1) How does Census differentiate between rural and urban regions? Discuss the challenges faced in governing rural regions that are contiguous to urban areas and that are affected by urbanization process.

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Topic: Urbanization – problems and remedies

1) How does Census differentiate between rural and urban regions? Discuss the challenges faced in governing rural regions that are contiguous to urban areas and that are affected by urbanization process. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

  • Census in India is a decennial process of collating information about members of population. Census has a concrete definition for any settlement to be deemed as urban. So, any settlement becomes urban if

    1. It is under municipality, corporation, cantonment board or a notified area committee, or
    2. It is having a population size of 5000 or above with the population density exceeding 400 and at least 75% of male working population is engaged in non-agricultural activities.

    Rural settlements, however, are defined as those “not urban”. There is no independent conception of a rural area; it is a residual and negative conception.

    Problems faced in rural areas contiguous to urban areas :-

    1. Delimitation issue :- There are issues of delimitation of rural and urban settlements in cases of contiguous settlements. Sometimes these demarcation are rather artificial.
    2. Governance issue :- It also creates governance issue due to delays in the process of transition from rural to urban.
    3. Lack of facilities :- These rural areas lack in public facilities which their contiguous urban part enjoy. It fuels migration which further obstructs their transition to an urban settlement.

    People residing anywhere, be it in rural or urban areas, are entitled to basic services of food, clothing, shelter, education and healthcare. Therefore, it should be taken care that the geographical demarcation should not become a socio-economic demarcation.

  • Kunal Aggarwal

    Rural and Urban regions are classified on two basis:
    1. If a region has Municipal corporation, Cantonment board, Town Area Committee or is a notified area, it is considered Urban
    2. If a region has a population greater than 5000, population density of above 400 per sq km and 75% of male working population are in secondary or tertiary activities, then it is considered urban. These are called census towns.

    Any area which doesn’t fall under any of the categories specified above is considered Rural which are governed by Panchayats. These rural areas may be contiguous with Urban areas like Villages near Delhi or Bangalore. There are governance issues in these due to various institutional conflicts:

    1. Confusion in responsibility: Whether municipality of the city or panchayat owns the responsibility of this infrastructure and any emergency posed by them
    2. Infrastructure issues: Development of supporting infrastructure like electricity, roads and water supply needed is a problem as well
    3. Demarcation: Clear demarcation of boundaries between urban and rural areas hardly exist

    These issues are more surfacing due to the transitioning phase of villages to Urban areas. These conflicts need to be resolved so that development and people are not impacted by institutional changes. Better cooperation among the government bodies, clear demarcation of responsibility will help in conflict resolution.

    • Kevin Saxena

      nice ans Kunal but do write in proper order and improve ur presentation skill.

      • Kunal Aggarwal

        Thanks Kevin. I will try to improve on order and presentation 🙂 Would small heading help?

        • Kevin Saxena

          yeah it would help. u may also underline important keywords.

    • Rahul Dubey

      But Kunal u have not written the affect of urbanization on the rural regions..But others two things are very well articulated.

  • Vats Ujjwal

    For census purposes, total geographical area is broadly classified into Rural and Urban. And the criteria followed are as follows.
    Urban area comprises of “Statutory town” and “Census town”. Statutory towns are those settlements where there is a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee. Where as Census towns are those areas which satisfy following conditions.
    a) A minimum population of 5000.
    b) Minimum density of population of 400 per sq. km.
    c) 75% of the male main working population engaged in non agricultural pursuits.

    Also there is a contiguous area near the Urban areas which have features of both urban and rural. They are called Urban agglomeration.

    All areas other than Urban and Urban agglomeration are called as Rural areas.

    Challenges faced in governing Urban Agglomeration are as follows:

    1) Governance issues: Since these areas are under the influence of both rural and urban, and boundaries are not well defined,so it becomes difficult to determine who has the authority to govern where.
    2) Delivery of goods and services hampered: As the administrative boundaries are not well surveyed so the delivery of goods and services are affected.
    3) Law and Order problem: There is always ambiguity over an area whether it comes under Town police jurisdiction or Rural police. So there are cases when each of them deny their jurisdiction over an area and law and order situations are hampered.
    4) Speculation over transition: There is always speculation that these areas will be declared as Urban areas so the land prices shoot up. Moreover valuable agricultural fields lay waste or are sold for the development of malls and other businesses

    So keeping in mind all these challenges there is a way out to include these agglomerations as Urban areas so that governance and service delivery will be better targeted.

    • Vats Ujjwal

      plz review.

    • FinalAttempt

      bro.. your 3rd point is doubtful,law and order.. rest your points are well elaborated.
      please make strong conclusion. rest is fine.. keep doing.

      • Vats Ujjwal

        Thanks for your review. Regarding 3rd point I would say that such incidents keep on coming in newspapers. like a theft is reported from an area or a murder is committed in an area but local police deny their jurisdiction. if there was clear demarcation then such issues could be minimized so I have put it here.

    • Raj kartan

      Good keep writing

    • Baaz

      Keep writing. Ur answer is lucid Nd vivid.

      • Vats Ujjwal


    • minaxi

      Hello Ujjawal..
      Nice answer.. delivery of goods and service part can be explained clearly. means how they are affected. Nothing more to add.. geography optional by chance?
      And if get time, plz review my answer too.


      • Vats Ujjwal

        Thanks for your review.

      • Vats Ujjwal

        I read your answers..we have moreover same approach towards the answer of this question..so nothing more to point out..few sentence corrections required..rest all is good.

        Yes mine is geography and yours ?

