SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 27 (Ancient History and The National Movement)

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SOLUTIONS 

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 27 (Ancient History and The National Movement)


 

 

  1. Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?
    1. Samudragupta was an ardent follower of Vaishnavism.
    2. He patronized the great Buddhist scholar Vasubandu.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

Samudragupta’s military achievements remain remarkable in the annals of history. He was equally great in his other personal accomplishments. The Allahabad Pillar inscription speaks of his magnanimity to his foes, his polished intellect, his poetic skill and his proficiency in music. It calls him Kaviraja because of his ability in composing verses. His image depicting him with Veena is found in the coins issued by him. It is the proof of his proficiency and interest in music. He was also a patron of many poets and scholars, one of whom was Harisena. Thus he must be credited with a share in the promotion of Sanskrit literature and learning, characteristic of his dynasty. He was an ardent follower of Vaishnavism (Hence statement 1 is correct)  but was tolerant of other creeds. He evinced keen interest in Buddhism and was the patron of the great Buddhist scholar Vasubandu.   (Hence statement 2 is correct.)

Source: Tamilnadu class 11


 

  1. Which of the following is/are the sources of history of Gupta Period?
    1. The Puranas
    2. Works of Vishakadatta
    3. Mehrauli Iron Pillar inscription
    4. Allahabad Pillar inscription
    5. Travelogue of Fahein

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

 

a) Only 2, 4 and 5

b) Only 2,3,4 and 5

c) Only 1,2,4 and 5

d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: d

Justification:

There are plenty of source materials to reconstruct the history of the Gupta period. They include literary, epigraphical and numismatic sources

 

  1. Puranas — throw light on the royal genealogy of the Gupta kings

 

  1. Contemporary literary works — Devichandraguptam and the Mudhrakshasam written by Visakadatta provide information regarding the rise of the Guptas.

 

  1. Chinese traveler Fahien, who visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II, has left a valuable account of the social, economic and religious conditions of the Gupta empire.

 

  1. Inscriptions –
  • Meherauli Iron Pillar(achievements of Chandragupta I)
  • Allahabad Pillar inscription — source for the reign of Samudragupta. It describes his personality and achievements. This inscription is engraved on an Asokan pillar. It is written in classical Sanskrit, using the Nagari script. It consists of 33 lines composed by Harisena. It describes the circumstances of Samudragupta’s accession, his military campaigns in north India and the Deccan, his relationship with other contemporary rulers, and his accomplishments as a poet and scholar. The coins issued by Gupta kings contain legends and figures. These coins provide interesting details about the titles and sacrifices performed by the Gupta monarchs.

 

Source: Tamilnadu class 1

 


  1. Which of the following Pairs is NOT correctly matched.

Name of the work                                          Author

a) Vasavadatta                                          Amarsimha

b) Ashtangasamgraha                                Vagabhata

c) Kritarjuniya                                            Bharavi

d) Ritusamhara                                          Kalidas

Solution: a    

Justification:

Literature

The Sanskrit language became prominent during the Gupta period. Nagari script had evolved from the Brahmi script. Numerous works in classical Sanskrit came to be written in the forms of epic, lyrics, drama and prose.

 

The best of the Sanskrit literature belonged to the Gupta age. Himself a great poet, Samudragupta patronized a number of scholars including Harisena.

 

The court of Chandragupta II was adorned by the celebrated Navratnas.

 

  1. Kalidasa
  • Shakuntala — Sanskrit drama — considered one among the ‘hundred best books of the world’
  • Malavikagnimitra & Vikramorvasiya – plays
  • Raghuvamsa and Kumarasambhava – epics
  • Ritusamhara and Meghaduta — lyrics
  1. Visakadatta Mudrarakshasa and Devichandraguptam (Sanskrit dramas)
  2. SudrakaMrichchakatika — rich in humour and pathos
  3. Bharavi Kritarjuniya — story of the conflict between Arjuna and Siva
  4. Dandin Kavyadarsa and Dasakumaracharita
  5. Subhandhu — Vasavadatta
  6. Vishnusarma – Panchatantra
  7. AmarasimhaAmarakosa

 

The Puranas in their present form were composed during this period. There are eighteen Puranas. The most important among them are the Bhagavatha, Vishnu, Vayu and Matsya Puranas.

