SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 32 (Art and Culture)

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SOLUTIONS 

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 32 (Art and Culture)


                                                             

  1. Which of the following animals is NOT seen in the Pashupati seal?

a) Elephant

b) Tiger

c) Rhinoceros

d) Ox

Solution: d

Justification:

This seal is generally identified as the Pashupati Seal by some scholars whereas some identify it as the female deity. This seal depicts a human figure seated cross-legged. An elephant and a tiger are depicted to the right side of the seated figure, while on the left a rhinoceros and a buffalo are seen. In addition to these animals two antelopes are shown below the seat. Seals such as these date from between 2500 and 1500 BCE and were found in considerable numbers in sites such as the ancient city of Mohenjodaro in the Indus Valley. Figures and animals are carved in intaglio on their surfaces.

Hence option d is correct.

Source : NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I


2)Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Yaksha worship was very popular before the advent of Buddhism
  2. It was later assimilated into Buddhism and Jainism

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below

a) Only 2

b) Only 1

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

SIXTH century BCE marks the beginning of new religious and social movements in the Gangetic valley in the form of Buddhism and Jainism which were part of the shraman tradition. Both religions became popular as they opposed the varna and jati systems of the Hindu religion. Magadha emerged as a powerful kingdom and consolidated its control over the other regions. By the fourth century BCE the Mauryas established their power and by the third century BCE, a large part of India was under Mauryan control. Ashoka emerged as the most powerful king of the Mauryan dynasty who patronised the shraman tradition in the third century BCE. Religious practices had many dimensions and were not confined to just one particular mode of worship. Worship of Yakshas and mothergoddesses were prevalent during that time. So, multiple forms of worship existed. Nevertheless, Buddhism became the most popular social and religious movement. Yaksha worship was very popular before and after the advent of Buddhism and it was assimilated in Buddhism and Jainism.

(Hence statement 1 and 2 are correct)

 

Hence option c is correct.

Source: NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I,


3.Consider the following statements with respect to Shramana Movement

  1. It was a non-vedic movement parallel to Vedic Hinduism in ancient India
  2. It believed in Karma and Moksha and viewed rebirth as undesirable
  3. It gave rise to Jainism, Buddhism and Yoga.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 2

b) None of them

c) 1,2 and 3

d) Only 1

Solution: c

Justification:      

Shramana Movement

The Shramana movement was a Non-Vedic movement parallel to Vedic Hinduism in ancient India. (Hence statement 1 is correct)

 The Shramana tradition gave rise to Jainism, Buddhism, and Yoga, and was responsible for the related concepts of saṃsāra (the cycle of birth and death) and moksha (liberation from that cycle). (Hence statement 2 and 3 are correct)

Sramanism, emphasizing thought, hard work and discipline, was one of the three strands of Hindu philosophy. The other two included Brahmanism, which drew its philosophical essence from Mimamsa. The third and most popular strand of Indian philosophical thought revolves around the concept of Bhakti or Theism, based on the idea of God, as understood in most parts of the world.

Philosophy

Śramaṇas held a view of samsara as full of suffering (Dukka). They practiced Ahimsa and rigorous ascetism. They believed in Karma and Moksa and viewed rebirth as undesirable. Vedics, on the contrary believe in the efficacy of rituals and sacrifices, performed by a privileged group of people, who could improve their life by pleasing certain Gods. Beliefs and concepts of Śramaṇa philosophies:

  • Denial of creator and omnipotent Gods
  • Rejection of the Vedas as revealed texts
  • Affirmation of Karma and rebirth, Samsara and transmigration of Soul.
  • Affirmation of the attainment of moksa through Ahimsa, renunciation and austerities
  • Denial of the efficacy of sacrifices and rituals for purification.
  • Rejection of the caste system

Jainism and Buddhism are the two main schools philosophies that have continued in India since ancient times

Hence option c is correct.

NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I, Internet


  1. What is the place Parkham well known for with respect to Indian art?

a) Discovery of Yaksha statue

b) Presence of Buddhism cave

c) Presence of large Vihara

d) Presence of monumental rock-cut elephant

Solution: a

Justification:

Large statues of Yakshas and Yakhinis are found at many places like Patna, Vidisha and Mathura. These monumental images are mostly in the standing position. One of the distinguishing elements in all these images is their polished surface. The depiction of faces is in full round with pronounced cheeks and physiognomic detail. One of the finest examples is a Yakshi figure from Didarganj, Patna, which is tall and well-built. It shows sensitivity towards depicting the human physique. The image has a polished surface.

One another remarkable Yaksha was found Parkham.

Hence Option a is correct.

Source: NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I

 


  1. Which of the following statements is /are correct?
    1. Mathura sculptural art is modelled on the lines of earlier Yaksha image.
    2. Images of Vaishnava and Shaiva are also found at Mathura.
    3. Buddhist images in Sarnath have thick drapery and profusely decorated Halo.

a) Only 3

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) Only 1 and 3

Solution: c

Justification:

Buddha in the symbolic form got a human form in Mathura and Gandhara. The sculptural tradition in Gandhara had the confluence of Bactria, Parthia and the local Gandhara tradition. The local sculptural tradition at Mathura became so strong that the tradition spread to other parts of northern India. The best example in this regard is the stupa sculptures found at Sanghol in the Punjab. The Buddha image at Mathura is modelled on the lines of earlier Yaksha images whereas in Gandhara it has Hellenistic features. (Hence statement 1 is correct)

Images of Vaishnava (mainly Vishnu and his various forms) and Shaiva (mainly the lingas and mukhalingas) faiths are also found at Mathura but Buddhist images are found in large numbers. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

Mathura remained the main art production site whereas Sarnath and Kosambi also emerged as important centres of art production. Many Buddha images in Sarnath have plain transparent drapery covering both shoulders, and the halo around the head has very little ornamentation (Hence statement 3 is incorrect) whereas the Mathura Buddha images continue to depict folds of the drapery in the Buddha images and the halo around the head is profusely decorated.

Hence, Option c is correct.

Source: NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I


6.Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Karla cave has the biggest rock-cut chaitya hall excavated.
  2. Karla cave has a Stupa at the back.
  3. Kanheri in Mumbai has the largest number of Buddhist caves excavations in Western Deccan.
  4. All caves in Western Deccan belong to the Thervadins group.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) Only 1,2 and 4

b) Only 1, 2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) Only 1

Solution: c

Justification:

In the first century BCE some modifications were made to the standard plan of the apsidal vault-roof variety where the hall becomes rectangular like at Ajanta Cave No. 9 with a stone-screen wall as a facade. It is also found at Bedsa, Nashik, Karla and Kanheri. Many cave sites have the standard first type of chaitya halls in the subsequent period. In Karla, the biggest rock-cut chaitya hall was excavated. (Hence statement 1 is correct)

 The cave consists of an open courtyard with two pillars, a stone screen wall to protect from rain, a veranda, a stone-screen wall as facade, an apsidal vault-roof chaitya hall with pillars, and a stupa at the back. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

Karla chaitya hall is decorated with human and animal figures. They are heavy in their execution, and move in the picture space.

Junnar has the largest cave excavations— more than two hundred caves around the hills of the town—whereas Kanheri in Mumbai has a hundred and eight excavated caves. (Hence statement 3 is incorrect)

Earlier it was presumed that because of the absence of the Buddha image, the caves were considered belonging to the orthodox faith of Buddhism, i.e., the Thervadins, but with the discovery of the Konkan Maurya inscription mentioning the Saka era 322, i.e., 400 CE, it is now satisfactorily proved that the cave activity in western Deccan was an ongoing process and many caves had been carved with Buddha images where the image does not exist anymore. It may also be noted that many caves are converted into modern Hindu shrines and have become popular worshipping sites. (Hence statement 4 is incorrect)

Hence option c is correct.