  • Arvind Kumar

    Although the Census treats both urban and rural regions as a residual,yet there is different categories of ‘urban’.According to 2011 Census,the definition of ‘urban’ area is as follows:
    A.All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
    B.All other places which satisfied the following criteria called Census town:
    1.A minimum population of 5,000;
    2.At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and
    3.A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.
    C.If a place is physically contiguous to a town and possesses urban features,its called urban agglomeration.
    For rural regions, any place other than above definitions is called a ‘rural’ region.Thus, the village is residual irrespective of its population.
    These different classifications have given rise to a number of challenges in governing rural regions that are contiguous to urban areas and are affected of urbanization processes,which are:
    > The reclassification acts as a catalyst of urbanization processes.Between 2001-11, a large chunk of urbanization was because of Census towns and not statutory towns.
    >Availability of similar standards of “public goods” with a minimum threshold to be available in each rural regions.
    >Delivery of public goods and services- easy in village with large-population size of 10,000 but difficult in village with small-population size of less than 200.
    >Clear delimitation issues thereby causing confusion at implementation level.
    Thus, the different and changing definition of the urban and rural regions results in a no of issues,including governance issues, which are harmful for the societal and national interests.Definition must be cleared in order to solve these problems.

    • Kevin Saxena

      nice ans as usual. that’s y i love to follow urs posts.

    • Appa

      Can you please explain this line: “The reclassification acts as a catalyst of urbanization processes.Between 2001-11, a large chunk of urbanization was because of Census towns and not statutory towns.”?

      • Arvind Kumar

        First of all thanks for taking time to review mine ans and for giving me opportunity to explain the asked question.
        @ appa As u can c in mine ans that there are many differences in definition between urban and and rural regions due to which many areas are reclassified twice. This leads to serious problems,especially urbanization. And the given facts by me proves that between 2001-11, a large population has migrated to urban areas.Thus it acts as a catalyst of the urbanization process.Hope u got it.

  • vineet arora

    Urban areas are defined in a o. of ways:
    according to census definition i.e, on demographic criteria, urban areas are those which have population of more than 5000, density of more tha 400 persons / sq km, and >75% people are engaged in non agricultural jobs.
    another definition tells that al urban areas must be defined by law: they may have a municipal corporation, municipality, cantonment, urban agglomeration, notified are, town area committee and other forms of statutory towns.
    are those areas that doesn’t fall under any of the above definitions and are truly village areas with no provisions of urban areas, panchayat still exists and most of the people are still engaged in agricultural activities.
    >however the above definition doesn’t always hold good in real life situation, often there are difficulties in demarcating the rural and urban areas.
    >difficulty in providing urban amenities to rural areas having unviable population.
    >the most difficult part is transition of rural to urban, often when an urban areas grows, it engulfs the rural areas surrounding it, forming rural urban fringe, having city regions, urban areas are known by its functionality and the goods and services it provides, it has definite hierarchy and is thus having a city region or urban sphere of influence (area in which it has its influence)
    >often the rapid urbanisation draws the migrants from the surrounding rural area, who unable to meet the living standards of the urban areas develop slums and clusters around vacant govt places as well as the railway stations.
    >it is very difficult to provide all urban amanities to these slums.
    Way forward:
    government steps like rurban mission earlier pura, PM adarsh gram yojana, PMUY, NRLM, DDUGVY, GArv app atc, are highly covated and would usher in an era of industrialisation and development in the rural area.

  • FinalAttempt


    • Vats Ujjwal

      Hii..Your answer to the first part of the question is incomplete. You have not pointed out what constitutes a region as rural or urban. Definition according to census shall be given.

      In the way forward you have written that ration card and adhar card shall be used to identify village people. Is it the case that only village people are liable to get ration card or adhar card? Definitely not!

      So these points in your answer seems to be addressed..rest all is good. Thanks.

      Plz review mine.

      • FinalAttempt

        Thanks ujjawal for pointing out.. oh i missed that definition.

        regarding ration card, i mean to say people defintely gets 1 ration card only. if this measure will be considered then no duplication of data will be possible..
        Thanks, keep writing and reviewing .. 🙂
        will review your ..

  • Amu

    The census defines an urban area as follows: a) If in a population size of 5000, 75% of the male working population is engaged in non-agricultural economic activity, and b) if the population density exceeds 400 persons per sq.km. it is treated as a census town

    Separately, if a settlement falls under a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or a notified town area committee, it automatically becomes a statutory town. Finally, areas contiguous to an urban area and possessing urban features are treated as urban agglomeration.

    Governing urban agglomerations that are affected by urbanization poses its unique set of challenges:

    1. Haphazard construction makes it difficult to ensure building norms and lay civic infrastructure like sewers, service lanes etc.

    2. Complying with notified land use policy is simply impossible. Agricultural land being used for commercial or residential purposes deprives the state of revenue.

    3. Solid waste management and sanitation is a great challenge since the necessary municipal infrastructure is not in place. This, in turn, leads to public health challenges.

    4. Importantly, the administrative machinery is neither fully staffed not equipped to respond to such challenges as resources – human and otherwise – are deployed as per old demographics and take very long to catch up with the ground reality. For example –urban agglomerations have to make do for long with far off police stations, courts and hospitals etc.

    Clearly, urbanization on ground is a reality and our official definitions may or may not correspond fully to urban outgrowths. Only a proactive and localized, but centrally coordinated and backed, administrative mechanism can tackle the myriad challenges posed by urbanization.

    • Ankith

      very good answer, majority of the people who wrote answers confused the second part.

      • Amu

        Thanks Ankit!

    • dheeraj gupta

      Can include, Infrastructure on wetland that led to recent flood in chenai

    • Mac28

      Conversion of agricultural land into commercial and residential deprives state of its revenue! I’m unable to understand the logic,as govt would still get revenue by means of commercial tax etc etc . Just clarifying . . . Would like to be corrected

      • Amu

        Agricultural land being used for commercial or residential purposes deprives the state of revenue.

        Agro land is generally used for shop, garage, small business etc even before land use change has been notified. This obviously deprives the state of taxes since agro land is non taxable.

        • Mac28


  • Ankith

    Census differentiates between rural and urban regions on the following grounds:
    1. Statutory Town: If a settlement is under municipal corporation, municipality, cantonment board or notified town area committee, it becomes a statutory town and hence is urban
    2. Census Town: based on the demographic characteristics, in an area with a population size of 5000, where more than 75% of the males are enagaged in agricultural pursuits and the population density exceeds 400 people per sq km
    3. Urban agglomeration: Resultant of an urban outgrowth, where in a village contiguous to the urban areas and posses these urban features

    Those habitations/areas which do not fall under any of the above categories could be termed as a village or rural area.

