SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 NOVEMBER 2017
SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 NOVEMBER 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: Role of women
Introduction :- Indira Gandhi was the first and the only female Prime Minister of India but at the same time she was India’s first and most environmentally aware Prime Minister. This role of Indira Gandhi of an environmentalist and a conversationalist remains somewhat unknown. Her engagement with nature was much deeper and comprehensive.
- She stood ahead of her political counterparts globally. She always found time to pursue environmental causes despite numerous weighty preoccupations. She spoke about the importance of protecting the environment at the international level. For example in first UNCHE Conference in 1972 when majority political class was unaware about the same. She was far ahead of her time as a political leader who went against the mania for economic growth at any cost.
- S.Swaminathan who headed IUCN in 1983 said she was one of the greatest environmentalist of our time.
- Her empathy for nature was rooted in her upbringing – schooling in Shantiniketan, a botanist uncle’s influence, Salim Ali’s books, nurturing of animals at home etc. She made her passion for wild an integral part of her political discourse, guided by belief that ecological balance was imperative to the welfare of people and India’s development.
Her Contribution :-
- Green Legislation :- First time in India legal and institutional frameworks were adopted. These included Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Water Pollution Act 1974, Air Pollution act 1981, Forest conservation act 1980 etc.
- She took efforts to conserve targeted species in order to help them from being endangered and ultimately extinct. Project Tiger in 1973 was the biggest initiative globally to save a particular species. Project Crocodile in 1973, Black Bucks, Olive Ridley Turtles, Sangai deer etc.
- She made nature a priority. She tried her best to make nature a national heritage by efforts like putting the Forest and Wildlife item on the concurrent list.
- Ecological imperatives were placed over economic growth and development :- She saved Silent valley rainforest from projects. Later it was developed in national park. Banned tiger hunting in 1970 despite lobbying of hunting community and pressing demand for forex that Shikar Tourism brought.
However her efforts are not free from criticism :-
- There was a rawness in her thoughts and actions :-
- It was represented from stands like blaming underdevelopment and poor for damaging environment in developing countries like India.
- This was evident from her infamous statements as – The environmental problems of developing countries are not the side effects of excessive industrialisation but reflect the inadequacy of development.
- At first UNCHE Stockholm conference 1972 she said “Are not poverty and need the greatest polluters ?” Her statements dealt a serious blow to nascent Climate Change movement.
- But the rawness of her thought should be seen in the context of her time when equity in climate pledges, historical responsibility and sustainable development etc. were not established ideas. These were almost no existent.
- Top Down approach of environmental conservation :- She undermined the role of local people in conservation efforts. Evidences can be seen from instances like forceful eviction, non-recognition of rights of tribal people, non-consideration of people’s movements tec.
- Instances of Environmentalism of, by and for the elite :-Actions like permitting Indian Oil refinery at Mathura, despite adverse impact on Taj Mahal, allowing Karnataka’s Kudremukh Iron ore mining projects in partnership with Iron which was considered ecological disaster.
- Green revolution launched without adequate safeguards :- It resulted in adverse impacts of monocropping , pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilisers etc. But this decision should be seen in larger socio-economic context when India desperately needed to move away from it’s food reliance on the US.
Indira Gandhi was a committed conserventionalist for whom development without conservation was unsustainable, just as conservation without development was unacceptable. Her environment vision is relevant today as never before with India facing numerous environmental crisis such as depletion of groundwater, river pollution, destruction of forest, decline in biodiversity and wildlife population species. The reasons for such condition is lack of political will where the discourse views conservation as the hurdle to economic development. So government should follow her footsteps on the green road as environmental destruction affects all equally regardless of ideology, geography, income or religion
Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
2) In successive elections, electoral participation in India’s big, metropolitan cities has been lower vis-à-vis semi-urban and rural constituencies. It is argued that in big cities, it is not the middle class but the urban poor who are unable to exercise their franchise. Discuss. (250 Words)
Introduction :- Electoral participation in India’s big, metropolitan cities has been observed to be comparatively lower than that in semi-urban and rural areas. Empirically measured in terms of voter turnout, the percentage of voters who participate in elections in cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, etc, has been found to be way lower than the average turnout of their respective states. The media and political commentators often attribute this to middle-class apathy and lack of political engagement among India’s urban, educated voters.
