1) According to Monster Salary Index, India suffers from huge gender pay gap. Discuss the causes and remedies.

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Topic: Social empowerment; Role of women,

1) According to Monster Salary Index, India suffers from huge gender pay gap. Discuss the causes and remedies. (200 Words)

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  • Discipline9

    The latest trend of increasing women participation in the global economy is a good sign. But the huge pay divide between the men and women, as reported by Monster salary index, is a cause of disappointment and concern.

    Reasons:
    -Poverty: Women from poor families do not have enough bargaining power to demand for fair and equal treatment with respect to wages. Fear of losing job deprives them of their voice. It has been proved in various surveys conducted by civil society.
    -Poor enforcement of existing legislations: At the central and state levels Minimum wages act provides for equal pay for men and women. But lapses in implementation is the reason for existing divide.
    -Unawareness:Many Women, especially in rural and small towns, are not aware of their rights. Hence they are not able to be assertive.
    – it is reported that women,by nature, are relatively hesitant to demand for more salaries probably for not to be seen as trouble makers.
    -Persistence of exploitative and patriarchal nature at the management level is also mainly responsible for the continuity in gender divide in terms of pay.

    Remedies:
    -Strict enforcement of existing legislative measures to uphold the spirit of Directive principles of State policy enumerated in the Article 39.
    -Conduct awareness drives and information dissemination campaigns to make women aware of their rights and assert them in times of need.
    -Easy complaint and grievance redressal mechanism is the need of the hour for the immediate course correction
    -Legislative measures alone are not sufficient to bring change. In long term, only attitudinal change can improve the situation for the better

    Parity in terms of salary payment is in accordance with the principles of social justice propounded by the Indian constitution. Government and people should work together to uphold the constitutional spirit and provide their due to women.

    • Anurag Bhale

      Nice answer….. I would add longer maternity leaves and better conduct after returning from such leaves.

      • Discipline9

        Valid point. Thank you.

    • Rimi cse

      What is monster sallary index?

      • Discipline9

        [Copy-paste from internet]
        Monster Salary Index, a joint initiative of Monster India & Paycheck.in with IIM-A as research partner, is based on the salary of millions of profiles across different industry verticals, functions and roles. The index offers you comprehensive information to evaluate what you’re worth in the job market.

        • Rimi cse

          Thank u….I did not know even this much too?

    • Mac28

      Also Inadequate infrastructure affects women more than men, perhaps because women often bear a larger share of the time and responsibility for household activities. It is notable that while the within-district infrastructure quality is prominent, access to major cities is not found to influence the gender balance. transport infrastructure and paved roads within villages are especially important. Travel in India can be limited and unpredictable, and women face greater constraints in geographic mobility imposed by safety concerns and/or social norms. Better transport infrastructure may alleviate a major constraint for female entrepreneurs who wish to access markets.

      • Babitha Madhuri

        i thought actually to write this point. but u wrote better than me.gud

        • Mac28

          Thanks!!:)

      • tzedok lebbran

        nice explanation But according to me ur point is more tend towards explaining the cause behind Low level of working women participation ratio in Economy AS compared to male

    • Hope

      Good answer.

      Possible additions :

      1) sometimes women prefer less responsibilites ( to manage work and home) over pay hikes
      2) Women have poor negotiation skills ( proved by various management studies) and thus cannot negotiate higher salaries
      3) Break in job- due to marriage and related things-which leads to less pay packages and hike as compared to male counterparts
      4) economic reason- although the supply is less, due to less demand for women executives the pay packages are generally low

      • Lovedeep singh

        Some other causes
        – increasing incomes of households refraining women from doing work outside
        – lack in safety measures
        – increased rates of unemployment due to which they settled for what the employers are giving.

      • satyam gandhi

        Please please review my answer also

    • naveenmergu

      u can add some more like
      corporates and other business class employ more male employees because because woman can give up the job due to marriage , which the company skilled and invested in training , and maternity paid leaves,

    • DANISH

      Some organization took women as more emotional to handle complex buiseness deal.