    However, today if we look at the growth patterns of the Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities, there is a spill over effect which led to the extension of urban features to the contiguous rural areas. Features like multistoried housing complexes, restaurnants, shopping malls have come up in these areas. Challenges being faced in the governance process of these type of regions are:

    1. Institutional capacity: Inspite of the urban features, these areas fall under the panchayats which lack the capacity in the form of human resources, technical manpower and budgets to effectively pursue the development process like laying of infrastructure, solid waste management, sanitation issues, revenue collection etc

    2. Lack of clear demarcation of these regions with urban areas may give rise to jurisdictional issues, with respect to the local bodies, police authorities

    3. With insufficient knowledge of local authorities regarding building norms, fire safety measures, there is a huge chance of misuse of these by floating the regulations

    4. These type of extensions may lead to formation of neo-slums, because of the inward migration due to the creation of unskilled jobs in form of house maids, drivers, watchmen, etc. This spread of slum culture may lead to increase in the crime rate, pulic health issues, and further the delivery of public services would be hugely limited to the newly created slums

    There should a dynamic mechanism in place which identifies such extension of urban areas and such a growth needs to be facilitated in coordination with the local bodies by the state. Further, a concrete definition needs to be bring in, so that the transition from rural to urban is a smooth affair.

  • Raj kartan

    plz review


    The census differentiate between rural and urban area by the population of the people per square km.if people engaged in non agricultural activities and the population exceeds 400 per sq km then it is said to be a urban notified area by corporation ,municipality ,cantonment .

    The rural area in our country is divided on caste lines and mostly segregated from the mainstream urban agglomeration ,The population is between 200 to 400 like according to 2001 census the 91000 villages has size less than 200 and it is difficult to provide public good and services to villages as compared to urban area which is slightly easy task.

    The challenge faced in governing rural areas are as follow :

    1 Less population : The rural area comprises less than 400 people per sq km,So it is tough to provide all the facilities to villagers as compared to urban people which is largely engaged in non agricultural pursuits And thereby contributes in larger revenue.

    2.Lethargy on the part of government department:: The government notified in many cases to treat rural areas which is contiguous to urban areas as notified urban areas but they failed to do so by not providing adequate facilities in term of public good and services.

    3.Small cluster of hemlets and habitation : The village is divided in many sub parts with very few population and inside forest area there resides a non surveyed villagesTherefore it is not possible for government to provide public services, Therefore they remain isolated from the mainstream societies.

    4.Governance issue: when village is situated near urban agglomeration like masoodpur type villages IT is bit difficult for the governing body to administer due to confusion of jurisdiction because in massodpur you can see mall big institutions and hotels and also panchayat bhawan,So it create suspense between panchayat and urban municiplaites..

    so the challenge lies is that the village is residual, regardless of its population size. The population can be 10,000 people or it can also be 100 people The facilities provided to urban agglomeration is much higher compared to villages which is struggling to find basic essentials of life.The panchayat should be provided with decent funds as a result the gram panchayat also work independent for betterment of village

  • Prateek

    Urban and rural areas have different challenges and hence need to be governed differently. Therefore, the differentiation criteria has to be good.


    • An area with a population of minimum 5000

    • Population density of at least 400 persons per square km

    • At least 75% of the male working population is in non-agricultural occupations.

    Such areas qualify as urban. Rest are rural.

    However, with this definition, there are areas that qualify as rural but are in contiguous to urban areas. Eg:- Outside the boundaries of metropolitan cities like Mumbai.


    • These areas have fast land-use changes from agriculture. Eg:- Recreation places for urban population come up.

    • Their economy is fast integrating with the urban area near to them. Eg:- Market gardening instead of regular crops.

    • They become heavily dependent on town. Eg:- Travelling to towns for jobs etc.

    • Degrading land and water quality because of pollution from nearby town. This makes agriculture difficult.

    • Migration also starts gaining momentum.

    The above challenges are specific to such rural-urban fringes and not to all rural areas. Hence, need to be administered specially.


    Planned urbanization process should take into account the border rural areas and its administration should ease the process of transition from rural to urban area.

  • ashwin jai

    The census differentiated village from urban area, as a residual settlement other than the urban area. The area is treated as urban area if If in a population size of 5,000, 75 per cent of the male working population is engaged in non-agricultural pursuits and the population density exceeds 400 people per sq km, this becomes a Census town, regardless of whether it is a statutory town or not. This reclassification has lead to increase in urban areas from 2001 to 2011 census.

    The challenges faced by the rural area adjacent to urban area and affected by the urbanisation process are :
    a) The various disputes arising due to land acquisition of the development of urban area is permanent problem which is faced by various villages across india. most of the times, the compensation isn’t enough, the permission of the gram sabha isn’t taken before the acquisition notification, etc.
    b) Just as many cities are not development thru proper town planning . this affect is shown to the villages, where urban amenities are developed around the village without proper planning, creating various kind of hardship to the village.
    c) Today’s urban locality produced huge amount of solid and sewerage waste. Disposing of this waste in area is done away from urban locality, but nr these village. Due to which the villages have to face the harmful affect of these waste.
    d) Many people migrant from these villages to the urban areas, in search of the job. This in turn create problem of lack of human resources for cultivation, etc. Also, even if the farming activities take place. It is done to satisfy the need of urban area, not for subsistence

  • Gryffindor

    The Census categorizes the existing settlements into Urban and Rural areas. The Census defines urban areas as:
    1) Settlements that come under a municipality, corporation or a cantonment board, it becomes a statutory town, hence urban.
    2) According to demographic characteristics, if the population size of 5000+ with a 75% male population engaged in non-agricultural sector, it is an urban area.
    3) If population of an area exceeds 400 persons per sq km, it becomes a census town regardless of whether it is a statutory town or not.
    The residual areas come under rural settlements irrespective of their population size.