Source: NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I

 


7.Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Ellora has triple storeyed caves.
  2. Ellora is the most diverse site in India in terms of the sculptural sites.
  3. Udaigiri – Khandagiri caves were meant for Jain monks.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) Only 1 and 3

b) Only 2 and 3

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) Only 3

Solution: c

Justification:

Ajanta has excavated double-storeyed caves but at Ellora, the triple storey is a unique achievement. (Hence statement 1 is correct). All the caves were plastered and painted but nothing visible is left. The shrine Buddha images are big in size; they are generally guarded by the images of Padmapani and Vajrapani. Cave No. 12, which is a triple-storey excavation, has images of Tara, Avalokiteshwara, Manushi Buddhas and the images of Vairochana, Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, Amoghsiddhi, Vajrasatva and Vajraraja. On the other hand, the only double-storey cave of the Brahmanical faith is Cave No. 14. Pillar designs grow from the Buddhist caves and when they reach the Jain caves belonging to the ninth century CE, they become very ornate and the decorative forms gain heavy protrusion.

The sculptures at Ellora are monumental, and have protruding volume that create deep recession in the picture space. The images are heavy and show considerable sophistication in the handling of sculptural volume. Various guilds at Ellora came from different places like Vidarbha, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and carved the sculptures. Thereby it is the most diverse site in India in terms of the sculptural styles. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

The rock-cut cave tradition also existed in Odisha. The earliest examples are the Udaigiri-Khandagiri caves in the vicinity of Bhubaneswar. These caves are scattered and have inscriptions of Kharavela kings. According to the inscriptions, the caves were meant for Jain monks. (Hence statement 3 is correct)

Hence, Option c is correct

Source: NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I

 


 

  1. The famous image of ‘Maheshmurti’ is found at:

a) Ellora caves

b) Elephanta caves

c) Aurangabad caves

d) Bagh caves

Solution: b

Justification:

The image of Maheshmurti at Elephanta dates back to the early sixth century CE. It is located in the main cave shrine. In the tradition of western Deccan sculpting it is one of the best examples of qualitative achievement in sculpting images in rockcut caves. The image is large in size. The central head is the main Shiva figure whereas the other two visible heads are of Bhairava and Uma. The central face is in high relief having a round face, thick lips and heavy eyelids. The lower lip is prominently protruded showing a very different characteristic. The all-inclusive aspect of Shiva is exhibited in this sculpture by soft-modelling, smooth surface and large face. The face of Shiva-Bhairava is clearly shown in profile in anger with bulging eye and mustache. The other face showing feminine characters is of Uma who is the consort of Shiva.

Hence, option b is correct.

Source: NCERT class 11 An introduction to Indian Art. Part I


 

  1. Tirumalaipuram paintings were patronized under:

a) Pallavas

b) Pandyas

c) Cholas

d) Vijayanagar Kingdom

Solution: b

Justification:

When the Pandyas rose to power, they too patronised art. Tirumalaipuram caves and Jaina caves at Sittanvasal are some of the surviving examples. A few fragmented layers of paintings can be seen in Tirumalaipuram. In Sittanavasal, the paintings are visible on the ceilings of shrines, in verandas, and on the brackets. On the pillars of the veranda are seen dancing figures of celestial nymphs. The contours of figures are firmly drawn and painted in vermilion red on a lighter background. The body is rendered in yellow with subtle modelling. Supple limbs, expression on the faces of dancers, rhythm in their swaying movement, all speak of the artists’ skill in creative imagination in visualising the forms in the architectural context.

Hence, option b is correct.

Source : NCERT Class 11, An introduction to Indian Art Part 1


10.Which of the following religions is/are associated with Khajuraho temples?

