SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 SEPTEMBER 2017
SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 SEPTEMBER 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: Poverty and developmental issues
1) A report on development in South Asia published by the South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE) focuses on poverty, mariginalisation and crisis of governance in the region. Discuss its findings. (200 Words)
South Asia is home to above 1.65 billion people that comprise about 24% of world’s 6.99 billion populations. South Asia region has a wide diversity of cultures, languages, religions and social structures, which are severely affected by poverty. Despite several decades of planned development efforts targeted towards poverty reduction, almost all countries of South Asia have been experiencing poverty, exclusion and denial since long. Even the conventional poverty estimates show that, compared to almost one quarter of world population living in South Asia, half of the poor reside in this region. Out of eight countries, four (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal) are in the category of least developed countries (LDCs) in South Asia. Conflicts in different forms and manifestations —mainly rooted in denial, discrimination, exclusion, deprivation and marginalisation— are frequently faced by South Asian societies. The region has also been characterised by the unjust distribution of productive resources, resulting in deep rooted inequality, conflict, destitution and systematic marginalisation. This unequal distribution of resources is encountered by various communities within the region.
SAAPE’s main focus is poverty eradication through policy research, advocacy, lobbying and campaign works on five key themes, which are priority concerns for civil society in all countries of the region. Since SAAPE’s inception, it is continuously working in five major thematic areas, which are:
- Food sovereignty, livelihoods, climate change and employment,
- Peace, justice and demilitarization,
- Gender justice,
- Labour rights and economic/financial crisis,
- Democracy and just governance
From 2012, SAAPE members are focusing on food sovereignty, gender justice and demilitarization, democratisation and social justice issues in South Asia.
SAAPE’s mission is to intervene on the issues of poverty and exclusion thereby contributing for eradicating poverty and injustices, rejecting the neo- liberal development models and striving for sustainable alternatives that are pro-poor people of South Asia.
Findings of report:
SAAPE’s triennial study focuses on structural causes of poverty which runs deep in the region.
The report points out that there is a growing marginalisation and destitution of people in the South Asian region. The increasing gap between the rich and the poor is worrying.
The report adds that South Asian countries have adopted a neo-liberal model of development, which perpetuates pauperisation of masses by allowing the GDP to accumulate in the hands of a few.
The report mentions that states have been usurped by the market and people at the margins do not have a voice. He emphasised on the need for an integrated process of production and distribution for the eradication of poverty.
The comparative perspective that this report brings goes beyond the limited paradigm of national particularities. There have been remarkable similarities in the way neo liberal policies were adopted by the South Asian countries nearly a quarter of a century ago that brought enormous changes in the economic sphere.
The SAAPE 2016 report differs from intergovernmental and national level reports in several significant ways. It records development processes of South Asia in the light of neo liberal reforms, the rationale of economic growth and structural transformation, capitalist mode of development, increasing inequality and new forms of poverty.
China’s engagement with South Asia has been interpreted with ‘caution’ due to India-Pakistan rivalry as well as past and present power struggles among global powers, especially the US and Russia.
The association of five major emerging national economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa known as BRICS, has been hailed as the counter alternative to the politics of International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. One of BRICS’ key objectives is to form a New Development Bank (NDB), considered an alternative to the World Bank and the IMF.
The growing tension among South Asian countries mean negative effects on socio-economic conditions, especially on the progress already made in the last decades. This is one of the important threads running through this report.
In the backdrop of tremendous chaotic political situation and incompetent state governance systems highlighted above, report observes that the campaign of poverty eradication has to be spearheaded by social movements of different hues and trends in all South Asian countries.
Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
“My Country! In the days of Glory Past
A beauteous halo circled round thy brow
And worshiped as deity thou wast,
Where is that Glory, where is that reverence now?
Thy eagle pinion is chained down at last,
And grovelling in the lowly dust art thou,
Thy minstrel hath no wreath to weave for thee,
save the sad story of thy misery ”
: Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
(From book To India – My Native Land)
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (18 April 1809 – 26 December 1831) was an Indian poet and assistant headmaster of Hindu College, Kolkata, a radical thinker and one of the first Indian educators to disseminate Western learning and science among the young men of Bengal.