However, empirical data gathered as a part of our National Election Studies (NES) indicate that metropolitan cities have lower voter turnouts not because the so-called middle classes do not participate in the national elections but, rather, because the urban poor residing in these big cities do not exercise their franchise in larger numbers.
Evidence from around the world shows that even in richer and more longstanding democracies poorer citizens participate less often and less vigorously than their wealthier counterparts. In Third World democracies, where the rate of poverty is much higher – as high as 68 percent in Zambia and 70 percent in Madagascar – participation and influence may be particularly skewed, resulting in a much narrower base of support for democracy.
Reasons for the same :-
- Using data from the State Election Study (SES) of Delhi, one of the largest urban agglomerations in the country, one can argue that a large share of these urban poor are internal migrants who do not form a part of India’s democratic upsurge due to low enrolment rates and, hence, are the reason behind the low urban turnout rate.
- Based on data collected as a part of the NES on the 2009 and the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, one can argue that the assumption of middle-class apathy is basically fallacious. There is a positive relationship between electoral participation and economic class. Hence poor are left behind in the participation.
- Another reason is the informal nature of the work that migrants are usually engaged in. Internal migrants, especially short-term migrants, are engaged in the informal sector as construction workers, domestic servants, and security personnel; these jobs tend to be seasonal and temporary in nature. Despite the Election Commission’s diktat that voting day be declared a public holiday, the nature of work prevents many from taking leave. It is difficult for a migrant labour to forego a day’s earnings and exercise their political right. Thus, a process of disenfranchisement begins, owing to the nature of their occupational engagement.
- Also the high mobility of short-term migrants within cities owing to the nature of their occupation and their economic status can lead to inaccurate voter lists; this is also a reason for why many migrant voters fail to cast their vote even if they are enrolled as voters. Studies conducted in Delhi and other cities also confirm such inaccuracies in the voter list.
- Role of literacy :- Studies undertaken in different parts of the world have shown how literacy can be one such mediating variable. Bratton and Mattes find within six Sub-Saharan countries that education has highly positive effects on people’s attitudes toward democracy. Finkel shows how civic education programs in South Africa and the Dominican Republic have enabled citizens to engage more actively and effectively with democracy in these countries.
- Role of information :- Information can be similarly critical for entrenching democracy better. Citizens without information can rarely formulate interests clearly, and they know little about appropriate institutional pathways for expressing these interests, so democracy without information can be exclusionary in effect.
- In addition to wealth and education, religion and caste are also important to examine in the Indian context.
- Gender is strongly and negatively associated with participation. Female representatives tend to participate to a considerably smaller degree – 15 percentage points less on average – compared to male representatives. With poverty added it exaggerate this problem.
For the poor and the marginalised, democracy is not only about universal franchise and participation in the electoral process, but about reclaiming the state. Their increased participation has strengthened the democratic process itself in India, though it is too early to say whether this will be successful in reducing inequality and addressing the bias in economic and social institutions. Efforts should be made to enhance their large scale participation.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
3) The publication of “Investing in Health,” the World Bank’s highly influential 1993 World Development Report, has guided structural adjustment policies and health sector reforms in many developing countries. Critically examine how India’s healthcare industry has evolved since the publication of above said report. (250 Words)
Introduction :- World Bank had published a much researched World Development Report of “Investing in Health”which gave guidelines for structural adjustment policies and health reforms in developing countries as follows :-
For developing economies, the WDR recommends a three-pronged approach:
- Fostering an environment that enables households to improve health:
- Improving government spending on health:
- Promoting diversity and competition:
For developing countries, the WDR suggests a range of health policy reforms:
- Low-income countries:
- provide primary school for all children, especially girls;
- invest in cost-effective public health measures;
- Middle-income countries:
- phase out public subsidies for better-off groups;
- extend insurance coverage more widely and give consumers a choice of insurer;
- Formerly socialist countries:
- improve the efficiencies of government health facilities;
- find new ways to finance health care;
Evolution of India’s healthcare industry since the publication of report :-
The term “healthcare industry” is used as an umbrella term encompassing hospitals and diagnostic centres, drugs and pharmaceutical manufacturers, medical equipment and device manufacturers, and the health insurance industry.
