Insights Weekly Essay Challenges 2016 – Week 33: ‘Geography may remain the same ; history need not.’

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Insights Weekly Essay Challenges 2016 – Week 33


14 August  2016

Write an essay on the following topic in not more than 1000-1200 words:


“Geography may remain the same ; history need not.” (CSE-2010)

  • Jaya Swatantra

    History may change so make geography instead of History..

    • Jaya,

      Please read the essay and give ur inputs. Writing after long :

      • IronMan

        Nice effort…but when i read i felt that it was somewhat biased towards history….u can improve buddy 🙂 ATB

      • Jaya Swatantra


      • Jaya Swatantra

        Reviewed lekin meri post anonymous karke..didn’t understand

    • Ash

      Hey Jaya .. plz find time and review mine no.. I have a different approach and I’m confused coz I dont think any1 has written on those lines… I do need to confirm this up though! 🙂

      • Jaya Swatantra

        Sure 🙂 but please give me some time:)

  • ankit goyel

    Geography is a jack of all but master of none. It helps in understanding the events from the beginning of the universe to the development of theories for the future. It played an important part in development of history of the world.

    How is geography helping us?
    Understanding of different places on earth, their mineral composition, atmospheric composition help us to determine the history of a certain place. Different theories can be postulated by the different scientist based on the geographical features of the place but these geographical evidences would remain same even after 100 years later. For instance, seals of Mesopotamia has been found in India during the period of Harappan Civilization. Historians thus dated trade connections of India with Mesopotamia way back to 5000 yrs ago. But different historians has different theories on how this trade occurred. Whether directly between two civilizations through sea or through some middleman through land is still a mystery. Thus history would rewritten once more evidence of trade with these civilizations excavated.

    History is further based on the perception and interpretation of different historians. Some historians deliberately ignore some facts to make the history more interesting; some give undue importance to the small facts; and some just present the facts and leave it for the readers to intercept with their own understanding and knowledge. Many intellectuals are even arguing to introduce the history textbooks in a new way in which only facts would be provided and students would be free to it discuss within the class and reach to the final conclusion. If this happens, then each or every bunch of students would have different view on history and thus history won’t remain same as it is presented by some historians.
    It will be over-exaggerated if someone says that geography would remain the same as it was in the past since there are ample of examples where geography views were changed dynamically. For instance, earlier it was believed that diastrophic activities on earth like earthquake, movement of continents etc were due to gravitational force of moon and rotation of earth. However, in 1960, when tectonic plate theory was postulated by bunch of scientists, it was finally concluded that all this diastrophic phenomenon are due to the molten liquid deep inside the earth. Since then various facts of the geography has changed while those facts didn’t affect much to history facts.

    How technology effect history and geography
    Development of newer technologies has allowed us to reach to the places where it was impossible to reach some 2-3 decades ago. Newer excavation technologies has allow us to dig more deep into the earth and thus helping to develop our understanding about the origin of earth. Advancement in space technology has allow us to reach on different planets and comets to understand origin of planets; far deep into the solar system to understand origin of universe. So it is expected that in the near future, our perception about the universe will change drastically.
    Advancement of technologies is more prominent on history. For instance, it was earlier believed that Harappan culture was around 5000 yrs old while new findings has dated it some 8000 years ago. DNA screening has the ability to rewrite the history of the people of the world as it is helpful in tracing the migration of people. It already has played a significant role in asserting that people of north India belongs to Aryan race and last one to reach India.

    Which is more profound to change?
    Geography is very wide branch. Physical geography contains the features of earth and universe while human geography contains about the people, their living places, eating activities, migration reasons, development of settlement etc. Human geography overlaps drastically with the history. Changing of history will definitely bring changes to the facts of human geography.
    On the other hand, there is already much research has happened on the features of earth like lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Their origin and even what would happen after 100 years has already predicted. So this is one area where we can claim that much won’t be changed in the near future.

    Overall we can conclude that both history and geography has areas which are subjected to change while other remain same. For instance, those areas of history which are based on the perception of historians are keep changing while those are based on the facts provided by geography are stagnant. Even changing in one field has the potential to change the facts of other field. Thus it is difficult to conclude that “history may change, geography need not for the entire field of history and geography”.

    • sai

      u wrote too much in geographical perspective, use some examples
      write some more on relation between geography and history

      • ludorum

        could you please review mine too? 🙁

    • jerry54

      you wrote more about connection between geography and history and just one paragraph on about change in it w.r.t time , which is the main theme of the essay

  • Prasad Gm

    Hello friends, Good morning. Is it BS Baswan committee submit their report to upsc… any ideas from anyone.

    • John Rawls

      to Govt. of India…

  • Pankaj Nimbolkar

    Thanks sir📝📝📝

    • Ankit

      Hi Pankaj. How was prelims?

      Please do review my essay when u get time 🙂

      • Pankaj Nimbolkar

        Hiii Ankit. Prelim not good.

        Yes give me some time

  • Abyss

    Disclaimer: Its my first essay after 7th-8th standard essay competition so might be an amateur attempt. yet please review.

    Geography has no borders but history creates them, erases them and draws them again with the ink of time. Geography defines a place with physical characteristics that remain the same for millions of years while history defines the politics of the place which changes with generations and civilizations.

    There are 2 ways where history changes. One is with time and the other is with the writer. Its said that history is written by the victor. Hence a fact today may be an assumption tomorrow.

    Lets take the case of India where the natural borders have been almost omnipresent since more than 10000 years ago. North is bound by Himalayas, south is a peninsular bound by seas and oceans on 3 sides. With these bounds India has seen the expanse of Indus valley civilization from 2500BC in its west, then rig vedic age (1500- 500 BC) moving towards east and indo- gangetic plains. The history travels further to change the shape of India with the coming of Mauryas (300 BC), Guptas (400 AD), muslim rulers and finally the Britishers (17th century onwards) that gave the country its present shape.

    With change in history there have been changes in not just those who rule the country and change its borders but also the lives of people. Religion has moved from phallus worship of Indus valley to nature worship of rig vedic times. There was assimilation of bhakti cult and Sufism and also the polytheistic worship of Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti and many other Gods. As religion evolved, so did the customs and changed the social life of people. Castes became dominant, women subjugation through practices of sati, lack of education. The picture is again changing in the modern day world with higher emphasis on gender equality and greater participation.

    Economic life changed from being pastoralists and agriculturists to the present day industries and services holding a majority share in the country’s GDP.

    The change in history is witnessed not only in the lives of people but also in their architecture as well as their culture. There is marked change in the architecture in India. There is evolution of technique with more advancements but there is also change in the style and prose. Starting from the monolithic rock cut architecture till 6th century AD in places like Ajanta, Ellora, Mahabalipuram, there is a marked change in the temple building styles in places like Bhubaneswar, Puri, Khajuraho. Paintings have also travelled from being religious to secular in Mughal times and then again towards religion in Pahari miniatures.

    Coming to the second case of history where the writer may change the script of time. History is contentious while geography is a fact. Considering the case of India again to elucidate, the known history today is was given by the colonial rulers who gave the orientalist view. The view makes Aryans as a migrated set who had the same ancestry as the Europeans as it suited the ruling class. The truth behind the original inhabitants of the Indian sub- continent is yet a topic of debate.

    History is not just written but its also, re- written. Taking the case of Islam, which started as a peaceful and progressive religion around 5th -6th century AD. It was considered as one of the most benign philosophies of that time which led to the prosperity of Arab world and enhancement of their trade relations with India, Rome, Africa. Yet the religion has seen the rise of extremism with elements like ISIS, Taliban. There are multiple interpretations of jihaad by different sects that have changed the basis of starting a new philosophy of Islam.

    Geography provides a country with neighbors; history is what makes them partners, allies or enemies. For instance, the conflict between Israel and Palestine is a classic example of the historical subjugation of Jews who have faced multiple attempts of ethnic cleansing and one of the worst being during world war 2 under the hands of Nazi Germany. Their quest for a homeland brought Israel into existence on the erstwhile Palestinian territory. Jerusalem is a holy city for Jews as well as muslims. Yet the two sects are under constant quarrel mode to carve out their territory. Similar is the case between India and Pakistan where history has not been so benign even to the people who shared the same country once. The aftermath of partition has led to the present day disputes over Kashmir, Sir Creek and rising instances of terrorism.

    Although history changes with time, yet geography also plays a role in shaping the history of a place. A place like Andaman islands became a part of India has been an isolated set of islands which houses one of the most primitive tribal groups. Yet with the onslaught of Tsunami and flooding of areas, the lives of those people are changing under the rehabilitation measures. Their history may change forever from being a tribal culture to being a part of the mainstream in some decades.
    History is a time tale where the place may remain the same yet the culture, politics, people, economics may all change. Europe has seen the change of hands from being agriculturists to being under the greeks then Iranians and the romans. The place has been feudal and also the harbinger of the industrial revolution. The features like the Alps and Urals have been the same but the dynasties have given shape to nation states and now the European Union. Hence over the same frontiers, there is assimilation, disintegration and integration again. The countries fought 2 world wars are now a part of a union and collaborating for their common good. Hence history is not just a time epoch but a teacher.

    Change is inevitable and history is written each day that passes. Its oft repeated and sometimes re-written. Yet it will always be a changing story as time progresses for the same land, the same river that has been running through it all as a sentinel.

    • Komal

      gud one… (Y)

      • Abyss

        thanks you

      • Anant Shankar

        is there any group where you all are discussing

    • John Rawls

      Very nice….seems you are natural writer…:)
      too much historical part…you can put more dimensions…technology sports…etc…

      • Abyss

        thanks for the review. i actually tries thinking on other lines but was just unable to add more dimensions to it. please keep writing and reviewing.

        • ragini sharma

          shandaar … intro is very impressive..
          how was your approach to make structure of essay

          • Abyss

            its my first essay so i will not boast as to having a great approach to it but while writing i only had one structure to cover- historical (indian and international), political, social, cultural, economic sides.
            though my attempt is not commensurate to what i had thought of in the structure as i think i got carried away a little by the word “history” in the title itself.

            • Himaanshu

              – kaisa hai dear? good to see you aftr a long tym.
              – If tym permits toh have a look at mine essay bro. I will read yours fr sure but need thoda sa tym. My 2G connection here is not allowing me to open your blog 😉

            • Spandana

              Hey serious what is your prelims score?

            • ragini sharma

              hey joker.. u cm back…
              sure i will

          • Ash

            Hey Ragini … 🙂

            Aap mera essay bi review karoge kya.. plz … bohut zaada alag likha hai! Samajh nahi aa raha hai .. digress toh nahi hua!
            Thank you! 🙂

            • ragini sharma

              i will do dear

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      Firstly congratulations.. Good attempt.

      I read your essay thoroughly.

      You touched ancient, medical, modern & world history to essay.

      Introduction is good as well as strong conclusion.

      But you focused too much on history.

      📝📝 suggestion….

      ✏ don’t write contentious issues like jihad, Taliban
      ✏ write balanced answer.

      Marks :- 45/125

      • Abyss

        thanks a ton for such a thorough review. i realized after posting that i made it look a complete history essay so thanks for pointing it out as well.
        please keep writing and reviewing. people like me benefit immensely!

      • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

        If possible can you go through my essay and give marks…written after 6 months

      • Himaanshu

        hey bro,… have a review on mine. Love to be scored 🙂

      • Lubna Sehar

        May I please have a critical review?

      • abhinav raj

        sir please review mine,
        i am a beginner

        • Pankaj Nimbolkar

          Give me some time plz

          • abhinav raj

            okay sir

          • abhinav raj

            i am waiting for your precious remarks

      • Dheeraj

        Dear Friend Abyss,

        Certainly a Good Try as a Beginner.




        A GOOD TRY.



        • Pankaj Nimbolkar

          Wrong reply

          • Dheeraj

            Yes, By Mistake.

        • Abyss

          thanks a lot for reviewing my answer. yes i shall try to make it more structured and use more dimensions other than history. my die hard love for the subject just get the best of me sometimes 🙂
          please keep reviewing!

      • Ash

        Hey Pankaj plz find time and review mine no! 🙂

      • Madhurani

        sir plzzzz review my essay ….

        • Pankaj Nimbolkar

          Sir ????
          Here all are students, u designated me as a Sir !!

          • Madhurani

            Lol..m not the 1st one to address u as sir…and i hoped dat u wud give me better marks if i address u as sir.. 😉

            • Pankaj Nimbolkar

              Hii madhurani..
              Plzz review my question no 1&2

      • Anand Tripathi

        Dear, just wanted to know your opinion regarding the topic, as it implies that “History need not remain same”, however it’s History only which remains SAME not Geography. For example Advent of British and their impact on India will remain same it will never change, however, we can make new History by controlling our present.

      • Master Yodo

        Hi pankaj please review my essay as well.
        Thank You.

      • Ant-Man

        Please review mine, first essay it’s very short but will try to lengthen in future.

      • Ant-Man

        Please review mine, first essay it’s very short but will try to lengthen in future.

    • Banana Bangaru

      Hey, first line is really nice!!!

    • warrior_pandit

      Nicely written! You can write better essays, u have the talent.Kindly review mine. Thanks 🙂

    • Babitha Madhuri

      good 1. is ur optional history?

      • Abyss

        i wish it was history since i feel slightly comfortable with it but sadly its economics 🙁

        • ADT95

          Hey, sorry for dropping in the midst of your conversation like this but since you mentioned economics, could you please let me know about the source you refer to for questions on the subject?

          • Abyss

            are you with economics optional or you asking for gs paper 3?
            because if you are from economics optional then i may have a ton of questions to ask from you. as of now i havent found any source and still looking.
            would be more than happy to work on answer writing for it.

            • ADT95

              economics optional.
              yes, so you are a newbie as well?

              • Abyss

                actually i am not in this race with a 5 yr plan. this is my one and only attempt and from the looks of it i am writing mains this year…
                so in some sort of a rush right now…. in case you have any dope on any good place to discuss eco then do let me know. would be more than grateful.

                • ADT95

                  great congratulations, and sure will do when and if I come across any. You do too.

                • Garima


                  I have eco optional too. Where r u praticing and getting ans reviewed ?

                  • Abyss

                    hi Garima, i have no place to write and get answers reviewed as of now but in case you are writing mains this year or likely to then you can join our eco group for general doubts etc. my number is 9654885624.

                • Garima


                  I have eco optional too. Where r u praticing and getting ans reviewed ?

                • Garima


                  I have eco optional too. Where r u praticing and getting ans reviewed ?

                • Garima


                  I have eco optional too. Where r u praticing and getting ans reviewed ?

        • Babitha Madhuri

          ohmy optional is history.

    • Dheeraj

      Dear Friend Abyss

      Certainly a Good Try as a Beginner.




      A GOOD TRY.



    • Ash

      WARNING (To your disclaimer) – This guy writes awesome essays… so MAINS Aspirants don’t feel let down after reading this essay! 🙂

      To the review …. 🙂

      Hey Abyss! 🙂
      1. Your 1st para and the beginning itself made me go WOW! 🙂
      Geography provides a country with neighbors; history is what makes them partners, allies or enemies – Awesome! 🙂
      There are 2 ways where history changes. One is with time and the other is with the writer. Its said that history is written by the victor. Hence a fact today may be an assumption tomorrow – another WOW element! 🙂
      2. You included a lot of History… we dont have to write an essay on History .. do we?? 🙂
      3. River Saraswati – thnk about it and then think about ‘same river’ same place point! 🙂

      Overall , there are awesome points here and there.. and you’re definitely a good writer so plz keep writing! 🙂

      Plz find time and review mine… my approach is a lil different! 🙂 KWAR! 🙂

      • Abyss

        hey Ash,
        thanks a lot for a detailed review and also thanks for boosting my morale. i am sure pumped to continue writing 🙂
        btw… its a girl behind Abyss…
        will review yours in a bit.

        • Ash

          Aww! I’m so sorry! 🙂
          I just assumed … was gonna mention the (assuming ) part though! 🙂

      • Chhotu

        Hey, Ash! What does ‘kwar’ mean? Sorry, I’m new here. 🙂

        • AbhijeetG

          keep writing and reviewing:)KWAR

        • Ash

          Keep writing and reviewing! 🙂

    • Best desire

      Very good…..attempt

    • pwn

      Nice one…..good points…many points noted…if possible pls review mine.

      • Abyss

        thanks for the review. give me some time. il will see yours then.

    • Tanu Singhal

      A truly holistic approach, very very well done..

      Congratulations 🙂
      If time allows kindly review mine. !

      • Abyss

        thanks a lot Tanu for the review. i shall definitely try to review yours by tomorrow since its slightly late right now.

    • Pulkesh Pulak

      One of the finest essays… Congrats Abyss…Going by disclaimer You have done a very good job…I liked the essay….would like to read it again…I am not an ‘expert’ on subject matter but the presentation and contents aptly suit the title of essay.

      Keep Writing n Posting. 👍

      • Abyss

        Thank you Pulkesh for the review and also for boosting my spirits. please keep reviewing. 🙂

        • Pulkesh Pulak

          All the Best for the Mains.


    • Prabhu

      Wow, what an essay….
      If you could have thrown some extra light on geography part then it would have been at least 80/125 marks wala essay

      • Abyss

        thanks for reviewing my essay and the nice comments. in case you have time then do look at the one for today.
        please keep reviewing and writing 🙂

  • Lubna Sehar

    “Geography may remain the same; history need not”

    “We can change history, but not geography. We can change our friends, but not neighbours”, these are the famous words by Sri Atal Behari Vajpayee during his visit to Lahore, Pakistan. Times change. But land and place remains the same. We, humans cannot change the geographical boundaries created by the nature. But we can change the time. We can create a new history by changing our present times. But we cannot change the geography created by the nature.

    It is the geography that remains the same. But time is dynamic. Time does not remain the same. History changes. The earth has remained unchanged for centuries together. But the world has witnessed uncountable changes within few decades. Land remains in the same place. But the time taken to travel thousands of kilometres has reduced to few hours. This is result of change in the history of inventions. Indian geography remains the same, but the history of India has shown dynamic changes from Ancient, Medieval to Modern. Kings came and ruled the land. Old kings changed making way for the new kings. But the land and its geography remained the same. Civilizations across the banks of rivers change. One civilization ends making the way for the new. But rivers remain the same. For example, history changed across the rivers Indus, Ganga, Nile, etc. But these rivers have not changed their place from thousands of years.

    South Africa, the land of Apartheid has changed. Today Apartheid is abolished in South Africa. People of South Africa created a new history by bringing equality in rights of all the citizens. India became a democratic nation. India changed and created it’s history by achieving independence and adopting the best Constitution. India has achieved dynamic changes in its development. Japan became an advanced country in technology, inspite of facing natural calamities like earthquake. The above mentioned countries changed their times for better and created histories. But what could not be changed by these countries is their geographies. Nations fought world wars but still the geography remained same but history changed.

    Vasco Da Gama and Christopher Columbus discovered new routes. The routes they discovered were not new. But the eyes that found them were new. Advanced inventions appear, nations develop, animals take birth and get extinct. It’s all the matter of time. “TIME IS THE NATURE’S WAY OF PREVENTING EVERYTHING FROM HAPPENING AT ONCE”. But geography is the creation of nature which remains the same.

    • A certain Gambler

      like ancient medieval point, nice answer, pleasereview mine answer too

    • warrior_pandit

      Geography MAY remain same….
      Good esssay..but i dont think u have fulfiled the mandate of addressing “may” in the topic! Kindly review mine! Thanks

      • Lubna Sehar

        Yes. That’s true. Thanks for the review

    • manju2017

      ನೀವು ಇನ್ನೂ ಬರೆಯಬಹುದಾಗಿತ್ತು.ನಿಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರಬಂಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ ನಿವು ಬರೆದಿರುವ ನುಡಿಗಟ್ಟು (thought)ಚನ್ನಾಗಿ ಹೊಂದಾಣಿಕೆ ಯಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.I didn’t fluent English but I can understand English but I can partially english speak .
      .where are you now. R u taken any coaching class? I live in dharwad ,I am self studying .I ‘ll writing to 2017 ? just am studying to BSc final year in dharwad.I writing to CSE mains exams in Kannada language.

      • Lubna Sehar

        Nanu Bengaluru nagaradalli vasa viddene. I am a graduate too. 2017 would be my first attempt. I have not joined any coaching. I am Doing self study for CSE. All the best!!

        • manju2017

          All the best ….

        • Pankaj Nimbolkar

          Nanu Bengaluru nagaradalli vasa viddene.

          Means ??

          I m marathi

          • Lubna Sehar

            Means, I am a resident of Bangalore

            • Pankaj Nimbolkar


    • Hey Lubna!

      Content is well and good. Try to articulate a bit more.

      Try to delve more into what you start. Either u should have been touching way more topics or u should have analyzed a bit more in what content you mentioned.

      This is what I felt about the essay!

      Try to find time 🙂

      • Lubna Sehar

        Your suggestions are useful. Thanks

      • Best desire

        U have written very gud…..but according to me it is very much inclined towards history, society……giving the essence of philosophy more……it is somewhere deviated from the topic…..but no doubt it is very gud,introduction, content , links between paras….WOW…….well if u think my views are not correct…..please ignore.
        Ur optional is anthropolgy??……bcz ur 1st para….sounds

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      Firstly its a very interesting essay.

      Introduction is impressive.

      Main part is better, if you elaborated more it will be best.

      Conclusion is nice.

      All points are mentioned in simplesimple language.

      Marks :- 55/ 125.

      I liked your 1 sentence-

      We can create a new history by changing our present times.
      You can create a new history in your family after becoming IAS.

      Sorry for any over remark.

      • Lubna Sehar

        Thanks for your valuable review

        • Pankaj Nimbolkar


  • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

    Geography is the study of different places, people, environment and their interconnections. It is mainly to understand our past and predict future. The term ‘Geography’ in the given topic mainly indicates the static nature of geography which takes millions of years to change, so assumed. However, within this static geography, concepts of history changes as new facts, events occur or become known to people through natural incidents like volcano, tsunami or artificial incidents like technological up gradation.

    Until few centuries ago, most people including scientists, intellectuals were with the concept that the earth is the center of universe. But however due to greater analysis of terrestrial events by Copernicus brought a new light to society that the Sun is the center of our solar system, where the earth is just an another planet like others which revolves around the Sun. Additions of scientific calculations by Kepler, Galileo, Newton have completely changed the course of history not just in science but to humanity.

    Like the understanding of solar system, people now on the verge of traveling to other planets through continuous up gradation of rocket science and price stabilization in space industries with the help of massive human intellectuals and public interests(say ISRO). Even just one hundred year ago, flying in sky with good level of stability was unthinkable, but now we can see that history has been turned into a completely new direction.

    When British introduced the official concept of ‘paramountcy’ in India, Indians were in no practical thought to regain its past glory as not just in India, Brits were holding a vast geography around the world. But however with long and constant struggle of great people like MK Gandhi, Subhas Bose, J Nehru, Sardar Patel and multiple international events like Bolshevik revolution, world wars, Cold wars have completely overthrown the concept of ‘Imperialism’ and introduced new kinds of concepts like Bretton Woods system, Market Economy, Free Trade Area, SEZ etc.

    For many centuries, Greek tribes had been fighting among each other with traditional weapons and tactics, but introduction of new long weapons and phalanx tactics led Philip(second) to control whole Greece and which further incentivized Alexander to reach the zenith of Greek history. And thus later followed the same suit by Persians, Romans, Turks, Mongols resulted into a great mix of different cultures in the Eurasian plate. Many Greeks, Persians, Turks, Mongols, Brits, Parsis also came to India which led to intermixing of multiple cultures, trades and finally resulted into today’s image of India.

    Though there are both good and bad sides of historical changes through technology, war, trade, culture, but there are few bitter sides too which cannot be overlooked. India, Yugoslovakia, Chechnya are such typical examples among many.

    During the partion of India, few events led to large level of atrocities which finally resulted into loss of million lives, homelessness, prosecutions etc. In the Indian subcontinent where people of same nature, huge similarities in culture, trade, lifestyle were living in harmony for thousands of years, suddenly became enemy. The effects of which still pretty much prevalent in our society. just like India, Yugoslovakia also faced same level of atrocities during 1990s when it was split based on ethnicity. After the dissolution of USSR, Chechnya also faced such atrocities because of Russian intention to control oil pipelines through Chechnya from Caucasus to Europe. Thus, these kind of extreme events created a new course of history of hatred based on conflicts, monopoly and manipulated politics at large.

    Moreover there is an another sight of historical changes in our geography, the change in which is not limited to boundaries of human division, which is climatic change. Climate was pretty much stable on earth for millions of years to support the great diversity of different species. This diversity has brought many fruits to everyone and sustained prosperity for thousands of years. but however the massive industrialization in last 150 years around the world has led to serious changes in the climate like large scale emission of GHGs, which has the potential to change the course of not just human history, but the whole planetary history too.

    Considering multiple events in our history over geography,now we are with the knowledge how things happened and can happen in the future. It is high time to focus on stability of politics, trade, environment in a comprehensive manner to sustain our future through spreading wisdom part of our knowledge, because at all costs we must prevent future disasters in any form to keep a balance in our journey on the path of historical timeline.

    • A certain Gambler

      nice intro of history and geography, 6.5/10, please review mine answer

      • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

        Thanks for the review and marking..Written an essay almost after 6 months..

    • SM

      This is a good essay
      However there is a need for continuity. At one point you talked about British India, then you jumped to something else.

      I especially like the way you talked about the history of geography in the beginning.

      • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

        Thanks for the review and pointing out the gap..

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      Its good attempt.

      Introduction is bookish. One thing I didn’t got, how can Geography predict future ?

      Main part is nicely elaborated.

      Nearabout you touched all subjects like economy, environment, IR, world history.

      Conclusion is better than introduction.

      One suggesion :- dont write too long sentences,
      It creates burden on invisilator.

      Marks :- 50/125.