    • ashish

      nice and relevant points

    • Naval

      causes: Payed maternal leaves, remoteness to offices/industries.
      remedies: relocation of industries in proximity(as suggested by economic survey 2015 for textile industries)

    • tzedok lebbran

      FOR INTRO- also mention Gender pay gap is higher in Manufacturing and unorganised sector in comparision of service sector OUTCOME– Need for skill development
      Cause can add- Heath issue .. remedy..
      if u want u can also add Promote entrepreneurship through START UP (IF time permits)

  • Aim_2016

    The patriarchal nature of society manifests itself in every aspect of society even in today’s modern world. The gender salary gap is one such example of considering women’s workability lesser, as compared to men. Other causes for this include:

    1. Preferring men for managerial jobs, as compared to preference of women for lesser demanding positions.
    2. More promotions of men as compared to women in corporate sector
    3. More possibility of career breaks in women’s life, due to parenthood duties, due to the stereotypical behaviour in the society
    4. Women have taken this rule of the society in their stride and tend to protest less to protect their jobs or being ridiculed by colleagues
    5. Lesser awareness regarding availability of equal rights in majority of rural population

    Remedies:
    1. Women should shed the fear of society and come forward to claim their right of equal pay for equal work, which is a provision given in our DPSP
    2. The Companies act should be strictly implemented to ensure a particular percentage of women directors in the private/ public companies to forward concept of gender parity
    3. Men should also be a part of this movement, following HeForShe movement of the UN, so as to initiate an effective revolution
    4. Education sector should be strengthened to impart better values in boys to respect their female counterparts and help in promoting concept of inclusive governance

    Any nation cannot hope to progress while ignoring half of its human capital, which is why females should be able to progress as much as their male colleagues and help in the betterment of the nation

    • awaneesh

      great answer.review mine

  • khayali pulao

    Recently some research papers have revealed that women gets paid less that their male counterparts. Possible cuases for gender pay gap are-
    1. Due to the prevailing patriarchal mindset among the employers, women do not get respect for their potential.
    2. Centuries of disparagement of women in their socio-economic and political roles have oppressed their bargaining powers.
    3. More than 90% of economic activities in India takes place in unorganized sector, which prohibits effective implementation of equal pay rules and regulations.
    4. Lack of awareness among women regarding equal pay norms.

    The makers of the constitution of India recognized this anomaly and have expected the State to rectify it with its provision Fundamental rights as right to equality and in Directive Principles of State Policy. Other possible remedial measures can be-
    1. Increasing awareness among both the employers and employees regarding equal pay.
    2. Employment guarantee programmes like MGNREGA should be popularized among women which pay equal wages.
    3. Now that Panchayati Raj Institutions have reservation for women candidates, the next logical step would be to provide reservation for women at the State legislature and Parliament level so that the the grievances related to women get at legitimate floor.

  • FinalAttempt

    PLEASE REVIEW..

    • Manjul

      Nice answer

      • FinalAttempt

        thanks 🙂

    • good one you will get around 5-7 marks…

      • FinalAttempt

        thanks for review.. 🙂

      • satyam gandhi

        Please review my answer..please

      • satyam gandhi

        Please please review my answer

    • Uncle Carlos

      1.Write constitutional provisions in conclusion or in introduction , as it doesn’t make much sense in remedies part.
      2. You’ve covered only one side -ie. low efficiency is leading to salary gap. But actually , the question wants you to focus more on discrimination in salary for same work done by both.

      • FinalAttempt

        right i need to reconsider 2nd point.. thanks for review and keep reviewing ..

    • Nivedita Singh

      Nice answer….Please improve your writing. This is very crucial for attracting readers.

      • FinalAttempt

        yes i m trying hard for writing.. thanks for review and please keep doing.

  • uno

    Monster salary index India is a initiative of Monster India and IIM-A to give more comprehensive view on salary trends in India. In the recent report on salary index it was cited that India also suffers from huge gap in gender terms. As, this problem is not local to India but also prevalent in most of the countries in the world, most of the reasons for unevenness in the salaries are also same.