  1. Hinduism
  2. Jainism
  3. Tantricism
  4. Buddhism

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 1, 2 and 3

c) Only 3

d) 1,2,3 and 4

Solution: b

Justification:

Khajuraho’s temples are also known for their extensive erotic sculptures; the erotic expression is given equal importance in human experience as spiritual pursuit, and it is seen as part of a larger cosmic whole. Many Hindu temples therefore feature mithun (embracing couple) sculptures, considered auspicious. Usually, they are placed at the entrance of the temple or on an exterior wall or they may also be placed on the walls between the mandapa and the main shrine. Khajuraho’s sculptures are highly stylised with typical features: they are in almost full relief, cut away from the surrounding stone, with sharp noses, prominent chins, long slanting eyes and eyebrows. The other notable example at Khajuraho is Kandariya Mahadeo temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. There are many temples at Khajuraho, most of them devoted to Hindu gods. There are some Jain temples as well as a Chausanth Yogini temple, which is of interest. Predating the tenth century, this is a temple of small, square shrines of roughly-hewn granite blocks, each dedicated to esoteric devis or goddesses associated with the rise of Tantric worship after the seventh century. Several such temples were dedicated to the cult of the yoginis across Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and even as far south as Tamil Nadu. They were built between the seventh and tenth centuries, but few have survived

Hence option b is correct

Source: NCERT Class 11, An introduction to Indian Art Part 1


11.Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Gomateshwara is one of the world’s tallest monolithic free-standing structure made of grey stone at Shravanabelagola.
  2. It was commissioned by Camundaraya.
  3. It is the statue of Bahubali, the son of Adinath.
  4. The statue symbolizes attainment of Kevala gyana by Bahubali.

a) Only 2 and 3

b) Only 2

c) Only 2, 3 and 4

d) 1,2,3 and 4

Solution:c

Gommateshwara Statue is a 57-foot (17 m) high monolithic statue located on Vindyagiri Hill at Shravanbelagola in theIndian state of Karnataka. Vindyagiri is one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola in the Indian state of Karnataka; the other is Chandragiri, which is also a seat of several very ancient Jain centres, dating back much older than Gommateshwara statue.

The statue Gommateshwara is dedicated to the Jain god Bahubali son of Adinatha. (Hence statement 3 is correct)

 

 

It was built around 983 A.D. and is one of the largest free standing statues in the world. Materials Used is  Granite. (Hence statement 1 is incorrect)

 

 

 The construction of the statue was commissioned by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander,Chavundaraya. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

 

Neighboring areas have Jain temples known as basadis and several images of the Tirthankaras.

One can have a beautiful view of the surrounding areas from the top of the hill. An event known as Mahamastakabhishekaattracts devotees from all over the world.[2]The Mahamastakabhisheka festival is held once in 12 years.

 

 Bahubali abandoned his clothes and kingdom to become a Digambara monk and began meditating with great resolve to attain omniscience (Kevala Gyana). (Hence statement 4 is correct)

He is said to have meditated motionless in a standing posture (kayotsarga) for a year, during which time climbing plants grew around his legs.

Hence option c is correct

Source : NCERT class 11, An introduction to Indian art


 

  1. Jahaaz Mahal at Mandu was built by

a) Hoshang Shah

b) Sultan Baz Bahadur

c) Firoz Shah Tughlaq

d) Ghiyasuddin Khilji

Solution: d

Justification:

Jahaaz Mahal is an elegant two-storey ‘ship- palace’ between two reservoirs, with open pavilions, balconies overhanging the water and a terrace. Built by Sultan Ghiyasuddin Khilji it was possibly used as his harem and as the ultimate pleasure and recreational resort. It had a complex arrangement of watercourses and a terrace swimming pool.

Hence option D is correct

Source : NCERT class 11, An introduction to Indian art


 

  1. Who persuaded Gandhiji to involve women in the Dandi March?

a) Sarojini Naidu

b) Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

c) Arun Asaf Ali

d) Sucheta Kripalani

          Solution: b

The Salt March was notable for at least three reasons. First, it was this event that first brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention. The march was widely covered by the European and American press. Second, it was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. The socialist activist Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay had persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protests to men alone. Kamaladevi was herself one of numerous women who courted arrest by breaking the salt or liquor laws. Third, and perhaps most significant, it was the Salt March which forced upon the British the realisation that their Raj would not last forever, and that they would have to devolve some power to the Indians.

Hence option b is correct.