Significance of Derozio’s work:
His ideas had a profound influence on the social movement that came to be known as the Bengal Renaissance in early 19th century Bengal.
Derozio’s intense zeal for teaching and his interactions with students created a sensation at Hindu College. His students came to be known as Derozians. He organised debates where ideas and social norms were freely debated. In 1828, he motivated them to form a literary and debating club called the Academic Association.
Derozio was generally considered an Anglo-Indian, being of mixed Portuguese descent, but he was fired by a patriotic spirit for his native Bengal, and considered himself Indian. Derozio was perhaps the first nationalist poet of Modern India.
Despite being viewed as something of an iconoclast by others like Alexander Duff and other (largely evangelical) Christian Missionaries; later in Duff’s Assembly’s Institution, Derozio’s ideas on the acceptance of the rational spirit were accepted partly as long as they were not in conflict with basic tenets of Christianity, and as long as they critiqued orthodox Hinduism.
Derozio was an atheist but his ideas are generally believed to be partly responsible for the conversion of upper caste Hindus like Krishna Mohan Banerjee and Lal Behari Dey to Christianity.
His ideas were far ahead of the time and thus could not attract the attention of large section of the society. Derozio failed to address the local issues such as peasant problems or labour problems. This lacuna of his work made his work concentrated in small area and upto limited number of people.
Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
3) India currently faces twin challenges in the nutrition sector – undernutrition manifesting in several health problems as well as increasing problem of overweight and obesity, contributing to the burden of non-communicable diseases. In this light examine the significance of the country’s first Nutrition Atlas published by the Hyderabad-based National Institute of Nutrition (NIN). (200 Words)
In the trailblazing story of India’s development, public health nutrition has not just been a cofactor but often remained a conundrum. Grappling with the problems of double burden of malnutrition-undernutrition in severe and insidious forms as well as the increasing problems of overweight/obesity and associated non-communicable diseases-India’s policy makers, programme managers, researchers and a host of stakeholders are always in the need of information/data on nutritional status of population groups at country level and at regional/state levels. There is a lot of data available some at the country level, some at the state-level and some more at yet micro-level. All this information has been made available at a click of button by publication of Countries first Nutrition atlas.
National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) was founded by Sir Robert McCarrison in the year 1918 as ‘Beri-Beri’ Enquiry Unit in a single room laboratory at the Pasteur Institute, Coonoor, Tamil Nadu. Within a short span of seven years, this unit blossomed into a “Deficiency Disease Enquiry” and later in 1928, emerged as full-fledged “Nutrition Research Laboratories” (NRL) with Dr. McCarrison as its first Director. It was shifted to Hyderabad in 1958.
India currently faces twin challenges in the nutrition sector – undernutrition manifesting in several health problems as well as increasing problem of overweight and obesity, contributing to the burden of non-communicable diseases.
In order to provide a snapshot of all relevant data and information about nutrition, the Hyderabad-based National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) has developed the country’s first Nutrition Atlas.
The map above – from the nutrition atlas – shows the prevalence of wasting in India’s states. According to the WHO, wasting is a condition typified by a low weight-to-height ratio, and brought on by undernourishment. It falls under the overarching class of moderate malnutrition, which itself is defined as a weight-to-age ratio that falls below the WHO child growth standards by two or three standard deviations (the ‘2SD’ stands for two standard deviations).
The Nutrition Atlas provides information and data on nutritional status of population groups at national and state levels, along with an overview of nutrition-related deficiencies, disorders and prevalence levels in various parts of the country.
In addition, it provides information on nutrients, nutrient rich foods, nutritional deficiency disorders and a host of other topics.
The portal also includes information on nutrition rich foods and nutri guide for various nutrients, minerals, essential amino-acids, fatty acids, dietary fibers and proteins, along with their biochemical cut-offs, recommended dietary allowances, signs and symptoms and dietary sources.
The nutrition atlas will help to implement preventive health care by targeting the right areas and right population groups.
The hidden hunger due to deficiency of vital elements can be effectively eradicated with the help of nutrition atlas.
The huge information in very neat manner will help in analysing the eating habits of different demographic groups in different areas of the country.