    Challenges faced in governance of rural areas include:
    1) Delivery of public goods and services- it is easier in case of a villages with a population size of 10,000 than a village with just 200 persons.
    2) Re-classification of towns has led to increased urbanization because of census towns and not statutory towns.
    3) Rural areas in general have a stronger ‘push’ effect compared to urban areas having a stronger ‘pull’ effect which leads to large scale migrations in search of a better life.
    4) Delimitation issues lead to confusion between the areas for governing authorities.

    Thus, a proper definition of rural and urban areas is a must to solve the problems arising in governance of such areas.

    • Agamya

      I think you need to write problems faced by the places contiguous to urban areas and afterwards you can add points faced by the rural region.You need to check that heading part;Challenges faced in governance of rural areas include:Please review mine.

  • ankgarg0402

    For the census purposes, all of the geographical area is differentiated into Rural and Urban. The urban area constitutes of Statutory Towns (with municipality, corporation, cantonment board, or notified town committee etc.); Census Towns (fulfilling conditions of minimum population, population density and 75% of male engaged in non-agricultural activities); and Out Growth (contiguous to a Statutory Town and having urban features like pukka roads). All other areas are referred as rural.

    Thus, many areas may be urban in Census differentiation but not in the Statutory definition.


    1. Wrong macro picture- which misguided policymaking on macro-level. The definition is mainly responsible for huge urbanisation from 2001-2011 census data.

    2. Governance- Many towns counted as urban (due to urban features) in census may still be under panchayats

    3. Finance- The classification may lead to wrong allocation of funds w.r.t rural and urban areas.

    4. Speculation on land- On account of belief of shifting to urban statutorily.

    There is a need for better harmony in definition with regard to census urban areas and statutory towns. This would go a long way in better planning and implementation of governmental schemes on the ground leading to better development.

  • Sana

    Please review..I promise to review in return!

    • megadeth7886

      u could have ended with a govt report
      be it arc ,finance commission etc

    • Classmate

      Hello Sana,
      The first part of the ques regarding the difference has been well answered, but you misunderstood the second part.It is not asking about urban agglomerations, but rather the problems faced by the border areas in any area(Suppose, a village was rural till yesterday,but the state govt decided to notify it as Census town, since it fulfills the criteria.Now what r the issues it would face? The invigilator would not need further only by reading the heading(CHALLENGES OF GOVERNANCE IN URBAN AGGLO.) ,since he would feel that you misunderstood the ques. But i read further(For we are here to help each other and not evaluate, and u asked me to as critical as possible).So your point 1 and 2 are correct, 3 i m unable to understand,4 stems from 1, and could be a part of it,5 ,6and 7 are problems associated with urbanisation in general.This ques was a bit confusing and even i was banging my head on table.And finally, i think jyada critical analysis ho gya…!!!!Anyways, Keep writing and Please review mine.

  • Aravind Varier

    Census differentiate ” rural ” and ” urban ” regions on certain criteria based on the population of minimum of 5000 with a population density of 400 people per Sq Km and 75% of the male population are into non – agricultural occupation also comes under urban area .

    Area that do not fulfill the aforesaid criteria is termed as a rural area .

    The challenges faced in governing rural regions contiguous to urban areas and also affected by Urbanization areas is primarily due to the inability of the ” panchayats ” to fulfill the basic necessities of the area with the list of items mentioned in the Schedule XI of the constitution as discussed below :

    1) Pachayats do not possess the authority of urban planning that leads to improper ordering of the housing colonies arising in the vicinity of the rural area .

    2) Pachayats find it as a challenge to meed the demands of Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management that needs to be provided to a growing population .

    3) For an healthy living people needs facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds which do not come under the ambit of panchayats that makes the life of people vulnerable to mental stress .

    This challenges can be addressed by appropriately inspecting the area by a legislative appointed committee of the concerned state to understand the problem and suggest recommendations for upgrading the status of panchayats to municipality .

    • minaxi

      Hello Aravind…

      well, There are tro type of urban areas – 1) Statuary based on a statutory body in region 2) Census areas based on demography of region
      And census cover both urban areas…

      Now, 1) About problem part- First since it is contiguous areas, than first most difficulty arises that, who should govern this region, a Panchayat or an urban governing body

      2) SInce, People of contiguous areas are dependent on Urban infrastructure, but resides out f it’s authority areas, so do not pay any tax or duty for use of such infrastructure, thus it put disproportionate burden on urban infra.

      3) Problem of waste management- from where it comes, where must it go, since administrative body of region do not have sufficient resources.

      4) Law and order Problem- transit zone- Migrate population- temporary residence- It is hard to keep the track record of majority of population etc.

      Friend, The points you have covered is showing the inefficiency of administrative body, but how these inefficiency is arising(problems) is not clearly visible in your answer.

      In my opinion, best way is. that, simultaneous development planning of this region with urban planning so we can develop a synchronized region on macro level.


      • Aravind Varier

        Dear minaxi ,

        Thank you for the review 🙂

        The First part of the question is clearly explained by me . I hope you might be satisfied after reading that 🙂

        with respect to the second part :

        The question is asking the challenges in Governance and Not administration 🙂

        You are focusing on points related to administration in your review and telling me that i have written an answer related to administration 🙂

        I haven’t shown the inefficiency in administration but the challenges in governance .

        I will surely review your answer and help make, you understand the flaw in your review 🙂

        THANK YOU 🙂

        • minaxi

          Hello Aravind…

          I do not think, at micro level of ities, there is much difference between governance and administration. Since at this level, sphere of influence is low, the policy making is either supplementary or complementary to policies of state governments. And, at this level, policy making and execution are in hands of same authority.
          well, For further understanding, I will read your review….

  • Nupur

    जनगणना के द्वारा निम्न आधारों पर ग्रामीण एवं शहरी क्षेत्रों में अंतर किया जाता है:

    १:जनघनत्व: वे क्षेत्र शहर कहलाएंगे जहाँ जनघनत्व ४०० से ज्यादा होगा.

    २: आर्थिक गतिविधि: शहरों में अनिवार्य रूप से ७५% से अधिक आबादी का गैर कृषि कार्यों में संलग्न रहना आवश्यक है.

