA allow governments great and virtually unbridled power to arrest people.
  • UAPA subordinates every other constitutional value like freedom of speech, personal liberty, the right to a fair trial etc to the overarching concern of order. But what the UAPA does is to normalise this “state of exception”, and make it a permanent feature of the legal landscape. 
  • No sunset clause:-
    • Unlike its predecessors, Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act, 1987 and Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002, both of which had provisions for mandatory periodic review, or a sunset clause, the UAPA has no such provision.
    • In addition, the Act authorises the creation of special courts, with wide discretion to hold in-camera proceedings (closed-door hearings) and use secret witnesses but contains no sunset clause and provisions for mandatory periodic review.
  • The 2008 amendments to the UAPA give Indian authorities heightened powers to detain persons without charge, which places them at greater risk of mistreatment and violates basic due process rights.
  • Provisions similar to POTA and TADA:-
    • More provisions similar to POTA and TADA regarding maximum period in police custody, incarceration without a chargesheet and restrictions on bail were incorporated into the UAPA.
      • Furthermore, it allows detention without a chargesheet for up to 180 days and police custody can be up to 30 days.
      • It also creates a strong presumption against bail and anticipatory bail is out of the question.
      • It creates a presumption of guilt for terrorism offences merely based on the evidence allegedly seized.
    • The 2012 amendments to the UAPA further expanded the already vague definition of “terrorist act” to include offences that threaten the country’s economic security.
    • Like the TADA and POTA, UAPA also criminalises ideology and association. By virtue of declaring an organisation ‘unlawful’ or ‘terrorist’ and banning it, these Acts have de facto criminalised their ideologies. Hence mere possession of any literature of such an organisation or even upholding an ideology common to that organisation in the absence of any violent act is construed as an offence.
    • On the other hand, mere membership or association with such an organisation too becomes an offence.
    • Very often, organisations advocating the rights of a certain minority community or that of oppressed sections are easily labelled as fronts of a proscribed organisation under the schedule of the Act. Their activists or members get arrested and remain in prison for years, and are denied bail.
  • The Act introduces a vague definition of terrorism to encompass a wide range of non-violent political activity, including political protest. It empowers the government to declare an organisation as ‘terrorist’ and ban it.
  • Since 2014, various civil liberty and democratic rights organisations throughout the country have initiated campaigns and movements for the repeal of the UAPA.

Conclusion:-

  • Therefore it is imperative to eliminate excessive discretion and there is a need for judicial review under the act in order to realize the personal liberty of all the citizens of the modern India etc. 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2) Critically analyze the implications of space weaponization programme of US, especially in the context of India.(250 words)

The hindu

The hindu

Reference

WHY THIS QUESTION

The US has recently expressed its desire to build space weapons. This is an important issue given the shared space resource and implications for security of space infrastructure and capability to initiate a space weaponization race among countries. The issue is related to GS-2  syllabus under the following heading-

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to analyze the issue of space weaponization thoroughly. We have to discuss the implications of such a decision globally and on India. Based on our discussion,  we have to come with an opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Critically analyze- here we have to dig deep into the issue, bring out all the related and important aspects and come up with a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the space is a region with increasing commercial, civil, international and military interests and investments. Also mention the recent decision by US to to establish a Space Force as the sixth branch of the armed forces.

Body

  • Discuss the implications of such an act. E.g initiating a space weaponization race ( Russia, China); space wars; vulnerability of critical space infrastructure,  it will undermine international and national security, and disrupt existing arms control instruments, in particular those related to nuclear weapons and missiles etc.
  • Discuss the implications for India. E.g lack of capabilities in the present time, apprehensions from China, lack of an official policy even though India is a party to PAROS

Conclusion– mention the need for commitment to peaceful use of space but when other powers are exploring the options of space weaponization, India should engage with multiple stakeholders directly about the role space weapons will play in India’s grand strategy etc.

Background:-

  • Technological developments in space have opened opportunities for many benefits to humanity including global communication systems and geological and meteorological information. The global reach of space lends itself to the development of international systems thus increasing global cooperation and decreasing nation-state based systems and nationalism.
  • 1967 Outer Space Treaty, which is a framework for space activities, specifically allows for space weaponization. It prohibits weapons of mass destruction in orbit, but it allows for any other type of weapon anywhere except for the surface of planets, moons and asteroids.
  • Recently US made an announcement about the creation of a “space force” or a sixth branch of the American armed forces .