      Sorry for negative remarks

      • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

        Thanks for the critical review..
        By the way, I have written the intro completely by my own
        Future prediction part say works of Meteorological Dept, ISRO, NASA etc.

  • A certain Gambler

    My first esSAY after high school: please review
    Every history is created on geography, from war for rights of certain area of land or water territories , to attacking another country soil with nuclear weapon, killing people of an area in name of terrorism, to aggravate people with religious sentiment and with money and power to get hold of a part of land, all is changing and creating history.
    Alfred Wegner via his Continental Drift theory prooved the geography of world has changed from a sigle landmass name pangea to laurasia and gondwana to present form, however this changes take millions of year in a steady way, can be assumed as constant with time, but time is changing every degree our earth rotates itself, four minutes of time passes away.
    History is a study of past , and past is related to time that have already passed, so history changes as fast as our earth rotates.
    The word “History”, seems a constant term, meaning study of past, and past can never be changed untill we have a time machine, which Einstien in his Theory of Relativity, designed model for aircraft that travelled his theorised space time fabric via a worm hole to travel in time.
    But as we move forward, every tomorrow will present a new history for our very same geography, surpassing old history, creating a new order for the same.e.g. recently US remove sanctions from IRAN, giving IRAN’s economy a new boost, all its banking transaction and economy were lagging in because of US Sanction.
    We may cannot change geography but still can change history of Universe, for the first time nasa plan to develop habitat on mars for its manned mission on planet which shows signs of presence of water and river.
    It is evident that , even after countries had partitioned, geographical maps have changed, people now have a different citizenship ,countries creating different facilities, advantageous policies for the people, trying gain for their people, leaving other geographies behind and forget all humanity is one. As quoted by Mahatma Gandhi ,” All humanity is one undividedand indivisible family. I cannot detach myself from the wickedest soul.” . From a consolidated view from a satellite we dont see boundary on map of earth, people draw boundaries on them,.Like our unedited geographical map , without boundaries, Every person on this earth have to be undivided with each to ceate a better history on our geography

    • Lubna Sehar

      Good attempt. U have included different dimensions

      • A certain Gambler

        thankyou if possible marks out of 10?

      • A certain Gambler

        can i have ur gmail

    • Dext

      So short of an essay.

      • A certain Gambler

        yes more like 300 words, will try next time to more than 1500 words
        thankyou for review

    • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

      Let me be critical
      1.1st I don’t consider this as essay writing in UPSC standard because in my interpretation it is more like a story writing or summarized version as you presented with inclusion of multiple facts without connecting them with proper knots
      2. Present facts and flow through multiple paras. I feel you mixed things too often in same para
      3. You can bring more dimensions
      You can certainly try better..Keep writing and reviewing…Thanks

      • A certain Gambler

        yes lacking in examples ,thankyou

      • Lubna Sehar

        Would you give me a critical review….


    Please review

    Geography of a country will hardly changes with changing time, it is very difficult in modern times whereas History – poverty, monarchy rule, how vulnerable treated need not be the same what a country had centuries ago.

    In ancient times, a country’s demarcation depends upon a King’s ability. If he is able enough, warrior, possed with good administrative skills he could extend his territory or vice a versa but in modern times it is not like this especially after decolonisation of European powers. Countries are recognised with their political boundaries. if any alleged action taken by neighbour country to occupy forcibly there is different means available now to stop eg Russia aggression over Eukraine.

    Geographical features of a country – terrain, availability of water & minerals, climate facilitate a country’s progress. A country with abundant minerals followed by good political administration progresses like Canada & Australia on the other hand blessed with good minerals and lack of good governance lead to under development as seen in many nations of Africa.

    It is the human how best he/she utilises given geographical features – Germany, Japan. These countries had almost collapsed pre 1950s due to various reasons but today with sheer hard work & able administration are among developed nations.

    Almost all nations in the world had undergone various stages of rule. For instance history of India explains, it was inhabitanted by aboriginals who started life like nomads, used stone tools, settled in caves, ruled by many dynasties – Gupta, Maurya, Lodi, Mughal and in some parts of south by Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Sungas etc.

    More or less citizens under these dynasties had not experienced life what they are in modern India. Under Gupta rule – art forms developed a lot whereas in Mughal rule by certain kings penalised the Jijiya tax on non Muslims. Varna system was widely practiced, women were not given equal powers.

    Absence of able kings – India was colonised by European powers which ruined the nation for more than 200 years. Development became standstill, poverty was at peak, growth of economy was zero. Whatever the facilities and administration created then, it was for company & British Monarch convenience.

    India was corned in international arena for long time even after it was attained freedom. It was sheer determination of constitution framers followed by successive leaders who transformed India as one of the fastest developing economy.

    Space technology, IT revolution, services sector have absolutely made India to feel proud. Efforts of agricultural scientists, farmers, the policies of Govt made a food surplus India. Four pillars – legislature, executive, judiciary, media have relentlessly worked for India’s integration which was divided into hundreds of provinces before Independence. As a result, there was no internal emergency for territory, civil rights, armed rebellion in India post independence.

    India was known for spirituality, tolerance, secularism in the past as well as in modern era. It was Colonial powers which made separate electorate and divide & rule. The effect of foreign rule experienced in one or other parts of India even today. Constitute assembly was aware of the issue hence they carefully included all such provisions which strives for progress and harmony in society.

    It is absolute responsibility of political executive that a country (read India) could not fall into trap of foreign country as often seen in WTO, UN negotiations. Meanwhile it is the responsibility of citizens, they should not involve in maoisim, naxalism, separatism as seen across the various States of India. They must be determined to negotiate with administration for their rights rather creating such issues which degrade the ability of India.

    Though, history whatever it was of a nation, it is the citizens who determine the feature of a nation. In Earlier times, there was great respect to nature. The conservation of nature was lacked in modern era under greedy of development consequently dire consequences of climate change is felt – diseases, cyclones, drought etc. All Humans must endorse this and strive for sustainable feature since it is transdental problem.

    To retain same geography and vibrant history of a nation, it is the responsibility of all from citizens to executive. History once documented would not change in future. It has to be good enough so that future generations emulate for prosperity, respect all.

    • naren

      well done buddy


    Sorry for quality , but do read and review friends .
    Thanks in advance for your feedback


    Please REVEIW all !! Very vague – as told by IRA SINGHAL also. She had scored low

    Geography may remain the same , History need not !!!

    Since times immemorial geography of a place has determined, how things shape up for that particular place in the coming centuries. The eastern Himalayan frontier of the Indian subcontinent is a case in point. Protecting it from any kind of invasions from the eastern front, be it Mongol or Chinese. However, history also takes its own course as man acquires the ability to overcome forces of nature & constraints of geography. The mighty oceans have been overpowered to some extent by regular flights across the continents and newer technologies of resilient ship building. These achievements definitely influence the course of events in the future, that goes on to become tomorrow’s history.

    Another perspective may be provided in the sense that Geography is defined by natural and climatic circumstances which essentially operate on certain fundamental laws, on the contrary history is shaped by human agents that try to manipulate it to their own advantage. Scores of kings and rulers have had history manipulated according to their own whims and fancies in order to reflect their own perceived grandeur. From this, comes the popular proverb.
    – ‘history is written by the VICTORS’

    World history had its ups and downs, but interestingly the polarity has been defined by the dominant powers of the day. Since man was able to conquer the vast territories of land that the geography had presented at his disposal, there has been a constant struggle to utilise to constant struggle to utilize it to ones advantage.
    In this endeavour, although man has not been able to alter geographical features significantly, but history has been shaped by the desires of the powerful lot among them. The two world wars witnessed on this earth involved almost each and every part of the geographical vastness on the face of this earth. But the end result has been not so evident on the geography except for the twin unfortunate examples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Rather greatest damage has been done to the history of mankind, which was hitherto largely a peaceful one till then.

    Since ancient times, man with his obsolete technologies was constantly battling with the nature to carve a small niche of historical existence for itself. During this struggle, humankind evolved through various stages of history, each with successive degree of sophistication. Tribal social groupings gave way to feudal ones dominated by a monarch, followed by colonial domination of distant lands across globe and finally culminated into Nation states. The degree of ORGANIZATION on a historical scale has evolved tremendously, although each stage has its own downfalls.

    Individual groupings as well larger national entities evaluate history according to their own conveniences. So as the history is constantly evolving, changing significantly over time, so does the interpretations to its course by different stakeholders in the progress.
    TO exemplify this, the Indian partition holds high relevance. The individual citizens that went through the ordeal of migration conceive it as one of the most tragic and unfortunate events in humankind history. Trauma suffered is probably unparalleled in the history of the subcontinent. However each of the two national entities and their political leadership differs in this. The Indian side of the story tags it as a blatant attempt at partitioning a geographically singular entity that evolved historical over millennia. While in the other hand, the new nation state describes it as highly called for historically as it constituted a separate nation right from the times of Indus Valley civilisation. All these perspectives discuss and debate the same history from different interests. Thus although geography remains the same, history essentially need not.

    Having discussed the divergences so far, the ideological dimensions in the study of history also play its part in differing interpretations. The radical left wing historians present history as bipartisan struggle between oppressed and exploiters. This is congested by the conservatives that call for status quo. Reformers say that there needs to be small alterations or restore the balance of history towards all encompassing progress. Thus, different inclinations affect the historical perspective to a large degree . The same, however cannot be said about the geography.
    The huge oil discovery in the desert regions of WÉST Asia have entirely changes the view of history of the region. The mere fact of discovery of a geographical asset (rather geological to be specific) has shaped up entire new dimensions to the historical existence of a an ancient tribe.
    – Globalisation has also its own role to play in this narrative. It has squeezed the geographical extent to small dimensions from human perspective and altered significantly the course of events in history. Thus, the geography of the world remains the same, albeit, becoming more accessible but the history is significantly altered for the coming decades.

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      Need improvement in Introduction.

      Main part is good.
      Some points realy appreciated like :- tribal organization,
      partition – an ordeal.

      Conclusion is better than introduction.

      Marks :- 50/ 125

  • SM

    ‘Geography may remain the same ; history need not.’

    The blue planet has never been the same. It’s hard to imagine how a planet which was emitting magma, which has no oxygen in it, has evolved itself and became the only known life supporting planet. So change has always been a part and parcel of geography and therefore the history.

    However the change in geography has been so slow or the life of human being is so short that the geography seems to be static. The great Himalayas has been standing tall since known human history, we are so accustomed to it to think that it has always been there since time immemorial. So the geography seems to be static, when looked from the point of view of short human history. This could be better understood from the following dimensions.

    If we plunge into the history of India, we would find that there has always been western ghats, eastern ghats, Himalayas, aravalli ranges, vindhyas, satpuras, ganga, Indus and Brahmaputra. But has the political history of India been always the same? The great Indian Chola King Rajendra Chola I conquered Sri Lanka, Maldives and he successfully invaded territories of Srivijaya in Malayasia, Southern Thailand and Indonesia. In 19th century the Punjab King Ranjit Singh defeated and captured parts of Afghan. During the British Raj, Burma and Nepal became a part of India. Whereas post-independence Goa, Puducherry and Sikkim became a part of Indian Republic.

    India has witnessed great many changes in its cultural history. Many philosophies or schools of thought mushroomed in India having various conceptions on the basic questions of human life. However, competition and integration between the various schools was intense during their formative years, especially between 800BCE and 200 CE. Some schools like Jainism, Buddhism, Saiva and Advaita Vedanta survived, but others like Samkhya and Ajivika did not; they were either assimilated or become extinct. Even in the post independent India many number of languages are on the verge of extinction.

    The economic history of the world also saw great many changes within a few centuries. The Great Britain an island nation, once ruled half of this world. It was described as an Empire where sun never sets. America and India was Britain’s vassal state, which owed its existence just to fulfill the demands and needs of the Great Britain. But the early 19th century saw the emergence of France as an economic power, by late 19th century Germany emerged as an economic power. The first world war changed the course of history and America rose as the economic power house. The second world war brought a bipolar world and since 1990 there is only one economic super power.

    The space history of the world has also undergone great many changes. The Soviet Union took the lead in the post-war Space Race, launching the first satellite, the first man and the first woman into orbit. The United States caught up with Soviet, landing the first man on the Moon in 1969. However the post World War II space order which was ruled by two countries has changed in the 21st century, best exemplified by India’s Mars Orbiter Mission. With passage of time humans has undertook the courageous task of mapping the geography of the universe by sending new horizon space probe which flew-by Pluto and Juno probe which will give much insight on the red spot on planet Jupiter.

    So we have seen that history has been dynamic whereas Geography has been relatively stable. But this is not always the case. Technology has played a great part to humanize Geography. There are instances where Geography has changed for better or worse during the short human duration/history.

    Indian Ecology has suffered a great deal in human history. Gone are the days of writers like Rudyard Kipling, who could write endlessly on green meadows, wild life etc. The human intervention has been so crippling that even the purest of natural habitat is no more pristine. Sabarmati river has long lost its natural flow, and is now nothing more than a controlled canal. Ganga has become nothing more than a collection of reservoir, which often overflows in monsoon. Munnar a hill station in Kerala, is today a hill of houses and resorts.

    Even with the best of technological progress, the world ecology has changed for the worst. Deforestation in Madagascar is an ongoing environmental issue. It has created agricultural or pastoral land but also resulted in desertification, water resource degradation, biodiversity erosion and habitat loss, and soil loss. The indiscriminate coal mining in Indonesia has caused deforestation, issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution. The urge of man for political power has changed geographical shape of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with Little Man and Fat Boy during the Second World War.

    The average life expectancy of the world is only 68 years and 6 months. Even the world’s longest living vertebrate “Greenland Shark” has a life of only 400 years, this makes us too small a living being to understand the changes which geography is undergoing or has undergone.

    Thus Geography appears to be relatively stable when compared to history.

    • SRP(Sukladhwaj)

      Excellent writing with very good inter connections of multiple dimensions, but could not catch the relevancy of your conclusion with the topic…Please review mine

    • John Rawls

      intro conclusion….has connectivity…good to read///

    • Ankit

      Touched various dimensions and easy to comprehend. Nicely written 🙂

      Review mine when u have time.

    • warrior_pandit

      Good attempt! Also, kindly mention about social history. Kindly review mine!

    • Arvind

      A lot could be written on current ,scenario ,Philosophical view point…and way ahead…Please review mine..

    • Hope

      Nice essay….. But one doubt….. Please clarify…… Is the essay asking history as event depicting change or History itself changing due to new discovery and new finding about historical data? I have have written whole essay taking latter as the topic. Don’t know if i am correct?

      • SM

        Let’s first keep philosophy aside and keep matters simple

        1. We have learned geography changes due endogenic and exogenic factors, so end result= geography changes
        2. Political and economic and cultural history changes, so end result= history changes
        now the only question is about rate of change

        Since history is made by man who himself has a very short life (in comparison to geology), the rate of physical or economic or historical changes is larger in comparison to geography.

        We also see in our life span that very many geological structure don’t change much. But just look at sudan which got separate into two in 2011 and there is every possiblility that it may separate again(so there are quick changes).

        Thank you and take care..

        • abhinav raj

          please review mine

    • Just do it

      Very Well written in topic like this.

      Please review mine.

    • shouldn’t change in history entail change in the way past is viewed and interpreted? like how the character of aurangzeb changes depending on which govt. is in power? progress and march towards future isn’t changing history, it is merely creating it. or maybe my understanding of the topic is totally flawed.

    • ESWAR

      Dear Sonia,

      u have not written anything new. Whatever GS knowledge u gained over the period of time mentioned it in a nice way here.

      The difference between ur essay and my essay was though I understood the topic, did not justified.

      A good essay.

      All the best.

      • Lubna Sehar

        Kindly give me a critical review if time permits

      • SM

        Dear Eswar,

        We read much current affairs, if we don’t use it then what’s the purpose
        However I respect your concern.

        Thanks you for the valuable feedback
        Take care..

    • gomuki

      Whole essay conveys only one idea ……history has changed ….socially politically economically and scientifically……it seems to me monotonous…..
      1) geography also changes…..sahara was not a desert few years ago…..volcanos, earthquakes
      2) how geography influences history…..
      3) how history influences geography
      4) why history is changing gradually but not geography……reasons…….writers new interpretations, continuous attacks , some people’s greediness, world wars, developments in science and technology……
      5) Is this phenamena good for the society… with contemporary scenario

      I may be wrong ignore if you think so……….

      • abhinav raj

        pls review mine

    • Dheeraj


      You tried to touch Both the Parts of Essay.

      Undoubtedly, a GOOD TRY.




    • Ranvir Singh

      your whole essay is describing how the history is “created” not changed. its very important to understand the essay topic carefully. For example when Industrial Revolution started in 19th century in Europe then everybody described it as a water-shade event in human history but its negative implications were not known. so writings of a historian about industrial revolution in 1940s would differ significantly from that of someone writing today as so many negative implications (social, economic and political) of it are better known today. But if western ghats were being ruled by rashtrakutas at any point of time and now by devendra fadanvis, it means history is being created each day but not necessarily changing.

      • SM

        Thank you ranvir..

    • manish

      Almost covered the same aspect as I did. Nicely presented .If time permit please review mine.

    • IronMan

      good efforts…sonia 🙂

    • Ash

      Hey Sonia 🙂

      1. However the change in geography has been so slow – a volcanic eruption if basic type .. can form plateaus in couple of hours you know! 🙂 You shud consider this case too!

      If the Himalayas are standing tall … ice caps are also melting quickly and we are seeing repercussions… sea level rise … change in albedo .. drots which have been frequenting! — a rather quick change! and if we keep emitting for few more years we will see the quickest change! 😛 🙂

      2. chola rule 10th – 12th Century — 200 years — long enuf for human beings…. that wud come in Static category if we follow this dynamic static approach used!

      3. If we plunge into the history of India, we would find that there has always been western ghats …. – Disagree — Geography has its own History …. just because things in the prehistoric era dont have written evidences we cant claim Western Ghats always existed! They wud have also formed over time! Nothing has always been there in this world… even a waterfall wudnt always be there.. evetually water wears it down! And if you still say this… the history is incomplete!

      4. I really like the way you have handled the history part… segregation and all… I totally understand what u mean when you say Geo is static … but that’s just one angle is what I’m trying to highl8! 🙂

      Plz find time and review mine.. a different approach used… you cud get real critical on my essay! KWAR! 🙂

      • SM

        Dear Ash,

        Although you have given criticism, I don’t why I am laughing…

        I do understand dear friend nothing is static in geography. That’s why I have mentioned in conclusion that geography “seems” to be static in comparison to history.

        My focus was on the rate of change
        the rate of change in geography is comparatively slow
        the rate of change in history is comparatively fast

        Thank you dear, I will be reviewing urs shortly..

    • Harsh (Learning Unlimited!!!)

      A tough one … but you attempted well…

  • naren

    “Time flies over us, but leaves its shadow behind”

    Geographical relief remain same for centuries but history changes fast from atmosphere to people, monarchy to democracy, dhoti to coat suits tie belt, bullock cart to jet planes, slave to robot, manual work to automation,civilization to smart green cities,development to sustainable development,and so on.

    Social life start from Vedas, varna system every person had fixed task to do according to their varna, like Brahmin perform rituals, Kshtriya fought war,Vaishya do farming and Sudhra do menial works.Both Vaishya and Shudra are not allowed in sacrifices like Ashwameda,During this time people lived in a peaceful way, brotherhood was there, respect each other dignity, support in works and so on. As time passage Mughals came they turned history into communal elements, but later stage they also inculcate secular theory. Colonial power divide society, social life further according to their greediness.People fighting in the name of religion element,later Pakistan was born on same social aspect that Muslim league was sole responsible for muslim community development and a Hindu community cannot take care of muslims,who consequence we are still facing with Kashmir curfew issues from last 35 days.Some people mould history according to their will one of them was Jinnah and another is Nelson Mandela we knows who take their nations in different direction.

    Political system was run through hierarchy, king always son of king,Kingdom was run by Kshtriya.Indian Kingdom was spread to Sulaman Hill in north west side, which later come to Radcliffe line after partition. During Gupta dynasty brahmin’s was given more preference in court, while in Mughals court of Akbar were dominant by knowledge people, caste was not factor.Colonial power had more faith in their race so more it was Europeanised.Now democracy is most prevalent form of government everywhere, except few monarchy which doing well in terms of public welfare like Brunei, UAE,and so on.World politcal adminstration is dominant by United nation general assembly and UNSC. Now in 21st century people are more interested in young statesman like in Italy Mr. Matteo Renzi present prime minister is just 39 year old.

    Economically huge changes occurred, at time passage barter system changed into payment banks, bitcoins, cashless transaction,online markets, etc.India who knows as sink of gems, now sink of poverty,slums,hungry people,home of stunted children.But we doing great after post India like heavy industries, green revolution,and at present nation is growing at 6.4 GDP.Many few nations in spite of unfavourable geographical condition like volcanic erupution, earthquakes did well in terms of economic like Japan, etc.

    Culture changed drastically from ancient to 21 st century, there were thousands of languages, tribes, traditions, religions, rituals, as time passage many went to extinct, many new were evolved, many took new shapes, and so on. Generation gap was reduced people talk on what’sapp, form rituals through video conferencing, holy rivers now known for their flithy,dirtyness,etc.
    Many old dances forms were extinct, new forms took their place like Jazz,hiphop,rock, carnatic music changes,etc.

    From sword to nuclear bomb world has completely changed, now new forms of threat is coming like terror attacks, suicide bomber,UAV,sustainable development, climate change,global warming, organic farming,renewable energy like solar energy,wind energy, bio gas, bio fuel, etc.Each nation is inclined towards sustainable goals, development, many world organisation helping towards it,like UNFCCC, UN, WTO, World bank,etc. Now people think about their future generation,future atmosphere, mountains, rivers, glaciers, culture,searching over other planets like Mars, Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, comets for possibility of life’s, water,minerals resources.

    Humanity was prime cause for living in ancient times but now people do not care about humanity, no mankind, just they become narrow minded in helping others, for people now time is money, no social , moral, ethics, principles values are present in the people.Joint families turned more into nuclear families.Old age people are completely isolated from the society. They are living in old age home where there son are living in USA, children’s do not care about their parents.

    Now nobody can predict where this world is going, all around chaos of refugees,more people are becoming homeless, no job, no earning, miserable life’s, many are dies because of wars, and many things took placed. People should come forward save this planet from coming disaster, save planet for other future generation, they can write future history in present if they are more inclined towards saving this planet, mankind works like many NGO’s doing great work for the welfare of people, for example 100 million for 100 millions campaign launched by nobel laureate Kailash Satyarthi.

    • ESWAR

      I would say u made good attempt. Nice, keep writing.

      There is lack of connection between paragraphs. Essay is not gs answer where u exhibit knowledge. I feel essay is much more than. I did not find analysis. Conclusion is part is good. Sorry for being critical

      • naren

        thank u buddy,

    • Rajendra kumar

      starting and conclusion is good but analysis part is not there …….lack of connection b/w paragraphs ….
      your first attempt really nice naren 🙂

      • naren

        thank you , I try to improve , dear Keep writing

  • ajay

    GEOGRAPHY is what defines this world in terms of physical and topographical it steep mountains,deep valleys,extensive plains or mammoth seas it remains the same for ages.but it is the history of the region which keeps on changing.whether it is political history,society,cultural history or economic history each of them keeps redefining itself with changing eras.keeping this in mind in this essay we would elaborate upon these and other changes in history of various parts of the world in relation of their unchanging geography

    seeing our subcontinent we can say that it is geographically confined between the Himalayas in the north,mountains in the east,deccan plateau in the south and deserts in the west.but it has seen rich changes in history through the millenia.our ancient times was defined by the Indus valley civilisation which saw the beginnings of town life,trade, houses,drains,great structures and citadels.concurrently it saw social and cultural growth in forms of familial living,worship,burials and gods.therafter despite geography remaining the same,major political and religious developments took place.mauryas,guptas ,sultans and then mughals ruled the subcontinent.they enriched history with their contributions in form of administrative str.revenue collection,armies,chronicles and historic wars.similarly the subcontinent saw the birth and spread of buddhism ,jainism and bhagvetism which is growing and maturing till this context we see that the rivers are the same,plains are still in the north,plateaus are still in the south and deserts still occupy our west.unhindered the history has kept on evolving while the geography of the region remains the same

    in addition to this if we see the european geography and history.the same phenomenon gets repeated.europe has seen major upheavals,wars,dynastic rule and changes.but its geography has remained the has been the birthplace of christainity and god jesus.which now has spread throughout the world.the ethos of selflessness,love,morality,justice,democracy and rule of law has emanated and embibed itself across the world from europe only. it has been unbound by geographical barriers and restrictions.similarly the Industrial revolution,scientific discoveries and birth of the machine age and modern era changing the course of history has taken place in this has produced the spinning wheel,steam engine,metallurgical roads,mechanised boats and modern dyeing techniques revolutionising the means and modes of production processes.this has led europe to path of assured development despite the ALPS,the pyrenees,the forests,rivers,channels,straits and seas geographically dividing the continent.

    similarly the african nations boundaries have been drawn and red-drwan several times in the historical past.many nations suffering under european domination,discrimination and neglect had to see their history and culture get influenced and changed by,angola,morocoo,sudan the same time west asia has also seen changes across centuries.the seeds of israel-palestine dispute,shia-sunni conflict,ISIS ,terrrorism and destruction of indigenous tribal culture has been laid down uninfuenced by geography.the same euphrates and tigris still flow through the nation.the dast-e-kavir an dast-e-lut deserts,the zagros and the elbruz mountains are still part of arabian peninsula .but the econmomy and society keeps on changing,the upheavals keeps on happening,the yearning and churning(eg-the arab spring) keeps redifining the histoy of the region

    another nation which saw the fastest change and development is the americas.mostly based on primitive agriculture,tools and equpments,with largely tribal red indian population in the past..the nation is the superpower of the world at present.its rich history has saw drastic political,social and economic changes.the famous independence movements started with american revolution.,along with europe ,it gave new definition to nation and nationalism.countries drew ideas from american constitution.the bill of rights,independent judiciary,judicial review,all powerful president and many other political changes inspired other nations.its economic history developed strongly with industrian revolution,mechanisation,manufacturing,technology and internet.this happened within the same rocky and A pplachian mountains which has stood there since ancient times.reiterating the fact that geography may remain the same,but history changes

    the latin americas have also seen historical changes changing from the aztec civilisation in the past to the modern democraies at present.people have accepted equality,fraternity,citizenship and modernity within their age-old indigenous culture,religion and traditions.they have given their verdict to rules-based society after years of wars,internal confilcts and foreign dominmation.this historical change has been parallel with the same geography they have had for centuries.

    needless to say,our worlds history has kept on changing and has been represented by changing art,culture,politics and economy in various parts of the world.this change has defined eras and centuries which we study by classifying them into Ancient,Medieval and M odern.but one thing we generally classify permanently is our remains the same whether roman civisation ruled europe or the ottomans.whether the mongols ruled west asia or the assyrians.or the dutch domianted th south-east or the the end “GEOGRAPHY may remain the samewhile history need not”

    • Ankit

      Nice attempt Ajay.

      the ethos of selflessness,love,morality,justice,democracy and rule of
      law has emanated and embibed itself across the world from europe only — I don’t agree with this line though. And I’d suggest you not to use it specially when the govt. is bent on proving that ancient India had all this 😛 and before Christ we had Buddha and Mahavir with the same message.