    दरअसल दूर-दराज के क्षेत्रों के ग्रामों में तो स्पष्ट रूप से पंचायतों को विकास तथा स्थानीय प्रशासन के लिए सशक्त किया जाता है, परन्तु शहरों से सटे गावों में कई बार उन गावों की संरचना स्पस्ट रूप से ग्रामीण नहीं रह जाती है, तथा उनकी आवश्यकताएँ भी शहरों की होती है, परन्तु वे पंचायतों द्वारा शासित होते है, न की नगर पालिकाओं के द्वारा .

    साथ ही साथ यह देखा जाता है की इन गाओं की आबादी, अन्य गाओं की अपेक्षा कम रह जाती है, जिस कारन इन्हे पंचायतों के द्वारा वे सेवाएं प्रदान करना लाभकारी नहीं रह जाता है, तथा शहरों से इनकी नजदीकी के कारन यदि नगरपालिकाएं इन्हे शहरी सेवाएं प्रदान करे तो इनके जीवन के स्तर को कम लागत में बढ़ाया जा सकता है.

    इस कारण आवश्यकता है की इन ग्रामों की स्पष्ट रूप से पहचान कर इन्हे भी नगरपालिकाओं द्वारा सुविधाएँ प्रदान की जाएँ ताकि इनके आस-पास बसे शहरों के विकास को समग्रता से किसी ऐसी संस्था द्वारा सम्पन किया जा सके जो की समूर्ण क्षेत्र के विकास के प्रति उत्तरदायी हो.

    • minaxi

      Hii Nupur…

      second paragraph is good. But you did not attend first part of answer completely.
      And for further review.. I am copying and pasting my review to Aravind answer on your answer, Plz giv you comment on it, and if time permit review my answer too-

      well, There are tro type of urban areas – 1) Statuary based on a statutory body in region 2) Census areas based on demography of region

      And census cover both urban areas…

      Now, 1) About problem part- First since it is contiguous areas, than first most difficulty arises that, who should govern this region, a Panchayat or an urban governing body

      2) SInce, People of contiguous areas are dependent on Urban infrastructure, but resides out f it’s authority areas, so do not pay any tax or duty for use of such infrastructure, thus it put disproportionate burden on urban infra.

      3) Problem of waste management- from where it comes, where must it go, since administrative body of region do not have sufficient resources.

      4) Law and order Problem- transit zone- Migrate population- temporary residence- It is hard to keep the track record of majority of population etc.

      Friend, The points you have covered is showing the inefficiency of administrative body, but how these inefficiency is arising(problems) is not clearly visible in your answer.

      In my opinion, best way is. that, simultaneous development planning of this region with urban planning so we can develop a synchronized region on macro level.


      • Nupur

        Thanks dear.

  • Sheetal

    Census is just like the report card of the Government. So, it’s implementation all together holds a very important position in a welfare state.
    The criteria for differential used by Census:
    1. 75% and more, male population is engaged in the non agricultural activities.
    2. Constitutional definitions on the basis of population and development.
    Problem in this approach:
    1. Old and Archaic: the definition is failing to incorporate many modern facilities of urban centres.
    Issues arising out of this representation:
    1. Absence in Planning Process: their demands are not properly recorded in the Grass root level planning
    2. Under served: Urbanisation has brought the inflation and price hiked, but it is failed to accompanied with equal amount of funds and resources.
    3. Un-matched aspirations: Increasing population and demands are not matching with the State funding in Public Services.
    4. Underdeveloped PRIs: are lacking the functions, functionaries, and finances to deal with these newly emerged demands,
    5. Lack of Regulation and Lawlessness: State machinery is not adequate enough to synchronise with the increasing demand of Governance.
    Way Ahead:
    1. Establishment of District Council for the collaboration of District Level Plans, recommended by Punchi Comm.
    2. Amendment in Constitution to change the definition of Towns.
    3. Devolution of Funds and Functions to the PRIs
    4. Establishing a special status to these areas.
    5. Cooperative Federalism across the Districts and States.

    • Agamya

      Can you explain that Cooperative federalism part.

  • megadeth7886


    • Agamya

      Let the answer you have written be question specific.Write in bulletins.

      First define what is urban and rural.
      Then go for problems faced by Urban Agglomeration
      Then go for the problems faced with such classification
      And then way forward.
      The First introduction part should be much better .

  • Agamya

    The Census, though, treats rural or village population as a residual even as it has different categories of “urban”.
    According to 2011 census there are following categories of urban:

    a)A settlement under a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or a notified town area committee.

    b)If in a population size of 5,000, 75 per cent of the male working population is engaged in non-agricultural Activities and

    c)Population density of more than 400 persons/sq.km.

    For rural regions, any place other than above definitions is called a ‘rural’ region.Thus, the village is residual irrespective of its population.

    Challenges faced in governing rural regions that are contiguous to urban areas and that are affected by urbanization process are as follows:

    1)In between 2001-11, a large chunk of increased urbanization was because of Census towns and not statutory ones.So,there is problem of :-
    a)Solid waste management and sanitation
    b)Administration machinery as it is not fully established.
    c)Improper establishment of Land and Order-Whether it comes to urban jurisdiction or not

    2)Speculation about the land ,while reclassification.i.e Delimitation issues

    3)Maintaining the threshold limit for urban,urban agglomeration and rural eg: Availability of medicines

    4)Ensuring last mile connectivity

    5)Life of people living in Urban Agglomeration may get affected
    a)They may migrate to Urban areas.
    b)Cropping patterns:As people tend to move towards manufacturing and service side.