Implications:-

  • Positive:-
    • Dominance of the space domain is essential for the US’ role as the sole global superpower and for exercising influence over other nations.
    • Space weapons would provide more effective defensive and offensive capabilities. They would also contribute towards a comprehensive BMD architecture.
    • Other nations would vie for, and surely fill, any void that is left by the US and this would be detrimental to its own survival. The present superiority that the US enjoys in space should be maintained and exploited to entrench itself before the other nations narrow this gap. Such capabilities would help undermine opponent attempts to militarise space, thus, helping achieve total military dominance
  • Negative:-
    • The war in space would destroy the intrinsic trust and cooperation necessary to maintain the systems deployed in space for peaceful purposes.
    • The ensuing arms race for weaponisation of outer space would create an environment of uncertainty, suspicion, miscalculations, competition and aggressive deployment between nations, which may lead to war.
    • It would put at risk the entire range of commercial satellites as well as those involved in scientific explorations.
    • The problem of space debris, radio frequencies and orbital slots are some of the other alarming issues that would get further muddled should space weaponisation be resorted to in the real sense.
    • Attacking satellites is easy as they travel in predictable targets that can be accurately tracked and, at present, they do not employ counter-measures.
    • The effect of this approach will likely be an arms race in outer space as other countries move to protect their interests against possible attack from the US. 
    • Issues to US:-
      • Adding another military arm would only compound the organisational challenges facing the U.S. armed services.
      • It could undercut ongoing missions.
      • It could very well increase budgetary allocations in the future.
      • Space corps could undermine American efforts in the domain of joint warfare. It potentially increases greater organisational uncertainty within the U.S. military. 
      • The fundamental difficulty of a space corps is that the physical environment of space is not conducive to the conduct of military operations without incurring serious losses in the form of spacecraft and debris. And despite efforts to make spacecraft more fuel efficient, the energy requirements are enormous.
    • Implications for India:-
      • While India is officially committed to PAROS, or the prevention of an arms race in outer space, it is yet to formulate a credible official response.
      • China:-
        • In response to US action chinese reaction could be much stronger than its seemingly muted official response and it does possess a formidable space military programme that far exceeds current Indian capabilities. 

Way forward:-

  • It becomes imperative that countries like the US which have been abstaining from UN sponsored efforts to prevent an arms race in space are coerced by the international community to fall in line and abide by all the provisions of the Outer Space Treaty to ensure that weaponisation of space does not take place.
  • There is a need for commitment to peaceful use of space
  • When other powers are exploring the options of space weaponization, India should engage with multiple stakeholders directly about the role space weapons will play in India’s grand strategy.

 

Topic – Part of static series under the head “Fundamental duties”

3)“The moral value of fundamental duties would be not to smother rights but to establish a democratic balance by making the people conscious of their duties equally as they are conscious of their rights”. Discuss(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the relevance of fundamental duties in a democracy,  its comparison with fundamental duties and how the two can be reconciled. We also need to discuss the shortcomings of fundamental duties in terms of making people conscious.

Directive word

Discuss – Here the points mentioned above are to be discussed in detail.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention the history of fundamental duties and the constitutional provisions related to the same.

Body

  • Discuss the purpose of fundamental duties – rights are to be accompanied with duties and the citizens need to follow certain guiding principles to ensure that society and nation progresses
  • Examine why this is critical for democracy.
  • Compare fundamental rights and duties and highlight how duties are not infringements on the rights of a person but aim to make the environment more conducive for the enjoyment of such rights.
  • Highlight the shortcoming as well – vague nature, low awareness etc

Conclusion – Discuss any reform which you feel should be incorporated in duties to make it more reflective of the current environment.

Background:-

  • Initially, founding fathers of the constitution did not seem it necessary to include fundamental duties of citizens in the constitution itself. But at time of emergency (1976), Indira Gandhi set up Swaran Singh Committee to make recommendation about fundamental duties to abide by citizens.
  • The 42ndamendment Act 1976 added a new part in the constitution part IVA. It incorporated the fundamental duties by inserting a new article 51A below article 51