 

 The Mahabharatha and the Ramayana were given final touches and written in the present form during this period.

 

Science

The Gupta period witnessed a brilliant activity in the sphere of mathematics, astronomy, astrology and medicine.

Aryabhatta was a great mathematician and astronomer. He wrote the book Aryabhatiya in 499 A.D. It deals with mathematics and astronomy. It explains scientifically the occurrence of solar and lunar eclipses. Aryabhatta was the first to declare that the earth was spherical in shape and that it rotates on its own axis.

However, these views were rejected by later astronomers like Varahamihira and Brahmagupta. Varahamihira composed Pancha Siddhantika, the five astronomical systems. He was also a great authority on astrology. His work Brihadsamhita is a great work in Sanskrit literature. It deals with a variety of subjects like astronomy, astrology, geography, architecture, weather, animals, marriage and omens. His Brihadjataka is considered to be a standard work on astrology.

In the field of medicine, Vagbhata lived during this period. He was the last of the great medical trio of ancient India. The other two scholars Charaka and Susruta lived before the Gupta age. Vagbhata was the author Ashtangasamgraha (Summary of the eight branches of medicine). (Hence option a is correct.)

Source: Tamilnadu class 11

 


  1. Which of the following is/are correct about universities of Ancient India?
    1. Valabhi university was a Hinayana University.
    2. The foundation of Nalanda University was laid by Kumaragupta I.
    3. Nalanda University focused only on Mahayana doctrine and not other branches of Buddhism.

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) Only 2

b) Only 1 and 2

c) All of them

d) Only 2 and 3

Solution: b

Justification:

The Chinese travelers of ancient India mentioned a number of educational institutions. The most famous among them were the Hinayana University of Valabhi (Hence statement 1 is correct) and the Mahayana University of Nalanda. Hiuen Tsang gives a very valuable account of the Nalanda University.

The term Nalanda means “giver of knowledge”. It was founded by Kumaragupta I during the Gupta period. (Hence statement 2 is correct)  It was patronised by his successors and later by Harsha. The professors of the University were called panditas. Some of its renowned professors were Dingnaga, Dharmapala, Sthiramati and Silabadhra. Dharmapala was a native of Kanchipuram and he became the head of the Nalanda University. Nalanda University was a residential university and education was free including the boarding and lodging. It was maintained with the revenue derived from 100 to 200 villages endowed by different rulers. Though it was a Mahayana University, different religious subjects like the Vedas, Hinayana doctrine, Sankhya and Yoga philosophies were also taught. (Hence statement 3 is incorrect) In addition to that, general subjects like logic, grammar, astronomy, medicine and art were in the syllabus. It attracted students not only from different parts of India but from different countries of the east. Admission was made by means of an entrance examination. The entrance test was so difficult that not more than thirty percent of the candidates were successful. Discipline was very strict. More than lectures, discussion played an important part and the medium of instruction was Sanskrit. Recent archeological excavations have brought to light the ruins of the Nalanda University. It shows the grandeur of this centre of learning and confirms the account given by the Chinese pilgrims. It had numerous classrooms and a hostel attached to it. According to Itsing, the Chinese pilgrim, there were 3000 students on its rolls. It had an observatory and a great library housed in three buildings. Its fame rests on the fact that it attracted scholars from various parts of the world. It was an institution of advanced learning and research.

Source: Tamilnadu class 11

 


  1. Who is the author of the Sanskrit work “Mattavialsa Prahasanam”?

a) Mahendravarman I

b) Narasimhavarman I

c) Rajasimha

d) Mahendravarman II

Solution: a

Justification:

Mahendravarman I was a follower of Jainism in the early part of his career. He was converted to Saivism by the influence of the Saiva saint, Thirunavukkarasar alias Appar. He built a Siva temple at Tiruvadi. He assumed a number of titles like Gunabhara, Satyasandha, Chettakari (builder of temples) Chitrakarapuli, Vichitrachitta and Mattavilasa. He was a great builder of cave temples. The Mandagappattu inscription hails him as Vichitrachitta who constructed a temple for Brahma, Vishnu and Siva without the use of bricks, timber, metal and mortar. His rock-cut temples are found in a number of places like Vallam, Mahendravadi, Dalavanur, Pallavaram, Mandagappattu and Tiruchirappalli. He had also authored the Sanskrit work Mattavilasa Prahasanam. His title Chitrakarapuli reveals his talents in painting. He is also regarded as an expert in music. The music inscription at Kudumianmalai is ascribed to him. (Hence option a is correct.)