    Plz Review mine.Inturn I will review yours

    • megadeth7886

      nice answer review mine
      can you tell me how thr cropping pattern is related to this
      did u meant peri urban agriculture

      • Agamya

        Actually, it was a wrong word I used.It is related to Peri-Urban agriculture.Thanks for pointing it out.Due to Urbanization,the people who are living near the urban areas also get affected based on the need of City.For example,if a city requires a Airport, then they will get the land from the farmers.Like it happened while constructing airport in Bangalore(Devanahalli).Rapid urbanization consumes farmers land at a rapid rate..
        Thanks for reviewing ,I will review yours

  • Abhineet Srivastav

    census is an exercise conducted every 10 years to determine the population, demography, literacy for whole of India and its unitsviz states, district, rural and urban areas. The urban areas are differentiated from rural areas on the basis of following parameters-

    1. a minimum population of 5000

    2. population density of atleast 400/sqkm

    3. atleast three quarters of male population having non agricultural occupation.

    to meet the requirements of rapid urbanization, the boundaries of the cities have expanded to incorporate many rural areas in the vicinity for eg: Manesar coming under NCT which has created challenges in the areas of governance. some of them are brief as under-

    1. confusion to implement plans, programmes and projects meant for urban and rural areas stressing the need for delimitation exercise eg: dfficulty in MNREGS implementation by identifying the rural people eg: difficulty in implementing den dayal upadhyay rurban mission
    2. the contiguity to urban areas leads to harmonising the rural governance with urban ones which may not be beneficial for socio-economic development of rural areas eg: imposing the local tax by a municipality of say delhi may lead to rise in commodity prices everywhere near it.
    3. increased demand for land and water resources have raised the issue of displacement in rural areas and land grabbing eg: Bhatta Parsaul near Noida

    it is therefore needed to time to time delimit the boundaries of urban and rural areas and a new plan may be drawn by state governments for suburban regions and contigous rural regions.

    • Abhineet Srivastav

      wriiten by whatever knowledge i had abt it. no reading from any source

  • minaxi

    Census as categorised urban and rural areas based on following traits-
    Urban areas-
    a) All Statutory towns or areas with Municipality, Corporation or Cantonment or Notified Town Area
    b) All Placed which satisfied criteria of minimum population of 5000 persons with a density 400 person/ square Km and more than 75 % male population is employed in non-agricultural occupation.( Census towns)
    And all areas other than statutory towns, census towns and regions contiguous to urban areas, which has acquired urban attributes are considered Rural Areas.

    Challenges in governing the regions contiguous to urban areas-

    1) Deciding the governing authority of These regions- Since these regions lies on brink of urban areas and used infrastructure of urban areas like schools , hospitals and rods, while residing in rural areas, it become difficult to apply single governing authority over them.
    2) Waste management and Public services- It become difficult to decide the source and destination of waste as well as to allot the public services effectively.
    3) Law and Governance Issue- It is transit zone and mostly migrant worker’s residence here on temporary basis. It creates a threat for law and order.
    4) Prices of Properties and goods and services- These places have poor infrastructure and transportation services but high population density, so even basic goods and services are quite costly, land prices are higher disproportionately.

    Contiguous zone, if not develop with a plan on prior basis have high probability to change into slum areas and burden on urban infrastructure. therefore, Therefore a comprehensive planning must be done by including contiguous as well rural areas.

    Plz review..

    • Aravind Varier

      Dear minaxi ,

      Let me paste the question below :

      Question :How does Census differentiate between rural and urban regions? Discuss the challenges faced in governing rural regions that are contiguous to urban areas and that are affected by urbanization process.

      First part of your answer is GOOD 🙂

      With respect to Challenges in Governance 🙂

      the second part of the question is telling about the challenges in governing a rural area that possess the qualities of an urban area OR adjacent to an urban area .

      governance is more about PLANNING and DECISION MAKING 🙂

      1) You have written ” it become difficult to apply single governing authority over them……. 🙂 please be clear of the single governing authority .

      It is not about governing authority but the challenges in policy making on an urban area by using the instruments of schedule XI . You should mention that in the answer .

      2) second point is good 🙂

      3) Law and Governance ISSUE ?????? PLEASE DO NOT WRITE THIS POINTS IN THE EXAM ………It is the duty of the state government to frame policies on LAW and ORDER and NOT the panchayat or municipality … I hope you got my point .

      4 ) Prices of properties and goods and service ??? this point is not explained properly ….. this point looks more like the duty of a state government and not local government .

      What is the solution that you are suggesting for improving the situation ??? comprehensive planning ??? who should do that planning ??? did not mention in the answer .

      Please think on the subject under consideration 🙂 why are the challenges arising ??? since the rural area posses the qualities of a urban area , you need the governing agency to be empowered by the provisions of the article 243 P to 243 ZG which is related to municipal governance .

      Your entire answer should be revolving around the the inability of the area to make laws related to the provisions cited in schedule XI which cannot solve majority of the problems .


      • minaxi

        Hiii Aravind..
        First tell me, at this level, how will you segregate between policy making and execution, since policy making is involved in every level to certain degree, And, here it’s scope is quite low.

        And,challenge to governance arises at the start.. since these area are neither urban or rural, so under which authority they should lie?

        There is not riot cases of law violation. But, It is transit zone, even pele live here for two and three days, mostly migrated labour, and it is challenge to law and order.. So challenge to governance.

        why should we see the challenges for Panchayati Raj Body, we should see that, Is Panchayat capable to govern this area?
        State govt make policies at macro level, but authorities implement them at micro level by bringing required changes. How the law and order can be maintained?
        I tried to deal this answer by taking dynamic nature of this areas, it’s people, resource distribution etc.


        • Aravind Varier

          Dear minaxi ,

          The panchayat members will make laws on the 29 items mentioned in schedule XI , then they ask that to be implemented by the Village officer and other small officers like block development officer etc.

          See minaxi , as the population is growing in a particular rural area , its characteristics is being changed into an urban area .

          The panchayat is making laws by using the provisions of article 243 to 243 O which is NOT suitable to make laws when the rural area is showing the characteristics of an urban area .

          I will suggest you NOT to write law and order governance , because the state government have the authority on that .

          It is very simple : How can you govern a municipality in Delhi by using the provisions of a Panchayat ??? 🙂

          THANK YOU 🙂

          • minaxi

            Got it boss.. though, still I do not agree with you,, but it seems, it has chances to create ambiguity in mind of examiner.. and we can discuss it after prelims.. By the way.. You were going to attempt 3 questions?