      Please review mine when u get time.

      • Arvind

        A lot could be written in modern day issues across different Sectors…Nice attempt though

        • Arvind

          Please review mine

        • warrior_pandit

          Kindly review mine! 🙂

  • AkshayVandeMataram

    “I am neither Athenian nor greek ,but a citizen of the world”
    Socrates had said these powerful words at a time when all just mattered was the nationality limited by a geographical region.but his account as a citizen of world shows the acceptance of a greater truth and that is recognition of change going on in world as a whole whose history was a continuous change and whose future will be a continuum of change.but its quite imperative to know that in this world,where the mere change in air or climate may forge fetters among people to ascribe for their separate identity ,is there any chance to mould the history towards thepath of welfare and progress of even the last man standing in the end?
    Geography is all about the physical features the earth has on itself ,whether be the mountain reaching the sky or the trenches touching depth of oceans.change in geography is always there albeit time taken for change varies from a wink of an eye to thousands of centuries.on the other hand,history is the study of condition of all those who lived and wandered on mother earth before the question of history came up to the present it relates to people,who are bound to change their historical,social,political and other prerogatives with time ,so is the history.
    The issue of dynamicicty of history alongside the reality of geography comes to the fore when the world events of last few decades are recalled.indian subcontinent can be an apt example of that where a single identity present from some 50-60 million years ago ,which was called india by Greeks ,Hindustan by Persians and bharat by its natives ,stretched from sulaiman to Chittagong ,got divided into three different historical units.history in this region had changed for worse,from culture of brotherhood to bloodshed ,from love to hatredness nd result was partition and four wars.isnt it the embodiment of fact that though geograph may remain the same,but need not the history.

    It needs to be seen as to by which factors,its possible that history changes inoverall context of geography with so much quantum that it should be called a should be examined as to what can be done so that as the change happens because its all about human tendency to have change,that change is in the overall interest and welfare of all.
    First and foremost factor that brings about historical changes with alongside the tangible effects on geography is the environment.its the dynamic relationship of air,water and soil of region which can change the course of history in both ways.indus valley civilization can be a case in point.many researchers ascribe to this theory that this bronze age civilization got vanished because of change in course of rivers specially Indus and saraswati river.its geographical fallout was the desertification that results in northwest part of Indian subcontinentand its historical effect was that the statit Indus community got replaced by horse riders Aryans who can migrate from the area,if such event recurs.the effect of environment is exerting itself on both geographical and historical facets toda more than ever as the population as well as its density is rising
    Another important factor that puts a pressure on historical facts to get written again though without the comparable effects on geography is the politics played out in the region of consideration.whether it be the civil war of usa or the disintegration of usssror the segregation of arab world after treaty of severes in 1920 or the rise of dreadful Islamic state militia in today’s times ,it’s the historical change backed by political needs of the hour with little or no effects on geography.this political push may be by the people as they say ‘power withdrawl by people’ or by the leaders who say ‘a state won by one sitting in the office with help of a typewriter’.but the former is bound to change till the people not get what is due to them while latter is bound to change till one get what is promised to them.
    Another forceful push to dyynami of history bound by static geography comes from social views and their implications.when these views start echoing or reflecting ,they start building the framework of a major change.civil disobedience movements of india or the mau mau rebellion of Kenya or the guerillas fighting of latin Americas or the birth of state as well as nation of Israel is all embodiment of it.when the society gets warm upto the atrocities or the aspirations of some among it,then it makes the stage for an overhaul of all that in favour of peace as said by mahatma gandhiji aptly-“in all through history ,the ways of love and truth have always won.therer has benn tyrants and murderers and for a time,they may seem invincible but in the end they always fall.think of it always”
    Then comes the economy whih has its repercussions felt not only on the lives of people but the geography also though how much small it is.its a continuous inherent factor in the life of all those facets of humanity from the age of hunter-gatherers to the industrial and subsequently service revolutions of the present.nothing can be more apt description of this factor than colonialism witnessed in world in past centuries.on the one hand where colonialism changed the history by making the people westernized instead of modernized ,on the other side ,it brought about substantive changes in geography by commercializing the use of forests or by pushing up the growth of shabby overstretched cities .though its always sure that its double edged sword,but walking on it was always the prerogative of man.
    Fifth factor which had brought about substantial historical changes within the bound of geography is the direction in which foreign affairs were dealt with time to time.a good example of it can be taken from the state of Liberia in Africa.this state itself is born out of the policy of slavery followed in late medieval centuries.not only this,the population in this part of the world is wholly composed of the descends of former slaves of north America.birth of hongkong under the ‘one nation,two systems’ policy of china is another substantial factor in the effect of foreign affairs on the historical changes of a region.
    Another thrust to historical change comes from geographical factors itself.its the geography only due to which the plains have always been the cradles of civilizations while the mountains and other inhabitable areasgeet only thin slice of human can be gauged from simple fact that 66% of world population resides in between two tropical lines.
    The change has neither been good or bad becomes bad at a time when a single drop of blood get shed not in the process of occurrence of change but in the outcome.historical changes in the confinement of geography were good when they improved the condition of women or the so called invincible like blaks of America or untouchables of india.they were good when there aim was to make society think on reason or to make nation look to democracy and equality to solve the plethora of problems facing it.but they were bad when they were aspired for creating space for their own on the basis needs of others.
    But as the golden rule says that if there is problem,there must be a if the change happens in history with the geography may or may not accounting for it,there needs to be inherent qualities and principles so that change is for the best interests of one and all.
    First such principle should be the ‘culture of animism’ which means that all humans are partners in peace and progress.this culture has its roots in contentment which was aptly summarized by an ancient greek philosopher in following words “contentment is natural wealth while richness is artificial poverty”.
    But the question remains as to how to ingrain in the minds of the coming generation the ssignificance of this culture?certainly its possible only through the agency of education which minimizes prejudices and stereotyping and such an education should start from home itself with the mother as the parent epitome in this endeavour.this ssingle thing will going to have catalytic effect in the moulding of change in positive direction.
    Second solution for managing all the way rapidly happening historical change ,is the presence of an international body,free of bias and capable of taking action at time of need.there were two organizations witnessed by world in this sphere.first was the league of nations whose unfrucatbility was also a reason for second world war.second is united nations which ahd done a commendable work right from its setting but its lack of change along with realities make it unuseful today more than has started not representing the reality of modern world and if this trend continues,then it will also start to decay like its predecessor.
    Third solution in the context of historical change amid the presence of a static geographycomes from preparing the communities for unthoughtful changes that may come up in coming times.these include man disasters whether be biological or environmental and other rising challenges like terrorism ,nuclear proliferation etc.this needs the sense of being human compared to the sense belongingness to a particular region.only then it can work and help one and all in facing some drastic challenges.this is possible by letting people to learn the practical aspects of life and civil society can play an important role in this regard.
    Having said this,its quite clear that geography though remains same or not,but history need not and cant be same and that’s due to the interplay of environmental,political,social,economical and geographical factors.the change a history get in its reflection is in both ways but its through the use of culture of brotherhood,a peaceful international body and by preparing towards unwanted change,a human being can mould the path of history to intended purpose of welfare of all.
    Though geographical factors were remaining same or not and the history was always in the flux of change,yet it’s the mankind that has to bear the brunt or heap the accolades for all these teaches us the significance of very fact that human kind is like a thread joining all the pearls of this great interplay of factors affecting it.this was even recognized from age long as an ancient saying is “history is the best teacher”.
    Its always hopeful that though the history change and coming times will write a new history of the present,though the geography change or not,with the new physical features cropping up and old demolished ,yet the mankind in the garb of world citizenry will make its way for an even better and wishful future whose index will be the smile on the face of a girl coming out of a school located in the most underdeveloped region,with a smile on her face and mind sharper than yesterday.


      How much time did u take to write this?

    • Avlokita Ashok

      At time of soccrates , nation states does not exists….its a modern phenomenon!!!! it was city-states at that time…..your first line is not correct!!!

  • manju2017

    ಮಾನವನು ನಿಸರ್ಗದ ಶಿಶು ,ಭೂಗೋಳ ಇತಿಹಾಸದ ತಾಯಿ. “ಬೌಗೋಳ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾಲಗಣನೆ ಚಾರಿತ್ರೆಗೆ ಸೂರ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಚಂದ್ರ ಎಡ ಮತ್ತು ಬಲ ಕಣ್ಣು ಗಳಾಗಿವೆ. ಎಂಬ ವಾಕ್ಯವು ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಭೌಗೋಳ ನಡುವಣ ಸಂಬಂಧ ಸೂಚಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

    ಮಾನವನ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಆಯಾ ಪ್ರದೇಶದ ಸ್ವಾಭಾವಿಕ ಬೌಗೋಳಿಕ ವಾತಾವರಣವನ್ನು ಅವಲಂಬಿಸಿರುತ್ತದೆ.
    ಭೌಗೋಳಿಕಾಂಶಗಳಾದ ಆ ಪ್ರದೇಶದ ಸ್ಥಾನ ಅದರ ಆಕಾರ, ಮತ್ತು ವಿಸ್ತಾರ ,ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊಂದಿಕೊಂಡಿರುವ ಸಮುದ್ರಗಳು. ಪರ್ವತಗಳು. ನದಿ ಕಣಿವೆಗಳು. ಜಲಾಶಯಗಳು,ಕಾಡು, ಮರುಭೂಮಿ, ವಾಯು ಗುಣ ಮುಂತಾದವು ಗಳು ಒಂದು ಪ್ರದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ನಾಗರಿಕತೆಯ ಬೆಳೆಯುದಕ್ಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಬೆಳವಣಿಗಗೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.
    ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ; ಗ್ರೀಕ್ ಪರ್ವತಮಯ ದೇಶವಾದ್ದರಿಂದ ಗ್ರೀಕರು ತಮ್ಮ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ದೇಶವನ್ನು ಒಟ್ಟುಗೂಡಿಸಿ ರಾಜಕೀಯ ಐಕ್ಯತೆ ಯನ್ನು ಸಾಧಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗಲಿಲ್ಲ. ಸುತ್ತಲೂ ಸಮುದ್ದರಗಳಿಂದ ನೈಸರ್ಗಿಕ ಬಂದರು ಗಳಿಂದ ಕೂಡಿರುವ ಇಂಗ್ಲೆಂಡ್ ನೌಕಾ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಆ ಮೂಲಕ ವಾಣಿಜ್ಯದ ಲ್ಲಿ ವಿಶ್ವ ದಲ್ಲೇ ಪ್ರಥಮ ಸ್ಥಾನ ಪಡೆದು ಬಾರಿ ವಸಾಹತು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸ್ಥಾಪನೆ ಸಾದ್ಯವಾಯಿತು.

    ಪ್ರಪಂಚದಲ್ಲಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿಯವರೆಗೂ ಉನ್ನತ ಸ್ಥಿತಿಯ ನಾಗರಿಕತೆ ಗಳು ಬಳೆದು ಬಂದಿರುವುದು ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ನದಿಯ ದಂಡೆಯ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ. ನೈಲ್, ಯೂಪ್ರಟಸ್ ಮತ್ತು ಟ್ರಗಿಸ್ ಹಾಗೂ ಸಿಂಧೂ ನದಿ ಬಯಲು ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳು.

    ಭೌಗೋಳಿಕ ಅಂಸಗಳೆ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಬೆಳವಣಿಗೆ ಗೆ ಆಧಾರ ಗಳು ಎಂಬುದು ಇಂದಿನ ದಿನಮಾನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಳ್ಳಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ.ವಿಪುಲವಾಗಿ ನೈಸರ್ಗಿಕ ಸಂಪತ್ತನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದ,ಆಫ್ರಿಕಾ. ಏಷ್ಯಾ ಖಂಡದ ಅನೇಕ ‌ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಗಳು ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಸದುಪಯೋಗಪಡಿಸಿಕೋಳ್ಳದೆ ಬಡ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಸಹ ಇರುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ನೈಸರ್ಗಿಕ ಕಡಿಮೆ ದೊರೆಯುವ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಮತ್ತು ಜಪಾನ್ ಮುಂತಾದ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಗಳು ಬಲಾಡ್ಯ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಗಾಗಿ ಬದಲಾದವು. ಇದನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸಿದಾಗ ಭೌಗೋಳಿಕ ಅಂಶಗಳೆ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ನಿರ್ಮಾಣ ಕ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರದಾನ ಎಂಬುದು ಹುಸಿಯಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.ಮತ್ತು ಒಂದು ದೇಶದ ಜನರ ಕಲ್ಪನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾರ್ಯಪ್ರೇರಣೆ ಮುಂತಾದವು ಅಸಾಧ್ಯ ಗಳನ್ನು ,ವಾಸ್ತವಕ್ಕೆ ಇಳಿಸಬಲ್ಲವು.ಆ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ ನಾಗರಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ರೂಪಿಸುವನು ಮನುಷ್ಯನೆ ಹೊರತು ಬೌಗೋಳಿಕ ಅಂಶಗಳಲ್ಲಾ.

    ಹೀಗೆ ಬೌಗೋಳಿಕ ಅಂಸಗಳು ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಬೆಳವಣಿಗೆ ಗೆ ಪೂರಕವಾಗಿರುತ್ತವೆ.ಆದರೆ ಅವುಗಳಿಂದಲೇ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ನರ್ಮಾಣವಾಗದು.

    “ನಿಸರ್ಗವು ಸಹಕಾರಿಯಾದರೆ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ನಿರ್ಮಾಣ ,ನಿಸರ್ಗ ವಕೋಪಕ್ಕೆ ತಿರುಗಿದರೆ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ನಿರ್ನಾಮ”

    • Lubna Sehar

      Kannada dalli barawanige nodi santhosha ayithu….Prabanda chennagi baredidira.

      • manju2017

        ನಿಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯೆಗೆ ಧನ್ಯವಾದಗಳು .ನಿಮ್ಮ ಬೆಂಬಲ ಮತ್ತು ಸಲಹೆ ಗಳು ಹೀಗೆ ಮುಂದುವರೆಯಲಿ..thanks …..

        • Lubna Sehar

          Nanna Prabanda vu saha omme odi, nimma prathikriye needi

  • Banana Bangaru

    Earth has a history of about 4.6 billion years, though it cannot be studied directly, various experiments and hypotheses have helped understand the history of earth. Earth is still undergoing changes both exogenic and endogenic changes though not apparent. This is what has led to the evolution of life much later at about 4 million years ago. The geography of earth though has very much been the same( with some changes), history has been changing constantly.

    The question of survival has been at the core of history of life and that of the world. To ensure survival, nature has allowed adaptation, while man has used technology. Man was till then living in small pockets, however man has eventually humanised the nature with inventions and discoveries. Man started travelling across the world settling down with agriculture and other occupations. This has led to the civilisation and eventually led to continuous wars between people who have not limited themselves to any specific geographical region.

    History which has been about survival, with the formation of civilisations, it has become more about trade and other needs of people till the formation of kingdoms and empires, which happened at around 600 bc in India. It was during this phase that the idea of state and geographical borders have come into existence. These boundaries however were superficial and were limited by natural frontiers. For instance the most powerful Magadha kingdom has hardly gone beyond the Vindhyas in the south and the Indus in the north west.

    With the increase in technology and trade the quest for new territories has increased significantly, putting the kingdoms so formed at constant war. Till this phase history was determined by the geography, with people inhibiting a particular region having developed a culture and a way life. The formation of cultures and people who have adopted a particular way of life have started settling at a place. This has led to the same till the formation of nations and nation states. The evolution of nations and nation states have led to the formation of boundaries in the hitherto largely undivided world.

    Geography which has largely determined the lives of people till this has phase has been replaced by the artificial boundaries. These boundaries have formed the base of the world as it is today. However many factors tend to influence the history of the region. This is evident in the Indian context. Most settlers and invaders have imbibed the Indian culture which was superior at that point of time and has had little impact on Indian history. This however has changed eventually with the invaders during the early medieval period, this has changed the history of india with new aspects of religion and culture. The continuous wars during this phase, has led to stagnation of trade and economy, with little or no progress in education and technology.Indian history till now was dominated by trade and culture has now come to be dominated by religion and war.

    This has remained the same till the arrival of the British in the late 15 th century. It has come to be dominated by the colonial history which has largely been the same for all colonies of the major powers. The indian history has now come to be dominated by poverty, famines and further deterioration in the lives of people. The progress if any has been very little in the social sphere as well. Post independence, India has tried to build its history based on democracy, economic development and removal of poverty among others. Today, it has come to be recognised as a major political and economic power in the world.

    Geography of the world has not changed much, however history was at a constant change, driven by developments in technology, culture, establishment of empires, economic progress the country has made etc. The artificial geographical boundaries have only led to more conflict and hindrances to the progress of the world. Today these geographical boundaries however are not emphasised on allowing free trade, movement of people and services across the globe due to globalisation. This is beneficial and necessary for the progress of the world. Hence this has to be ensured through strong multilateral regimes and treaties. The history of the world should no more be restricted and seperated by the geographical boundaries, but it should have a common history.

    • Banana Bangaru

      Please do review, writing an essay after a long gap!!!


      1)The geography of earth though has very much been the same( with some changes), history has been changing constantly. BOTH ARE CHANGING AND HAVE CHANGED A LOT ,THOUGH THEIR RATES MAY BE VERY DIFFERENT.

      • Banana Bangaru

        Yes, you are right, thanks, wish you had reviewed the whole essay.

  • Ankit

    A line was drawn and the HISTORY was never the same again! It was 1947, the GEOGRAPHY of the subcontinent which has witnessed the likes of Harappan Civilization, the Great Ashok, the Mighty Mughals, the Oppressive Colonial masters was again witness to a major event, India was PARTITIONED. Though the lands in the DOABS of Indus and the delta of Ganga-Brahmaputra has the same Geography but the History has changed. Nothing can bring out the meaning of the quote as clearly as the HISTORICAL difference between India and Pakistan since Independence. One became the Largest and a Successful Democracy and the other for the most part a Failed one, but the GEOGRAPHY remains the same.

    A peculiar characteristic of GEOGRAPHY is, it resists change. And this stubborn characteristic of GEOGRAPHY helps us in studying the ever changing HISTORY. The epigraphs of Ashoka gives us an insight of the HISTORY of the period, the pillar inscription at Allahabad tells us about the Greatness of Samudragupta, the Boghazkoi inscription reveals how old the vedas might be and the magnanimous Angkor Wat is a living witness to the reach of the Indian civilization. If it was not for this stubbornness the pre-HISTORIC greatness of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro would have gone down ashes.

    GEOGRAPHY in it’s widest connotation represents the relationship between people and their environment, the relative stability of GEOGRAPHY is a major factor in providing continuity to civilizations. The Indus Valley Civilization, the Mesopotamian or the Ancient Egypt, all prospered around big rivers utilizing the fertile lands for sustenance and even today the societies are mostly concentrated around such mighty rivers. This shows the importance of stable GEOGRAPHY even in changed HISTORICAL perspective.

    But GEOGRAPHY does change, and when it does the HISTORY is bound to change. The periods of glaciation on Earth, the movement of the tectonic plates and the more recent global warming are all changes in the GEOGRAPHIC phenomenon which are bound to change our HISTORY. The Deccan Plateau in the Indian sub-continent is a result of volcanic hot-spot activity while the tectonic plate traveled northwards. This GEOGRAPHIC change that happened millions of years ago has shaped the current agricultural patterns in the region and thus a major determinant of it’s ECONOMY. The mighty Himalayas that affect our climatic patterns are again an example of how GEOGRAPHY affects our HISTORICAL evolution. They act as a divide between two great Civilizations both of which have evolved over time with different CULTURAL HISTORIES.

    HISTORY is dynamic because it largely depends upon the people who are themselves dynamic. It changes it’s course quickly, leading to a new road. But GEOGRAPHY which provides the bedrock to HISTORY has to remain stable for HISTORY to emerge, mature and prosper. The human aspect of GEOGRAPHY i.e. the INTERACTION between human and it’s surroundings, exploring the diversity, adjusting to it and then utilizing it to his advantage requires GEOGRAPHY to remain stable. But there are times in the HISTORY when man undermines GEOGRAPHY and then it shakes the very foundation of civilizations. Global warming is one such curse which is shaking the GEOGRAPHICAL bedrock. The sooner the man realizes that GEOGRAPHY is expected to remain the same the sooner it will act to rewrite the HISTORY!

    • Ankit

      Aise topic ni aane chahiye yaar -_-

      Please review

      • Arvind

        Very few dimension lot could be written in Reference with IR,Philosophy.New global issues and projects..Please review mine..Good attempt though

    • ESWAR

      Good attempt. Whatever u have written which makes sense and meet requirement of essay. A lot more areas could be included in today’s essy

    • ajay

      Well tried ankit your dimension of geography changes as well seems nice but becomes GS ans type also essay is small u have written some good portions but need to expand its a 1000 word essay u have the liberty to do it…..thanx for reviewing mine:)

  • KnowledgeBuff

    Geography and History, the two most important pillars of social sciences, that seek to further our understanding of the physical world, the industrial world, the world’s civilizations as well as humans themselves. Geography tends to focus on understanding the physical features of the earth, physical phenomenon that happen and the occupational structure of the society. On the other hand, history tends to focus on a study of the past with emphasis on kings, civilizations and important events that changed the course of the world’s history.

    Geography involves studying events from a scientific perspective, which tends to offer us a black and white view of things, while history, involves a lot of interpretations and analysis, which is not always black or white, but lies b/w various shades of gray. It is precisely this difference in the two, that has led geography to remain the same, while the history to continue to change and this is what we will analyse in the coming paras.
    One of the most important narratives in history, has been how mankind came into existence on earth. Earlier narratives, which were largely rooted in religion, laid emphasis on the theory of creation. It basically said that man was created by God. So bible talks about Adam and Eve being the first humans on earth, while hindu mythology talks about Manu being the ancestor of all mankind. Later narratives, as a result of progress in sciences, talked about the theory of evolution. It said that man was not created, but evolved over millions of years, from primitive life forms. Increasingly, more and more evidences are being found in favour of theory of evolution. Thus, we see that the geography of the earth has remained same, while history of mankind has been subject to varying interpretations.

    It is often said that history is written by the victors. Thus, how it is portrayed will depend on who is writing it. Unlike today, when supporters and opponents of a particular government in most countries are equally vocal, in earlier times, this was not the case. The king was seen as the supreme authority, whose wish was the command people had to obey. Thus, in accounts written under the patronage of these kings, we see their qualities being euologised, their conquests being glorified and their reign being seen as the one that brought prosperity to everyone. However, sometimes by chance, when historians have discovered archaeological evidences regarding the economic conditions prevailing in those times, the treatment of people, the true history of those times has unraveled.

    Before the discovery of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, nobody knew about the Indus valley civilization. Had it not been for the discovery of the dockyards, seals, great bath and other such structures, nobody would have been aware of the advancement of the people living in those times. Thus, history of the Indian subcontinent is seen in an entirely new light, post the discovery of the Indus valley civilization.

    The way history has been presented to the people in the past has also been a potent way of exercising control over them. The Britishers, based their Indian dominance, on the claims that Indian civilization was extremely backward and the natives here were not capable of living in harmony on their own. Yet, this version of history was not accepted by the freedom fighters. They correctly analysed that Indian civilization had a glorious history which had suffered decay due to various factors. Swami Vivekananda, boldly proclaimed that the West had a lot to learn from India, Gandhiji talked about Ramrajya being an ideal ruling system and Tilak taught Indians to take pride in celebrating their festivals. Thus, while our geographical realities remained unchanged, our history changed, depending on who was interpreting it for us.

    Additionally, we can also see that history has always been subject to varying interpretations. For eg. In the Middle East, there has been a marked resurgence towards going back to a way of life, as was prevalent during the times of the Prophet. That is seen as an ideal way of life. The Islamic revolution of Iran, was essentially a rejection of the Western way of life and a call to restore primacy to religion and the way of life propagated by it. On the other hand, in East Asian nations, we see how the advent of globalization has created a culture of consumerism and a rejection of the past traditions. Thus, geographies of these great nations have remained unchanged, but the way they view their history has profoundly changed.

    There have been many erstwhile nations in this world that have shared a common history. However, unfortunate circumstances have led to a division among these nations. So even though the geographical factors like landforms, climate, occupations of people, lifestyle have continued to remain same, yet the division has had a profound effect on the way these nations moved forward. In effect, the histories of these nations are diverging more than anyone could have thought. Pertinent here would be the example of India-Pakistan. A century ago, nobody could have imagined the existence of the Pakistan. Yet today, they are as different as apples and oranges. Similar is the case with Korea, Balkan states.