It makes use of publicly available data sources like reports of National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau, National Family Health Survey, World Health Organisation and other public databases. The Dashboard acts like an information management tool, helping the user track data on under nutrition, over nutrition, overweight, obesity and communicable and non-communicable diseases. It can also provide different time trends on each of these parameters.
Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability; E-governnce
In the second decade of the 21st century, questions with respect to the right to privacy have centered on Aadhaar, a government scheme in which residents get a unique ID after giving their biometrics such as fingerprints and iris scan and demographic details. Aadhaar was challenged in court on the grounds of violation of privacy and its usage was limited by the SC through its order in September 2013, with Aadhaar being allowed in public distribution system and LPG subsidy only.
In October 2015, it amended its order and said that Aadhaar can be used to deliver services such as MNREGA, Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana, pension and provident fund schemes but no person should be deprived of any service in absence of Aadhaar.
After the recent landmark judgement on right to privacy as a fundamental right, the issue of Aadhar comes into forefront and thus needs mature public discourse to validate the project.
The various aspects of Aadhar that has come under scanner are:
The term “personal information” can be understood in a broader sense, which includes not only identity information but also other information about a person, for instance travel , personal meeting, place of stay , food choices etc. Linking of Aadhar number to e payment mode will allow another party to have details of this private information as well.
The proliferation and possible misuse of identity information is one of the privacy concerns associated with Aadhaar
If Aadhaar is made mandatory for SIM cards, the government will have access to lifetime call records of an indivisual, and it will also be able to link call records with travel records. The chain can be extended to other “Aadhaar-enabled” databases accessible to the government — school records, income-tax records, pension records, and so on.
Aadhaar enables the government to collect and collate all this personal information with virtually no restrictions.
The access to multiple databases for private companies is more restricted when compared with government, but some of them do have access to a fair amount of personal information from their own databases.
Identity information is supposed to be inaccessible except for the purpose of biometric authentication. There is a view that, in practice, the biometric database is likely to be hacked sooner or later.
The issue of data security with UIDAI is still going on as there is no information available about the exact security mechanism in existence.
Aadhar has been seen as a tool to deliver the service to people and launch the massive drive for social and economic inclusion of marginalised sections of the society. The other side of coin need to be critically analysed as the information given by an indivisual in Aadhar must not be utilised to impact the right to privacy, a fundamental right of an Indian citizen.
Topic: Environmental pollution
Introduction :- Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Eighty percent of marine pollution comes from land. Air pollution is also a contributing factor by carrying off pesticides or dirt into the ocean. Land and air pollution have proven to be harmful to marine life and its habitats.
Causes of Ocean Pollution
Pollution can enter the ocean directly. Sewage or polluting substances flow through sewage, rivers, or drainages directly into the ocean. This is often how minerals and substances from mining camps find their way into the ocean.
2. Toxic Chemicals From Industries
Industrial and agricultural waste are another most common form of wastes that are directly discharged into the oceans, resulting in ocean pollution. The dumping of toxic liquids in the ocean directly affects the marine life as they are considered hazardous and secondly, they raise the temperature of the ocean, known as thermal pollution, as the temperature of these liquids is quite high
3. Land Runoff
Land runoff is another source of pollution in the ocean. This occurs when water infiltrates the soil to its maximum extent and the excess water from rain, flooding or melting flows over the land and into the ocean.
4. Large Scale Oil Spills
Ship pollution is a huge source of ocean pollution, the most devastating effect of which is oil spills. Crude oil lasts for years in the sea and is extremely toxic to marine life, often suffocating marine animals to death once it entraps them.
5. Ocean Mining
Ocean mining in the deep sea is yet another source of ocean pollution. Ocean mining sites drilling for silver, gold, copper, cobalt and zinc create sulfide deposits up to three and a half thousand meters down in to the ocean.
Pollution from the atmosphere is, believe it or not, a huge source of ocean pollution. This occurs when objects that are far inland are blown by the wind over long distances and end up in the ocean. These objects can be anything from natural things like dust and sand, to man-made objects such as debris and trash.
Implications of Ocean Pollution
1. Effect of Toxic Wastes on Marine Animals
Oil spill is dangerous to marine life in several ways. The oil spilled in the ocean could get on to the gills and feathers of marine animals, which makes it difficult for them to move or fly properly or feed their children. The long term effect on marine life can include cancer, failure in the reproductive system, behavioral changes, and even death.