            • Aravind Varier

              Dear minaxi ,

              You can disagree now but think on this question when you are free . You will surely understand the reasons for me to write this answer by mentioning the provisions of the articles and its application .

              yes, i attempted 2 General Studies questions and one ethics question .

              For the first time i posted the second answer in JPEG format from my smartphone .

              Initially , i had difficulties in uploading the answer in JPEG format but later understood the technique to upload the answer properly 🙂

              Hahaha……… lot of discussions to come in the next 6 months on various concepts of the civil service exam.

              THANK YOU 🙂

    • Nupur

      Hi minaxi:)
      ans is nice and diverse. got to learn new points. Just 1 doubt that whether these all are related to the governance and institutional issues, as in case of LAW and Order problem i don’t think handling people residing in the nearby villages will be a problem. As in cities itself many migratory people live.

  • atul vashishth

    Kindly review plz

    • ruchi shree

      nice answer.. keep on

      btw what is ur optional n how many attempts have u faced?

      • atul vashishth

        geography…2nd attempt…ur optional?

        • ruchi shree

          mine is Hindi literature… what was ur total in gs last year?

  • pawan

    very nice topic

  • Sumit

    Census is used to determine the population and various parameters associates with population growth and decline like birth date, death rate etc. criterion for differentiating urban and rural areas involves:
    • Per capita space in urban areas must be less than 400sq/km
    • More than 75% people must be engaged in nun-farm work based activities in urban areas.
    Problems faced by rural regions located near urban areas:
    • -ve externalities of Air pollution: mass movement forrurla to urban and vice-versa in search of job opportunities has resulted in increased no. of motor vehicular traffic.
    • Increased presence of middleman in marketing of products: has led to rural inflation leading to erosion of increased disposable income.
    • Rural to urban migration has resulted in low prospects of social and economic developments.
    Problems faced by rural urbanized regions:
    • Insufficient capacity building: understaffed local bodies have resulted in mismanagement of natural resources.
    • Instances of Violence in social spheres: Technology penetration has resulted in changes in social dynamics, resisted by traditional forces like khap panchayats.
    Solutions: gram uday to gram bharat, ru-urban clusters and power and financial devolution to local bodies will aid in transitioning from rural to semi-urban areas of affected rural areas.

  • Classmate

    The census in India has various criteria for defining an urban area, such as-

    • Statutory Town- Area notified as Municipality, Cantonment, Corporation ,etc as notified by law.

    • Census Town- Area with 5000 people, with 75% males in non agricultural pursuits and a density of 400 persona/sq km.

    • Urban Agglomerations- Witnessed around urban growth centers i.e. at the periphery of Metropolitan regions.

    • Out Growths- Eg. Railway Colony,etc

    Further the rural area comprises any area that is not included in this.

    This differentiation between urban and rural is very dynamic, and often issues emerge in case of contiguous areas to urban areas, such as—

    • Governance issue – The change of nomenclature does not mean anything if that further leads to competition among the local bodies. A clear policy should be made defining the roles and functions in these cases.

    • Lack of advanced planning – Often there is a lack of strategic planning, of the expansion of urban areas, which results into poor provision for services, and consequent problems. It demands the planning bodies to take a more local, yet futuristic view of the region in consideration.

    • Further strain on resources – The expansion of urban areas puts further pressure on the limited resources of the ULBs without giving them a voice in the planning or the spending. The principle of subsidiarity need to used with respect of planning and the local bodies need to be accorded freedom to raise resources accordingly.

    • Sana

      Hi classmate,Yes it’s a definite head banging topic..I could not understand your governance issue point..and I think you could have mentioned few more dimensions in this topic.. overall spare me the brain I could barely understand what to write here!!

      • Classmate

        You may have issue with this line-“The change of nomenclature does not mean anything if that further leads to competition among the local bodies”.
        Yes,I should have been more detailed in this. This would have been better-“The change of nomenclature (Rural/Urban) does not mean anything if that further leads to competition among the local bodies (Panchayats/ Municipalties).This would have been better.

        • Sana

          Yes this is better..ók one doubt..I’m yet to see the arc report..could u give me an idea as what version of it am I supposed to go through ? please it will be helpful !!

          • Classmate

            If u are in Delhi, you can go for any concise summary(by VisionIAS/Synergy), or else you can download the recommendations summary only from the net. Though there are around 15 reports, but for Non- Pub Ad students,only some req. (Crisis mgmt(For disaster) , ethics in gov.(for paper 4), social capital(gs 2),e-governance(gs 2), citizen centric(gs 2) ).Only summary and its not necessary.Rest is upto you.

  • Striving For Spirituality

    words : 211

    As per census,regions satisfying following criterion are urban regions :-
    1. Total population > 5000
    2. more than 75% employment in service sector
    3. population density > 400per sqkm

    Challenges faced in governing peri- urban areas ( Rural urban fringes ) are : –
    1. Absence of jurisdiction : of city local government in planning and development.
    2. As a result haphazard development in these areas : – as peri-urban area has urban characteristics.
    3. Coming up of slums and squatters : under the influence of city.
    4. Inadequate infrastructure : as water lines, drainage, sewerage network are not developed.
    5. Delay in recognizing census towns as statutory towns.
    6, law and order challenge : because areas are in the exteriors of city, with inadequate policing and surveillance.
    7 outwards unplanned exapnsion of city due to increase in urban population
    8. poor delivery of goods and services due to poor infrastructure such as school, hospitals etc

    The challenges can be met by declaring region as metropolitan area ( 74th amendment ), urban land use planning, integrating transport infrastructure planning with land use, improved connectivity through mass transport systems, bridging rural urban gap through programmes like PURA, Rurban mission, and integrated rural development planning by District planning committee ( 74th amendment ).