Source: Tamilnadu class 11

 


  1. Consider the following statements.
    1. The Dutch founded their first factory in Surat in 1605.
    2. Sultan of Bahamani issued the “Golden Farman” to the English Company in 1632.

       Which of the above statement/s is/are NOT correct?    

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

The Dutch East India Company was created in 1602 as “United East India Company” and its first permanent trading post was in Indonesia. In India, they established the first factory in Masulipattanam in 1605, followed by Pulicat in 1610, Surat in 1616, Bimilipatam in 1641 and Chinsura in 1653. (Hence statement 1 is  incorrect.)

Before the East India Company established trade in India, John Mildenhall, a merchant adventurer, was the first Englishment who arrived in India in 1599 by the over land route, ostensibly for purpose of trade with Indian merchants. 
On 31st December, 1600, Queen Elizabeth granted a Charter to the Company named ‘The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading in the East Indies’ the right to carry on trade with all countries of the East. This company is commonly known as the English East India Company.

For a few years, the English East India Company confined its activities to the spice trade with Java, Sumatra and the Moluccas. But in 1608 Captain William Hawkins came to the court of Jehangir with a letter from James I, king of England, requesting permission for the English merchants to establish in India. But due to vehement opposition of the Portuguese and the Surat merchants, Emperor Jehangir had to change his mind and Hawkin’s mission failed. Next year, Jehangir issued a farman permitting the English to establish a factory permanently at Surat. In 1615, a British mission under Sir Thomas Roe succeeded in obtaining farmans from the Mughal Court confirming free trade without liability to pay inland toll. In 1632 the English obtained from the Sultan of Golconda the Golden farman granting them the right to trade throughout the kingdom of Golconda on payment of a fixed customs duty of 500 pagodas per year. (Hence statement 2  is  incorrect.)

The Company obtained from the Nawab Shaja-ud-din a farman in 1651 granting the English the right to carry on their trade on payment of a fixed duty of Rs. 3000 per year. 
In 1714, an Englishman John Surman was sent to Delhi Court for securing trading facilities for the company. He succeeded in obtaining from Emperor Farukhsiyar a farman in 1717, by which the Company was permitted to carry on trade in Bengal, Bombay and Madras free of customs duty. The Company was also permitted to mint its own coins. The Nawabs of Bengal, however, showed scant regard for the imperial farman . . 

Source: Spectrum

 


  1. Which of the following statements is /are NOT correct about Farruksiyar’s Farman?
    1. The English Company was permitted to issue dastaks for the transportation of
    2. The English Company was permitted to rent more lands around Calcutta.
    3. The coins of the company minted at Bombay were to have currency throughout Mughal India.

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

 

a) Only 2

b) None of the above

c) Only 3

d) Only 2 and 3

Solution:b

Justification:

Background:

  • In 1714, an Englishman John Surmanwas sent to Delhi Court for securing trading facilities for the company.
  • He succeeded in obtaining from Emperor Farukhsiyar a farman in 1717
  • The East India Company secured valuable privileges in 1717 under the royal farman

 

What’s the Farman?

  • The Company was permitted to carry on trade in Bengal, Bombay and Madras free of customs duty.
  • The Company was also permitted to mint its own coins.
  • The Nawabs of Bengal, however, showed scant regard for the imperial farman
  • Granted the Company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes
  • Right to issue passes or dastaks for the movements of such goods.

The Company servants were also permitted to trade but were not covered by this farman. They were required to pay the same taxes as Indian merchants. (Hence option b is correct.)