Importance of fundamental duties:-

  • They support fundamental rights:-
    • As the directive principles are addressed to the state, the fundamental duties are addressed to the Citizens. The citizens enjoying the fundamental rights must respect the ideals of the constitution, to promote harmony and spirit of the brotherhood.
    • They serve as a reminder to the citizens that while enjoying their rights they should also be conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow citizens.
  • They serve as a source of inspiration for the citizens and promote a sense of discipline and commitment among them. They create a feeling that the citizens are no mere spectators but active participants in the realization of national goals.
  • They help the courts in examining and determining the constitutional validity of a law.
  • They are enforceable by law. Hence the parliament can provide for the imposition of appropriate penalty or punishment for failure to fulfil any of them. The importance of fundamental duties is that they define the moral obligations of all citizens to help in the promotion of the spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India.
  • Important for democracy:-
  • In a vast country like India, made of the people of different races, castes, religious, languages, communities, etc. the need for maintaining national unity and integrity is of primary importance. It in this context that the Fundamental Duties of the citizens and, particularly, the duty to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of our country [Article 51A (c)] assumes paramount importance. It reminds the citizens that the rights cannot exist without duties.
  • They serve as a warning against anti national and anti social activities like burning the national flag ,destroying public property and so on.

Criticism:

  • As fundamental duties are not included in PART III (fundamental rights) of constitution, no constitutional legal remediesfor enforcement of duties but parliament free to provide by suitable legislation
  • As critics pointed out that this list of fundamental duties miss some important duties such as cast vote, pay taxes, family planning
  • Some complicated terms such as ‘composite culture’ or ‘noble ideas’ are difficult to understand by common manand lead to violation of any of fundamental duties. The SC ruled that as people of this country are different in number of ways so our common heritage is heritage of Sanskrit.

 

Conclusion:-

  • Therefore the objective of incorporating the fundamental duties is to place before the country a code of conduct, which the citizens are expected to follow. 

Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Human Resources

4)Examine the role blockchain can play in improving the effectiveness of Skill India Mission ?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article talks about the current shortcoming in the multifarious skill development programmes being run by various agencies. The application of blockchain in this regard is a novel perspective and merits analysis.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the issue plaguing skill development mission of the government and how blockchain can be utilised for addressing the issue.

Directive word

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that skill development is top priority and the structure of Skill India Mission   where multiple programmes are being run by several ministries.

Body – Highlight the issue being faced – standardisation and duplicacy in certification. Mention that Sharda Prasad Committee also recommended steps towards standardization . Examine how blockchain can help in aforementioned issue by creating an online secure repository of database which can help in ease of access verification etc. Discuss the challenges such as lack of digital literacy, cyber security threats etc.

Conclusion – Express your opinion on how effective such usage of blockchain will be.


Background:-

  • Skills are needed to those currently in colleges for them to be better employed. The main goal of skill India mission is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth and to develop more of those sectors which have already been put under skill development for the last so many years and also to identify new sectors for skill development.
  • Blockchain essentially is a database of record stored, linked and secured by cryptography. While it can be distributed (accessed by many), it cannot be copied or duplicated. It has timestamps that allows each user to understand edits in the various versions of the document.

Issues with skill India mission are:-

  • One of the major challenges which it still needs to overcome is standardisation and duplicacy in certification.
  • There is no system of authenticating the certificate of a candidate.
  • The targets allocated to them were very high and without regard to any sectoral requirement. Everybody was chasing numbers without providing employment to the youth or meeting sectoral industry needs.
  • NSDC has not been able to discharge its responsibilities for setting up sector skill councils (SSCs) owing to lots of instances of serious conflict of interest and unethical practices.

 

How blockchain can improve the effectiveness of Skill India Mission:-

  • Manage database of certification:-
    • It will be an interesting proposition to consider blockchain technology to manage the database of certification of students under various schemes and programmes under skill development.
  • Better coordination amongst different departments as there is a single online database.
  • Can be effective in curbing duplication of certificates as well by creating an online secure repository of database which can help in ease of access verification.
  • Certificates can be uploaded for public viewing and can even be verified by the employer.
  • Speedy verification:-
    • This technology would reduce the employer cost of third party verification of the certificates.
  • Better verification leads to tackling the fake certificate issue as certificates are uploaded in an online database and so only deserving candidates get certified and fraud candidates can be identified.
  • As systems are totally digitized need for carrying paper certificates is not necessary.

Issues:-

  • A higher education institute uploading certificates on the blockchain server will do no good, unless other private training partners do the same too, so that an employer can effectively utilise the system to hire workforce.
  • Lack of digital literacy.
  • Cyber security threats are still rampant and India is one of the most vulnerable destinations for these attacks.