2. Disruption to the Cycle of Coral Reefs
Oil spill floats on the surface of water and prevents sunlight from reaching to marine plants and affects in the process of photosynthesis. Skin irritation, eye irritation, lung and liver problems can impact marine life over long period of time.
3: Depletes Oxygen Content in Water
Most of the debris in the ocean does not decompose and remain in the ocean for years. It uses oxygen as it degrades. As a result of this, oxygen levels go down. When oxygen levels go down, the chances of survival of marine animals like whales, turtles, sharks, dolphins, penguins for long time also goes down.
4: Failure in the Reproductive System of Sea Animals
Industrial and agricultural wastes include various poisonous chemicals that are considered hazardous for marine life. Chemicals from pesticides can accumulate in the fatty tissue of animals, leading to failure in their reproductive system.
5: Effect on Food Chain
Chemicals used in industries and agriculture get washed into the rivers and from there are carried into the oceans. These chemicals do not get dissolved and sink at the bottom of the ocean. Small animals ingest these chemicals and are later eaten by large animals, which then affects the whole food chain.
6. Affects Human Health
Animals from impacted food chain are then eaten by humans which affects their health as toxins from these contaminated animals gets deposited in the tissues of people and can lead to cancer, birth defects or long term health problems.
Topic: Conservation; Agriculture
Introduction :- For thousands of India’s farmers this is the time to live in fear. If drought has not already damaged their crops, they dread an unpredictable assault: elephant raids. In and around India’s 101 elephant corridors, the animals damage crops spread over 1 million hectares of land.
Elephants eat up to 450kg of food per day. They are messy eaters, uprooting and scattering as much as is eaten. A single elephant makes light work of a hectare of crops in a very short time.
The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change points out that in the past three years, 1,224 people have died across 15 states due to elephant attacks. In these intense human-elephant conflicts, around 400 people die and 100 elephants are killed in retaliation every year, says R K Srivastava, director, Project Elephant.
MEASURES TO PROTECT :-
Range of techniques can be adopted :-
These include: chilli and tobacco-based deterrents to keep elephants out of fields; changing farming practices – making farms easier to defend; growing crops that elephants don’t like; education; and improving oil palm plantation practices in Malaysia and Indonesia.
One example involves restoring degraded biological corridors to facilitate seasonal movement of elephants and other wildlife in the lowland Terai region of Nepal so that the animals don’t need to travel through human habitations and habitat management in protected areas in Nepal.
CASE STUDY :-
In North America, particularly the U.S., crop damage due to wild deer is a common occurrence. Large herds of these animals frequently cross the roads during nights, causing many accidents and enter into human habitations and damage home gardens and field crops.
Though farmers tried several methods, the problem continued. Interestingly, some workers in chick hatcheries noticed that the deer herds do not come near the places where they dispose their hatchery waste; which contains a lot of unhatched eggs.
By observing this, some hatchery workers started spraying the egg contents mixed with water, on their home gardens and noticed that the deer do not come near the plants (sprayed with egg contents), probably due to the pungent odour emitted by the raw egg contents when exposed to the air.
Topic: Disaster and disaster management.
7) Assam, because of its geological position and as home to a large network of rivers, faces floods frequently. Analyse the causes of flood and the intensity of damages, and also suggest policy options to be taken to control the damages. (200 Words)
Introduction :- Year after year, the biggest state in the northeastern region, Assam, is ravaged by floods. It displaces thousands and damages property worth billions—but lessons are rarely learnt. As per data released by the Assam State Disaster Management Authority, 2017 has been the worst of the last four years in terms of floods.
CAUSES OF FLOOD :-
- While natural topography and excessive rainfall are obvious causes, floods are also caused by human intervention—like encroachment of river banks and wetlands, lack of drainage, unplanned urban growth, hill cutting and deforestation.
- The Brahmaputra, a trans-boundary river and among the mightiest rivers in Asia, is braided and unstable in its entire reach in Assam except for a few places.
- Topography of Assam and meteorological factor (high rainfall) are the obvious reason behind Assam floods every year.