 

Source: Spectrum

 


  1. Which of the following statement is NOT correct about Dupleix?

a) He was the first European to enter in the internal politics of the Indian rulers.

b) He was the originator of the practice of subsidiary alliance in India.

c) He led the French army in the Third Carnatic War.

d) He made Pondicherry the emporium of commerce in South India.

Solution: c

Justification:

Third Carnatic War 1757-63

The conflict between the France and England got renewed in 1756 in Europe, in the form of Seven Years War, which is coterminous with the Third Carnatic War. The Third Carnatic war was a local version of the Seven Years war in Europe. The Third Carnatic War put an end to the French ambitions to create a colonial empire in India.  The British Forces were able to capture the French Settlements at Chandranagar in 1757. The French forces in south were led by Comte De Lally. The British forces under Sir Eyre Coote, defeated the French in the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760 and besieged Pondicherry.

 

After Wandiwash, the French capital of Pondicherry fell to the British in 1761. When the Seven Years war ended with the war concluded with the signing of the 1763 Treaty of Paris.

As per parts of this treaty, the Chandranagar and Pondicherry was returned to France. The French were now allowed to have trading posts in India but forbade French traders from administering them. The Government of France also agreed to support British client governments.  This was the last nail in the coffin of the French ambitions of an Indian Empire. British were now the dominant power in India. . (Hence option c is correct.)

Source: Spectrum

 


  1. Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?
    1. Mysore was annexed by William Bentick on the grounds of misgovernance which Ripon restored later
    2. Misls were a democratic set-up for military purpose organized by Sikhs.

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

Political events under William Bentick

After the Fourth Anglo Mysore war, a young Raja of Mysore of Wodeyar dynasty was placed on the throne of Mysore. For a few years, the relations between British and Mysore remained cordial. But in Late 1820s, there was a civil insurrection in Mysore. This was either due to the financial oppressions of the British Resident or due to misgovemment and oppressive taxation of the maharaja. These developments led to the British to take direct control over the Mysore in 1831. This arrangement continued till 1881, when Mysore was restored to native government, and the lawful heir enthroned.  (Hence statement 1 is correct.)

MISL

MISL is a term which originated in the eighteenth century history of the Sikhs to describe a unit or brigade of Sikh warriors and the territory acquired by it in the course of its campaign of conquest following the weakening of the Mughal authority in the country. The ‘Misldar’ was the leader or commander of the ‘Misl’ or ‘army group’.

Scholars trying to trace the etymology of the term have usually based their interpretation on the Arabic/Persian word “misi”. According to Stcingass, Persian-English Dictionary, the word means “similitude, alike or equal”, and “a file” or collection of papers bearing on a particular topic.

David Ochterlony defined misi as “a tribe or race;” Wilson as “a voluntary association of the Sikhs;” Bute Shah as “territory conquered by a brave Sardar with the help of his comrades,” Sayyid Imam udDin HusainI as a “derah or encampment.”

Ratan Singh Bhangu uses the term at several places in the sense of a “thdnd” or military/police post; M’Gregor uses it in the sense of “a friendly nation;” Lawrence in that of “a brotherhood;” Syad Muhammad Latif in that of “a confederacy of clans under their respective chiefs leagued together;” and so on.

Misl in the meaning of a file or record (maintained according to some, at Akal Takht, under the commander of the entire Sikh army, the Dal Khalsa) pertaining to a Sardar’s fighting force and territorial acquisitions has been mentioned by Sita Ram Kohli. J.D. Cunningham had taken note of this connotation of the word, too. He also traces the etymology of the word to maslahai which, according to Steingass’ dictionary, means “a front garrison, a border fortification; armed (men), warlike (people), guards, guardians.” (Hence statement 2 is correct.)

Source: Spectrum

 


  1. Consider the following statement about socio-religious reforms of 19th century.
    1. Karsondas Mulji started Satya Prakash in Gujarati to advocate widow remarriage.
    2. K.Karve founded the Widow Remarriage Association.