    Thus, we see how even though geography continues to remain same, yet the history sometimes changes beyond recognition. It all depends on the way we interpret it and how much control we let history have on our present lives. In case of India, at the time of independence, we did not let history come in the way of dismantling the age-old tradition of caste-system and usher in an era of just, rules based society. On the other hand, we see organizations like Taliban, Boko Haram, Islamic State, use history and traditions prevailing in the seventh century to justify their acts of violence in the present. In both cases, geographies have remained same, while history continues to be written every single day. Whether it is for better or worse that is something for us to decide.

  • ‘Geography may remain the same ; history need not.’

  • Arvind

    “Geography may remain the same ; history need not.”

    Study the Past if you would define the Future – Conficius

    Right from the ancient times India has been a ‘Melting Pot’ wherein cultures,values,Ideas have been assimilated from within and beyond the boundaries .The Invaders , brought with them a history and crossed the barrier of underlying geography.
    With the advent of modern techniques and tools,time and again new projects are undertaken which by some means tries and changes the Geography as well to fulfill the needs of better transport and livelihood (Panama Canal,Land capture in coastal areas).The paleontologists and other scientific studies reveal new findings on a continuous basis on the evolution of man and thereby history also continues to shift and pushed back.

    After the Partition of India ,Though the Geographical Features on the frontiers changed but both the subcontinent countries shared the same future. The advent of Modern Day welfare state has also led to sharing ,adopting ,adapting and researching of the Public administration practices in other countries.The schemes,policies and even the constitution of state are more often than not adopted from across the geographical borders.A whole new field of Comparative Public Administration has been evolved in recent times to analyze the same.

    Even the Management practices in the corporates are based on the past practices and hence extrapolations are made to chalk out the future projects.So there is a need to have an holistic,inclusive and indepth analysis to justify that both geography and history may change as per the contingencies of the day

    History and Geography changes with time

    Right from the Ramayana ,wherein a bridge was built to cross the sea ,and the recent past (Panama canal) humans have time and again changed the geographical features of the area to benefit from the same.The exogenic and endogenic forces act hand-in-hand to change the topography of land.The Historians as well have different viewpoints on a particular issue for Ex. The Revolt of 1857 ,in India, has been considered by some historians as the first war of independence whereas other negate the same.The invaders in India right from the Indo-Greeks has time and again changed the geographical boundaries as well as the history with them.Napoleon once said “History is a set of lies agreed upon” .It is quite evident from the very fact that the history of the periods of rein of a kingdom was written by his courtiers and some independent writers (Chinese visitors,Greeks whose viewpoints ,few and far between ,were different.

    Modern Day Scenario

    In a Modern welfare state the countries ,even the states within the countries share the Ideas,state-of-art technology ,policies,schemes..The schemes and policies of Good governance in the countries like Cuba,Brazil,Singapore are adopted in Countries like India. The culture and shared histories also plays a pivotal role in the International Relations between the states (China india twin cities cultural ties,Kung-Fu Yoga Movie which is part of three movie agreement). The New Projects like OBOR of China (On the line of old silk route and Maritime route),and the recently negotiated agreement with the Iran for Development of chahabahar port also further strengthen the viewpoint.Modern Day Bilateral and multilateral military exercises (Hnad-in-hand,shakti,Indra and dialogues (Raisina Dialogue )are undergoing.The recent negotiations with Cuba and USA also tries to resolve the longstanding truce between the two countries.The Political Map of middle east and Africa serves as a perfect example as how geography and History is serving as a reason for long standing downfall of the Government (Arab spring,ISIS , and the rise of terrorism.

    With the changes in times the Philosophical and democratic views and ideas has also evolved from the monarchical state via communism to a modern day welfare state with ideas of Liberal,democratic state is on the fore.With the Downfall of USSR both the History,Geography and Philosophy of the International Relations has undergone sea changes with a ‘Multi-polar’ world on the rise.

    With the advent of Globalisation and liberalisation the Trade practices has underwent sea changes.The world has become a “Global Village”.The coutries now are more interlonked.The recent China’s train has travelled Upto iran thereby opening new dimension for trade.also the New North sea route holds a key for better and faster trade practices.The recent agreement between china and Nepal to have a Railway line across the Tibet further strengthen the viewpoint.So geography of the region no more hold the variable in trade practices.

    Philosophical Viewpoint

    With the advent of the philosophy of Vasudhaiva kutumbakam (The world is one family ) the global issues are now seen to be crossing geographic frontiers.The Fight against Ebola,HIV ,and also the cooperation in the field of space further manifests the Linkages between the state and thereby strengthens it.India and Saudi Arabia joining hands in the rescue of Indians and Pakistanis in Libya also drives towards world being one family.

    Geography of country acts as the geography of soul.But the new norms of citizenship acts are in place to check the refugees and the Displaced persons crisis (EU and Sri lanka )and the same are rehabilitated and are provided with livelihood opportunities.The recent ammendment in the Citizenship act of India act to rehabilitate the neighboring Hindus, Sikhs,Jains, further strengthens the Philosophical viewpoint.


    The history and geography of the region continues to change for the betterment of research , better mobilization of resources and earn larger profits.The world is striving fast towards more and more connected entity and the social media and other technological innovations had become the new medium to achieve the same.There is a dire need to undergo a rigorous analysis by the academicians , administrators and the researchers to further explore the ways and means to change the history (The recent truce of US and cuba).The Youth and the NGO’s has a lot in hand to do .To fight against the Global issues like terrorism and other Life threatening disease ,there is Further need to make world a highly connected entity not in letter but in true spirit as well.The Regional issues should be treated as a global one .The pain and the sufferings should be felt by all. A lot is needed to be done but the steps has already been taken in correct places and hopefully a new path will be formed at the end of the journey.

    “The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched – they must be felt with the heart.”

    • Hope

      Hey nice essay….. Covered various aspects but i think some of them were dispensable(especially too much facts in some part of Modern day scenario some parts and Philosophy) because it makes essay quite heavy.

      But one doubt….. Please clarify…… Is the essay asking history as event depicting change or History itself changing due to new discovery and new finding about historical data? I have have written whole essay taking latter as the topic. Don’t know if i am correct?

      • Arvind

        Thanks …Will try to improve them..And Your raised concern ..i think its all about interpretation and justification.Rest toh Depends on examiner..

        • Hope

          Yes very true…… If time available please review mine……… its hand written so bear with it.

    • Ankita Agarwal

      In a Modern welfare state the countries ,even the states within the countries share the Ideas,state-of-art technology ,policies,schemes..The schemes and policies of Good governance in the countries like Cuba,Brazil,Singapore are adopted in Countries like India. The culture and shared histories also plays a pivotal role in the International Relations between the states (China india twin cities cultural ties,Kung-Fu Yoga Movie which is part of three movie agreement). The New Projects like OBOR of China (On the line of old silk route and Maritime route),and the recently negotiated agreement with the Iran for Development of chahabahar port also further strengthen the viewpoint.Modern Day Bilateral and multilateral military exercises (Hnad-in-hand,shakti,Indra and dialogues (Raisina Dialogue )are undergoing.The recent negotiations with Cuba and USA also tries to resolve the longstanding truce between the two countries.The Political Map of middle east and Africa serves as a perfect example as how geography and History is serving as a reason for long standing downfall of the Government (Arab spring,ISIS , and the rise of terrorism.

      relevance of this para in ur essay?

      • Arvind

        I am trying to justify how in the present day world.the Geographical boundaries and History are not the barriers anymore w.r.t to Modern I.R and diplomacy

  • warrior_pandit

    Geography may remain same; History need not

    The Earth has been in existence since last Five Billion years and will continue to exist even after we are long gone. However, History changes every moment. It is exclusive only to human civilisations as animals do not write history. Life is a continuous journey where every passing moment becomes engraved in our conscious as a memory. Same memory when covers a large sphere temporally becomes History. It is deductive, Perception based and Inferative in nature. It cannot be proven and is theoretical analysis of the tangible items of study. Thus, there is nothing called correct history as each individual perceives history according to one’s own Attitudes, Beliefs, Faith and comfort.
    For example, A city on the banks of the Saryu river may hold an important place of worship for some and for others it may signify something that dealt a major blow to India’s secular credentials and our concept of peaceful co-existence. Similarly, The land of the Indus may signify for some as the cradle of Indian civilisation while for others it may not mean much than a conquered area.
    As mentioned above, History is ever changing. What is history today may have been the present for some. So, it would not be wrong that the way this present generation perceives history may be different how the coming generations are going to perceive it.
    The present issues that impact human civilisation like Terrorism, Global economic problems, Challenges of globalisation, growing intolerance throughout the world, dwindling levels of morality and ethics, Focus on individualism, climate change etc., were not the issues that impacted the older generations who were busy worried about sustainance, wars and lower life expectancy. Similarly, the issues that we experience today would not be the same as experienced by future generations. Our present actions would determine what they tend to study as history. The way we would like to perceive our history today may be different the way they would like to perceive then.
    What is therefore required is firstly, to initiate steps so as not to pass on our baggage of history to the future. This can be done by taking lessons from the history. For example: The mistakes committed in the Atlantic ocean in 1930s and 1940s should not be allowed to be repeated in the Pacific. The world had suffered enough death and destruction then to have it repeated all over again and that too in greater proportions. Also, it should be noted that Crusades are long over to be taken over by the nationalistic fervours of recent times, so religion as a potent political force should not be allowed to raise it head again. In context of a pluralistic society such as India, the viciousness of the past like partition on religious lines, caste discrimination etc., should be done away with once and for all so that the future Indian nationals look at history as a unifying force and not as a force of division. Concept like “one India-one people-one culture” cannot be planted artificially, but must be allowed to develop intrinsically in an organic method. Here, one may look in neighbourhood how the same land that gave lessons of peace and prosperity to the world, known for its spirit of enterprise and tolerance has now been engulfed by lawlessness and rule of the gun.
    Secondly, There is a need to develop a national narrative based on certain undefiled principles. Such principles have coexisted with Indian civilisational ethos since time immemorial and should continue to do so in the future as well. Such values like Respecting pluralism, Religious harmony, Peaceful coexistence, Global prosperity, Social stability etc., must continue to inspire the future generations so that there is incremental change in History in the positive trajectory.
    Thirdly, It must be remembered that the creator did not created the land to be divided into artificial boundaries. The borders of past divided by Rivers, Mountains , Deserts etc., hold less of significance today with technological progress today allowing humans to fly over the mountains and sail over the oceans. With the concept of global village made possible by Information and Communication technology, the traditional borders hold less of significance. But still there exist boundary issues among nations that need to be resolved amicably so that the future generations experience physical geographical features of earth for their beauty and not as borders.
    Lastly, History needs to be perceived as a unifying medium and not as a medium of creating differences to fulfil narrow individualistic interests. The insider-outsider, indigenous-foreign debate that has engulfed the whole world due to narrow interpretation of history need to be stopped as those who are indigenous today may have been foreign in the past. Similar habits, cultural elements etc need to be focussed upon so that the artificial differentiation does not create further problems in years to come.
    The mountains will continue to grow, rivers continue to flow and glaciers continue to thaw; but our history will change, each generation after another and each person to another. It is up to us, how we would like to remember our history? Whether as a specie that destroyed the whole earth for its selfish needs (in this case the geography may not remain same) or the one that made world a better place to live in? Our future depends upon the steps we initiate at present, which would be based on lessons learnt from the past. The growth of Human civilisation has been possible on this principle only. Therefore, there is need to de-create artificial boundaries and respect the diversity of both man and nature to make world a better place to live in for time to come. Only in this way that the ever changing history would be beautiful as the change is the only constant.

    • Lubna Sehar

      Nicely written..

    • Arvind

      Animals do not write history need of that line..(Paleontology speaks for them)..Good introduction..And good conclusion could have include more current examples to justify the point..and may be some philosophical twist…Overall “Commenadable”
      Plz review mine…

    • Abyss

      the essay has a nice start and a good end.
      but in between, there is only the story of India and the present problems. i think there is a lot more emphasis on sociology here.
      essay gives a lot of space to elaborate on points. pick areas where you have comfort and flaunt a little of your knowledge there so long as you can tie it to the theme of the essay.
      i think the key to a good essay has 3 parts- structure, dimensions and content.

  • Manoj

    Unity in diversity, the multicultural, multi ethnic, multi linguistic society of India has become a hallmark of present India. History has brought political unification of India which is based on geographical features in terms of Himalayas in the north and ocean in the south which provided a firm foundation.

    When dived deep its not possible to set out the things in black and white between history and geography as the reality is in grey due to interplay of both.

    Mauryas, Guptas, Mughals and then British aided by geographical features enshrined the Indian subcontinent but the interplay of communalism, regionalism resulted in the partition. The new country Pakistan which emerged on the basis of religion could not sustain for long which resulted in liberation of Bangladesh. History evolved with time.

    Likewise the fascinating tool of technology which continuously evolved from prehistoric times to till date & still evolving has guided the history. The man who was confined due to geographical limitations has grown to surpass the barriers and write a glorious history for himself.

    From hunter gatherer nomadic life to settled agriculture life there has been a travel of zillion of miles which has influenced the process of formation of the world. The era of globalization wherein the whole world has become a globalised village largely owing to information and communication technology has made a giant leap and made the transcending of geographical barriers to start a new phase in the history a common feature.

    The impact of above statement can be gauged by the statement of US president Obama ” Say no to Bangalore” during the recession in last decade. This technological revolution which has made the mobility and communication to preceed unhindered has been driving force in 21st century. Things which once seamed as an uphill task has transformed into a normal activity part and parcel of day to day life. This is what technology has been done.

    Also a slight look into international diplomacy of 20th and 21st century clearly put forward that how the history has been like a running river not a stagnated one. Recent visit of US president to Cuba or the ups and downs in India china relations or the contrasting nature of relationship between India and US in 20th and 21st century holds in itself a magnificent, multifacet history allowing the researcher to explore changing dimensions of relationship.

    So ” Its the history which has continuously evolved wherein geography is somewhat the same” This interpretation is too narrow there’s also other way around.

    The Suez canal transformed the geography which cut down the travel time between Mediterranean and Indian ocean, If not Suez canal Whether the history would have been the same the answer the negative one. Transformed geography has given a new dimension to History.

    The construction of china wall diverted the mongols, the disasters of Hiroshima and Nagasaki completely changed the history of japan. The changing geography re-moulds the history.It may be construction of dam and the provision of irrigation will provide a face lift to whole area ushering the new era of prosperity.

    Likewise when looked into evolving relationship between India and Bangladesh has a deep influence on the northeast India. The ease of connectivity of north east with mainland India would fasten the integration of North east with mainland reiterating the concept of unity and diversity.

    As the saying goes only thing which is permanent is change. The changing history will affect the geography, the changing geography will aid the history to evolve.

    Its not surprising to see the linguistic provinces in India were largely influenced by geographical barriers but also aided to develop unique culture but has not restricted in the evolution of a composite culture influencing both history and geography.

    Geography has aided the history likewise history has modified geography, This mutual exchange by guiding and getting guided between the two is a continuous process wherein both accommodating each other.

    From the single land mass of Panagea to present, geography has evolved and is evolving, Mighty himalayas are still growing. From the prehistoric times to present the humankind has learnt to alter geography by itself or sometimes the nature itself alters through earthquakes or cyclones guiding the history. Both are evolving and lets pray they evolve for betterment of mankind.

  • Hope

    Kindly review…… All pages are attached in consequent reply as normally it gets jumbled up.

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  • Mohammed Abdul Waseem

    Geography and history in an evolutionary perspective.
    Geography gifted man with different physically settings that made culture for example india in its Indus valley civilization era is advanced among its world contemporaries like Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilization however with in short span of few centuries IVC went into relics of museums with still writing of those era yet to be decipher.
    The rise of culture in an geography made the world as of now .for example the rise Nordic and Vikings cultures led Formation of kingdoms in Europe though which has came to be turning point in European history.
    It’s quite an Irony that though history is presented in different perspective turned out to be reason for geography .for example, the book called ” the history of British india” renamed history into Hindu , Muslim,christian histories which eventually took up radical idea of us versus them which turned out to divide united subcontinent into india and Pakistan .Another good example is colonialism ,before 1500 there hardly any colonies ,however after end of colonialism at end of 1950 the colonies are solely curved out of their geography based on the reason of shared colonial history.
    One might see another good example of Pakistan and Bangladesh thought they are carved out of subcontinent,its quite logical to see that shared may not be the only reason for division various geographically isolated factors like language , culture,politics etc,may also determine the history.


    My first essay. please review, feel free to criticize 🙂

    It takes 24 hours for the earth to make a rotation on its axis and 365.25 days to make a revolution around the sun, which has happened for millions of years. What has changed then? Things that we see today were not present billion of years ago. What has brought such change over time? Why is this change continuous? Evolution is the answer to such questions, whether its geographical or historical. Much like nature, human race has always capitalized on the remains of the past. Past can be traced through history. Each moment passing by, will be a piece of history, a culmination of human endeavor striving to achieve broader spectrum.

    From tribal culture to city states and all the way to present nation states, human society has witnessed enormous political and social turnarounds. The same geographical portion has been demarcated time and again with different empires and dynasties. Historical references help us to trace back their cultural, economic and social lives. We observe very few geographical difference but drastic historical ones. Philosophical thinkers and scholars had a huge impact during this period. For eg, rational thinking followed by ideas of liberty ,equality during the French Renaissance toppled the monarch rule giving rise to public assemblies and will of the people. Later the Russian revolution led by Bolsheviks rose to prominence in Russia establishing dictatorship of proletariat.

    In the era of colonization, industrial revolution in Britain changed the economic structure around the globe. Different reigns under communist and democratic ideologies evolved. Trade and investment increased across the continents with the aid of scientific and technological discoveries. Geographical limitations were no more a hurdle and the world seemed to be a smaller place.

    In the Indian subcontinent, dynasties of Guptas, Mughal and Britishers have ruled with constant struggle for power during their respective periods.Same geographical landscape have seen various historical conflict with different results.
    In peninsular India, Tungabhadra -Krishna doab had been a bone of contention between Pallavas and Chalukyas and later between the Vijaynagar and Bahamani kingdom.

    Indian freedom struggle and story of partition are no different. Seven decades after the independence we see similar geographical entities in different conditions- one in a state of civil war and constant turmoil under authoritarian rule and other turning out to be the largest stable democracy in the world. Former PM Atal Bihaari Vajpayee had made the same statement during his speech as the PM which gives a vision for India in global prospects.

    The geographical limitation of tackling the neighbours either hostile or non cooperative has been a challenge since time immemorial. Considering the security issues with China on the eastern front and Pakistan in Kashmir, India is in constant engagement with forces trying to break through the Indian defence frontiers. China has always looked at India through the prism of Pakistan, which has often led to misunderstandings and suspicion among both Indian and Chinese counterparts.

    On the western front, Pakistan aims at thousand cuts to India through terrorist and militant activities. Though Pak’s policy doesn’t seems to be working in their favor, as terrorist activities have taken a recoil in their premises posing huge tensions in their backyard too. The course of action according to Vajpayee was to resolve the issues through bilateral engagement. The former prime minister inaugurated the Delhi-Lahore bus which established regular road link between the two countries after 1947. Also, the Lahore declaration, which committed both the nation to bilaterally resolve the disputes and boost trade had diffused the escalated war tensions at both the fronts during 1999.With other neighbouring countries the relations has been dwindling as well.

    A decade later India’s engagement with Sri Lanka and Nepal over their new constitutional provisions seems to have taken different routes. While one expects suggestions from Indian constitutional experts, the other flashes ‘the china card’ upon disagreements. Though, recently India’s peaceful resolution of its water disputes and enclaves issues with Bangladesh is a consolation towards the grim neighbourhood scenario.

    Foreign policy has undergone multiple strategic reform like “LOOK EAST” to “ACT EAST” policy . Intervention in Central Asia doesn’t blame India to be a fence sitter now, rather a more pro-active participant. With recent “neighbourhood first “ initiative , India seems to a peace setter and cooperative nation globally. The bilateral and multi lateral economic partnership potray India as a huge world market and attracts worldwide collaboration and partnerships for India on global platform.

    India needs to reap the huge economic dividend available to it. The enormous geographical variations from the hot ,dry Thar desert to the wet and humid hills of East, the long coastline to the soaring high Himalayas shape the Indian climate and vegetation like no other in the entire world. Huge reserves of energy for eg, the gondwana coal to the mineral reserves (eg-bauxite ,copper,etc.) make India a place rich of deposits. The long coastal landscape are opportunity to establish greater trade and transportation connectivity to the world. What lies beyond, is the consistent effort to use these resources sustainably and tap the economic and geopolitical advantages.

    Indian engagement with the world in the 21st century places India among the futuristic nations. Indian diaspora across the world have upheld India’s prestige. With a huge workforce population and an ever growing economy, today India not only provides technical expertise and services but also investment and development efforts in Central Asia, Africa and Indian subcontinent. Recent efforts at Chabahar port development in Iran and the Salma dam in Afghanistan showcase how India has evolved from being a nation in need to a nation in deed.

    It goes without saying that India has achieved milestones in the past but there is lot of ground to cover.
    Health, education , employment , skill development are the future goals for India. With the global concern towards climate change, it is imperative for India to devise strategies and policies towards a cleaner ,sustainable and an energy secure India. Though geographically, Indian subcontinent may remain the same through ages but Indian history will not. With the current pace of growth and development, sky is the limit for India.

  • Hope

    @InsightsOfficialReview:disqus Sir i have one doubt….. Please clarify…… Is the essay asking history as event depicting change or History itself changing due to new discovery and new finding about historical data? I have have written whole essay taking latter as the topic. Don’t know if i am correct?

    Most of the insightians have written taking former as a clue.

    • Arvind

      I have also taken second one as a clue..But its all about justifying the stand,..

      • Hope

        Thank God…… I thought that i was out of league…… You mentioned Comparative Public administration. Is Pub Ad your optional. Mine is Pub ad.

        • Arvind

          Ya bro..Hunting People to review ans oF PUB-AD Please be the “ONE” 🙂

          • Hope

            Ya sure.

  • Just do it

    In 1920s, Workers were laying down the railway tracks somewhere near Harappa in united India (before 1947). They got mounds for bricks supply but an excavation under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1920s and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa. Earlier that The English thought India as inferior civilization than western civilization. The geography was same but the view of the English were changed now. Dark inferior history of India was changed with gloried past. That glory is now carried by Indian peninsula. Yes, physical geography may remain same but political, economic and human geography and history need not to be same.

    The Indian peninsula has ruled by various races like North India region was ruled by Mauryas, Gupta, Vardhans, Chauhans, Sultans, Marthas, Mughals, the English and now people’s rule. The geography has not much changed but the history is changing day by day. Today we know this much of the history but new findings would change the present.

    Earlier Indian history was not well respected. South India’s history was in dark but this was made glorified after the discovery of Sangam literature. This literature made aware people that their own culture was superior then others. The history of Karnataka region was redefined after excavation of Vijaynagar dynasty. Decipherment of Asoka’s pillars curved the history with golden pen. The extent of Asoka made the English rethink about the capabilities of Indian. The explanation of recreated History by Vivekananda forced world to re-think before casting any slur on the Indian culture. The advent of Rig Veda is considered as one of oldest literature in the world. The history is based on the present discovery but keep changing as new discovery comes.

    Presently, India is thought as poor country in the world but Dominigo Peas presented a different past of Vijaynagar which was so rich region that he was compelled to recognize the superiority of Vijaynagar Empire. The trade was at zenith whatever the geography of the country. The geography was same but India had excellent trade in textile and spices with west but today India has trade deficit. This history is changed to richer to poorer.

    The HDI index of India is very poor. Geographical factors like tropical climate also contribute up to some extent. But the well reputed scholars was from India like Patanjali, Asvagosha, Charaka, Aryabhatt, Pāṇini etc. The advent of histories of these people changes the prospect of our history. Today, few universities of India is in top 100 in world. Nalanda was the center of the excellent learning in the Asia. Scholars came here from the various part of world. The remains of Nalanda tells the different history of past. Further excavation of this site will clear some aspect of the history and culture.

    Indian culture was criticized by the English even by so called educated Indians. West was seen as source of pure and scientific knowledge. The excavation of Buddha Stupas changed the history and India become the host of oldest Damma. The learning of Buddha are followed by large past of world. The dark, orthodox, irrational and inferior culture of India become light bearer. The very thinking of the world was changed as history also.

    The West thinks that they are pioneer in the fraternity, equality and democracy. Earlier it could be accepted but today it is not. For example: Buddha belongs to a dynasty where Ganas (a group of people) were rulers. The theories of western philosophers can be directly or indirectly drawn from the Indian philosophy. Newton’s law are given in Rig Veda. Aryabhatt apprised world that earth is round when others were thinking earth as a flat plate! Sushruta’s Samhita made world aware about the surgery. These history advances were incorporated by enthusiastic people which redrawn the history.

    The geography may change but history changes as society changes. The creation of history is up to the people who are directly or indirectly maker of the history like Mahatma Gandhi ji has written a new chapter in Indian history. This is not compulsory that geography should change but sometime this is key of history like the geography of Kashmir is somewhere same but haven of earth is changed to hell. The geographical division of India and Pakistan have changed the History and will keep change the history.


      My views ,might be wrong-
      1. intro is good
      2. I did not find continuity in the approach,eg-from history direct refrence to HDI..
      3.You have covered indian history in depth ,probably one or 2 paragraphs on world history might be added.
      4. Few extra points on geographical references would have made the answers more balanced.
      You write well,structure making might help to keep the answer balanced and then you will not incline towards only one aspect..keep writing. 🙂

      review mine.

      • Just do it

        in-depth analysis ..thank you very much..i also feel same..i will try to incorporate asked changes..keep reviewing 🙂


    Plz review mine… I new and preparing in hindi medium. So facing a lot of problems during ans writing and evaluation process.
    Plz suggest me regarding this..