- The dams that are being built are further creating disasters. Not just that, the wetlands forests and local water bodies are being systematically destroyed which in turn is adding to the disaster vulnerability of the area
- Floods happen due to a breach of embankments. More than 80% of these embankments have not been reinforced in several decades because there is a huge contractor-administration nexus that benefits monetarily from a flood situation
MEASURES NEEDED :-
Realising the severity of the problem, flood control measures in Assam started in 1954 with the announcement of the National Policy for Flood by the Government of India.
- Construction of Embankments and Flood walls
- River training and bank protection works
- Anti erosion and town protection works
- River channelization with pro siltation device
- Drainage improvement/ Sluices`
- Raised Platform
- Flood forecasting and warning
- Flood zoning
Interlinking of rivers may be one option, whereby the excess water from the flood-prone eastern India can be diverted to the water-scarce regions. However, for that a thorough environmental impact assessment is needed.
One major contributor to floods in Assam is swelling of the riverbeds due to siltation and sedimentation. Hence, the Government of Assam is planning to dredge the Brahmaputra from Sadiya to Dhubri to increase its storage capacity and mitigate flood-induced damages.
A slow process of industrialisation in the state has forced the majority of its workforce to continue depending on agriculture for livelihood. Due to fertile land, a large number of people have settled down in the riverine areas and it is impossible to relocate them to other places. Hence, their adaptability is to be enhanced so that the damages to life, livelihood and property can be minimised.
Conclusion :- Flood in Assam is unavoidable. The people must be enabled to enhance their adaptability so that the flood-induced damages can be minimised. It is important to monitor the run-off and hydrological data in the upper catchment areas, particularly in Tibet before the onset of the monsoon for which cooperation at the regional, national and international levels is required. On the basis of these data, warning can be issued well in advance so that people and livestock can be moved to safer places. As against the ad hoc, piecemeal, short-term structural measures adopted now, an integrated basin management approach for the rivers needs to be adopted (Goswami 2008). A comprehensive plan involving all the stakeholders (dam owners, upstream and downstream people) is needed. It should focus on ex ante and ex post measures. Moreover, timely relief to the victims of the basic necessities like food, medicine and drinking water needs to be ensured.
Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;
Introduction :- We live in times where there seems to be a fracture between consciousness and morality. But an expansion of the former leads to a deepening of the latter.
When the mighty feed on the meek, when humans behave as animals do, adharma is said to prevail. This is Hindu morality. In the 2,500-year-old Brihadaranyaka Upanishad we learn, “A weaker man demands of the stronger man through dharma just as one appeals to the king.” Thus, the king’s role in establishing dharma, and creating an ecosystem where the mighty do not exploit the meek, is established.
Lessons in morality and consciousness :-
1) We should do our work without worrying about it’s result :- When we work for getting fruits or the result from a particular action, we can’t really be our best in it. It also gives us a lot of worries about the result. We may also feel disheartened if our task or action does not yieldgood outputs. Therefore, just doing our work without really thinking about it’s result should be our motive.
2) Soul is immortal and our body is perishable Our soul never dies:- Our soul never dies. Even after our death, it exists. It is immortal. It just changes bodies after the death of a person.
3) World is perishable and whoever comes to this world surely has to go one day :- This world is not immortal. One who takes birth dies one day and that is the ultimate truth of this world. Nothing exists permanently
4) Whatever happened was good, whatever is happening is good and what all will happen in the future will be good :- We should not repent about our past or worry about the future as the present is going on. We should know that God has planned everything for us. He will not let anything bad happen to us. Whatever happens is for our good only.
5) Progress and development are the rules of this universe :- Things may not be the same, the way they used to be. Things and circumstances change. We should neither expect people, nor surroundings, not even society to be same.
6) We did not bring anything to this world, neither are we going to take anything :- We came to this world empty handed. We have made everything over here, be it relations, money, love or respect. We cannot take anything with us when we die. Everything would be left over here.
Topic: Concept of public service
Introduction :- Following recommendations of OECD can improve ethics in public service :-
- Ethical standards for public service should be clear Public servants need to know the basic principles and standards they are expected to apply to their work and where the boundaries of acceptable behaviour lie. A concise, well-publicised statement of core ethical standards and principles that guide public service, for example in the form of a code of conduct, can accomplish this by creating a shared understanding across government and within the broader community.