 

Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Justification:

The Brahmo Samaj had the issue of widow remarriage high on its agenda and did much to  popularise it. But it was mainly due to the efforts of Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820 91), the principal of Sanskrit College, Calcutta, that the Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act, 1856, which legalised marriage of widows and declared issues from such marriages as legitimate, was passed by the Government. Vidyasagar cited Vedic texts to prove that the Hindu religion sanctioned widow remarriage. Jagannath Shankar Seth and Bhau Daji were among the active promoters of girls’ schools in Maharashtra. Vishnu Shastri Pandit founded the Widow Remarriage Association in the 1850s. (Hence statement 2 is incorrect.)

 

Another prominent worker in this field was Karsondas Mulji who started the Satya Prakash in Gujarati in 1852 to advocate widow remarriage. (Hence statement 1 is  correct.)

Source: Spectrum


  1. Which of the following statement is NOT correct?

a) Sri Narayan Guru coined the slogan “one religion, one caste, one God for mankind”.

b) Raja Ram Mohan Roy set up Atmiya Sabha in 1814 to campaign against social evils.

c) Raja Radhakant Deb organized Dharma Sabha to counter Brahmo Samaj.

d) Brahmo Samaj took a definite stand on the doctrine of Karma by disregarding it completely.

Solution: a

Justification:

During the 1920s in South India, the non-brahmins organized the Self- Respect Movement led by E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. There were numerous other movements demanding lifting of ban on entry of lower castes into temples; for instance Sri Narayana Guru in Kerala led a lifelong struggle against upper caste domination. He coined the slogan “one religion, one caste, one God, for mankind”, which his disciple Sahadaran Ayyapan changed into “no religion, no caste, no God for mankind”. (Hence statement a is incorrect. It Is the answer as question is asking not correct statement )

As a reformist ideologue, Roy believed in the modern scientific approach and principles of human dignity and social equality. He put his faith in monotheism. He wrote Gift to Monotheists (1809) and translated into Bengali the Vedas and the five Upanishads to prove his conviction that ancient Hindu texts support monotheism. In 1814, he set up Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta to campaign against idolatry, caste rigidities, meaningless rituals and other social ills. (Hence statement B is correct.)

Strongly influenced by rationalist ideas, he declared that the Vedanta is based on reason and that, if reason demanded it, even a departure from the scriptures is justified. He said the principles of rationalism applied to other sects also, particularly to the elements of blind faith in them. In Precepts  of Jesus (1820), he tried to separate the moral and philosophical message of the New Testament, which he praised, from its miracle stories. He earned the wrath of missionaries over his advocacy to incorporate the message of Christ in Hinduism.

Roy’s progressive ideas met with;strong opposition from orthodox elements like Raja Radhakant Deb who organized the Dharma Sabha to counter Brahmo Samaj propaganda. Roy’s death in 1833 was a setback for the Samaj’s. mission. (Hence statement  c  is correct.)

 

The overall contribution of Brahmo Samaj may be summed thus—

  • It denounced polytheism and idol worship;
  • It discarded faith in divine avataras (incarnations);
  • It denied that any scripture could enjoy the status of ultimate authority transcending/ human reason and conscience;
  • It took no definite stand on the doctrine of;karma and transmigration of soul and left it to- individual Brahmos to believe either way; (Hence statement d  is incorrect.)
  • It criticized the caste system. In matters of social reform, the Samaj attacked many dogmas and superstitions. It condemned the prevailing Hindu prejudice against going abroad. It worked for a respectable status for women in society—condemned sati, worked for abolition, of purdah system, discouraged child marriages and polygamy, crusaded for widow remarriage and for provisions of educational facilities, etc. It also attacked casteism and untouchability though in these matters it attained only limited success.

 

Source: Spectrum


  1. Which of the following statement/s is/are correct about Paramahamsa Mandalis?
    1. Founder of these Mandalis propagated the idea of polytheism.
    2. They were primarily interested in breaking caste rules.

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 or 2

Solution: b

Justification:

Paramahansa Mandali was a secret socio-religious group in Bombay and is closely related to Manav Dharma Sabha which was found in 1844 in Surat. It was started by Mehtaji Durgaram, Dadoba Pandurang and a group of his friends. Dadoba Pandurang assumed leadership of this organisation after he left Manav Dharma Sabha. He outlined his principles in Dharma Vivechan in 1848 for Manav Dharma Sabha and “Paramhansik Bramhyadharma” for Paramahansa Mandali. It was the first socio-religious organization of Maharashtra. Founded in 1849 Maharashtra, the founders of these mandli believed in one god. (Hence statement 1  is  incorrect.)