Source: Themes part III


14.Consider the following statements

  1. The name Pakistan was coined by Muhammed Ali
  2. Unionist Party was a political party representing the interests of landholders.

        Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Justification:

The name “Pakistan” The name Pakistan or Pak-stan (from Punjab, Afghan, Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan) was coined by a Punjabi Muslim student at Cambridge, Choudhry Rehmat Ali (Hence statement 1 is incorrect) who, in pamphlets written in 1933 and 1935, desired a separate national status for this new entity. No one took Rehmat Ali seriously in the 1930s, least of all the League and other Muslim leaders who dismissed his idea merely as a student’s dream.

 

Unionist Party A political party representing the interests of landholders – Hindu, Muslim and Sikh – in the Punjab. (Hence statement 2 is correct). The party was particularly powerful during the period 1923-47.

 

Hence: Option b is correct

 

Source : Themes part 3

 


 

  1. The bronze sculpture of Nataraja under Chola period has a raised left leg in ‘bhujangatrasita’ stance which represents ‘tirobhava’. What does it mean?

a) Kicking away the veil of maya or illusion from the devotees’mind

b) Suppressing the demon of ignorance or forgetfulness

c) Suggestion that he is about to drunk poison

d) Represent the connection between spiritual and material realms

              Solution: a

Justification :

Shiva is associated with the end of the cosmic world with which this dancing position is associated. In this Chola period bronze sculpture he has been shown balancing himself on his right leg and suppressing the apasmara, the demon of ignorance or forgetfulness, with the foot of the same leg. At the same time he raises his left leg in bhujangatrasita stance, which represents tirobhava, that is kicking away the veil of maya or illusion from the devotee’s mind. His four arms are outstretched and the main right hand is posed in abhaya hasta or the gesture suggesting. The upper right holds the damaru his favourite musical instrument to keep on the beat tala. The upper left hand carries a flame while the main left hand is held in dola hasta and connects with the abhaya hasta of the right hand. His hair locks fly on both the sides touching the circular jvala mala or the garland of flames which surrounds the entire dancing figuration.

Hence, option a is correct.

Source: NCERT class XI An introduction to Indian Art, Part 1


16.Which of the following is/are correct about bronze statutes recoverd from Akota near Vadodara?

  1. Most of the images represent the Buddhist images.
  2. Most of the images were accompanied by female gods specifically Tara.

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

      Solution: d

Justification :

The hoard of bronzes discovered in Akota near Vadodara established that bronze casting was practiced in Gujarat or western India between the sixth and ninth centuries. Most of the images represent the Jaina tirthankaras like Mahavira, Parshvanath or Adinath.  (Hence statement 1 is incorrect)

A new format was invented in which tirthankaras are seated on a throne; they can be single or combined in a group of three or in a group of twenty-four tirthankaras.

Female images were also cast representing yakshinis or Shasanadevis of some prominent tirthankaras. (Hence statement 2 is incorrect)

Stylistically they were influenced by the features of both the Gupta and the Vakataka period bronzes. Chakreshvari is the Shasanadevi of Adinath and Ambika is of Neminath.

Hence option d is correct

Source: NCERT class XI An introduction to Indian Art part 1.

 


17.Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The idea behind the construction of tombs was the attainment of eternal paradise in Islam
  2. Sarais led to rise of syncretic tendencies in the cultural patterns of the time

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

TOMBS

Monumental structures over graves of rulers and royalty was a popular feature of medieval India. Some well known examples of such tombs are those of Ghyasuddin Tughlaq, Humayun, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, Akbar and Itmaduddaula. According to Anthony Welch, the idea behind the tomb was eternal paradise as a reward for the true believer on the Day of Judgement. (Hence statement 1 is correct) This led to the paradisiacal imagery for tomb construction. Beginning with the introduction of Quranic verses on the walls, the tomb was subsequently placed within paradisiacal elements such as a garden or near a body of water or both, as is in the case of the Taj Mahal. Surely though, such vast expanses of structured and stylised spaces could not have been intended only to signify peace and happiness in the next world but to also showcase the majesty, grandeur and might of the person buried there.