    Reasons for disparities in the salaries of different gender are

    1) Social Mentality : Mentality that males works more efficiently than women cause , more pay hikes in the case of former conterpart than the latter one. e.g. in U.S. females are paid only 78 cents as compared to 1 dollar under by males. Therefore, MNC’S with same attitude treat women at same level

    2)Higher Drop out rate:Because of higher dropout rate because of pregnancy and other biological issues, women rate of drop out in middle and lower level jobs becomes too high. Therefore, in turn less women are left for consideration for higher jobs

    3) Long Carrier Breaks: Due to maternity leaves and other kind of break , decrease in competition holding capacity and less experience of women due to breaks, make then less favorable for higher posts

    Remedies

    Education : inclusion of gender sensitization programs at school level and display of plays , street performance at local level to increase awareness among people about gender equality

    Work From Home : Provisions for women for work from home , during maternity leave or in other situation where she can’t be physically present at the office. Which will help her in gaining experience and become at par with male counterpart

    Provision of quota at higher level: Government should make provisions for fixed amount of percentage of women in higher level positions

    Aforementioned remedies are just few of some measures that can be taken to improve better representation of women in higher position and reducing the pay gaps. Reducing the pay and gender gap in the workforce is key to have a healthy civil society, as oppressing ~50% of population because of gender is not good for any society.

  • Neelotpal

    Art. 39 (d) that directs the State to ensure equal pay for equal work for both men and women has remained a pious wish of our founding fathers. Recently, MSI has said that gender pay gap in India is as high as 27%. Undoubtedly, a part of this problem arises from the inherent discrimination and the tendency to not value the woman’s work. But other reasons are also into play’

    1) Women have to take career break to raise the family or act as caregiver to sick family-members. This goes against them and is interpreted as lack of commitment towards work.
    2) Very often, the woman workers in unorganized sector do not have bargaining power to get equal pay laws enforced. They have no financial support system to fall back on in case of job loss. So they do not raise their voice to patent discrimination.
    3) The patriarchal environment has made the women undervalue their own work. They have been taught helplessness, so to say.

    A few remedies could be suggested:

    a) A great part of responsibility lies with State in enforcing equal remuneration legislature. The start can be government programmes like MGNREGS and Govt contract works.
    b) A social support system should be established. A novel demand is ‘PATERNITY LEVAES’. This will surely reduce the mother’s one-sided effort in child rearing. CRECHES should be provided.
    c) ‘IEC’ interventions to change mindset.

    It was once thought that the male and female are two wheels on which the society moves forward. If the wheels are unequal in size and strength, the vehicle will wobble and its path towards development will remain fraught.
    ~270 words

    • Neelotpal

      Please review…..

  • Pratap Das

    Introduction: According to Monster Salary Index report on India’s gender pay gap have few surprises, except that the gap is as much as 34 per cent in the information technology (IT) sector, which is supposed to employ relatively better-skilled people. What is even more alarming is that the pay gap in this sector has increased from around 29 per cent a year earlier.

    Causes:

    1. Mind-set issues in India: Many lay the blame on mindset issues in India Inc’s C-suites: several institutions prefer male employees over female employees and promote a higher number of male employees to supervisory positions even though there is hardly any evidence to suggest that a woman will compete less than a man if the right cultural incentives are in place.

    2. Work-family loyalties But that’s only part of the story. Companies say such gender pay gap exists because of divided work-family loyalties, as women take more time off from work to care for their families, leading to long career breaks. By the time they return to the job market, they have often missed the bus. Evidence exists that women lose out through voluntary termination of service at a rate two or three times faster than men once they have attained the experienced, mid-career level.

    3. Highest drop in representation of women in India: India, in fact, sees the highest drop in representation of women from junior to middle-level positions, unlike several other Asian countries where such a drop occurs from middle- to senior-level positions. For example, an analysis done by ICICI Group showed that at junior management levels in ICICI Bank, the representation of women in attrition is around two per cent higher than their representation in the total grade population. In other words, if at these levels, women constitute 25 per cent, then their representation in attrition is 27 per cent.

    4. Absence of a support system at home to take care of the child: This, in turn, impacts the supply line for higher levels. Data also showed almost one-third of women employees have not resumed work in the absence of a support system at home to take care of the child. This, in turn, disproves the hypotheses that organisations have any control over women’s decision to exit/re-enter the workforce.