They were primarily interested in breaking caste rules. At their meetings food cooked by lower caste people was taken by the members. These mandali also advocated women’s education and widow remarriage. (Hence statement is correct.)

Source: Spectrum

 


  1. Which of the following pairs is Not correctly matched?

Harappan settlement                              Craft production source

a) Shortughai                                                 Lapis Lazuli                 

b) Lothal                                                        Carnelian       

c) South Rajasthan                                          Steatite           

d) Balakot                                                       Metal

 

Solution: d

Justification:

The Harappans procured materials for craft production in various ways. For instance, they established settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot in areas where shell was available. Other such sites were Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, near the best source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone that was apparently very highly valued, and Lothal which was near sources of carnelian (from Bharuch in Gujarat), steatite (from south Rajasthan and north Gujarat) and metal (from Rajasthan). (Hence option d is correct.)

Source: Spectrum


  1. Which of the following act as the supporting evidences for historians who draw a conclusion that Indus Valley Cilvilization was ruled by ‘Single State’?
    1. Settlement Pattern
    2. Weights and measures
    3. Script

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) Only 1

b) Only 1 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) 1,2 and 3

Solution: d

Justification:

Planned sattlements, planned architecture and uniformity in it requires centralized authority. (Hence statement 1 is correct.)

There was a common Weight and Measures used which was requires for trade. (Hence statement 2 is correct.)

There was single script used in all the settlement which supports the theory of single state. (Hence statement 3 is correct.)

Source: Themes Part 1

 


  1. ‘Anicca’ in Buddhist Philosophy refers to?

a) The universe being soulless

b) The transience of the universe

c) The state of being without desire

d) The path of moderation between the severe extremes

Solution: b

Justification:

According to Buddhist philosophy, the world is transient (anicca) and constantly changing; it is also soulless (anatta) as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. Within this transient world, sorrow (dukkha) is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles. In the earliest forms of Buddhism, whether or not god existed was irrelevant. (Hence option b  is correct.)

 

Source: Themes Part 1


  1. Consider the  following  statements
    1. Ajivika sect was founded by Makkhali Gosala
    2. It believed in the ‘Niyati’ doctrine

 

Which of the above statement/s  is/are  correct

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

Ajivika was one of the nāstika or “heterodox” schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of Indian fatalism. Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, (Hence statement 1 is correct) it was a Śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early Buddhism and Jainism. Ājīvikas were organised renunciates who formed discrete communities.

The Ājīvika school is known for its Niyati (“Fate”) doctrine of absolute determinism, (Hence statement 2 is correct) the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles. Ājīvikas considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. Ajivika metaphysics included a theory of atoms similar to the Vaisheshika  school, where everything was composed of atoms, qualities emerged from aggregates of atoms, but the aggregation and nature of these atoms was predetermined by cosmic forces. Ājīvikas were atheists and rejected the authority of the Vedas, but they believed that in every living being is an ātman – a central premise of Hinduism and Jainism.

Source: Themes Part 1

 


  1. Consider the following statements
    1. The Dravidian style of temple architecture began with Cholas.
    2. Sittanavasal paintings belong to the period of Pallavas
    3. Dakshinchitra a commentary was compiled during the period of Pallavas

Which of the above is/are correct?

a) Only 2

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 3

d) 1,2 and 3

Solution: b

Justification:

The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule. . (Hence statement 1 is incorrect)

It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas and culminated in structural temples. The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in four stages

 

Music, dance and painting had also developed under the patronage of the Pallavas. The Mamandur inscription contains a note on the notation of vocal music. The Kudumianmalai inscription referred to musical notes and instruments. The Alwars and Nayanmars composed their hymns in various musical notes. Dance and drama also developed during this period. The sculptures of this period depict many dancing postures. The Sittannavasal paintings belonged to this period. . (Hence statement 2  is correct)

 

 

The commentary called Dakshinchitra was compiled during the reign of Mahendravarman I, who had the title Chittirakkarapuli. (Hence statement 3 is correct.)