- It is seen that there is an increasing number of organised for-profit private healthcare providers, and it is no longer the case that there are a few corporates providing tertiary-level/super-specialty care confined to the metros.
- Ownership is no longer confined to medical professionals/doctor entrepreneurs, nor is it local. Foreign institutions held 45% stakes in the Apollo Health Enterprises Limited.
- Several foreign/multinational companies are operational in India, either through greenfield ventures or acquisition of local hospitals. Examples of the former are Columbia Asia with origins in the United States (US) and the Japanese venture, Sakra World Hospitals; meanwhile the NMC Healthcare, Dubai has acquired several hospitals.
- Indian entities are seen to be expanding their activities across the country, including previously uncovered regions in eastern and central India. Corporate hospital chains were acquiring standalone hospitals; the focus and attention is on low-cost models and Tier II cities to drive their growth plans, due to the high competition and high land costs in Tier I cities
- The Indian healthcare business is now seeing emergence of small-format providers in single-specialty segments such as the short-stay surgery care format started by Nova Medical Centres, nephrology, and eye care, largely supported by private equity.
- Companies are also introducing a corporate model for primary healthcare, by drawing individual practitioners and clinics into a network.
- Experience all over the world shows that corporations, big or small, wield great social, political and cultural influence, nationally and globally; and influence local communities, and behaviour and values of ordinary individuals. For instance, we see that the healthcare industry is active in promoting health insurance for low income groups, in creating demand and consumer awareness of market opportunities for buying healthcare, in portraying health as an individual responsibility, and so on.
The World Development Report addresses the challenges to advancing health in developing countries directly, contributes ideas and methods that are relevant to the most pressing problems, and encompasses these in a strategic approach that is broad and clear.
Topic: IPR; Industrial policy
4) A robust broadcasting industry is the linchpin of every democratic society. Analyse the key provisions of the Proposed Treaty for the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations by WIPO and examine if India should sign this Broadcasting treaty or not. (250 Words)
Introduction :- A robust broadcasting industry is the linchpin of every democratic society. Although constitutionally broad-casting (electronic media) is not part of the fourth estate, its importance is best described by veteran British statesman, Tony Benn: “Broadcasting is really too important to be left to the broadcasters”
In recognition of the immense importance of broadcasting, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) convened a symposium in Manila in 1997 to discuss the rights of broadcasters over their signals. The Manila Symposium was followed by another symposium held by Latin American and Caribbean countries in Cancun, Mexico, in 1998.
The Proposed Treaty for the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations by WIPO has following provisions :-
- Definitions – Broadcasting :- Broadcasting means the transmission of a programme-carrying signal by wire or wireless means for reception by the public; such transmission by satellite is also “broadcasting”; transmission of encrypted signals is “broadcasting” where the means for decrypting are provided to the public by the broadcasters or with its consent.
- Retransmission :- Protection against simultaneous retransmission protects a broadcaster when its signal is simultaneously transmitted (or transmitted in real-time) by any other entity without the authorisation of the original broadcaster. Protection against near-simultaneous retransmission protects a broadcaster when, due to a technical delay (which is usually just a fraction of a second), the live broadcast of an event is transmitted by any other entity without the authorisation of the original broadcaster. Deferred (delayed) retransmission is when the broadcaster’s signal is transmitted without authorisation after it has been broadcasted by the original broadcaster.
- Object of Protection :- The protection extends only to “programme carrying signals,” which means that only the signal (and not the underlying content) is protected under the Broadcasters Treaty. Further, webcasters have been kept outside its purview.
- Rights to Be Granted :- The draft text extends protection to the actual broadcast and the pre-broadcast signals of the broadcasters. It comprises two alternatives for protecting actual broadcasts (WIPO 2016a: Annexure 4, p 72). Alternative A is an expansive right, which gives broadcasters the right to authorise and prohibit the retransmission of signals and the ability to make its signal available. Alternative B is vague and possibly expansive due to the phrase “adequate and effective protection”. This leaves room for broadcasters to assert a wide range of rights. For this reason, Alternative A should be India’s preference.