    Geography may remain same but history need not. Since the evolution of mankind on earth, geography is more or less same but history has taken turns so many times. Since millions of years geography and geographical features are same. But history hasbeen created and vanished millions times. Geography is created by natural phenomenon but history by mankind.
    Talking in indian perspective, history was created by mankind during indus civilization in 2500 BC. Then another gengatic civilization came in 1500BC eastern to indus civilization. There is a clear cut difference between two civilizations. Maurya dynasty, gupta dynasty, sultunats , mughals and britishers followed them. Now we are living in independent india. All the while we have gone through a major changes in the history of this land. Social , cultural, economical and ritual history have gone to extremes.
    In social changes, we can draw a clear cut picture of ancient society to modern one. From worship of nature in ancient time to destruction of nature in recent times, inferiority of female to a constitutional equality in recent year, king’s dynasty to democracy, history is changing. Tribal life style has changed to modern and advanced settled life style.
    In economic system too change is so vast. From a close village based economy to global economy, transformation from agriculture to industries, industrial development to sustainable development , the way towards looking at nature all has changed. A village level life style has changed to vasudev kutumbakam.
    Changes have taken place in ritual and cultural life of humans too. Tribal dance has been replaced by classical well choreographed dance forms. Western culture have brough a vast change in our cultural life.

    Overall, since the inception of first life on earth , history has been changing. It’s course is to change. Without change there is no history. And without history there is no change. But looking at geography , it’s changing in a very very slow speed. We are not the cause of geographical changes, it’s natural.
    History is more or less is bound to change by humans. Mankind is changing so the history but geography is same.

  • AS

    “Geography may remain the same; history need not.” :

    The geography of India has gone through innumerable number of historical changes. This change in history is come not only in terms of people, but also with change in religion, culture, wealth, regime etc.

    Tracing back to Harrapan civilisation, the remains of this civilisation speaks about the modernity, prosperity, skills and knowledge level of the people of this age. City architecture, drainage pattern, dockyard, sculptures, pottery, ornaments, infrastructure, everything tell us that, about 3000 years ago India had seen a history of one of the best known civilization of that time in the entire world. But yes everything has a definite life and yes Harapaan too had which came to the culmination in 1500 BC and became an integral part of history of India.

    Next footprint by Vedic period on the same geography, starting from 1500 BC , carved the holy books like Vedas and other scriptures whose lines are still being followed by many people of our country. The scriptures of this era has become the faith of many religion of today’s world. Like Veda forms the basis of Hindu religion and many people follows the texts of this book in their life.

    With the end of Vedic era, Sharman tradition took birth on the same piece of land. With this, Indian geography became witness of enlightment of Buddhism and Jainism. These holy souls received the eternal knowledge on this Indian fraction of the world. Gautam Buddha and Mahavira spread their knowledge and peraching to the entire geography of India and poured their knowledge upto their reach. Thus again same piece of land seen a completely different culture and tradition of Sharman tradition. This era also gone through the down to dusk of Mauryan regime. Maurayn dynasty was formed by chandragupta Maurya, and it was being rules by many brave kings, and among one of them Ashoka the Great, regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor. Buddhism was greatly accepted by Ashoka and he adopted Buddhism as his religion and spread the teachings of Buddhism to the every corner of our country. This era again marks the change in history in the same geography.

    Stepping to the next level of happenings, in the 3BC Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Pataliputra. Sri Gupta, Chandraguta I, Samudragupta, Chandragupta II flourished in the Gupta dynasty in their respective period. Also known by Golden age of India, it marked the witness of great inventions and discoveries of science, architecture, scriptures, mathematics and astronomy. Many great personalities took birth in this age like Kalidas, Arayabhatta and Vishnu Sharma.6th century marked the ending of Gupta dynasty and beginning of Hrash period. The king hrshvardhan tried to expand his Empire into the southern peninsula of India but defeated by south Indian ruler Pulkeshin II who belongs to Chalukya Dynasty. Thus history is gradually changing on the same geography.

    One after another different dynasties took birth, flourished and culminated in the geography of India and adding new pages in the history of India.

    712 AD marked the first Muslim attack on Indian subcontinent when Muhammad Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir. Raja Dahir is known as last Hindu ruler of Sindh and Multan region, now in Pakistan. The actual establishment of Muslim rule goes back to the 1206 AD when Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes slave Dynasty later to be known as Delhi Sultanate. Thus from 1206 to 1857 AD Indian came under the umbrella of Muslim Dynasty. Muslim dynasty also seen the change of clan from Delhi Sultanate to Mughal Dynasty. By this time foreigner also found their way to India, and Portuguese became first in landing to Indian soil among Europeans. After them Dutch, French and Britisher also left their footprint on the soli of India. These foreigner power gave India a new flavour of culture and religion of Christianity and their way of life. Finally in 1857 Muslim Dynasty ended and Britishers started their ruling in India. This era seen drain of wealth of India as Britishes suck the wealth of Indian ranging from natural resource to manpower. Under the rule of English, a lot of change in its culture, ruling and development took place. Different English came and gone through India, and in between nationalism took birth on the soil of India which finally leads to independence of India from English rule on 15 August 1947. The 200 years of stay of English in India became a vital part of Indian history , as it finally leads to the completely changed ruling patterns which India had seen from its birth i.e. from Anarchy to Democracy. From this date democracy started in India and a completely different environment of liberty surrounded the boundary of India.

    Thus from the above mentioned points it is very much clear that though the geography of India is almost same as it was earlier (few major changes are being done i.e. establishment of Pakistan and Bangladesh ) but it witness establishment and end of different rulers, from Indian to foreigner, Hindu to Muslim and Muslim to Christian. Indian geography has also seen the change in religion that is from Hindu to Buddhism, Jainism, Hindu to Muslim to Christianity to the formation of secular nation. Geography of India has also gone through the different types of culture which makes Indian culture on today as multidimensional, and versatile. Thus the same piece of land has seen ample of change from its life and this change is still under process.

    • Just do it

      Very well written.

      Lots of historical reference..may cover extra dimensions also.

      • AS

        thank you so much for reviewing my essay and for your valuable comments.

    • G.

      hello friend,
      it was a good essay. the big fault that i found in this was, that you consumed your energy a lot on describing the chronology, rather than covering dimensions.

      your essay could then be much better

      • AS

        thank You so much for your comments.I Will try to incorporate your suggestions in my next essay.
        thanks Again. 🙂

  • TARGET 2016

    “Geography may remain the same ; history need not.” (CSE-2010)
    please have a review

  • Himaanshu

    There is a very famous saying that “change is the only constant in the world”. Thus, be it history or Geography both are bound to change. However the nature and degree of change differs because of obvious reasons. History is something that is written and interpreted with different interests and perspectives and thus has a subjective nature whereas Geography is by and large based on facts and hence has relatively objective nature. The perceived and persuaded subjectivity of both the disciplines have certain consequences which have shaped the world the way it is today.

    The very first thing that comes in mind when we talk about the present world’s scenario is international affairs in general and ‘terrorism’ in particular. The countries like India, Bangladesh and Afghanistan suffers enormously due to their proximity with the ‘world’s epicenter of terrorism’. But it is also to be noted that the countries like USA, France, Germany, UK etc don’t have such geographical disadvantages still they also face the same problem of terrorism. This proves that the reasons behind terrorism are not only the geographical disputes but also the historical conflicts which are also called by some people as ‘Clash of the Civilizations’. And this so called clash of the civilization has now broken all the geographical limitations.

    It is to be remembered that civilizations across the world were not in conflicts always, they shared a wide varieties of relations with each other. For example relationship between civilizations of Indus Valley and Mesopotamia is a well established fact. The problem arise when people tries to interpret and define historical events in order to fulfill their vested interests. The Orientalist’s style of writing history is one such example where the western historians tries to project eastern world’s history from their colored lenses. The theory of Aryan invasion is put in such a manner that it formed a justified basis to legitimize the British invasion in India. Many historians argues that the time has come to revisit, re-read, re-analyze, and re-write the history in order to show a different perspective as well. This argument has put a question mark on the claimed ‘static nature of history’ by some historians. Learning history with new perspective surely a welcome and progressive approach.

    The progress of any country largely depends on her resources and the ability to utilize those resources. India is a geographically rich and diverse country where there is no dearth of resources but the issue is always related to the optimum utilization of these available resources. If we see the major metropolitan cities in India we find that the adjoining areas to these cities are also growing rapidly because of the effective allocation of resources. But when we see the red corridor also known as Naxal belt we find that these areas are geographically very rich but historically exploited. Geographical richness has done no good to these people. It should be utilized in such a way that the natives also get a fair share without ignoring their customs, traditions and history.

    Another thing that can’t be ignored while using our natural resources is ‘environment’. In the past twenty five years few steps have been taken in the right direction but a lot is still to be done . Recent concluded Paris summit in December 2015 is one such prime example in this regard. The resolutions taken by world community are commendable but these steps have to come on ground effectively. We have to ensure that the islands, cities or even countries which are facing the threats of extinctions due to climate change must be protected otherwise these geographical entities will turn into a history. And, in such situation neither geography nor history will be able to remain same.

    However, it is not always desirable to keep the things same. Sometimes ‘change is desirable’ and avoiding the required change may create serious consequences. One such situation in Indian context is the ‘Kashmir issue’. There is no doubt that the solution of Kashmir issue gets serious challenges because of its geographical position and that is why we have not been able to achieve something very significant in this regard. But now time has come to think about Kashmir more as a cultural entity than a geographically challenged terrain . The solution of Kashmir don’t reside on geographical aspects but on historical and contemporary relations between Kashmiris and Indians. We need to re visit history in order to write a new history.

    The history and geography share a complimentary relation. Our geographical closeness with Pakistan has given us some painful historical wounds like Mumbai attacks, Pathankot attacks, Kashmir unrest so and so forth. Once our former Prime minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee said that we can change our friends but we can not change our neighbors. But at the same time our geographical richness and diversity has also given us tremendous amount and variety of resources which has made us one of the most promising economy in the world. Our rich biodiversity is the result of our geographical position and to sustain this richness our history has played a significant role where our culture gives utmost importance to nature and environment. Our geographical position has posed numerous challenges in front of us in form of extremism in Kashmir and Militancy in North-East areas but our historical and cultural values has proven as an adhesive force which has bind us as one entity, one country and one nation.

    The physical boundaries created by the nature is a blessing and did more good to humanity but when it comes to political boundaries the world has divided herself only to head towards destruction. To stop this self destruction we must have to learn lessons from our history so that we write a new and better history which changes but for good.

    • Ash

      Hey Mr. Rawat! 🙂
      Hope you doing great! 🙂

      1. English plz .. small small but not expected faults. Ex- historians tries … historians argues (singular with plural plz) Historianz argue… 🙂
      2. I like the usage of the resources point .. however you cud add more flavour to it by linking it directly to the topic..,, this is an direct link …Use how resource utlization has changed geography… coal usage destroying the Poles… so impacts are not regional …

      You can counter the essay topic by saying Geo is not static .. Humans played a key role
      3. However, it is not always desirable to keep the things same. — Agree

      . One such situation in Indian context is the ‘Kashmir issue’. – I dont agree to this …. this is forced inclusion of GS topic….. even if you’re trying to link with ‘geographical’ barriers.. to me this is very forced!!!
      4. I dont know where is your conclusion going!
      5. Plz pardon me on this.. but I’m finding the essay very forced …. coerced with GS content and not close to the topic… see I cud b wrong here… u cud explain .. but the invigilator wont sit in front of you and chk …

      Y is terrorism being talked off in the very beginning and what is the link
      If the very 1st thing that comes to your mind when u talk of international affairs is Terrorism .. it gives a negative feeling about your thot process… essays show our thought process…
      Among all the topics in the world terrorism came to your mind 1st 😛

      I really like your beginning 1st statement – AT so Tq! 🙂

      Himanshu …. I spent a lot of time on your essay still I’m not able to connect .. here and there there are sparks but the whole essay …. if you find time .. plz explain the structure of your essay….

      you have used a lot of history without coherence…. I’m sorry I’m being soo horrible to u! Plz bear! These are my views …. cud be wrong! 🙂

      Plz find time and review mine! 🙂

      • Himaanshu

        Hey Ash,…. I am sorry friend for replying so late actually I did not have access to internet for few days.

        => My take on your feedback :-

        1- as always point accepted. Working on these silly mistakes. Thoda improvement ho b gaya I guess 🙂

        2- Yes agree. I could have written resource point in a better way.

        3- I tried to analyse Kashmir issue in terms of its geographical position and its Historical relations with India. Actually there is a viewpoint which suggest that Kashmir has been used as a buffer state by India and Pakistan and in this geography of Kashmir has a major role to play. We can’t change its geographical location hence there is every possibility that the Kashmir issue will keep burning if we only try to address this issue by confrontation or by trying to seal borders etc. In the later part I tried to address the historical aspects and relation between India and Kashmir which were not like the same always thus we can work upon our present relations keeping our traditional,cultural and historical relations in our mind so as to built a good future of Kashmiris with India.

        – I think I took a complicated issue. In my opinion issue is not forced but yes could be put forward in a much better way. 🙂

        4- kkkk,… I will read it again. I don’t remember where it went. 😉

        5- I guess I took the viewpoint that in today’s world scenario or international affairs one of the most challenging issue is ‘terrorism’. Actually I tried to start my essay from international affairs perspective and I find it apt to mention terrorism as it is a global issue in present context.

        => Thanks dear for spending time with my writing your feedback is really worth considering as always. Actually in my mind the structure of essay was revolving around the impacts of geography and history. I did not chose to go into minor details of geography and its theories and facts but I decided to ponder upon the ‘impacts’ of geography on today’s world scenario same goes for history as well. I believe my approach was right but I could have presented it in a much better way.

        – And, no need to sorry friend. Your feedback always help me to think and improve more.

        Thank you so much. All the best dear. 🙂 …. and by the way my optional is also History. So if you have formed any group please add me too. 🙂

  • p310

    “Geography has made us neighbors,
    History has made us friends,
    Economics has made us partners, and
    Necessity has made us allies,
    Those whom god has so joined together,
    Let No man put asunder. ” – John F. Kennedy

  • Madhurani

    Geography may remain the same; history need not

    It is said that there is nothing permanent in this world except change. Many things changed after the big bang which created the universe we live. Big bang created giant stars, galaxies and planets. It also created small atoms, molecules and water vapor. Universe which was born and started expanding thirteen billion years ago, is still expanding. We live on a tiny planate in that universe. Our lifetime is very short to notice the huge changes which occurred in the universe in billions of years.
    Geography is a branch of knowledge which studies those changes occurred on the earth, physical features of the earth and its atmosphere. It also studies human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources and political and economic activities.
    Geography ‘may’ remain same during one’s lifetime. As many geographic process take thousands of years to take place. Mighty rivers which flowed on this earth dried out during the course of time. Dense forests got converted into deserts. Huge mountains stand in the place where there was a geosyncline. But occurred in the course of many years. Hardly a man would have noticed these changes. He would have relied on the assumption that geography would not change during his lifetime and design his lifestyle suitable to a particular geography.
    Physical features of earth and climatic conditions of a place certainly influenced human lifestyle. It influenced their clothing, their food habits, their occupation and their culture. AND history kept record of it. History is study of past, particularly related to human. It is certainly about finding out how things were in the past and how things have changed. History has various aspects like cultural, political and economical.
    The question is, if history keeps the record of ‘past’ events, how can it change? Nobody can go the past and change it. Answer lies in the facts that it relies on proofs and evidences and fact that history is written by human beings.
    History demands proofs. Discovery of Indus valley civilization took India’s history 4000 years back. Before that India’s history was studies from the age of Mauryan dynasty. After the discovery of Indus valley civilization we realized that India has a glorious past. Can we say that History of India changed? I don’t think so. We merely added a record in Indian history. It had happened in the past. But it was forgotten. We discovered proof of it, only then we added that golden page into our history. There may have been many significant events which must have been occurred in the history of human civilization which left no proof or evidence or proofs and evidences of which are yet to be discovered. Historians will find some them in the course of time. And new records will be added on the history. Some of them would never get discovered. Whatever happened will never change. But the account of what happened may change. History will never change but the books of history may change.
    Secondly history is written by human beings. It is said that history is written by victors. Persons who were part of significant event want the world to remember them as heroes. Many kept the record of only those events which glorified them. Even if they kept the record of bad things they had done, they provided justification. Their version of accounts had been studied for many years as history. It had been the task of historians to find the truth in those records. Historians only found out the truth among those record. They didn’t change the history. Besides historians are also human beings. They have their views and they judge the history and historical persons using the values and morals of the age in which they live in. But morals and values also changed during the course of time. Those acts which were considered immoral in the past may be considered moral and ethical in the later times. So every historian writes the history using his own perspectives which differs from person to person. The version given by the historian who provides more persuasive arguments is accepted as history.
    It brings us to the conclusion that we history doesn’t change but the versions of history may change and geography which influences human lifestyle ‘may’ remain same during once lifetime but not in the history of universe.

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      While going through your essay, starting was very impressive. ( intro)

      Main part is average.
      You spend lots of energy on technical things rather than expression.

      Conclusion is nicely elaborated which will impress invigilator.

      Overall good attempt.

      Marks :- 40/125

      Suggesions :-

      1) formulate your essay first as a rough sketch then mould it as a final answer.
      2) give some illustrations like Those acts which were considered immoral in the past may be considered moral and ethical in the later times.

      OK thank you.
      All are my personal point of views, you have full rights to deny it.


      • Madhurani

        Thank u very much for reviewing my essay..this was my very 1st attempt..i will try to improve next time…

  • Eco-friendly

    “Geography may remain the same; history need not.” (CSE-2010)

    One evening (15 years ago) I and my grandfather were walking down the street, pointing towards some workers at a construction I asked him what they are doing. He replied that some years ago this place was a dense forest but slowly and steadily as the human population grew there emerged the need for more space and hence trees were cut down and ‘concrete jungles’ took its place. These men are constructing a big mall here. After hearing his words I then realized how our history teacher has told us about our past, the way we live and the kind of governance we have, the system of socialization we have at that time. Since then much has changed, even now we are determined to change our geography (deforestation, etc.) which has remained unchanged from past many decades.

    We have often seen that Geography of a place determines the pattern and way of our living which shapes our present and future accordingly. Geography to an extent may remain the same but with the passage of time people changes, their way of living changes and their way of interaction with biotic and non-biotic components changes and hence its history. India is great example of such happenings. Its eastern borders being guarded by the Eastern Himalayas are protected from any invasion whereas its western borders are often invaded by the European and Afghan rulers. These rulers and invaders bring with them their culture, way of trading, and governance. And hence changes its history with time.

    Once our former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpaye ji has said- we can choose our friends but not our neighbors. Our neighbors are the one’s which our geographical location has provided us. We cannot change our geographical conditions or position but our relations with our neighbors will determine the course of history of both. If we maintain good and friendly relations then we can have open borders like that of Nepal and India with increasing trade or we can become hostile to each other making the life of people living near borders miserable. Hence the geography may remain the same but history need not.

    There may be change in Geography because of plate tectonics and change in internal structure of Earth but this change happens very slowly and largely seems to be static whereas history is more dynamic. Since early age the world has changed much. Economic history of the world has changed from barter system to present system of physical currency and virtual currency. World economic superpower England and Europe of the 16th and 17th century are now facing economic crisis.

    Social and cultural history too took a drastic change. In ancient Roman civilization people used to consider Earth at the center of universe and church dominates in everyday life of its citizens. But with the development in science church domination declines. Religion loses its importance, logic and scientific proof has taken its place. India too witnessed many changes in its cultural history. In ancient India, people pray its natural environment whereas medival period is dominated with many religious practices like Brahmanism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam etc. All these religious beliefs and practices gets assimilated and India emerged as a multi-cultural and multi-linguistic society in present day world.

    History of Governance and Politics also changed. In old days there were small tribal groups which with the passage of time grew and become large empires. The geographical boundaries of these empires may vary with time but overall geographical conditions remain same. Monarchy was the system of governance followed by majority of the nations. These monarchs earlier fight for domination over others and later for raw material and greater market access. Two world wars and major revolutions (American, French, Russian) has changed the system of governance from monarchy to democracy. People have realized the power in themselves.

    Advancement in technology has changed the history of transportation and communication. Earlier the movement is mostly done by foot or by use of animals and restricted by geographical features like Mountains, Rivers, Oceans, Forests, etc. But now technology has provided us the power to overcome all these issues. Time taken in travelling is now reduced to seconds and minutes. Communication with the person sitting far away is easier and more interactive. Even the landline phone has become the technology of the past.

    But this advancement has not only changed history but also geography and climate. Global temperature has risen by around 1.5 degree Celcius from pre-industrial revolution period. It is the side-effect of widespread development that we have now started intervening in the natural processes of nature. Reduction in the area of polar ice caps, ozone layer depletion, rise in level of ocean surface, oil spills, changing time and period of rains because of El-nino and La-nina, etc. are few examples of change in geography and environment of the world.

    As we have seen how geography has a role to play in changing the history (India’s example), and are inter-connected, this change in geographical features of the world would certainly effect its history. People living on near shores and on islands which are vulnerable to rise in ocean water may find themselves homeless and more prone to disasters like tsunami and cyclones. Frequent floods and droughts at the same time has now become permanent.

    In India we have now started interlinking the rivers to benefit human population from floods and droughts but it is still unclear whether it will be beneficial overall or prove disastrous but it is quite clear that it will have effect on history as it will bring change in the way of living of people around those projects.

    We know that change is permanent and history often changes with time but if it effects geography or climate it may prove disastrous. Unsustainable cutting of trees and construction of concrete jungle may give short time relief but in the long run it ultimately changes the geographical patterns and history too. Hence we can say that geography and history are inter-connected and if one changes the other one will also change.

  • abhinav raj

    “Geography may remain the same; history need not.”

    Geography and History have a close connection since the times life originated on this mighty earth. There has been a simultaneous change in history as well as geography but there is a considerable difference in between the pace of their changes. The changes in geographical scenarios are so slow that it is better to suppose them to remain the same, in contrast to this the historical changes are so fast that even a small time span of just 5000 years, which is negligible in terms of geographical clock, is studies in three separate parts of chronology books i.e. ancient history, medieval history and modern history.

    Some people may argue that it is geography of a place which is changing with history by giving examples such as division of India and Pakistan, India and Bangladesh and many more but it is irrelevant to think in this way because these boundaries are not drawn as per geographical divides, India and Pakistan both used to be in plains of Indus and even today both nations are dependent on Indus river for water and many other necessities.

    History of a place is wholly dependent on the geophysical conditions of that very location. Indus valley civilization, Mesopotamian civilization, civilization of ancient Egypt all have inevitably developed in river plains with ample supply of water and food stuffs. Time changed and we reached Vedic Era, here people from Middle East reached India in search of best geographical conditions to make their life reinforced.

    Greeks, Kushans, Huns, Turks including Babur, Mangols all of these had either invaded or had tried to invade our Nation, all of them had to sail the same boat and cross the great geographical wall The Himalaya. This statement is a case in point to justify the statement that “Geography may remain the same; history need not.”

    The historical accounts are written in order to know what wrongs we have done in past and the need to avoid these mistakes and live with a spirit of unity, equality and fraternity.

    The two world wars are the reverberating gongs of the haughty attitude causing obfuscation in the entire world but the good thing is that these wars opened our eye and we then formed UNO in order to pacify such kind of wars from being mentioned in the history books of our forth coming generations. Our India also has joined so many groups including UNO, SAARC, G-20, BRICS etc. for the proper growth and development of our citizens along with the people of other nations and an attitude of sustainable development for future generation.

    Unfortunately, some of the manmade Hazards have contributed to make a change in the static geographical conditions on this earth and these human activities have been responsible for Green House Effect, Nuclear Explosions, Earth Quake, Landslides etc. and their reactionaries are equally harmful for we, humans as well as the Mother Nature.

    We being the most developed creature on the earth, this is the responsibility of ours to protect the nature and checking the infringement of the rules of nature. Kyoto protocol, Montreal Protocol, Nagoya Protocol, Earth summit are good initiatives in this humble mission but this is not worth satisfaction because all nations promise to reduce carbon emission and increase green area but these things are just in black and white.

    In this zeitgeist where there is always a neck to neck competition in every sphere of life and this is for an individual, a family, a nation and the word itself, many a times we have some apples of discords but we should handle the situation with a mature stand and not like the tad attitude which we did in past and suffered a lot. Nuclear weapons have the capacity to change the geography and hence this must be banned completely and then we will live without any apprehension and restive free.

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      I read your essay thoroughly.

      Introduction is very impressive.
      Main part is written in good flow.

      The content matter, you have written is subject to impress invigilator.

      Conclusion is not satisfactory.
      Suggestions :-
      1) don’t use long sentences

      2) use simple language.

      3) plz mention in introduction what you actually want to say.

      Marks :- 50 /125

  • Kishna😎

    Geography may remain same, History need not

    Delving into the meaning of phrase, its “any institution or its setup may remain the same throughout ,but its historical functioning tends to changes”.Explaining the same by taking an example,we humans lived this planet for ages,our geographical set up of forming a family is same as today,but the historical way of sustaining ourselves and interaction with the environmental setup has contineously been changed.
    Evolution is taking place in every sector. Globalisation is further fuelling the elements of change and has became a major contributor in changing our livelihood style. We always tend to adapt better things which ease our work. And we form new institution to deal with the adapted things.
    “ Example- Earlier we lived in huts and now in concrete home, now humans are capturing flood plains for inhabiting purpose, clearing off forest for agricultural and industrial activities. For these we are forming new institutions to deal with the problems arising out of our changed lifestyle like, NDRF for earthquake damage out of concrete structures and flood relief, CAMPA to deal wit deforestation issues.”
    Thus, keeping the geographical setup of our livelihood remaining the same, History is contineously changing.Let us put the light in different perspective and understanding the same.

