PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018:Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

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Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)


Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

  1. Vulnerable– IUCN Red Listclouded leopard.
  2. state animal of Meghalaya
  3. CITES Appendix I animal
  4. Named after the distinctive ‘clouds’ on its coat – ellipses partially edged in black, with the insides a darker colour than the background colour of the pelt.


  1. Habitat
  • Tropical evergreen rainforests but can also be found in dry tropical forests and mangrove swamps. It has been found at relatively high altitudes in the Himalayas
  • Range : Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China
  • India : Assam, northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura

clouded leopard

  1. Threats
  • Hunted for the illegal wildlife trade
  • Trade in bones for medicines, meat for exotic dishes and live animals for the pet trade 
  • Habitat fragmentation and degradation
  • Human-leopard conflict



World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

  1. It is an international non-governmental organization
  2. Founded in 1961
  3. Headquarter — Gland (Switzerland).
  4. Aim : wilderness preservation & the reduction of human impact on the environment
  5. Formerly name — World Wildlife Fund
  6. world’s largest conservation organization
  7. objectives
  • Conserving the world’s biological diversity
  • Ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable
  • Promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption


  1. Reprts & programmes
  • Living Planet Report— published every two years by WWF since 1998; it is based on a Living Planet Index and ecological footprint calculation
  • Earth hour
  • Debt-for-nature swaps–financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation’s foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures.
  • Marine Stewardship Council(MSC) — independent non-profit organization which sets a standard for sustainable fishing
  • Healthy GrownPotato — eco-brand that provides high-quality, sustainably grown, packaged, and shipped potatoes to consumers by leveraging integrated pest management(IPM) farming practices on large scale farms