Should India sign this broadcasting treaty or not :
- Opponents of the Broadcasters Treaty have noted that existing international instruments such as the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms, and Broadcasting Organisations (the Rome Convention), the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellites (the Brussels Convention), and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) granted broadcasters sufficient protection against signal piracy. However, this opposition is misplaced. They are outdated, have technological limitations, they don’t extend much rights hence there is need to sign new treaty.
- One may argue that the content of Indian broadcasters are protected as cinematographic works under the copyright law of the countries in the Indian subcontinent
- For a developing country like India, where the internet penetration rate stands at 34.8% as of 2016,traditional broadcasting holds immense importance in reaching out to the masses in remote areas bereft of internet access. The very survival of traditional Indian broadcasting is being challenged due to stiff competition from new players such as YouTube, Netflix, Google TV, and other over-the-top (OTT) services.
- This is because its revenue model is severely hampered by piracy, which directly impedes its ability to procure quality content, particularly rights to international sporting events. It is no secret that quality programming output is the harbinger of an informed society. Further, even the national exchequer stands to lose revenues due to signal piracy.
- Lastly, it may also have other unintended consequences such as enabling the financing of organised crimes—particularly terrorism, money laundering, and the violation of foreign exchange regulations. For all these reasons, an international instrument for protecting the rights of broadcasting organisations becomes important.
The Broadcasters Treaty is one of the few intellectual property treaties that are devoid of classical North–South divergences. Traditional broadcasters across countries employ the same technology, though their scales differ. By that virtue, they meet the same fate at the hands of pirates. For this reason, the Broadcasters Treaty has found wide support amongst nations, irrespective of the level of their economic development.
India has already witnessed the slow decay of its public service broadcasting. As it marches in its pursuit of becoming an information society, it cannot afford to have its traditional broadcasting system wither. Thus, a balanced Broadcasters Treaty, in which the rights of all stakeholders are considered, becomes imperative.
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning; Energy
5) Energy planning should link energy and its end-use and end-user directly, promoting equity, and providing a better monitoring framework for energy use. Comment on energy planning in India. (250 Words)
Introduction :- The energy policy of India is largely defined by the country’s expanding energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. India ranks 81 position in overall energy self-sufficiency at 66% in 2014. Energy planning has gained importance owing to it’s role in securing the country’s growth.
What must constitute the energy planning :-
- Framework: The estimates start with a well-defined normative framework of specific goals (in terms of goods, services, etc) required for a decent living and estimate corresponding energy requirement. This makes the developmental goals of energy planning explicit.
- Pathways:These estimates lay out the distribution of the energy to specific end-uses (and end-users) highlighting that not only does the energy need to be generated but that it also needs to flow through certain pathways.
- Methodology: In laying out the pathways, the estimates also provide a methodology for the estimation of energy required for various elements of specific developmental goals. This allows identifying potential ways for meeting the same needs by lesser levels of energy use along with other important co-benefits.
India’s energy planning :-
There are three reasons why it would be more productive for India’s energy narrative to consider not only how energy is supplied, but also explicitly consider how it is used and distributed.
- The Indian economy is undergoing various transitions, which make the implications for its future needs not only immense, but also uncertain and potentially malleable. Demographically, India is expected to add on the order of 10 million people to the job market each year for the next two decades, with consequences for energy use, especially from manufacturing. At the same time, urbanisation will lead to about 200 million more people moving into urban spaces and demanding more resources for improved lifestyles.
- Incorporating the demand side as central to energy planning not only makes managing energy supply easier, it also has a substantial impact in reducing the amount of supplies needed and, subsequently, the carbon emissions released. In fact, sectors such as buildings, transport, and industry can form the bulk of reduction in emissions intensity up to 23-25 per cent from 2005 levels by 2020, as estimated by the erstwhile Planning Commission.
- The traditional supply-dominated orientation has simply not been enough to fix the pathologies of Indian energy. The sector is rife with a range of structural inefficiencies and financial losses in spite of increasing electricity production and the slew of policy targets. Lack of energy access remains an overarching characteristic: more than 400 million people have no access to electricity (according to the 2011 Census) and there are serious challenges of fuel quality even when there is supply. Power shortages continue to plague the system and are increasingly compensated for by polluting diesel generators.