- Ethical standards should be reflected in the legal framework The legal framework is the basis for communicating the minimum obligatory standards and principles of behaviour for every public servant. Laws and regulations could state the fundamental values of public service and should provide the framework for guidance, investigation, disciplinary action and prosecution.
- Ethical guidance should be available to public servants Professional socialisation should contribute to the development of the necessary judgement and skills enabling public servants to apply ethical principles in concrete circumstances. Training facilitates ethics awareness and can develop essential skills for ethical analysis and moral reasoning. Impartial advice can help create an environment in which public servants are more willing to confront and resolve ethical tensions and problems. Guidance and internal consultation mechanisms should be made available to help public servants apply basic ethical standards in the workplace.
- Public servants should know their rights and obligations when exposing wrongdoing Public servants need to know what their rights and obligations are in terms of exposing actual or suspected wrongdoing within the public service. These should include clear rules and procedures for officials to follow, and a formal chain of responsibility. Public servants also need to know what protection will be available to them in cases of exposing wrongdoing.
- Political commitment to ethics should reinforce the ethical conduct of public servants Political leaders are responsible for maintaining a high standard of propriety in the discharge of their official duties. Their commitment is demonstrated by example and by taking action that is only available at the political level, for instance by creating legislative and institutional arrangements that reinforce ethical behaviour and create sanctions against wrongdoing, by providing adequate support and resources for ethics-related activities throughout government and by avoiding the exploitation of ethics rules and laws for political purposes.
- The decision-making process should be transparent and open to scrutiny The public has a right to know how public institutions apply the power and resources entrusted to them. Public scrutiny should be facilitated by transparent and democratic processes, oversight by the legislature and access to public information. Transparency should be further enhanced by measures such as disclosure systems and recognition of the role of an active and independent media.
- There should be clear guidelines for interaction between the public and private sectors Clear rules defining ethical standards should guide the behaviour of public servants in dealing with the private sector, for example regarding public procurement, outsourcing or public employment conditions. Increasing interaction between the public and private sectors demands that more attention should be placed on public service values and requiring external partners to respect those same values.
- Managers should demonstrate and promote ethical conduct An organisational environment where high standards of conduct are encouraged by providing appropriate incentives for ethical behaviour, such as adequate working conditions and effective performance assessment, has a direct impact on the daily practice of public service values and ethical standards. Managers have an important role in this regard by providing consistent leadership and serving as role models in terms of ethics and conduct in their professional relationship with political leaders, other public servants and citizens.
- Management policies, procedures and practices should promote ethical conduct Management policies and practices should demonstrate an organisation’s commitment to ethical standards. It is not sufficient for governments to have only rule-based or compliance-based structures. Compliance systems alone can inadvertently encourage some public servants simply to function on the edge of misconduct, arguing that if they are not violating the law they are acting ethically. Government policy should not only delineate the minimal standards below which a government official’s actions will not be tolerated, but also clearly articulate a set of public service values that employees should aspire to.
- Public service conditions and management of human resources should promote ethical conduct Public service employment conditions, such as career prospects, personal development, adequate remuneration and human resource management policies should create an environment conducive to ethical behaviour. Using basic principles, such as merit, consistently in the daily process of recruitment and promotion helps operationalise integrity in the public service.
- Adequate accountability mechanisms should be in place within the public service Public servants should be accountable for their actions to their superiors and, more broadly, to the public. Accountability should focus both on compliance with rules and ethical principles and on achievement of results. Accountability mechanisms can be internal to an agency as well as government-wide, or can be provided by civil society. Mechanisms promoting accountability can be designed to provide adequate controls while allowing for appropriately flexible management.
- Appropriate procedures and sanctions should exist to deal with misconduct Mechanisms for the detection and independent investigation of wrongdoing such as corruption are a necessary part of an ethics infrastructure. It is necessary to have reliable procedures and resources for monitoring, reporting and investigating breaches of public service rules, as well as commensurate administrative or disciplinary sanctions to discourage misconduct. Managers should exercise appropriate judgement in using these mechanisms when actions need to be taken.