 

Source: Themes Part 1 and wiki

 


  1. The reception given to a Persian embassy by Pulakesin II is depicted in a painting at

a) Badami Caves

b) Ajanta Caves

c) Ellora Caves

d) Nasik Cave

Solution: b

Justification:

The Chalukyas were great patrons of art. They developed the vesara style in the building of structural temples. However, the vesara style reached its culmination only under the Rashtrakutas and the Hoysalas. The structural temples of the Chalukyas exist at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal. Cave temple architecture was also famous under the Chalukyas. Their cave temples are found in Ajanta, Ellora and Nasik. The best specimens of Chalukya paintings can be seen in the Badami cave temple and in the Ajanta caves. The reception given to a Persian embassy by Pulakesin II is depicted in a painting at Ajantha. The Chalukya temples may be divided into two stages. The first stage is represented by the temples at Aihole and Badami. Among the seventy temples found at Aihole, four are important.

  • Ladh Khan temple is a low, flat-roofed structure consisting of a pillared hall.
  • Durga temple resembles a Buddha Chaitya.
  • Huchimalligudi temple.
  • The Jain temple at Meguti.

               

Source: Tamilnadu class 11

 


  1. Consider the following statements
    1. Kailasa temple was built by Krishna I at Elephanta Island
    2. Elephanta Island was originally called Sripuri
    3. The most-imposing sculptures at Elephanta Island is Trimurthi.

Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?

a) Only 2 and 3

b) Only 3

c) 1,2 and 3

d) Only 1 and 3

Solution: a

Justification:

The art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas were found at Ellora and Elephanta. At Ellora, the most remarkable temple is the Kailasa temple. (Hence statement 1 is incorrect.)

 

It was excavated during the reign of Krishna I. It is carved out of a massive block of rock 200 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth and height. The temple consists of four parts – the main shrine, the entrance gateway, an intermediate shrine for Nandi and mandapa surrounding the courtyard. The temple stands on a lofty plinth 25 feet high. The central face of the plinth has imposing figures of elephants and lions giving the impression that the entire structure rests on their back. It has a three-tiered sikhara or tower resembling the sikhara of the Mamallapuram rathas. In the interior of the temple there is a pillared hall which has sixteen square pillars. The Kailasa temple is an architectural marvel with it beautiful sculptures. The sculpture of the Goddess Durga is shown as slaying the Buffalo demon. In another sculpture Ravana was making attempts to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva. The scenes of Ramayana were also depicted on the walls. The general characteristics of the Kailasa temple are more Dravidian. Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It was originally called Sripuri. The Portuguese after seeing the large figure of an elephant named it Elephanta. (Hence statement 2 is correct.)

 

The sculptural art of the Rashtrakutas reached its zenith in this place. There is a close similarity between         the sculptures at Ellora and those in Elephanta. They might have been carved by the same craftsmen. At the entrance to the sanctum there are huge figures of dwara-palakas. In the walls of the prakara around the sanctum there are niches containing the images of Shiva in various forms – Nataraja, Gangadhara, Ardhanareesvara and Somaskanda. The most imposing figure of this temple is Trimurthi. (Hence statement 3 is correct.) The sculpture is six metre high. It is said to represent the three aspects of Shiva as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.

 

Source: Tamilnadu class 11

 


  1. The qualification to become a ward member in the villages under Chola administration did NOT include which of the following?

a) Land Ownership

b) Age qualifications

c) Knowledge of both Vedas and Puranas

d) Resident ownership

Solution: c

Justification:

The system of village autonomy with sabhas and their committees developed through the ages and reached its culmination during the Chola rule. Two inscriptions belonging to the period of Parantaka I found at Uttiramerur provide details of the formation and functions of village councils. That village was divided into thirty wards and each was to nominate its members to the village council. The qualifications to become a ward member were:

– Ownership of at least one fourth veli of land.

– Own residence.

– Above thirty years and below seventy years of age.

Knowledge of Vedas. (Hence option c is correct.)

 

However, certain norms of disqualification were also mentioned in the inscriptions. They were:

  • Those who had been members of the committees for the past three years.
  • Those who had failed to submit accounts as committee members.
  • Those who had committed sins.
  • Those who had stolen the property of others.