    Historical perspective:
    The geographical setup of earth is almost the same which was 1000 years ago. Human inventions and creations like idea of building ships, cut mountain passes, has resulted in intermixing of cultures and history of annexations and war throughout the globe. Which simultaneously resulted in formation of new ideologies like Monarchy,liberalism, marxism, democracy etc. These all activities resulted in creation of new history,keeping the geography with some or no change.

    International perspective:
    The period immediately after World war ll was a major turning point ,where enemy countries having same geographical boundaries,turned out to be friends and in later stages forming an Economic union, thereby changing the history completely. Our relations with US is not the same which was during the phase of cold war. All countries are now focussed in making strategic allies.

    Family relations and values:
    If we hear the stories of our family from our grandma(pa), they usually talks about joint families. But ,now a day economic avenues has resulted in migration of ppl. worldwide,and slowly concept of nuclear families are coming into force. The same historical changes are bringing change in the values level which is in downfall.This is evident from the fact that, the crimes against elders (especially old ppl)are increasing day by day as seen in daily news. Youths now a day are more getting inclined to the western culture .

    Educational perspective:
    The educational delivery 50 years ago is not the same now. Technological and ideological developments has brought about a big revolutions in education delivery. Governments are giving much stress on education considering the economic benifit it yields in later years(some expert ideological report says, every 1 rupee spent on a child education yields more than 20 rupee after 15 years). Here the geography of education has improved a bit but the history of it delivery ,access,and implementation has taken many folds leap.

    Human ability and technological change:
    Technology has enabled us to bring about change in any thing. The geography of life is almost the same it was earlier, we took birth,lived and died. Techn. Development in fields of medicines ,neurology has only helped in increasing our lifespan. We can now contribute more to the economy in particular and society in general. Thus the history of our Contribution has increased, refined and more outcome oriented.

    The administrative institution being more or less same, the changing nature of governance has brought about modifications in the way this machinery is carried upon,and there has been historical changes in the structure.The complexity has increased,increasing educational level has helped in people coordinating well with administrative machinery. Earlier,administration was centralised , empowering people with weapon of education helped in more inclusivity in policy makings thereby realising the real potential of democracy.

    Changes has been observed in all these sectors, and has eased the well being ,quality of life, economical prosperity of people at large by changes in varied sectors .Few changes has also led to make life tougher.

    Criminal activities has increased many fold, discovery of iron for hunting purpose has led to manufacturing of weapons, invention of dynamite has led to use the same in warfare, invention of internet has resulted in cyber war.

    History has contineously changed,is changing, and will keep on changing, with few modifications in the geography also. It is high time now for the international community to make sure the changes does not prove detrimental to the community at large and the regulations of the same must be taken care of by the intellingensia section so as to redistribute the benifits out of it equally among all.

    • Kishna😎

      @9822101168:disqus – bro what marks will u award me 4 this?plzz

  • vikas kumar

    Change is the law of nature.History relates with the geography of a place and the geography also sometimes reflects the history.No matter whatever is the place related with transformation might take place if the balance of nature is disturbed or the equilibrium is disturbed.But on the whole it will remain the same thing forever.Only the features of its changes.may be the past was something and the present is something else.convergence of plates can give rise to islands,mountains and divergence gives rise to trenches the continuous process of geographical transformation goes on in the universe to maintain the stability or equilibrium.So the only oceanic or continental plates were a history,and now the transformation also becomes a history once again.history keeps on changing.It cant be permanent.
    universe consists of everything i.e the lithosphere,hydrosphere,atmosphere,solar system and the biosphere.these all are fixed.only the activities in each part of the universe varies which now and then becomes history.the plateaus ,the plains,the seas,the lakes,the planets,the cities,the rivers etc are always the same its the things around it which always changes.when we see the history of indian subcontinent we observe that the there was a continuous change in the rule of india since the mauryan empire.Its downfall led to the rise of a post mauryan phase,then accession of gupta empire and finally the feudalism phase of indian empire.So the history kept on changing in the ancient india.The same can be seen in the society of this period which led to the downfall of women since the Vedic period.
    During the medieval era ,there was again a constant war among the different dynasties to maintain their power.delhi sultanate’s decline led to the revival of Mughal empire in india.this process of continuous supersession carried on till india got independence on 15 aug 1947.thereafter the fight against the poverty.unempolyment,food shortages,kept on and its still continuing in the present era.It was the society,polity,economy,culture, which kept on changing and still changing today but the geographical arena remained more or less the same.
    However,there are some exceptions related to the geography which keeps on varying starting with- the universe’s prediction has not yet been proved.there are different theories behind it.secondly the nature’s phenomenon like the monsoon winds is also being under research.gravitational waves not yet proved but under experiments.So in geography also cetain theologies keeps on changing with experimental researches and it also becomes history once proved.It has always been observed that History repeats itself many a times.

  • Jyothi Gopinath

    Plz. Review my essay

  • Life_death

    The story of Harappa and then a considerable gap between the next modern civilization and Harrpan civilization is intrinsically linked with changes in history as well as geography. The very foundation of Harrapan civilization is based on the river ecology of Indus river. As the amicable environment , river ecology, landscape supported the civilization, it created history of modern civilization. Social , political and economic dimension of Harappan civilization owes much to the unique geography of the place. How the Harrapan civilization lost, the answer lies in the very heart of changes in the Indus river geography. During the Harrapan civilization, the socio economic and political history changed several time but geography largely remained the same. However when the change occurred in geographical landscape the whole civilization wiped out.

    The story of Harrapan civilization is not unique in terms of changes in history. It occurred across the globe. From the evolution of universe since big bang up till now and in future, History and geography of planets, galaxies, satellites, comets, stars etc have been changing and will keep on changing in future. The timescale of changes in geography and history might be very different though.

    If we talk about the history of earth and evolution of human being, then it can be easily deduced that history of evolution changes from tiny microorganisms to giant dinosaurs to civilized human beings.

    In the recent history of human civilization, countless wars among the communities and the war on the global scale such as world war 1 and world war 2 changed the course of human history. Political boundaries of nation states changed countless number of times yet the geographical landscape largely remained the same. Economic history changed almost every time when some new kingdom or some new government machinery put forward to administer. First the barter system pf trade then using metals and now the fiat currency, show that history kept on changing itself whenever the need arose but geography almost remained the same. Story of Mauryan Empire, Roman Empire, Egyptian Empire, each points out to the same thing, only change is permanent, whether it is in geography or history the time scale may differ.

    Changes in cultural history are much more profound. The eating habits changed or evolved with time for example Men and women’s attire, rituals , ceremonies, festivals , dances , paintings , architecture etc . Everything related to history changed swiftly while going forward in time but geography largely remained the same if we consider the human life time scale.

    Social landscape , cultural landscape , economic landscape and political landscape have been changing frequently in comparison to geographical landscape. It usually takes a longer time to observe visible changes in geographical landscape.

    Further, changes occur in geography due to natural causes and in recent time due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources,exceptionally large amount of emission of green house gases have left profound change in the environment. This, in turn, is changing the geographical landscape. Changes in geographical landscape will bring changes in political boundaries of states , changes in food habits, culture, cuisine, changes in wearable, attire etc. Hence it will bring changes in socio economic, political and cultural history.

    In future, history will change so will geography but on a larger time scale. If we consider million year time scale, then it is very much possible that entire human race may not find its existence because of some natural events like comet or asteroid impact on earth, changes in the gravitation pull of sun, increase in solar activity. Further anthropogenic causes such as nuclear explosion or climate change can also wipe out the human race. However the planet will exist. The geographical position of solar system, may not change in million year time scale but a billion year time scale will certainly change the geography of solar system, galaxies or possibly universe and the history will automatically change.

    • Life_death

      @Soniamehras:disqus @disqus_jHhoLGnpFd:disqus @bhookasher:disqus @disqus_TeMrmDnDmI:disqus @disqus_xDLVyzsIqX:disqus and everybody else. please review mine. This is first time I am writing on insights platform. Please let me know where to improve and how to improve. Thanks a lot.

  • Sanjeev kumar

    “Geography without History seems a carcase without motion, so History without Geography wanders as a vagrant without certain habitation”.

    The Great Himalayas employed as sustained protector of Indian peninsula since Permian era and the same performed by various kingdoms of India since the period of mahajanpadas, resulted robust resistance to foreign invaders. Though kingdoms were dynamic, whereas the great Himalayas is static in nature.

    Physical and Historical aspect:

    In other words, since medieval period various dynasties of Delhi sultanate.
    a) Slave dynasty: Iltutmish son- in-law of founder of slave dyansty & considered to be real founder of Delhi sultanate, refused to provide asylum to Khwarizm shah, whom the leader of Mongol’s Chengiz khan was chasing, though it was a strategic move of Iltutmish to avoid conflict with Chengiz khan and safeguard his territory from dangerous Mongols.
    b) Khilji dynasty: Allaudin khilji also wanted to win the world like Alexander the great and avoid conflicts with Mongols. In order to safeguard his territory from foreign invasion, he led a foundation of a huge army and to maintain the army for long term introduced market measures instruments.
    They were major constraints for foreign invaders particularly Mongols in North- West frontier of pre- independent India, whereas Northern borders were safeguarding by the most experienced guardian of our motherland, commonly known as ” The Great Himalayas “. Post analysis of changing monarch of various kingdoms, it has to be stated that history of kingdoms are dynamic in nature, whereas physical & geographical aspect of our old guardian ” the graet Himalayas” is static in nature.

    Geological aspect:

    From geological ( a sub- branch of Geography) point of view , post analyzing the facts of origin of great Himalayas and its history since Permian era, it forms a paradox vis-a-vis static nature of great Himalayas. Though from human eye’s perspective, it is not feasible to identify the dynamics of great Himalayas in an entire life span of humans. On other hand, Geologist & researched data state origin of great Himalayas occurred owing to subduction of Indian plate in to Eurasian plate, led to Orogenesis and slow & gradual tectonic movement of concerned plates lead to the rise of great Himalayas even further. It signifies the real dynamic nature of Himalayas.

    Post analyzing facts & figures of researched data, it is necessary to state that from human’s perspective Geography remains the same but History need not and Geographical structures without any historical background seems a carcase without motion, whereas History without Geographical features like a vagrant wonders without habitation.

  • Ash

    Plz Review …

    This Earth is a part of a bigger universe and has its own history and geography. Having introduced the words, let’s define History and Geography. The study of the past is History. Now this past can be mine, yours, a civilization’s or the Earth’s. And when we study ‘earth’ and its inhabitants we tag the subject ‘Geography’.

    Let us consider Earth’s past to define and explain this topic. If we call Earth a ‘Mother’ then History and geography which originate directly from it can be considered its daughters. What I’m trying to convey to the reader here is- ‘ALL’ – the mother and the daughters are interlinked and the fate met by one, has an impact on the other. When this connection is so deep then how can one daughter change (history) leaving the other (geography) static?

    If we look at Rajasthan’s topology today we call it a dry and arid desert. The discovery of archaeological sites and deeper excavations reveal sedimentary deposits and confirm the flow of two great ancient rivers – Ghaggar and Saraswati. Also until Harappan sites were discovered no one even imagined that India had deposits as old as the era of Old Stone Age.

    What we see here is until history was revealed, Geography of that area didn’t come to the fore. However, making geography completely dependent on history would be sheer injustice because Geography has an independent identity too.

    This can be well proved by looking around us. Multiple agents – internal (ex- gravity, earthquakes) and external (ex- wind, water) change topology every day. This is sometimes sudden – volcanoes and sometimes slow – formation of valleys. Today many historians hold the belief that a civilization as great as Harappan Civilization succumbed to climate change. Had this change in geography not occurred, we could be having a different history today. This shows geography’s impact on history. Digging deeper we see the unsustainable use of natural resources by Indus Civilization people invited the wrath of nature. Here, history of Harappans has an impact on Geography.

    Having understood how the two are dependent on each other and still saying – ‘Geography may remain the same, history need not’ is doing injustice to geography for we signify that ‘geography has less dynamicity when compared to history’. The moment we make anything static we defer its growth. Had we made Newton’s law on gravity static and not paid heed to Einstein we would not have discovered Gravitational waves which hold potential to reveal the birth of the universe.

    I do agree here that changes should not be thoughtless. They should come in a way they enhance the value of the subject. Confused? Let us take the example of amendment procedure of the Indian Constitution. Too much rigidity hinders growth and too much flexibility would introduce many changes changing the very essence of the original Constitution. Hence, changes should come after scrutiny. Ex- Megasthenis claimed- ‘Indians don’t lie’. Can we accept this claim without referring any other contemporary source? No. This scrutiny enriches our knowledge of the subject. Hence, neither should a subject be held very static as advocated in case of Geography nor too dynamic as in case of history. We have had evidences of rulers like Pallavas and British who ruled for more than 200 years. So can we still call History to be dynamic – not at least for this duration for these rulers! Hence, both the subjects are static and dynamic to some extent and extent is revealed by Geographers – historians- archaeologist et al.

    Here I would propose to change the above statement to – ‘Both Geography and History need not neccessarily remain the same….’ . This acts as an incentive to young minds to take interest and change the past. More importantly it changes the way our society perceives things. Past, especially History is very close to sentiments of people since they derive their direct roots from it. A society which can accept scrutinized changes in their past keeping aside orthodoxy is a modernized and growing society. This way society signals that it is ready for changes which is in contrast with what few did in M M Kalburgi’s and Perumal Murugan’s case which made Perumal give up writing.

    Also to maintain the sanctity of knowledge we should keep politics away from it. The demands for S C Bose’s files which remained behind the curtains for years is injustice to the nation as the nation deserved to know its roots and evolve the knowledge base developed over years keeping the truth in mind. Instead of non-cooperation, the State should foster an environment of discovery and research. Not many know of Dr. Subhash Mukhopadhyay credited for the first IVF baby deliver in India. He committed suicide later, why did this happen? This happened due to the injustice done with him, his research and career.

    We should make sure this treatment is not meted out to other researchers and academicians. We should foster nurturing of rational thinkers and not parrots and this can only be achieved providing conducive atmosphere for learning.

    Every individual is responsible in forming a society, it is only when we ‘all’ pledge to give equal standing to all – people (despite the gender, caste) , subjects (Engineering , Humanities) , etc we provide this conducive atmosphere.

    • IronMan

      Hey you have written it nicely….good approach 🙂

    • ragini sharma

      ‘Both Geography and History need not neccessarily remain the same….’ is good.

      u have more focus on history only. cn add political and economic history w.r.t. geogrophy.

      • G.

        hello ragini,

        i think you got the meaning of the essay wrong here. the emphasis is here on the changing nature of history and not something of history vs geography in the context of remainng same or changing.

        i too got confused and after writing many lines realized it after reading the heading again.

        thank you.

      • Ash

        Thank You Ragini! 🙂
        Noted! 🙂

    • G.

      hey ash, nice to see you again. it was a good essay.

      i liked the opening of the essay. but i think you strayed from the topic while ending it. just read the ending and then read the title. i think your essay should conclude what you said in all you essay.

      here you could tell a tale or giive a fable or saying to conclude, as it is a tough essay to write with structure and content.

      thnk you

      • Ash

        Agree! Thank You G. 🙂

    • Abyss

      Ash, i really liked your opening and the way you approach but then i feel there is something amiss.
      its good to take a different stand since obviously it stands out but i still think you need to do justice to the topic given and then provide a difference of opinion to substantiate it.

      also, since there are 2 major words called geography and history int he topic itself, there could have been a slight more emphasis on trying to identify how they are related with examples as there are numerous such present. it will make the essay holistic.

      • Ash

        Hey Abyss! 🙂

        Actually I was on a strict resolve that I wil not use Google… so this write up is exactly how much the topic penetrated into my head! 🙂
        And that explains the different stand! 🙂

        Agree with the examples part! Would incorporate changes.. 🙂
        Thank you for reiewing! 🙂

        • Abyss

          well its good if you dont use google while writing your essay. i dont use it either. hence i think you can try spending 10 minutes only thinking and re-thinking without touching your pen on paper. i tried this approach during my essay. it took time which i hope i may make up in coming attempts but it seems to have benefitted a bit. try that.

          • Ash

            Will do.. Thank u Abyss! Next time youll see implementation of this advice! 🙂

    • SM

      Dear Ash,
      Intro= interesting intro leading to history and geography -good
      2nd para=
      Rajasthan and harappa example is good
      3rd para=
      some say it was flooding, some say climate change, some aryan invasion is the cause of decline of harappan civilization
      Could u plz quote a source

      am sorry I couldn’t understand why you are talking about self-introspecting society and asking for the files of subhash chandra (may be i missed something here- plz explain in a nutshell)

      Overall first half is good upto harappa. Then i got confused

      • Ash

        Hey Sonia..thanks for reviewing! 🙂

        Flooding was also a result of climate change.. they extensively burnt bricks for construction and many more such practices …. Flooding cant explain the extinction of the entire civilization… there were few areas where the river streams were seen disappearing!
        Aryan invasion is NOT connected to decline of IVC…. it is strictly not accepted by historians.. I thnk it was Mortimer Wheeler who postulated this….
        Aryans came around 1500 BC … we see IVC’s decline 1700 BCE …. look at the time span between the 2… Actually I’m a history optional person so I have read many sources… I wud suggest IGNOU material to u….. coz there are more facets attached that has been mentioned in it! 🙂

        See my stand was (extremely different I agree ) do not promote Geog at the cost of History defining it Static…
        Govt has a key role in promoting reseaches and documenting them… if the history is hidden by the Govt it is doing injustice to the ppl and the subject ….

        Society introspecting ensures the subject grows… Perumal example explains it the best! 🙂

        Thank you for reviewing! 🙂

    • Pankaj Nimbolkar

      Marks :- 50/125

      As per expectations nice essay

  • Saumya

    Anyone has Mechanical Engineering optional?

    • ankit goyel

      Yeah I have

      • Saumya

        Which book is good for Strength of Material and Engineering Mechanics

        • ankit goyel

          RK Bansal is for Strength of material but it is a very wide topic. It will consume more than 20 days if you study through the book. Better to purchase/borrow some coaching notes and then refer the book if you desired to have better understanding.
          Sorry which topics ‘Engineering Mechanics’ actually covers?

          • Saumya

            Friction,Moment of Inertia,Dynamics etc.

  • Refueled

    “Geography may remain the same”, it seems to be true either we relate it to the observation of Alfred Wegner who showed that boundaries of continents fits in zig-saw or get into the broad perspective of physical appearance of our earth but there is contrasting feature which in the history of different regions and time.

    Geography signifies the physical appearance moreover which remains same throughout the time but history which tells a broad view of cultural, economic, political, religious ethnicity of inhabitants keeps of changing with time.

    Looking back to the Indus valley civilization around 2700 BC, when people started living in cities and towns and found different means of living and representing themselves as an outpost which signifies their importance in culture, art, architecture and undeciphered language which still a point of astonishment for the modern archeologist. After that history keeps on writing its new pages time to time from rise of Mauryas (The Great Ashoka) to Guptas and to Mughals.

    Geography played an important role is carving out the history. Great Himalayas in north which always serve as a wall for intruders as well as for cold winds from Siberia to flourish different kingdoms in north India. If we move towards Southern India, Krishna- Tunghbhadra region had witnessed many great kingdoms like Vijayanagar empire and Chola kingdom, which flourished new temple architecture, a magnificent example is “great living chola temples” and many new art forms, murals, music and dance.

    History witnessed rise and fall of many political power which subsequently leads to changes in culture, religion, economy of the region. Even after induction of European in India, drastic changes took place with industrialization in some areas which severely impact Indian economy, so every change in local circumstances bring about new changes in the history.

    Further history has impacted geography in its own way, in the form of climate change, biodiversity, natural landscape due to excessive anthropogenic activities which makes it futile, changes its strata and location.

    It is inevitable to change history, which signifies developmental process in every field but our effort should be in leaving geography as it is. “History says what we have done and geography shows what we can do”.

  • backbencher

    Geography may remain the same , History need not

    Change is the reality of universe which can be seen in every aspect of the universe , be it temporal or spatial . What differs is the nature and pace of change. History and geography both are liable to change with time and place but still geography is sometimes considered to be same because of its slow pace of change. So for a small time scale say thousands of years , we may say that geography is same but same is not true for history which is quiet dynamic and more liable to change compared to geography . History sees change in almost every aspect i.e economical , political , social , cultural , international level etc .

    If we carefully see the geography of Indian subcontinent , it has remained almost same from prehistoric times . Presence of Himalayas in north and north-east , Hindukush and Sulaiman ranges in west , Indian ocean in south provided it natural borders from foreign territories. Presence of many rivers , mountain ranges like Aravali , Satpura , Vindhyas and Ghats provided opportunity of having natural borders of various small states in continent. These features have remained present throughout history of mankind but their impact on political history has not always remained same.

    These geographical regions not only failed to remain isolated from foreign invasions through various passes like Khaibar , Gomal , Bolan but also internally various regions failed to remain politically isolated . The subcontinent faced various phases in its political history. It traveled from phase of Tribal polity to period of Mahajanpadas which consisted not only Monarchies but also Republics ,perhaps first of its kind in Indian history. Various Chakravarties united whole of Indian subcontinent under their rule and foreign invasions provided many new political features to subcontinent. Even in recent phase we see clear changes in political history of subcontinent where we can see freedom from foreign rule , Partition of India , Separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan , Shift of Nepal towards constitution etc. Such type of changes keep occurring reminding us that political history is never going to be same .

    Our country always had geographical advantage of having vast natural resources like Coal , Iron , fertile land, rivers and a large coastline which are essential for economic development of country. But this geographical advantage was not always reaped by us in our economic development . Our economic history travels through a bright phase when India used to be known as Golden Sparrow to a Colony of foreign country when our economic decisions were completely dominated by interests of colonial powers. After independence we moved from a food starved country to a food surplus economy , thanks to Green revolution . Our country today is one of fastest growing economy of world . But still we have possibility of more change in our economy. We are at a strategic location in Indian Ocean and having opportunity of having trade with Africa and South-East Asia , where both are filled with vast economic opportunities . By having wise utilization of our resources and taking advantage of our geographical location we can write a bright economical history for our country .

    The same type of geographical features were being seen by both us and our past generations but their impact on society has not always be the same . In prehistoric period , man was mainly dependent on stone tools and failed to clear forests on large scale and society remained primarily a hunting and gathering society . But in later period we see use of iron and ability of man to clear forests on large scale which enabled him to have society based on settled agriculture. Where geographical features like rivers , forests , mountains provided opportunity of having distinct social features in different regions , sometimes they failed to stop spread of these social features to other regions , like Varna system which was developed in North spread to Southern region . Where in past these geographical features helped isolation of various regions , today spread of means of transport allows exchange of various social features among various communities . Such interactions have also been helpful in removing various social evils like untouchability etc .

    Geography of a region holds great impact on culture of a region which includes eating habits , living habitats , clothing , distinction from other cultures etc . Though we see a stable geography throughout our history , this stability is not visible in culture of various regions of our country . Though various cultural features developed in isolation in various regions of our country, they failed to remain stable and saw various changes. They saw exchange of culture between them and also gained cultural features from foreigners. Throughout our history we see various types of paintings , music , philosophy and art and architecture. Our cultural history exhibits various changes while maintaining its distinctiveness .

    At global level , Countries held almost same type of geographical advantages and disadvantages in past . But these advantages and disadvantages not had always same impact on history of these countries . For example Japan being a small island country never had large natural resources . But it never made same impact on history of Japan . it rose from an isolated island state to an Imperial power and today one of most Industrialized Nation and changed its history . Asia and Africa always had advantage of large natural resources but not always they were able to turn them to their advantage . But today time is changing and countries like India and China are leading economies of world and having greater impact in world economic affairs . Africa will also change its history sooner or later .

    To conclude , we can say it very well that geography holds an impact on history . But its static ness can never be an impediment to change in history. Same geographical region faces various types of historical changes . History has never been static as compared to geography and changes with every moment . That is why it is called “ Geography may remain the same , History need not “

    • backbencher

      @9822101168:disqus @disqus_ofdByS24qy:disqus @disqus_b8K2lYxjaX:disqus @aravindvarier:disqus pls review friends

    • AK

      Well Written Essay.!
      Theme of the Essay ” geo is same but history is not” is well justified.
      Apt examples are given for polity , society , economy and culture

      however I couldn’t understand IR part. May be you could, rephrase it as – Geographical boundaries of nations remains same but historical relations vary like China – Russia , US – india Etc

      Conclusion was less powerful compared to the body of the essay . It could be modified to give better satisfaction to the reader.

      • backbencher

        Thanx bro

  • santosh

    History never ends, It is past to present and present to past.When we look at universal or age of the earth,We have looking present to past and again past to present. The way of finding age of the earth. In fact, both History and geography are a coin’s two faces. When we want to find out the history of the earth than we have to know about geography.How geography can help us, for example Portugal came to india by geographical indication to discover india,looking direction of the earth. History not occurred without geography.The study of geography has so many of branches. The natural geography and cultural environment are related to human geography.By the way social science is related to the human geography.They are coexist of each other.I mean human are not without geography.

    History is not independent Whatever its find come from fact . some of the fact are not real. Those fact may destroy history but geography not allow to destroy history. for exam Alexander came to india in 327 BC. Some the documents might have found wrong but geography,not give false hence at what season Alexander came to india. That we can get from geography.Geography allows us to find by carbon 14. which is used by excavation of the archaeological site’s date and age.It is also from geography plant and animal found in place after decay. By the way geography helps to creation of history.

    Ultimate history we cannot have in this generation,but we can dispose of conventional history’and show point we have reached one to the other, now all information is within reach and every problem has become capable of solution.Human being were aware by history and history is advance awareness to human, as such two great world war occurred so the history make awareness to the next generation. gives idea about do not make such mistakes again.However history aware and save the environment as well as geography. Above I mention both history and geography are a coins to faces because of each other not individual. if we want to know about past climate of the earth.we have to study both of the subjects, history and geography.then only we find exact information of climate of the earth’s past like ice age to paleolithic.