SARAIS

A hugely interesting feature of medieval India was the sarais which ringed cities and dotted the vast space of the Indian subcontinent. Sarais were largely built on a simple square or rectangular plan and were meant to provide temporary accommodation to Indian and foreign travellers, pilgrims, merchants, traders, etc. In effect, sarais were public domains which thronged with people of varied cultural backgrounds. This led to cross-cultural interaction, influences and syncretic tendencies in the cultural mores of the times and at the level of the people. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

Hence option b is correct.

Source: NCERT class XI An introduction to Indian Art


  1. Which of the following is NOT correct about the city of Mandu?

a) It was the capital city of Ghauri Dynasty, founded by Hoshang Shah

b) It is a typical representation of the medieval provincial style of art and architecture

c) Availability of raw materials and natural defence encouraged consistent habitations in this place.

d) Ashrafi Mahal is an elegant two storey palace here.

Solution: d

Justification :

The city of Mandu is located sixty miles from Indore, at an elevation of over 2000 feet and overlooks the Malwa Plateau to the north and the Narmada valley to the south. Mandu’s natural defence encouraged consistent habitations by Parmara Rajputs, Afghans and Mughals. As the capital city of Ghauri Dynasty (1401–1561) founded by Hoshang Shah it acquired a lot of fame. Subsequently, Mandu was associated with the romance of Sultan Baz Bahadur and Rani Rupmati. The Mughals resorted to it for pleasure during the monsoon season. Mandu is a typical respresentation of the medieval provincial style of art and architecture. It was a complex mix of official and residential-cum-pleasure palace, pavilions, mosques, artificial reservoirs, baolis, embattlements, etc. In spite of the size or monumentality, the structures were very close to nature, designed in the style of arched pavilions, light and airy, so that these buildings did not retain heat. Local stone and marble were used to great advantage. Mandu is a fine example of architectural adaptation to the environment.

A madrasa called Asharfi Mahal now lies in ruins.

Hence option d is correct.

Source: NCERT class XI An introduction to Indian Art, Part 1

 


19.Consider the following statements

  1. Parchinkari is a term for the inlay technique of using cut and fitted highly polished coloured to create images
  2. It first appeared in Rome in the 16th century

Which of the above statements is/are correct.

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution c

Justification:

Pietra dura (Italian: [ˈpjɛːtra ˈduːra]) or pietre dure [ˈpjɛːtre ˈduːre] (see below), called parchin kari or parchinkari in the Indian Subcontinent, is a term for the inlay technique of using cut and fitted, highly polished colored stones to create images. (Hence statement 1 is correct)It is considered a decorative art. The stonework, after the work is assembled loosely, is glued stone-by-stone to a substrate after having previously been “sliced and cut in different shape sections; and then assembled together so precisely that the contact between each section was practically invisible”. Stability was achieved by grooving the undersides of the stones so that they interlocked, rather like a jigsaw puzzle, with everything held tautly in place by an encircling ‘frame’. Many different colored stones, particularly marbles, were used, along with semiprecious, and even precious stones.

 

 It first appeared in Rome in the 16th century, reaching its full maturity in Florence. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

 

Pietra dura items are generally crafted on green, white or black marble base stones. Typically the resulting panel is completely flat, but some examples where the image is in lowrelief were made, taking the work more into the area of hardstone carving.

 

Hence Option c is correct.

Source: NCERT class XI An introduction to Indian Art part 1, Internet


  1. Which of the following is the remarkable feature of Pathan architecture?

a) Pictorial mosaic work using semi-precious stones.

b) Austere style of architecture stressing more on utility of buildings

c) Prominent use of Hindu motifs and symbols

d) An ornamental design consisting of intertwined flowing lines, leaves and flowers

Solution: c

Justification :

Pathan architecture: Austere style of architecture favoured by the Khalji rulers in Delhi who were considered Afghans. Imminent danger for Mongols made them focus on building forts.

Hence option c is correct

Source:  NCERT Class 11, An introduction to Indian Art part 1