Source: Tamilnadu class 11


21) With reference to the Vyas Samman, consider the following statements:

  1. It is given by the Uttar Pradesh government to outstanding Hindi literary works
  2. It is awarded annually
  3. It is given to a Hindi literary work published in the past 10 years

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 Only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 3 Only

d) 1,2 and 3

 

Solution: b)

 

http://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/12/11/insights-daily-current-affairs-11-december-2017/

 

Eminent Hindi writer Mamta Kalia will be honoured with literary award Vyas Samman for year 2017 for her novel “Dukkham Sukkham”. The author has earlier received “Yashpal Katha Samman” from Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan, “Sahitya Bhushan Samman” and “Ram Manohar Lohia Samman”.

About Vyas Samman awards- facts:

  • The Vyas Samman is given to a Hindi literary work published in the past 10 years.
  • Eminent literary critic and poet Ram Vilas Sharma is the first recipient of this award in 1991.
  • The writer will receive an amount of Rs 3.5 lakh as the prize money.
  • It is awarded annually by the K.K. Birla Foundation.

22) Which of the following is/are part of solar activity?

  1. Solar flare
  2. Coronal mass ejections
  3. Solar wind
  4. Solar energetic particles
  5. Geomagnetic storm

Select the correct answer using codes below:

a) 1,3 and 4 Only

b) 1,2,3 and 4 Only

c) 2,3,4 and 5 Only

d) 1,2,3,4 and 5

 

Solution: d)

 

http://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/12/11/insights-daily-current-affairs-11-december-2017/

 

All are part of solar activity.

 

Nicely given here: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/spaceweather/index.html#q2


 

23) According to the Representation of People’s Act a candidate can contest any election from up to two constituencies. In which of the following elections can a candidate contest from two constituencies?

  1. By-elections
  2. Parliamentary elections
  3. State assembly elections
  4.  Biennial Council elections

Select the correct answer using codes below:

a) 2 and 3 Only

b) 1,2 and 3 Only

c) 2,3 and 4 Only

d) 1,2,3 and 4

 

Solution: d)

 

http://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/12/12/insights-daily-current-affairs-12-december-2017/

 

Section 33(7) of the Representation of People’s Act permits a candidate to contest any election (Parliamentary, State Assembly, Biennial Council, or bye-elections) from up to two constituencies. The provision was introduced in 1996 prior to which there was no bar on the number of constituencies from which a candidate could contest.


24) With reference to the LaQshya initiative of the union government, consider the following statements:

  1. It is an initiative by the Ministry of Defence
  2. Under this initiative, soldiers who are manning are provided with advanced technology for better border surveillance

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: d)

 

http://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/12/12/insights-daily-current-affairs-12-december-2017/

 

The government has launched “LaQshya – Labour Room Quality Improvement Initiative, a Safe Delivery Mobile Application for health workers who manage normal and complicated deliveries in the peripheral areas.

About LaQshya:

What is it? LaQshya is mobile app for health workers who manage normal and complicated deliveries in the peripheral areas. The goal of this initiative is to reduce preventable maternal and new-born mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with the care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity OT and ensure respectful maternity care.

Aim: It aims to improve the quality of care that is being provided to the pregnant mother in the Labour Room and Maternity Operation Theatres, thereby preventing the undesirable adverse outcomes associated with childbirth.


 

25) Why do meteoroids explode before reaching Earth? Choose the most probable answer form below options:

a) High-pressure air in the atmosphere causes meteorite’s dissipation

b) Radioactive elements in meteorites decay and explode

c) High speed meteorites generate heat in the space which causes explosion

d) None of the above

 

Solution: a)

 

http://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/12/13/insights-daily-current-affairs-13-december-2017/

 

When a meteor comes hurtling towards Earth, the high-pressure air in front of it seeps into its pores and cracks, pushing the body of the meteor apart and causing it to explode.

There is a big gradient between high-pressure air in front of the meteor and the vacuum of air behind it. If the air can move through the passages in the meteorite, it can easily get inside and blow off pieces.

https://phys.org/news/2017-12-meteroids-earth.html