Way forward:-

  • There is need to implement Sharada Prasad Committee recommendations who emphasized on formation of an independent National Board for Assessment and Certification to standardise this process. 
  • Although it is important to focus on the targets set and achieved by various schemes and programmes under Skill India mission, it is also essential for the government to decentralise and standardise recognition of such skills by all stakeholders to ensure success of the existing system.
  • It is high time government invites competent software developers and technology startups to attempt developing a robust system for database management and certification in skills. 

General Studies – 3


Topic – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

5) Discuss the findings of the recent World Bank report – “South Asia’s Hotspots: The Impact of Temperature and Precipitation Changes on Living Standards”. Discuss adaptation strategy as well.(250 words)

Financial express

Reference

 

Why this question

The report highlights the pressing challenge for Indian economy that is climate change. This article provides several filler points that can be used across GS papers. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the key findings of the report and its associated impact on India. Thereafter, we need to suggest measures on how can we adapt to this challenge to ensure that the damages are least.

Directive word

Discuss – Here the findings of the report, its impact on India and ways in which we can respond to mitigate losses is to be brought out.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give details about the report and how climate change is a pressing challenge.

Body – Highlight the contents of the report. Bring out the impact on Indian economy, on living standards, the regional nature of the impact etc. Discuss ways in which we can deal with this challenge – focussing on mitigating agricultural risk by investing in infrastructure, innovation in agriculture etc.

Conclusion – Highlight why this issue deserves our utmost attention and the way forward.

 

Background :-

  • The report, ‘South Asia’s Hotspots: The Impact of Temperature and Precipitation Changes on Living Standards’, has been authored by World Bank.
  • It looks at six countries in South Asia and how projected changes in temperature and precipitation will affect living standards in these countries.
  • The report looks at two scenarios: climate-sensitive and carbon-intensive.

Findings of the report :-

  • Hotspots:-
    • Using annual household consumption as a proxy for living standards, the report identifies “hotspots” which are districts where these changes will have a notable effect on living standards.
  • For the region, it has found that India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka will be adversely affected by these changes, while Afghanistan and Nepal will benefit as they are relatively cold.
  • Eight hundred million South Asians are at risk to see their standards of living and incomes decline as rising temperatures and more erratic rainfalls will cut down crop yields, make water more scare, and push more people away from their homes to seek safer places.
  • Living standards:-
    • Almost half of South Asia’s population, including India, now lives in the vulnerable areas and will suffer from declining living standards that could be attributed to falling agricultural yields, lower labor productivity or related health impacts.
    • Some of these areas are already less developed, suffer from poor connectivity and are water stressed.
  • India:-
    • Living conditions:-
      • According to the Bank’s analysis, the most at-risk areas within the country are the inland agriculture-heavy areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh which could see living standards drop by as much as 9%. 
    • Temperature rise:-
      • India’s average annual temperatures are expected to rise by 1.00°C to 2°C by 2050 even if preventive measures are taken along the lines of those recommended by the Paris climate change agreement of 2015. If no measures are taken average temperatures in India are predicted to increase by 1.5°C to 3°C.
      • States in the central, northern and north-western parts of India emerge as most vulnerable to changes in average temperature and precipitation.
    • Hotspots:-
      • In India today, approximately 600 million people live in locations that could either become moderate or severe hotspots by 2050 under a business-as-usual scenario, the report says.
    • Economic impact:-
      • These weather changes will result in lower per capita consumption levels that could further increase poverty and inequality in one of the poorest regions of the world, South Asia.
      • Varying rainfall patterns and rising average temperature due to global warming could impact 2.8% off India’s GDP by 2050.
      • For a country where a large chunk of the population is still reliant on agriculture, global warming could mean untold disaster, through loss of livelihood, potentially depressed incomes, forced migration, rising morbidity, etc.
    • Enhancing educational attainment, reducing water stress, and improving job opportunities in the nonagricultural sectors is necessary:-
      • The analysis predicts that a 30 percent improvement on these measures could halt the decline in living standards by almost 1 percent from -2.8 percent to -1.9 percent.

Way forward :-

  • India should rally for greater accountability from, and more stringent GHG emission reduction by, other countries.
  • India also must remove existing policies on water and bring new ones that are geared towards efficient and accountable water-usage. The government must stop incentivising farmers to grow water-intensive crops in water-stressed areas by weaning MSP-led public procurement away from these crops in such areas.
  • Recommendations of the report are:-
    • The identification of hotspots from changes in average weather allows to design strategies to cope with climate impacts with a great level of spatial granularity.
    • The expected decline in living standards resulting from expected changes in temperature and rainfall provides an indication of how much it would be worth spending to mitigate the impacts.
    • The relationship between expected changes in living standards, and observed household and location characteristics—such as human capital and infrastructure—provides valuable hints on potential interventions for building resilience.
    • Policies and actions must be tailored to address the specific impacts and needs based on local conditions. No single set of interventions will work in all hotspots.