    When we think about consists of ascertained facts. The fact are available to historians in documents,inscriptions and so on like fish on fish-monger’s slab.historian collect them and take them to home,cook and serves them whatever style appeal to him. History not be remain same because history goes back as long as earth exist to contemporary views.History added some of information always at exist information. Human being more interested on finding new information based on old. When new come will not forget old but new will takes us again toward new. For exam I have mention above about Alexander invasion. we knew about his only invasion to Indian. What was his main reason return back king to native king after wining.Some of document says he was proud of king ,however he had return to him. but what recent research says about psychological well being. In my point of view history never remain history.

    I would like to remark about geography behind history, and the history behind geography.In case of historian views .
    What is historical fact ? It is about finding and discover from a particular place.The place is related to geography. for example first battle of Panipat in 1526 at Panipat . It indicates geography.Hence it had occurred at Panipat. and other hand related to geography is a view call on two observations, first is place and second is accuracy for history.I mean two coexist.

    Geography and history are two great factor of moulding character.The condition of present are produced of the past.History not only past and present.It stands on both present and past.In sense past geography lack.It is a variation of between these. The environment is partly cultural,but back of cultural environment there is a physical environment.

    History is past to present and present to past, it is also top to bottom and bottom to top never remain same. History always flows towards a new excavation, research and documents. Geography is same remain It will not change.It might get effect by cause of climate changes, but not change from one place to another place of like river flow.

  • jerry54

    My first essay…do give some constructive comments. As it was my first i was not able to write much…only around 750 words. Are such sized essays allowed?? Or do i have to write 250 words more to get better marks?

    • nucleus

      Jerry, being this is your first essay, I must say that it is really a very nice attempt..
      1.I think your intro could be more concrete, means you could focus on the ‘cooperation’/’interrelation’ between history and geography in a nutshell.
      You could focus on the different dimensions like- first, history is changing but geography remains same. Second, both are ‘stagnant’. Third, geography is changing faster than the ‘historical counterpart’.
      Your examples are no doubt good but put emphasis on its relevance regarding this means how/ in what way it is related to the ‘geo-hist’ interrelationships…
      In the conclusion you could make a comparative study (by drawing comparisen between the 3 dimensions (he already mentioed).
      (Completely personal view.. you may differ)
      Thank you 🙂

      • jerry54

        thanks nucleus…especially on the 3 dimensions, I indeed have not focused enough, and my intro is rather dull.

  • Rajneesh Mishra

    Review my essay.

  • karmix

    (((: Please review my essay. A good review of this essay will be highly appreciated. Thanks in advance. :)))

    ‘Geography may remain the same; history need not.’

    The fundamental difference between geography & history is that the former is related to space & the later is related to time. If one keeps record of the daily incidents of a particular area it becomes history after a point of time. Geography always makes the foundation for history so they are both interlinked & relative to each other.

    By the study of geography of planet earth we come to know not only about the creation of the planet but the possible future scenario of the same. Most of the time geography deals with the very natural phenomena of the earth. It is highly possible that for particular period of time geography of a particular space remain the same as the natural phenomena to change the geographical feature of that place is a very rare incident though it can happen by the will of nature. The evidence of the geographical change can be discovered through natural research but the historical change has to be recorded by one person or a group of people.

    In the case of India the geographical features are more or less same since thousands of years but the history has changed a lot since then. The geography of India gradually shaped the history of this land day by day. When the mighty Himalayas to the north have always acted as a shield to preserve the natural treasures of India from various atrocities, the ocean have given the suitable climatic condition & rain to enrich the growth of diverse civilisation.

    From the ancient time humans have made this land their home & day-by-day it has changed enormously to become today’s complex system of modern civilisation. In the natural world the geographical features & living organisms coexists with the very essence of their survival instinct but in the human history there are several unnecessary dreadful events, which has often changed the course of history drastically. It is the history of human relations & activities, which create borders in the world of humans that in course of time, changed the history of the nations. As a vivid instance the ancient India’s geographical area is now divided into many nations by man-made borders.

    This change began a long time ago when human started to desire more than they needed. With the increasing need & greed they have changed their life style, made architectures, built dams but couldn’t change the geography of the land they are living in. But with the increasing advancement of technology humans have discovered the nuclear bomb, hydrogen bomb etc. with immense destruction capability, which may trigger a devastating geographical change in future.

    The geography of a place always makes the foundation of the historical features of that place. Not only that it also immensely affects the required subjects by which history is written of in various ways. Geography has many features like soil, water, rain, mountains, oceans and rivers to name a few. All these are the catalysts to a good amount of human activities.

    In Japan people are mostly dependent on sea as it is an Island nation. They consume more seafoods & fishing is one of the most important economic activity there. In India there are varied natural diversities like Himalayas, Westernghats, Easternghats, Thar Desert, Sundarban Mangrove Forests, Deccan Plateau, so many rivers which has immensely diversified the cultures of the people in turn the cultural history of India as a whole. In Middle East Asian countries crude oil is available abundantly, thus the oil production & mining has become the most cherished economic activity there. So in different geographical locations people are occupied with different activities, which makes their unique identity & history.

    In a particular place like India people are living with immensely diversified cultures, languages & religions since thousands of years. From the ancient inscriptions & writings we get to know about how the culture, religion & almost every aspect of human life got changed day by day. If there were no written or painted evidences it could be really hard for us to know about those ancient incidents. So many foreign rulers invaded this land & some of them stayed here for a long time. As they are from the different parts of the world, they brought with them diverse culture, religion & social activities which was totally unfamiliar to the natives of this land. From that time the history of India again got changed a lot, though the geography of India remained the same.

    As each moment passes by a memory gets created for that passed moment & when the memory is written it becomes history. So history & change both are inseparable. If there were no change in time there would hardly be any history. But we cannot create geography by writing it as it is far more superior to us. It is the space we live in, to make an impression on another dimension, which is time, thus we create history. So it is truly said “Geography may remain the same; history need not.”


    • jerry54

      1. history is also related to time and space. eg. why most battles happened at Panipat?(last yr’s qn).
      2. different dimensions could be given on changing history and geography with time. eg. how scientific inventions changed the future

      • karmix

        Thanks mate 🙂 yes you are right but I think the location of Panipat is a part of it’s geography which was strategically crucial & it was the reason behind those battles which in course of time changed the history of that place. I have also tried to convey the same idea 🙂 & can you elaborate a bit on your 2nd point please.

        • jerry54

          evolution of architecture, economy, polity, science throughout history…

  • nucleus


    Both ‘geography’ (the nature and relative arrangement of places and physical features) and ‘history’ (past events and its consequences particularly in human affairs.) can be ‘personalized’ as two ‘wheels’ of the ‘human civilization’.

    At the time of ‘inception’, our Earth was nothing but a ball of fire. Then gradual ‘evolution’ through a long gestation period—comprising different ‘ages’ like ‘ice age’, ‘once fire ball’ has converted itself into the ‘habitable blue planet’. This ‘geographical change’ had ‘accelerated’ the ‘first human foot print’ on the earth, the ‘author of history’.

    Since the ancient past, before the birth of ‘India’ or ‘Hindustan’, the lofty Himalayas, the Aravalli, the Vindhyas, the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra have been performing the task of natural custodians of the ‘green-enriched’ subcontinent. Lured by the ‘prosperity’ several invaders- starting from Aryans, Greeks, Kushanas up to the French, British invaded India. As a consequence, ‘Indian political history has been ‘examined’ for a number of times. Once ‘village ruler’ gradually became the ‘king’ of the empire, which gradually gave rise to the ‘rule of company’, then with the passage of time ‘welfare state’ and ‘parliamentarian form’ came into being. Through several conquers and defeats the boundary has sometimes expanded and contracted. For instance the great Indian Chola King Rajendra Chola I conquered Sri Lanka, Maldives and he successfully invaded territories of Srivijaya in Malaysia, Southern Thailand and Indonesia. Again During the British Raj, Burma and Nepal became a part of India but Malaysia, Thailand etc those were previously conquered were not included. In the post-independence era the Indian map has again been redrawn and Goa, Puducherry and Sikkim became a part of Indian Republic. Though this has brought change in the political-boundary of India, may fuel the change in the ‘regional geography’ ‘motivated’ by the ‘upheaval’ of the political history,but ‘does it bring any change in the natural/physical features?’

    The same thing is true in the arena of the ‘World history’ too. The Britain once colonized almost the half of the world, thus it acquired the title ‘a land where the Sun never sets in’. But after the second world war it started losing its previous glory and gradually, once subjugated ‘US’ has conquered the ‘conventional hood’ of the ‘ruler’ to reign the Earth. This handover of the ‘castle’ has again been ‘drawn’ on the ‘superstructure’ implying the historical field while the ‘base’ like geography remains the same.

    If we analyse the ‘title’ be a bit more skeptic, then we could find another dimension, which says, history can also be ‘static’ in certain cases like geography, it need not always change. Hopefully the following example would reveal the message better-

    The Indus Valley people worshipped the deity ‘Pashupati’, Indus people wore ‘gold jewelers’, buried the ‘dead’ (justified by the archaeological excavations’. Till today ‘we’ worship Pashupati., prefer gold jewelers, burry the dead. Thus with the ‘unchanged’ geography, the ‘cultural history’ often remains the same.

    Again the ‘aforesaid’ has another dimension where, the ‘geography’ changes faster than the ‘history’. It can be clarified in the following manner-

    This scenario is a reality that we can daily see in our life in the form of climate change.. The history of polluting the earth through anthropogenic activities have almost remained the same post Industrial revolution but the geography of the earth have been changing at a fast pace than expected as seen by the rising of the global temperature, melting of polar ice caps and the rampant destruction of the environment across the globe .mindless felling of trees in the name of development and the use of fossil fuels have been the lead initiator for this erratic change.

    The political geography map of Iraq and Syria got erased in a span of few months in 2014 by the extremist groups ISIS by taking control of the cities in those countries through brute force. Syria relatively a peaceful country has turned into a war field and the history of security challenge that the world faces today have been rewritten through human actions. This change is also due to the growing contempt among the people arising due to the ever growing inequality due to globalization.

    Thus on the basis of aforesaid discussion the following conclusion could be drawn-

    As in the beginning both geography and history have been addressed as the wheels of the ‘human civilization’, moreover as the ‘human civilization’ is itself dynamic, thus none of its wheels can be static. Thus both geography and history ‘move’ though ‘speed’ may vary.

    If both are like wheels and both are moving then what is the justification behind the aforesaid, “Geography may remain the same ; history need not.”? Actually, in most of the cases, in comparison the fast often ‘galloping’ historical ‘counterpart’ the geographical changes are too slow to be witnessed by a ‘human generation’. Thus the word ‘may’ successfully have been juxtaposed with ‘geography’ in the title.

    • jerry54


      I feel the following language must not be used in an essay

      If we analyse the ‘title’ be a bit more skeptic, then we could find another dimension, which says, history can also be ‘static’ in certain cases like geography, it need not always change. Hopefully the following example would reveal the message better-

      Instead it would be better if it is written in the past participle.
      2. the essay is a bit short
      3. specific examples on changing history can be given

      1. Harappa point is good, a bit different from the title.
      2. Syrian point adds a new dimension

      • nucleus

        Yes agreed.. Thanks..keep reviewing.

        • jerry54

          can you review mine too?

          • nucleus

            Of course I will 🙂

  • pwn

    My first attempt ever as essay, please review critically.

  • Gotya

    My First Essay… Please someone review it.. 🙂

  • peaceful warrior

    Essay 33 Geography may remains the same history need not
    Please review it

  • peaceful warrior

    Please review it

  • MahhaLakshmi Patchigolla

    Geography may remain the same ; history need not

    Geography and history both sciences are necessary for the well being of mankind. Former help in planning of the resources, understanding the nature and designing our life accordingly and the later helps in understanding the past and building our present and future without repeating the mistakes happened in past.
    Yes, geography remains the same history need not. The past is still undiscovered due to scientific and technological back lags.
    Changes in history occurs due to:-

    New historians with new approaches

    Deciphering the old languages like Harappa script

    New discoveries under the earth – still Harappan excavation of shows their great past like house plan which is not known till today even though James Marshall discovered in 1921,

    New Buddisht sites in Andhra Pradesh, kondane caves in Maharashtra shows Buddhism have strong hold in southern India and found the expansion of buddism.

    Mogavo caves in Gobi desert present the cultural relationship between china and India.

    Disclosing Subhash Chandrabose files may give new angle to the Indian freedom struggle and INA.

    Lack of technical expertise like documentation,It is the British who started documenting all the floura, fauna , land scapes etc.Even it is for economic exploitation but they have started Archaeological Survey of India, Botanical Survey of India.

    No habit of history writing, In India Babur was the first to bring court historian, and Mughal history was very much clear due to Babur nama written in Turkish by Babur it self and Akbhar appointed Abual Fazal to write up his biography Akbar Nama, Shah-jahan biography was written by Abdul Hamid Lahiri. However many native kings like guptas stories were exaggerated by their poets rather than documenting the reality. Actullay it was in Babur records we found about Kohinoor diamond whereabouts. Skanda Gupta was depicted as a divine force in Skanda Puranam, Kumar Gupta was the hero and compared with Kumara Swami God in Kumar Sambhavam. Hence we really don’t have any clear pictures what these kings are upto and how the social conditions prevailed at that time.

    Biased historians some times diverted the facts, V D Savarkar Indian war of independence just eulogize that time kings and queens rather than giving a clarity.

    Problem with dating for the historians as each new king comes with new era like saka era ,vikram savat. Many kings used to start a new calendar after their coronation makes dating of the chronologies difficult. Serveral kings keep their forefather names too add more difficulties, Ex Chola have Many kings named with Raja raja and historians have to find out who is who and dated them Raja raja 1,2,and 3 accordingly. Any misses in these dating and naming change or hide a part of that particular history.
    Many dates were fixed based on the Greek invasions and travellers’ itinerary. Chandra Gupta Maurya coronation and regime date was found only when our historians got access to greek historians’findings.

    Travellers records – new excavations in foreign countries and new records of those travelers give a new light.

    Burning of libraries – part of Nalanda was burnt by Bhaktiyar Khilji – due to this we lost much of the data kept in libraries.

    Inscriptions were not saved and maintained, sometimes they were overwritten too by the new kings just to show case they are great than the former. Ashoka inscription was scrapped and re written by Samudra guptha.

    Geography is constant due to:-

    Once the mechanism of the physical,climatological forces were found the theories were developed .And there is no misunderstanding in evaluating the concepts like el nino even though there may be extensions to the existing theories .Ex: Continental drift theory was not able to give the reason why continents were drifted and Arthur Holmes gave convectional currents concept which in turn become support for Harry hess to come out with sea floor spreading theory. But overall the fact that continents drifted remained the same.

    Geography is practical subject where one can experiment their theories and can judge their accuracy accordingly. Ex 100 Fathom line, glacial marks, paleo magnetism etc is evident and supports the CDT theory.

    For Economic planning of the country,understanding the disasters to mitigate their impact etc many factors demanded human beings to sit and research the mechanism of earth.Hence an accurate R&D was compulsory which made the facts and understanding of geography stable.

    By nature geography of a place does n’t change in one ‘s life but change occurs between generations through global warming , meteorological impacts.Hence it is feasible to conclude history is dynamic and geography is static by their nature.

  • Athena

    Who would have thought that a an inconsequential line drawn by Sir Cyril Radcliffe on the map of India will have a profound effect on the history of the two nations that were born by his action? But did his action have any affect on the geography of South Asia?

    Himalayas remained where they originally were and so did the Suleiman-Kirtar Ranges. Rajasthan was still a desert waiting eagerly for rains to quench its thirst and Kashmir was still as beautiful with its valleys criss-crossed by numerous rivers. Radcliffe line was not able to make any substantial difference to the location of the above mentioned places but it greatly altered the history of South Asia whose effects are still being felt today.

    Post the process of naming of land as ‘India’ and ‘Pakistan’, nothing much changed on the ground but the histories of both the countries followed an opposite trajectory when it came to development. One was able to develop a flourishing democratic society and was slowly becoming a leading power in. the world whereas the other was given the tag of a ‘failed state’.

    The above example gives an impression that though the geography i.e the location of the place and the various features on it may remain the same, history is dynamic in nature and is ever evolving. This dynamism can be best best explained by considering the history of India from the perspectives of an optimist and a pessimist.

    An optimist who will always look at the positive side of things will describe India as land full of riches which was ruled by some of the greatest rulers such as Ashoka. He would focus on the evolution of diversity and the unique culture which made India what it is today.

    On the other hand, a pessimist would give more importance to issues such as communalism, the varna system which led to evolution of caste conflicts and the subjugation of Indians by British.

    In both the cases, the space where this took place has remained the same i.e India. There will be no contradictory opinion regarding the geography but when it comes to looking through the prism of time, both are quite apart.

    When we look at a global scale the example can be applied everywhere. Africa with its unique location had always been a hotbed of vast resources and will probably continue to be in the future implying that geography will probably remain same but when it comes to history it has undergone a vital change from being one of the cradle of civilization (Egyptian) to the supplier of slaves to its present time.

    It should also be kept in mind that geography does not remains static throughout. Movements of plates which alter the location of continents, formation of new islands and flattening of mountains by rivers are some of the dynamic concepts related to geography but the rate of change is so slow that it is taken as constant.

    Space and time are the two complex terms which are intermingled and one affects the other. Every event takes place at a particular location and specific time. Geography influences history as well as gets influenced by it. It becomes very hard to isolate the effects of on on another. It is only the perspective that matters.

    • Sanjeev kumar

      Nice attempt

      Review mine too

    • Arigato Beaucoup

      Neatly written,
      you need to stretch the answer to fit the 1200 word limit.

      • Athena

        Yeah! I know. That’s the whole problem. How to add more rubbish to make it 1200 words long 😀
        Even in the above essay, I could have easily compressed the whole idea it into 200 words but was just dragging on and on to increase the word count 🙂

  • Tanu Singhal

    Pls review.

  • yogi
  • abhi

    Geography of a place is a culmination of all its physical features, whereas history is dependent on various physical, political, economic, motivational, elements of that place.
    We can take the example of countries and continents, for eg; the dark continent Africa is known for the existence of earliest species of human beings. It has been used by the British for plantations in the 17th century. It has been underdeveloped since then mostly because of various primitive tribes existing there and their reluctance to modernisation. Whereas British which once ruled the world, is suffering from economic slowdown and Brexit.
    India which has been subjugated by various rulers and the British since thousands of years and faced many hardships under their rule, is now acclaimed as the fastest growing economy in the world. Modernisation and liberalisation since 1992 reforms, its demographic dividend and a huge market and skilled labour have culminated in its development. Still, it lacks in various socio-economic factors such as education, health etc, which were well developed atleast under some ancient Indian rulers.
    India is lagging in its research and development, innovation since the past few years. But we know from ancient history that various stalwarts of maths, sciences and astronomy took their birth in India. Invention of zero, pythogorean theorem, and other geometry axioms by Aryabhatta, astronomy by Brihatsamhita, on Economy, Polity and war by Chanakya, all these important basic innovations took place in India before they were invented anywhere in the world. Our vedic texts even described the existence of atoms, which were re-invented later by Rutherford. The book on medical surgery by Charakha contains details on plastic surgery, embryo implantation, long before it was invented anywhere.
    As time proceeds, centuries passby, the society changes. Every society has its own means to achieve development. Hitler’s reign has made Germany a super power during the world war regime, but at the cost of the lives of Nazis, his tyranny towards other countries taking forward his fascist policies. He cruelly persecuted the zews a racial genocide. But the present chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel is well known for her accomodative attitude towards welcoming the refugees from Syrian war and not refuse them unlike other European nations.
    Though Mughal rule was known for its tyranny against the Hindus, Akbar was an exemplification of Universal religious tolerance. He encouraged all religions and condemned discrimination towards them and other social evils. If we look at the present scenario, how various political leaders play vote bank politics in the name of religion, caste leading to fragmentation of the society, yet as a whole we remain a tolerant nation.
    Modernisation and technology is trying to make the world into a global village. Our traditions and customs have eroded with the past. With modernisation, India is trying to ape the western world mimicking even its culture and inturn, westerners have got a taste for Indian customs, our Khadee, traditional sarees etc.
    Earlier markets were restrictive in entertaining the goods of other countries. Now people and goods can easily flow from one country to another in a few hours. The economies have become interdendent and any crash in one leads to a global spill over and harm to every other economy.
    Hence, History is a culmination of not only various external factors like climate, economy, technology, resources, demographics etc, but also internal factors like will of the people, societal integration etc.
    Our history moulds itself based on our needs, priorities, and values. It is in people’s hands to make it an inclusive one, or to build boundaries.

  • Darkknight

    its my first essay i just started preparation for cse 2017 ,my English is very bad please excuse me for my grammatical mistakes and it is totally a newbie attempt( in gamer point) please review it i will make changes i don’t know much pints to write also so it is of 450 words only

    “Geography may remain the same ; history need not.”

    Geography defines a place, its characteristics, its temperature,its structure, and diversity from other places all may stay same for some million years and it is defined by verification of a place all we need to know about history of place is by books ,inscriptions and sayings from forefathers
    when it comes to history all are assumption we assume it by gathering of all writings , fossils etc we got from historic research by this we got to know about lives of earlier generation

    Geography also may not remain same we heard about changing of geographical features and physical changes by frequent earthquakes and other disasters,increase in temperature by global warming changes in flora and fauna of the particular place due to human interventions but to maximum extent many geographical features remain same all mappings etc

    History of place is imagination of writer or historian we have heard about different types of Ramayana and Mahabharata and many indian mythological aspects written by different writers have different view for his observation we read about all harappa and mohenjedaro civilization from systematic observation it has no valid proof for all observations

    Many wars we studied are mainly about geographical are either to increase geographical extent or for water hence we clearly state that history was about making changes in geographical area of a kingdom or country since 1947 after independence India and Pakistan were trying to get their control over Kashmir so geographical area also changes with time

    history of place we got from inscriptions or writings may be a king order to brag about himself or force writers to write about their greatness and many writers might be assumed about infrastructure of the kingdom so it will not remain same vary from different writers perspective

    political wars which we read in books give us idea about weapons and strategies some fossils of weapons may not be discovered so it changes after we discover new and economical condition’s of people, currency they use were different from kingdom to kingdom people of different geographical area have different history and they might not have idea about other areas due to lack of technology

    geography plays an important role in economic condition good geographical conditions leads to good economic life it continues still people in some state with great water facility had better economic conditions in history and till now because of there geographical conditions
    conclusion: so geography need not remain same but mostly it remains ,history will vary

  • nikhil achamwad

    Hello friends! I shall be very grateful if somebody could go through my essay, and leave their valuable comments.

    Thanks in advance.

    “Geography may remain the same ; history need not.”

    Amir Khusro, the well known Persian poet wrote a famous couplet about the Shalimar Baag in Kashmir,

    “If there is a paradise on Earth,
    It is this, it is this, it is this.”

    These were his words about 500 years ago, in praise of one of the most beautiful places on the Earth.

    However, with the flow of time and change of narrative, and the change of actors, although on the same beautiful piece of land are we sure to utter the same praise for Kashmir today?

    The geography must not have changed much, but alas the history has.

    The history has marked upon the map of Kashmir, its own versions of boundaries, its own divisions and partitions and brought into conflict its own actors and bystanders.

    Thinking about Kashmir, it’s almost difficult to tell which is more “living”, the Geography or the History?

    To be scientifically correct, one must accept the fact that, both Geography and History are evolving and changing processes on a time continuum.

    The difference lies, however, in the pace of their changes. While Geography has been a slow mover on the time continuum, history on the other hand seems to move faster and so much so with the evolution of Man.

    But, History without Geography loses its context and also its appeal.
    For example, the above mentioned couplet of Khusro in praise of Kashmir, may hardly appeal to other places on Earth say for war torn Syria or the Thar Desert.

    So history for the most part is rooted in the geography.

    Taking the panoramic view of the world, it can be said that, some histories of some parts of the world have changed for the better, while histories of some other places have been a nightmare.

    The magnitude of loss and tragedy, witnessed in some events of history, makes one ask, if it was possible to go back in time and change the narrative of the historic settings, if we could replace the characters of the play and if we could do something much better.

    However, as much such option may be to ones or everyone’s benefit, history does not offer us the same.

    It has been said that if anything is more constant in this world than any other, then it is “Change”.

    And history is an encyclopedia of such never ending changes. Some minor, others major and still some others, lost to eternity.

    But one such major change which has been inscribed in golden letters on the pages of history comes to mind.

    In the year 1854, then British Government in India had initiated the expansion of railways and had undertaken one such initiative in the Sind province of the united India. While digging the earth for laying down the railway tracks the authorities to their surprise came face to face with the lost evidence of a magnificent ancient civilization later named as Indus Valley or the Harappan Civilization.

    The Indus Valley civilization has been predicted to have existed around year 3000 to 2000 BC and was spread across the Indus river basin, right from the present day Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat and also the Sind and Punjab provinces of Pakistan.

    If we trace the history of this region hence, we will find that, the Indus valley also bore witness to the coming of the Aryans, the Birth of the Vedas, the spread of Hinduism, the invasion of Alexander, the rise of the Kushans, Spread of the Mauryas and the Guptas. Later the coming of the Mughals, the incessant wars some major such as Battle of Tarain and many other minor, the spread of Sikhism and the Sufism.
    Then the British expansion and unified political rule over the region, the laying of railway tracks and the subsequent India Pakistan divide in 1947. Following it the on and off Indo-Pak wars, the intermittent friendship treaties such as Lahore and across the border bus service and also across the border attacks such as on Pathankot Airbase.

    For most of the happenings noted above the geographical landscape has been the same and yet for the last 5000 years it has been witness to so much of turbulence.

    Same could be said about many such geographical pockets on the Earth. For example the Arabian Peninsula, the Palestine land, the present day Iran-Iraq-Syria-Jordan-Turkey, old civilization of Egypt, the Greek Empire, the Europe, and the New World.