A bottom-up, disaggregated approach to energy planning can help us answer the question of how much energy we need to ensure a dignified living for all. The process, by its very nature, also indicates end-uses and end-users for the energy, which is equally important. It can also offer insights into the best way to meet a particular developmental goal from the energy perspective, the relative criticality of energy as an input to meet the specific goal, and the policies and cross-sectoral linkages that are important to ensure that the energy used does indeed help meet the objectives. Last but not the least, such an approach can facilitate the monitoring of the implementation and increase its accountability.
Given all this, it is strongly recommended that such an approach be enshrined as the basis of energy planning in the country.
Introduction :- Human–wildlife conflict refers to the interaction between wild animals and people and the resultant negative impact on people or their resources, or wild animals or their habitat. The conflict takes many forms ranging from loss of life or injury to humans, and animals both wild and domesticated, to competition for scarce resources to loss and degradation of habitat.
Causes of this conflicts :-
- As human populations expand into wild animal habitats, natural wildlife territoryis displaced.
- Reduction in the availability of natural prey/food sources leads to wild animals seeking alternate sources.
- Alternately, new resources created by humans draw wildlife resulting in conflict.
- The population density of wildlife and humans increase with overlaps in geographical areas used increasing their interaction thus resulting in increased physical conflict.
- By products of human existence offer un-natural opportunity for wildlife in the form of food and sheltered interference and potentially destructive threat for both man and animals.
- Competition for food resources also occurs when humans attempt to harvest natural resources such as fish and grassland pasture.
- Another cause of conflict comes from conservation biased toward flagship or game species that often threatens other species of concern.
Existing approaches for resolving incidences of human–wildlife conflict such as predator attacks on people or livestock typically use methods that address physical loss but ignore social, cultural, and emotional trauma.
To holistically and more permanently alleviate conflicts, wildlife management agencies and other conservation practitioners require resources and training in outreach and public relations, and need to expand their toolkit of approaches in order to connect with varied stakeholders in a greater diversity of settings. Steps like following can be adopted :-
- An united effort :- In order to be truly effective, prevention of human-wildlife conflict has to involve the full scope of society: international organizations, governments, NGOs, communities, consumers and individuals. Solutions are possible, but often they also need to have financial backing for their support and development.
- Land-use planning :- Ensuring that both humans and animals have the space they need is possible. Protecting key areas for wildlife, creating buffer zones and investing in alternative land uses are some of the solutions.
- Community-based natural resource management :- The local community is key since they are the ones who may wake up in the morning with a tiger or bear in their back yard. But they are also the people who can benefit the most from this. If people are empowered to manage their relationship with wild animals, these “unwanted” neighbours can become allies in bringing income and promoting a better quality of life for all.
- Compensation / insurance :- Compensation or insurance for animal-induced damage is another widely accepted solution. There are different ways this can be done. In Namibia, for example, community-based insurance systems exist for damage done to livestock. The Nepalese government pays compensation in areas around national parks.
- Field based solutions :- There are a number of practical field-based solutions that can limit the damage done both to humans and human property, and to wildlife, by preventing wildlife from entering fields or villages. However, such solutions can only be applied on a case-by-case basis. What people see as solution in one place, they may resist in another. And what works in one place, may have the opposite effect somewhere else.
- Techniques like Strobe Lights, Natural Barriers, Disguise, corridors, mappings can help in handling the conflict in more smoother manner.
Introduction :- Farmers can produce energy from sun, wind or biomass and can use this for themselves or sell surplus to companies.
Solar Irrigation :-
- Solar energy is one of the easiest ways for farmers to produce energy
- It is the use of solar energy for pumping out ground water and for irrigation in place of traditional diesel pumps or use of grid power(electricity)
- Irrigation is the area that benefits most from solar energy because using sun for irrigation represent a virtuous cycle when sun shrines it feeds the irrigation systems exactly when crops need more water. More energy is available when it is needed more.
- Number of solar pumps has grown tremendously Rs. 7500 in 2010 to Rs 10000 in 2015-16
What is SPaRC :-
- Its solar irrigation model where solar power is used as remunerative crop, in the sense that the surplus solar energy is resold to companies to add farmers income.
- SPICE :- Worlds first Solar Pump Irrigation Co-Operative Enterprise Dhundi village Gujarat. Since May 2016
- SPARC Model :- Solar power as a renumerative crop model of Dhundi SPICE. Solar pumps continues to run and so water pumping into farms continues whether farmers need to irrigate or not.