General Studies – 4


Topic:Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6) There is no school equal to a decent home and no teacher equal to a virtuous parent. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

UPSC almost always asks a questions based on a quotation from some famous personality (here Gandhi)and we have to comment on it. The issue is related to GS- 4 syllabus under the following heading

Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the role of the family and the parents in inculcating and developing values among the children.

Directive word

Comment- Here we have to express our understanding of the issue and come up with an opinion (either against or for, the statement/ quotation). However, our opinion should be in consonance with and a reflection of our discussion of the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Mention some related quote by some other famous person OR simply mention that family and parents play a huge role in the overall development of the child, his values and temperament/ attitude etc.

Body

Discuss the role of family and the parents in inculcating values in a child. E.g role model, shaping of attitude towards people and society, inculcation of prejudices, close contact and high amount of time spent together, role of criticizing actions/ thoughts of the child, development of critical thought process in the child etc.

Take the help of the article attached to the question and take the help of other relevant material to frame your answer.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced opinion on the overall issue.

Answer:-

 

Family is the foundation on which values are built. Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life.

  • The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically. The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity.
  • A child learns his behaviour by modelling what he/she sees around him/her Family plays a major role in helping a child socialize and has great influence and bearing on the emotional and physical progress of the child.
  • Joint family system, the presence of elders in the family plays the effective role in social and moral development of the children. It also helps young generation of the family to imbibe human values and eradicate their negative mental tendencies when they are among elders.
  • The behavioural problems are set correct only by the involvement of family in the child’s life as they spend most of their time in adolescence with the parents. Family is the first social organisation that provides the immediate proximity from which the child can learn his behaviour.
  • Customs And Traditions followed and taught by the family leads a disciplined and organized life. Families values helps the child to stand strong on his views despite others efforts to break through with opposing beliefs. In addition,

Thus, family is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. 

Modern families are undergoing transformations as they adapt to an ever changing world, which brings changes in the family functions, forms and structures as well as the family education model

  • In the modern society the traditional joint family system is rarely seen and many new versions of families are cropping up like single parent families, nuclear families, same sex families etc.
  • Materialism and pursuit of money have turned the people especially the youth into cold and callous machines in search of worldly comforts. Man has lost peace of mind and quietude.  In the past social norms bound the society together but now the attitudes are changing. These disturbing trends are eating up the vitals of the families and the society.
  • The amount of time parents spend with their children has been dropping dramatically. As a result, education responsibility has been taken over by institution and other people, which may lead to the deterioration of family constituting the basis of the proper upbringing of children.
  • Increasing consumerism has gradually led to the materialization of society and perception of values formed on the basis of one’s own possessions. As a result, interpersonal relationships have been weakened mainly due to an increased focus on one’s own individual needs as well as self-realization.
  • The deepening widening processes of globalizationhave changed the family structures, relationships among family members and parents perception of parental responsibility. Parents spend more time reaching their goals, which causes a decrease in family interaction.
  • The children seem to have difficulty in learning and understanding the importance of the moral values determining a child’s attitudes and behaviour.
  • Modern parents decision to have children is associated with their belief about prestige, life satisfaction and important investment.
  • Children are considered both parents tools to fulfil their dreams or plans and evidence of social status and economic possibilities of the family. Parents in today’s society are also restricted as to how to discipline their children in many cases parents are getting sued. 
  • In the modern family material goods, family traditions or moral values are not traditionally handed down from generation to generation. Limitations of contacts between grandparents and grandchildren have a negative effect on children’s development, depriving them of many valuable experiences
    • Spending the  time with people from the older generation children can broaden their knowledge, get to know moral norms, learn empathy and understanding for others.
  • Weak bonds with the family may lead young people to emotional instability and  moral confusion. That, in turn, may result in dangerous activities, self-destruction, aggression and brutal behaviours.

 

Only a well axiologically prepared young person can resist such negative influences of the modern world. That is why entering the world of values must take place from the earliest years of life of the child in its family environment, and should be based on normal relationships between all its members.

Despite the changing face of the family, it is still the way in which most people live. The family remains an institution that plays a key role in the way society is organised and controlled, and which adapts, not to the whims of individuals, but to the conflicting priorities placed upon it by the world at large.