    In all these geographical regions, the timeline has witnessed the marks of history which has stood out for its multifaceted aspects in one period or the other.

    The Arabian Peninsula is an interesting example of how one can never know what lies in ones destiny in time to come. A land once only known for its religious zeal and prosperous trade and being net importer of almost everything that a life requires, has for the past 100 years changed into the life line of energy supply for most of the world including India. The discovery of oil has changed the fortunes of this region but simultaneously also changed its cartographic depictions with 6 new countries being born during the First World War due to conflicts between major colonial powers. And Geography of the region is still the same, however its importance has increased manifold.

    Similarly, the almost desert of Palestine is being fought for its religious importance as well as claims of being native made by the Israelis.

    History witnessed the rise of vast empires of Mesopotamia and the Greek and also their fall. It also witnessed the Pyramids and statue of Sphinx being built by the Egyptians.

    History witnessed Europe through its period of Dark Ages and also the period of Renaissance, which ultimately tuned the pace of human exploration leading to vast developments in art, architecture, astronomy, navigation and science. This period gave the mankind the gems to be craved for in figures such as – Copernicus, Galileo, Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Newton. But history also remained unkind by landing on the same piece of land the barbaric characters such as Hitler and Mussolini.

    The New World of USA and Canada only pushed to the extreme the pace of human enabled change initiated by the Europeans. Their war for independence, gave other colonies a model to attain their own freedom. Their scientific endeavors have helped mankind to root out many of the natures handicaps faced, their technological revolutions have changed the way almost everything that was being produced on this planet. But, on the flip side, their development has also been the cause of war and strife, a struggle for hegemony and the nuclear world. The Hiroshima-Nagasaki incidents and the Vietnam War are black marks in history’s pages of the same USA.

    Today, the pace of change in history has only got quicker. And it seems the human efforts are not sparing the geography either. With the growing population and increasing demand for land we have turned mountains into plains, forests into barren lands and glaciers into melting rivers. Our actions are not only causing pain to the primitive among us but also to the vast flora and fauna of this beautiful earth, which must have taken it thousands of years to build.

    Today, we are almost at the tipping point where we do not know how many more years this Earth could sustain if human actions continue to be so depriving.

    It’s only in the pages of history, that we should find our own answers. The giant of the species such as Dinosaurs got extinct and many such continue to get extinct every other day. And the cause of their extinction has been that the Geography did not remain the same.

    Shakespeare’s famous poem called “All the world’s a stage” goes like this

    All the world’s a stage,
    And all the men and women merely players;
    They have their exits and their entrances,
    And one man in his time plays many parts,
    His acts being seven ages.

    Thus we remain merely players, and in our desire to continue to play our part on this stage, we must ensure that the Stage of the World remains there for us to perform. We must do this by learning to amend our ways for the better, by caring for the Geography and caring for the nature. Then only shall the History live.

  • Sushanta Kumar Malik Sushu

    beautifully written

  • Master Yodo

    High friends please evaluate my essay, this is my maiden effort, help me to improve.

  • Abhimanyu Srivastava

    ” Change is the law of the universe . What you think of as death , is indeed life. In one instance you can be a millionaire , and in one instance you can be steeped in poverty . Yours and mine , big and small – erase these ideas from your mind . Then everything is yours and you belong to everyone ” – Lord Krishna . Geography is the study of places and relationships between the people and environment Geography seeks to find out the things and reason behind their existence and how they can change .
    History oftens relates with past moments . Since Our childhood children use to get fascinated by story of the king , queen and enemy and the trimuph of the good over the bad not always. As the topic suggest Geography remains same , history doesn’t . Geography and History both are co-related or better say they cannot exist without each other . It seems as “united we stand divided we fall ” .

    Coming to the point . Since the past history India was known for it’s rich heritage . Firstly East India Company had come to our country as traders trading our famous cotton cloth muslin , terracotta , etc . By selling them East India Company had made a huge profit . From that point they started seeing India as a potential market for their trade . At this point our history changed not for good but for bad . Previously Mughals who invaded our country treat it as their mother land . Our country much progressed under their era . Later a phase of independence started after the revolt of 1857 under the leadership of Mangal Pandey . It went on to Bahgat Singh , Subhash Chandra Bose and last but not least father of our nation Mahatma Gandhi who avoided the means of violence and adopted through means of non-violence . Finally we got independence but with a disheartening partition of Pakistan from India. These point are evident that at each point our history changed .
    In 21st century as soons as Industrial Revolution , Green Revolution had take place and so on . Man started becoming industrialized and started interfering with the nature or environment so on which lead to loss of habitat of life of animals .
    For example monkey had lost their homes due to the estabilshment of apartments and colony so on . In 2004 Tamil Nadu faced tsunami due to the removal of mangrove forest by the humans . Biggest concern for today is global warming due to the emission of CFC (cholro fluoro carbons ) , greenhouse effect . Although NGT (National Green Tribunal) has set emission standards but it has all gone in vain resulting in the loss of habitat and life of sea creatures . and so on . We need to stand firmly so that geography remains the same and so on otherwise there will be no one to record the changing history .

    • Rockstar

      i did not like your introduction ..write introduction that relates to the given topic
      As the topic suggest Geography remains same , history doesn’t . Geography and History both are co-related or better say they cannot exist without each other . It seems as “united we stand divided we fall ” .- u have written this in essay but the topic is geography may remain same….focus on word may
      ur conclusion was best
      bt i think u focussed more on indian history and not general history…
      keep writing n improving!…all d best

  • Abhimanyu Srivastava

    Kindly please any one can review my essay .

  • Abhimanyu Srivastava

    I will great fully acknowledge any suggestion .

  • ludorum

    This is my first essay- Kindly review and point out how I can improve. Please mention the plus points that I can maintain too.

    History and geography are subjects that are so intricately entwined that it is almost difficult to talk about one without referring to the other. The past, present and future of everything that we see around us keep adding to history as well as geography. But there exists a difference that perpetrates a schism between the two subjects; and that difference is “change”. Before analyzing the various nuances of ‘change’ that runs through the veins of the subjects in point, it is imperative to have a vivid understanding of what history and geography are.
    Geography is the objective study of the environment we live in, and includes all diverse entities starting from the Universe and space to the city or village where we are located. It encompasses all gifts that nature has bestowed upon us- sun, moon, stars, oceans, lakes, rivers, forests, trees, plants… and what not! On the other hand, History is the subjective study of past events. Unlike geography, History is heavily dependent on ‘perspectives’ and ‘interpretations’- of the writer as well as the reader.
    In other words, the discipline of geography is less prone to changes when compared to History. For example, let’s take the Indian Ocean into consideration which is a subject under Geography. The latitudes and longitudes between which the Indian Ocean lies would be the same to every geographer and is not subject to any dispute. But this doesn’t extend to subverting the geographical changes that we see around us.
    The world’s hottest desert Sahara was once a lush green forest with a large river flowing through its heart. In course of time there occurred drastic changes to its geography- and it’s a fact. But the point is, there are no varying opinions about this change. It’s a fact to which every geographer would agree to. This is why it is not said that Geography ‘will not’ change and instead said that geography ‘may not’ change.
    To make the point more clear let us consider one more example. It is known to everyone how the present continents took their current shape; how a huge single landmass called the ‘Pangea’ or the ‘super continent’ broke into different pieces of land, elaborated by the Continental Drift theory. We have to accept that, changes have occurred in the various geographical phenomena around us. We could argue that the changes are very slow, but events like various natural disasters have the potential to bring about sudden changes too. But, those changes are not subject to dispute or differences of opinions. To be brief, it could be said that there is not much space for subjectivity in Geography.
    Various geographers do not have differing opinions about the same geographical phenomena. If at all there are differences of opinions, consensus is arrived at through scientific evidence. Thus, the discipline of geography may not change unless a new and proven scientific theory is put forward and accepted. Also a single geographical phenomenon cannot have more than one interpretation at a time. At a given point of time, all geographical phenomena associated with the geography of a given place will be constant. To be more precise, let us go back to the previous example of the Sahara desert.
    When we talk about Sahara today, no one interprets it as a rain forest. At the same time, when we say that the same Sahara desert was once like the Amazon, no one disputes that either. Thus when we say that Geography may not change, we do not mean that there are no changes in nature or that the Universe is not expanding. But what the statement could mean instead is that, Geography as a discipline and topic for study is not subject to the whims and fancies of individuals. So at this point it becomes easier to decipher that Geography as a discipline depends neither on the geographer’s attitude nor on the reader’s psyche.
    History is the subjective study of past events. Whatever happens today becomes part of tomorrow’s history. It is a discipline that is highly volatile and flexible. History depends to a large extent on the writer who attempts to writes it. It is very much influenced by the political, religious, economic and cultural environments that the Historian has been subjected to. Also, all Histories of the world attain an additional dimension when any new movement attains momentum. For example, all written Histories of the world were seen in a new light with the emergence of Communism. Similarly, until the spread of Women’s movements in various parts of the globe, women were given only a cameo role in written history. In a way, their roles were undermined in the written part of the historical process. Perhaps tomorrow, when the transgender people attain an equal footing with others, History may have to adjust itself to accommodate them also.
    Let’s move on to the next vital factor that influences the shaping of History-The Reader. S/he, while going through a written Historical work may read between the lines and knowingly or unknowingly add their own shades of thought to the work. Thus History is made more and more complex, cementing the saying “There is no single Truth; there are only interpretations of Truths.” Here, ‘perspective’ and ‘interpretation’ of individuals play a key role.
    Two individuals belonging to two different political parties who write their own versions of History of the same epoch, may end up writing two entirely different works. Interpolations exacerbate the situation further, especially if the Historical work is being translated from one language to another. Thus people tend to construct their own versions in the process of writing as well as reading History. After all we cannot rewind time and go back to the epoch in our minds!
    In the Histories of ancient times, it would have been hard to find the voice of the so called ‘untouchables’ for example. But as time elapsed and they gained voice, we got to read Histories from their point of view too. Similar is the case of all others who were considered to belong to the lower rung of the caste hierarchy. In ancient history, their voices were muffles. But to think of an event in the modern history like the Indian National Movement without them would be almost impossible.
    This has its lateral version too, where we talk about some facts. For example, monuments and the like built during different periods. But again if we ask ‘how’ or ‘why’ they were constructed, we are certain to get multiple, differing answers. Thus leading to the point that:
    There is no single history, there are only Histories!

  • arnab ghosh

    My first attempt(although im possibly giving mains this year 😛 ) . Please suggest corrections.
    Geography refers to the spatial orientation of landmasses, objects and living things. We know about plate tectonics, denudation, earthquakes and other natural phenomena which may significantly change the geography of a region over time. However, over a limited period of time, we can consider geography to remain constant.
    History is the chronological sequence of events from time immemorial. Changing the geography of a place is not much under our control; it depends on a host of environmental factors. But everyone in the world has a chance to etch his or her name in the history of mankind. History is dynamic; it changes every moment, with every chance happening, with every action we do. We all have the power to impact history, both in negative and positive ways. It is often said that a person lives on even after his death in the memory of other people, in the pages of history.
    Over the years, many famous and infamous people as well as events have changed the course of history. The inventions of prehistoric man like agriculture, wheel, fire etc. had a major role in changing the history of mankind. The cave paintings of prehistoric periods give us insights about the life of people during those times, which is starkly different from the life we have now. Then came the discovery of writing which not only changed the history, it also made it possible for us to record history, be it on cave walls or palm leaves.
    Thereafter, man settled down into civilized life and thus we have the great civilizations of the world – the eyptian, roman, Mesopotamian, and our very own Indus valley civilization. All these civilizations left an indelible mark on the history of the world. Infact, many of the practices we still follow in our daily lives had an origin in these ancient civilizations. The pyramids of Egypt and Collosus of Rhodes are still regarded as wonders and marvels of historical architecture.
    Then came the era of religions and dynasties, each of which had a profound impact on history; moulding it into different shapes. The advent of vedic religion and practices led to the establishment of the peculiar social structure that continues in India even today. The concept of varnashram and caste system changed the hierarchical order of the society and peoples attitude towards each other.
    The great kings of ancient times like Bimbisara, Alexander, Chandragupta Maurya , Ashoka and later Akbar, Rana Pratap, Shah Jahan, Shivaji and the like all left their mark on the history of their regions. Under these great kings, we see the development of a synchronised and coordinated administrative and revenue system which perhaps forms the basis of development of modern administrative and taxation systems of later times. The cities they built, the monuments they constructed, the grand battles they fought, the art they patronised all have had significant effects on history. We can imagine how different history could have been had Alexander not invaded India, had Muhammad Ghori not defeated Prithviraj Chauhan, had Babur not defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the field of Panipat, or if the British did not defeat Nawab Siraj Daula in the battle of Plassey.
    Similarly we have the great philosophers of the ancient times like Gautama Buddha and Vardhamana Mahavira, who, after spending their whole life in the quest for true knowledge brought drastic changes in the society and tried to free people from the bondage of the caste system which had become rigid and biased at that time. Later under the patronage of rulers like Ashoka and Kanishka, their message spread far and wide and it can be said that their philosophical ideas changed the history of not only Indian subcontinent, which was their birthplace, but also other regions of the world. Same can be said about Zoroaster, Jesus and later Prophet Mohammad and his impact on the history of the Arabian civilisation. Later in the medieval period, the Bhakti and Sufi saints brought forth the principles of devotion and brotherhood, along with their unique philosophies about the relationship between man and god which again changed the history of society.
    Then we have the great mathematicians, chemists, physicians and other scientists of right from ancient times without the discoveries of whom, we cannot think of history and society as it exists today. The theory and conclusion of great scientists like Baudhayana, Apastambha, aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Pythagoras, Nagarjuna to name a few changed the way in which we interpret science and certainly, without their contribution, history could have been a lot different. Similarly, physicians like Charaka and Surgeons like Susruta changed our interpretation of medical science and treatment. Some of the mathematics and planetary theories of these scientists enabled scientists of the medieval period like Newton, Tesla and later Einstein to build on and come up with the modern scientific principles we use today. These principles led to the invention of new devices and ideas through which we have transformed out way of living, increased our lifespan, and by the turn of the twentieth century we are finally aiming towards leaving our own planet and exploring the universe.
    The great literary scholars like kalidas, Abul Fazl, Shakespeare etc. also have contributed their share in history. Their writings and novels have possibly inspired our modern script writers and film makers.
    The same can be said about the various movements like renaissance, industrial revolution and our very own freedom movement. We can all imagine how different history would have been had Rammohan not taken up the fight against social evils, had Dadabhai Naoroji not exposed the economic exploitation of the british or had Gandhiji not returned to India and taken up the reins of the freedom movement.
    This is not to imply that we can change history on in a positive manner. We still remember infamous kings like Dhanananda and Aurangzeb, dictators like Hitler and Mussolini, betrayers like Cassius and Mir zafar whose contribution to history is perhaps not seen in a positive light. We know about the crusades, feudal system and brutal world wars which brought catastrophy to many. Infact, irrespective of profession, every human being has contributed to history in his or her own small way, some of which are more visible than others. And it is not humans alone, history is impacted by every event, chance happenings like the volcanic eruption of Pompeii and krakatoa, the impact of an asteroid which wiped out the dinosaurs, the earthquakes, devastating cyclones and tsunamis all change history in their own way, leaving behind lessons for us to take note of.
    As we know, time is like a flowing river, which waits for no one, history is the record of this flowing river. It is changed every moment, by every biotic or abiotic factor, by every human, whether he or she is a king or a pauper. All great men we remember are the ones who have changed the course of history significantly through their deeds and left footprints on the sands of time. History is fluid, history is dynamic, and every moment gives us a new opportunity to be a part in this change.

  • Sita

    Insights do u provide any synopsis,

  • Ajaya Pdhan

    Hope someday will reach 1000 mark

    History is dynamic aspect of human
    civilization. It is ever active in modifying itself afresh and tandem. Time is
    synonymous with history. What we today is tomorrow’s history. Therefore
    the statement has prima facie. Regarding geography, it is not almost static
    or inert rather it’s slow tempo can be assumed as so in short term.

    Now, we begin deciphering the root of history.
    Here we should not make the mistake of isolating geography from history per se.
    Geologists have consensus on the long and extremely slow evolutionary
    process of life on earth. Almost 4.5 billion years had passed when
    first sign of life emerged. Each day was unique consistently in
    alchemizing atoms into life. Geography had infinitesimally changed less.

    way we talked about geology which is inherent to geography. The next focus is
    the aftermath of onset of civilization.Stone age took almost thousands of years
    to give way to metal age. Society was wholely anew with little alteration in
    geography. Excavations and carbon dating reveals the little variation in change
    of geological alterations.

    of evolutionary journey, our culture and way of living has gained multiple
    inflictions since begining. Those aspects are linked to Indus Valley Culture
    and differ significantly although we inherit the same geography. Our gods,
    goddesses, rituals, languages have metamorhosed into totally different.
    Kingsships and empires had been made and marred on the same land.

    we believe in different belieeves, religions, philosophies. All thanks to ever
    changing instincts of history.

    mundane life, we change our decisions, our priorities, our collective
    realization with time. Each decisions change our action and thus history may or
    may not necessarily the geography. Paris climate summit is one assumed as
    turning point in our collective realization in history, indeed a milestone if
    come into effect. But this is not at all linked to alteration of geography.

    since bigbang moment of nationalism in Europe, geographies have metamorhed into
    political persons which are in tit-for-tat mood. In deep down, geography is
    intact there.

    saga of Vietnam war, Korean war were not war for geographical change but regime
    change i.e. historical change.

    biggest political crisis the partition is the testimony of same geography with
    altered or ever changing history.

    colonialism, neo-imperialism and so forth have rewiritten history tyranny and
    left the geograhy there intact.

    with time has been entered into space exploration row where each capable nation
    is trying to make a mark. We may not build house in Mars but but history has
    taken that dream long ago.

  • Ajaya Pdhan

    Hope someday will reach 1000 words mark
    History is dynamic aspect of human civilization. It is ever active in modifying itself afresh and tandem. Time is
    synonymous with history. What we today is tomorrow’s history. Therefore the statement has prima facie. Regarding geography, it is not almost static or inert rather it’s slow tempo can be assumed as so in short term.

    Now, we begin deciphering the root of history. Here we should not make the mistake of isolating geography from history per se.
    Geologists have consensus on the long and extremely slow evolutionary process of life on earth. Almost 4.5 billion years had passed when first sign of life emerged. Each day was unique consistently in alchemizing atoms into life. Geography had infinitesimally changed less.

    This way we talked about geology which is inherent to geography. The next focus is the aftermath of onset of civilization.Stone age took almost thousands of years to give way to metal age. Society was wholely anew with little alteration in
    geography. Excavations and carbon dating reveals the little variation in change of geological alterations.

    Out of evolutionary journey, our culture and way of living has gained multiple inflictions since begining. Those aspects are linked to Indus Valley Culture and differ significantly although we inherit the same geography. Our gods,
    goddesses, rituals, languages have metamorhosed into totally different. Kingships and empires had been made and marred on the same land.

    Today we believe in different belieeves, religions, philosophies. All thanks to ever changing instincts of history.

    In mundane life, we change our decisions, our priorities, our collective realization with time. Each decisions change our action and thus history may or may not necessarily the geography. Paris climate summit is one assumed as turning point in our collective realization in history, indeed a milestone if come into effect. But this is not at all linked to alteration of geography.

    Ever since bigbang moment of nationalism in Europe, geographies have metamorhed into political persons which are in tit-for-tat mood. In deep down, geography is intact there.

    The saga of Vietnam war, Korean war were not war for geographical change but regime change i.e. historical change.

    India’s biggest political crisis the partition is the testimony of same geography with altered or ever changing history.

    Imperialism, colonialism, neo-imperialism and so forth have rewiritten history tyranny and left the geograhy there intact.

    Geography with time has been entered into space exploration row where each capable nation is trying to make a mark. We may not build house in Mars but but history has taken that dream long ago.

  • Jai2004

    Any one interested in buying vision mains test series 2016.module 492
    15 test are available 7 sectional and 8 full test.
    I am not sure to clear IAS 2016 pre that’s why selling my vision id
    You can contact me on [email protected] in

  • Ant-Man

    Geography may remain the same ; history need not:
    It is a general view that and can be seen in International stage and era of globalisation that geography remains the same but history not always. It is also true for other parts of life but this essay will focus on International relations on the world stage.

    If we take India-China, at the time when India acquired independence there was a mutual cooperation and attitude of Brotherhood(Hindi-Chini bhai bhai) but was shattered in 1962.SImilar is the case of Russia-Ukraine in recent times due to Crimean issue.

    If we look at the history of world wars and relationship between central and allied powers had been changed so immensely that Germany, in group of so called P5+1, is part of governance of every important institution of the world.This again support the argument.

    Further to this if we take US-Cuba relations, from Cuban missile crisis to recent reconciliation is again the proof.

    Now if I go to very familiar neighbourhood Pakistan, once the ground for incessant independence struggle, location of congress annual sessions, ‘POORN SWARAJ’ declaration at Lahore,Important session at Karachi, Birth place of Bhagat Singh, all shows that the very land which gave us so many freedom fighters who died for the unity and integrity and freedom of the nation is the breeding ground for Pakistan supported terrorism which is a security challenge for India’s unity and Integrity.

    Now I want to take example of India-Ceylon relationship, both remained at same place on map(if we ignore few cm changes due to plate tectonics,never mind) seen various ups and down from the era of Indira Gandhi-Rajiv Gandhi to Manmohan Singh-Narendra Modi.Sri Lanka once the favoured destination for Chinese strategic investment turned to India. Opposite is true for India-Nepal relationship.

    Finally if we talk about US-Russia, giants in multipolar world, are on loggerhead for most of the time in modern era and but at the time of world wars fought on the same side except Russia flipping some time.Intense cold war which saw origination of Non Aligned Movement is changed in case of ISS(International Space Station) project,both collaborated effectively.

    From above examples it can be concluded that Geographical changes happens slowly and outrun human life however History changes on day to day basis,International relations, where we can see this happening easily but it can be applied most aptly to local/state/national elections in India, sports, art culture, religion, economy and others.

  • The father of history-Herodotus, once remarked that ‘All history must be studied geographically and all geography must be studied historically’. This points to the argument that history and geography are closely intertwined and difficult to be separated. However, still some differences can be made on a literal sense by carving out their definitions. History belongs to the past, it is a legacy passed by forefathers that can represent continuation of political leaderships, social circumstances, level of technological development, ethical values passed and legal peculiarities. Geography, however, points to the shape and overall look of a landscape including the features of humans too.

    The idea that geography may remain same while history need not, points to the changes that may occur in historical landscape while leaving out the geographical one intact. The truthfulness of this dictum begins its validation from a personal level where a person constantly undergoes transformation in his ideas that are different from ideas that he had the previous day. All this continues to happen despite the fact that from outside, the bodily features of a person continue to look the same.

    This idea also finds its relevance in the history. During the early decades of 20th century, the political leadership of India underwent changes from one Viceroy to other but the overall development of the country remained almost the same because of the colonial interests of the British Empire.

    However, the Indian people continued their freedom struggle till they achieved independence. The same Indian people who had been subjugated by the British now went to change the developmental history of the nation. Capital industries sprang up, new government departments being set up and developmental schemes started all aimed at marking the departure from developmental history of the past.

    Fast forward to present times, the overall geography of the country seem to be changing on a small scale while legal history seems to undergo fast changes. The interpretation of law which was valid just months ago is modified by the higher court thereby bringing changes in the way homosexuality was dealt with.

    Even on a global scale, the present world seems to be caught in a quagmire of economic problems. The Greece crisis and exit of British from European Union seems to be the beginning of new economical history of these states even when their geographies in terms of territorial extent continues to look the same.

    However, in some cases, it may happen that original dictum may be falsified. Thus, there can be instances where history continues to penetrate even in present while geography may see a change. Such incidents are observed in case of religious history whereby the religious Gurus continue to hold strong to the traditional values of their religion. This continues to happen even in wake of developmental activities happening in other parts of the country.

    On a global scale, this has been observed in case of West Asian countries. The countries were marked by history of crisis that continues till date. However, certain changes in way of resource utilization have led to drying up of rivers like Amu Darya.

    Same can be observed with islands of Pacific- Micronesia and Polynesia- that have continued to remain marked by an undeveloped past but their geographies are coming up with changes due to rise in sea level, wave and marine actions and increasing salinity of the land.

    These incidents thought depict that in certain instances history may change while geography may remain same or the vice versa, may not be the complete truth. The idea that geography and history go hand in hand is still alive and very much relevant.

    The Akodra village of Gujarat recently became India’s first digital village. The new development was a watershed event that can divide history of Akodra in two phases- traditional and modern. The tag of ‘digital village’ also brought revolutionary changes in terms of setting up new kiosks, laying of optical fibers and establishing new departments for handling overall development of the program.

    Even on the global scale, the connection between history and geography remain sturdy. The Galapagos Island off the coast of Ecuador, South America is witnessing geographical changes due to sea level. Yet, the island has taken efforts to mark the traditional dependence on coal for electricity generation. Their renewed thrust is now on establishing wind and solar farms to harness the renewable sources of energy.

    Similar happenings in China also strengthen the above claim. The country saw a transition from subjugation by foreign economies to becoming one of the topmost market and suppliers of economic goods. At the same, China landscape was dotted with developmental projects like dams, skyscrapers and power plants that changed the face of its geography.

    The whole idea thus seems that change is inevitable. Even though the present conditions may represent that certain aspects are not changing, it may not be true. Change goes on silently within the womb of time. It is only that small scale changes accumulate over time and one realizes that a change has finally taken place. But the reality is, be it history or geography, change continues to widen its wings with each and every second.

    It is in the best of humans’ interests that they start adapting the change that impacts their lives. Negative changes occurring in history or geography have to be corrected through concerted efforts for the benefit of everyone.