PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Siberian ibex and Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018

Siberian ibex and Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)


Siberian ibex


  1. Least concerned– IUCN
  2. species of ibex that lives in central Asia

 

  1. Habitat
  • It live mostly above the tree line, in areas of steep slopes and rocky scree. Their habitat consists of a mixture of high altitude tundra, alpine meadows, and regions of semidesert.
  • The species does not enter forest zones, but on a hot day does prefer shaded areas, it tends to remain near steep, escape terrain
  • Range extends from Tajikistan to magnolia

 

  1. Threats
  • hunted for subsistence use because they have been an important supplementary food for local people
  • Poaching
  • competition with livestock for food and habitat
  • predators pressure

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)


  1. Intergovernmental organization
  2. Established in 1899 by Convention on the Pacific Settlement of disputes
  3. Headquarter — The Hague, Netherlands

 

  1. membership
  • 121 states
  • India is a party to the convention
  1. not a United Nations agency but PCA is an official United Nations Observer

 

  1. It is not a court “in the traditional sense” but provides services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes that arise out of international agreements between member states, international organizations or private parties
  2. The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade
  3. All decisions, called “awards” are binding on all the parties in the dispute and have to be carried out without delay.

 

  1. structure — three-part organizational structure
  • Administrative Council — oversees its policies and budgets, a
  • Members of the Court — panel of independent potential arbitrators
  • International Bureau — Secretariat headed by the Secretary-General.