  • Mowgli

    Urban centers (Statutory towns) are defined as those centers which falls under municipality, notified area, corporation and cantonment board. Along with that their are census towns which are defined on the basis of demographic charactersticks such as occupational standards. Rest all except statutory towns or census towns comes under the category of villages (more as a residual unit)
    Recent trends speaks more about urbanization and its development whereas rural areas are neglected in that sense. Urbanization and its outreach towards the rural regions (Villages, peri-urban areas and urban agglomeration) has created several problems.
    1. Difficulty in delivering public goods and services in the rural areas having vague definition as a residual unit and alsi in the peri-urban areas.
    2. Clash of interest between municipality and panchayat institutions over the adjoining regions of rural-urban.
    3. Certain peri-urban areas have been on par with urban centers but are governed under Panchayat instittutions which lack specific framework.
    4. Issues related to land, water management and waste management
    5. Planned development would get affected due to operational difficulties in the adjoining regions such as urban agglomeration areas.
    6. Closed vicinity to urban areas would lead to death of traditional industries because of migration to urban cities and availability of employment .

    However, government has tried to douse the deficiency through Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission and focusing more on developing cluster areas adjoining the urban areas (i.e. peri-urban areas).

    • Spidy

      dont just paste content from Article

      1. Statutory towns – governed by bodies mentioned under Part IXA of constitution, you mentioned only 4 of them
      2. census towns – you defined it good but can be better if bit specific(density>400 and non-agri occupation>75%)
      3. Urban agglomeration also falls under urban category (census definition 2011) include this also

      point 2 and 3 can be clubbed
      point 4 – what kind of issue – PRI is their to handle them
      point 5 – you simply used some heavy words in sentence formation but didnt mention any ex of what kind of operation prob emerges
      Point 6 – good one
      good conclusion

      overall 4.5/12.5

      • Mowgli

        thanks for the exclusive and morphic comments..
        laxity on points 1 accepted
        point 2 specifically states that overlapping of governance
        and point 3 explained the ineffectiveness of PRIs in handling issues
        In Point 4 wanted to explain the land prices and its appreciation
        Point 5 could be more elaborative so accepted the fault

  • Kash

    A geographical area can be termed as urban region if it satisfies the following criteria-
    1) If a settlement under a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or a notified town area committee, known as statutory town or
    2) It has a minimum population of 5000, 75 per cent of workable population in non-agricultural sector and population density of 400 persons per sq. km
    Regions which develops along the fringe of urban area is termed as urban agglomeration
    The residual area after considering above definition is termed as rural or village area
    Challenges faced in governing urban agglomerations-
    1) They are not properly demarcated. Whether it is under Panchayat or urban municipalities which results in lack of governance and accountability
    2) Often, state government do not bother about such urban agglomeration due to hosts of reason such as
    a. resource crunch,
    b. often inhabited by migrated people living in slums and not on roll list, which does not provide any incentive to the government to work for their benefits
    3) Often, Law and order problems crop up due to urban slums
    4) They are contiguous zone which often extends to other states. Management and organization of such areas can be done through a holistic approach but Jurisdiction of two states on the same sets of issue results in no action at all due to lack of consensus or other issue

  • Dr Jaikal


  • Kumar

    The challenges faced in governing contiguous rural areas are:

    1 Non Self-Governance: Denizens here are mostly semi/ill-literate, un/under-employed and thus do not conform to law and order by themselves. Government has to resort forced intervention

    2. Too much importance to parochial ties: People are thus easily way-laid by vested interests, resulting into violence eg inter-Caste violence. Identity Politics adds to the problem there.

    4. Reachability: Law and order machinery sometimes are not locally available and takes time to reach.

    4. Huge Population density: Attraction & repulsion from urban & rural settings respectively make the place crowded, the sheer number of which makes it unmanageable

    5. Non-Demarcation: Unclear jurisdiction of State, panchayat, Municipality leads to clash of interest, lack of accountability,

    6. Slum culture: leads to difficulty in providing housing & civic amenities, delivery of service

  • Spidy

    Census defines a urban area on following basis –
    1. Area governed by any of the governing body mentioned under Constitutions part- IXA.. They are known as statutory towns
    2. If having population density > 400 and at least 75% people are engaged in non agricultural activities on a scale of min 5000. They are known as Census towns
    3. Area in continuity with town and showing urban pattern. known as Urban Agglomeration .

    Rest area falls under Rural population

    Challenges in Governing Rural regions contiguous to urban areas-

    1. Ineffective coverage under govt scheme due to their transitory stage from rural to urban. Ex- Like in health coverage they dont fall under NRHM and mostly neglected by NULM also due to transitory status.
    2. proper planning and policy implementation get a setback due to absence of any localized governing body as available in other statutory towns.
    3. Their close proximity with town make them attractive place for inward migration which cause problem of slum, sanitation, dwelling. Sometimes these regions are also prone to crimes.
    4. Service delivery and beneficiary identification became complex in these regions due to cross migration like coverage of immunization programs, institutional deliveries and other social security measure will become hard to implement.

    Hence proper documentation of people and their conversion into statutory town can solve the problem.

  • I4anI

    Criteria(census-2011) for declaring an area as urban are as follows:
    1.Area having municipality, municipal corporation, cantonment board or notified area committee.
    2.And includes which satisfy these 3 conditions:
    –minimum pupolation of 5000
    –Atleast 75% of the male working population is engaged in non agricultural activities
    –population density of atleast 400 person/sqkm
    All other areas expect urban are treated as rural. In general, these areas located outside cities and most of the population are engaged in agricultural activities.
    Challenges in governing rural regions contiguous to urban regions-

    Problem with Classification-Anything other than census town, statutory town are treated as rural regions. Population of such regions can be 50,000 or more attributed to its urban influence. Policies has to be made while keeping population in mind,
    Jurisdictional issues- In absence of a clear cut definition to demarcate between rural and urban delivery of public goods and services like MGNAREGA will be affected.Governance will be affected as these regions can come under conflicts of municipality & panchayats.
    Unemployment-Workers have to search for other jobs in cities as work under MGNEREGA would not be an option.
    Traffic and housing- With well grown and increasing population these villages roads are overcrowded, drains will be affected, incapacity in houses, unhygienic settlements like slums and squatters will evolved.
    We need to reclassify our definition between urban and rural regions so that a responsibility can be ensured from the governing authorities. Simultaneously need to develop infrastructure to support ever increasing population and also creating prospects of employment in these regions so that people have not to migrate to already over capacity urban regions for livelihoods.