- To avoid this Dhundi SPICE developed SPARC model, where farmers pool their surplus solar energy and sell it to Madhya Gujarat Vij Company Ltd. (MGVCL) the local power discom under 25 years power purchase agreement . In return theses farmers have surrendered their rights of subsidised grid power connection for 25 years
- Solar power as a cash crop :- No seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, labour needed. Discoms as ready buyer at assured price without risks of climate conditions, price drops, pests, diseases etc.
- It controls ground water overexploitation through incentivising farmers for its conservation.
- Prevents wastage of surplus solar energy through channelizing it properly.
- It is in line with governments policy of Doubling farmer income till 2022 by
- Savings from high maintenance charges of diesel pumps
- Income from sale of irrigation services to other farmers.
- Income from sale of solar energy to discoms.
- For distribution companies :- It will reduce subsidy burden, also enhance chances of gaining renewable energy certificates as pro renewable purchase obligations entity
- Prom Poor water market :- This will halve irrigation cost for buyers of solar power.
- Carbon Footprints :- Solarising India’s electric tubewells will reduce Annual GHG emissions by 4-5%. It will help India meet it’s committed INDC as part of Paris Agreements.
- Contribution to Smart Grid Management.
- It is an acceptable way to end power subsidies in India
- Capital investment for solar panels and other accessories is required.
- Land footprints of solar panels is huge which hampers the space for farming.
Other Solar irrigation models and their drawbacks as compared to SPaRC :-
- Discoms centred model :- This is current policy in all state. It promotes solar pumps with attractive capital cost subsidy to farmers wait listed for grid power connections with supposed benefits of saving subsidy burden on Discoms. But there is no overall benefits as it adds to the existing diesel or electric pumps rather than replacing them
- Developer centred farmer dedicated solar plant :- It is being implemented by NGO Prayas Maharashtra. It deploys tail end solar power plants on panchayat land where feeders are separated. These grid tied plants supply free anytime power to farmers while surplus flows back to grid to meet the deficit.
Benefits :- It is cheaper than individual solar pumps. Energy efficiency is gained in agri power usage . No subsidies are needed and help Discom’s RPO.
Drawbacks :- There is no incentive for energy and water conservation. No offerings of income flow to farmers but developers.
Developer centred distributed models :- It is Karnataka, Gujrat draft policy. Developers companies provide free solar energy to farmers for limited period. Surplus power sold to discoms.
Benefits :- It provides power to farmers. PRO meet by discoms is made. Developers also saves on land cost
Drawbacks :- There is no incentive for energy and water conservation. There is no income flows to farmers.
Way Forward :-
There is need to promote farmer centric models of solar irrigation like SPaRC where no duality of management and ownership, farmers have full stake in power management. It further encourages efficient use of solar energy and ground water. The need of hour is to make it more scalable and bankable with higher capital cost subsidy.
Topic: Ethics in public administration
(a) official duties,
(b) public interest, and
(c) personal interest
are taking priority one above the other.
How can this conflict in administration be resolved? Describe with an example. (150 Words)
Introduction :- A conflict of interest is a situation in which an individual has competing interests or loyalties. A conflict of interest can exist in many different situations. The easiest way to explain the concept of conflict of interest is by using some examples.
- with a public official whose personal interests conflict with his/her professional position.
- with a person who has a position of authority in one organization that conflicts with his or her interests in another organization
- with a person who has conflicting responsibilities.
For ex if a public servant has to decide on awarding a contract for a construction project and among biding entities there are his/her relatives involved then there can be conflict of interest.
There are seven basic steps for developing and implementing a comprehensive conflicts of interest policy which will allow the organisation to manage conflicts of interest before problems arise.
- Identify the different types of conflicts of interest that typically arise in the organisation.
- Develop an appropriate conflicts of interest policy, management strategies and responses.
- Educate staff, managers and the senior executive and publish the conflicts of interest policy across the organisation.
- Lead the organisation through example.
- Communicate the organisation’s commitment to its policy and procedures for managing conflicts of interest to stakeholders, including contractors, clients, sponsors and the community.
- Enforce the policy.
- Review the policy regularly.