    5. Absent of Flexible work Culture/policies or extended leave: Flexible work policies or extended leave can, at best, be a minor enabler for those who possess career aspirations in a situation where close to 78 per cent of eligible female graduates choose not to participate in the organised workforce.

    6. Lowest female labour force participation (FLFP) rates :This is reflected in the fact that India has one of the lowest female labour force participation (FLFP) rates — typically measured as the share of women who are employed or are seeking work as a share of the working-age female population — among emerging markets and developing countries, according to an International Monetary Fund working paper published last year.

    7. A sector-wise analysis shows the gender pay gap was highest in manufacturing sector (34.9 per cent) and lowest in the BFSI and Transport, logistics, communication, equally standing at 17.7 per cent.

    8. According to the report, some of the reasons behind gender pay gap could be the preference for male employees over female employees, preference for promotion of male employees to supervisory positions and career breaks of women due to parenthood duties and other socio-cultural factors.

    9. Worldwide, lack of pay parity has taken a centre stage with strong views being shared by sports persons, political and business leaders alike. Men often get higher salary offers than women vying for the same title in the same organization.

    Remedies:

    1.Administrative Measured: Strict enforcement of existing legislative measures to uphold the spirit of Directive principles of State policy enumerated in the Article 39.

    2.Transparency promotion & Conduct awareness drives and information dissemination campaigns to make women aware of their rights and assert them in times of need.

    3. Role of regulator:

    4. System of Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Easy complaint and grievance redressal mechanism is the need of the hour for the immediate course correction

    5. Legislative measures alone are not sufficient to bring change. In long term, only attitudinal change can improve the situation for the better

    6. Support system at home to take care of the child:

    7. Improvement of Ironically Women Employment sector:

    8. Need a sound education ecosystem with high quality teaching staff

    Conclusion:

    Needless to say, the situation is far from desired in India, especially when the country is gearing towards inclusive development and task at hand is the pace at which this pay gap can be bridged.

    There is a strong need to create equal opportunities for all, particularly women, who are key contributors in the Indian job market,

  • Arvind Kumar

    The Constitution of India provides for ‘Equal Pay for Equal Work’ under Art.39(d)[DPSP].Despite this the pay-gap is on the rise as revealed by the recent Monster Salary Index.The gap in the IT is as much as 34% (27% last year).
    The various causes are:
    a)Societal: 1.due to patriarchal mindset women are not considered as equal as men.
    2. The competency of women are less-valuedthan men even in professionals requiring similar skills,hard works,etc. Eg actress in the Film Industry are paid less than male actors.
    3.Division of labor on the basis of gender. Women are supposed to take household chores thereby leave the job in the middle to fulfill their gender-duty.
    4. Marital status- for single women, the gender-pay gap is 27% and for married and divorced the gap is over 40%.
    b)Biological distinction between male and female such as women’s pregnancy,menstrual cycle,etc.also contributes to the cause.
    c)Administrative:Lack of strict implementation of policy that addresses gender-pay gap such as the Mininmum Wages Act,the Factories Act,etc.
    d)Lack of awareness among women about their constitutional and legal rights.
    The remedies are:
    a)Strict implementation of laws such as The Factories Act,the Mininmum Wages Act,etc.
    b)Increasing awareness campaigns among women through street plays,folk songs,mass media,etc.
    c)Economic empowerment through skilled-training,education,vocational training,etc to change patriarchal mindset.
    d)Working women must be provided all facilities such as creches at work places.
    These steps need to be taken strictly as it is in the societal and national interest and in accordance with ideals of the JUSTICE and EQUALITY as enshrined in our preamble.

    • Ajay Rathod

      You have written Gov skim at first para. but instead you could have written it in remedial part or conclusion . intro could have been discussed first with proper introduction.

      • Arvind Kumar

        thanks Ajay ji for pointing it our..will keep that in mind.KWR

    • ashish

      good attempt…you have included good numbers of backing data,,,,for remedies and to affirm your statement.nice job..
      if you can please review mine too..

    • Shreya

      Hey Arvind, I think in the introduction you should also mention the legislation – Equal remuneration act , as DPSPs are not justiciable after all. And also, you could mention examples of steps like providing paternity leave by Facebook to its male employees – Thus changing the societal norms.
      A good answer over all.

      • Arvind Kumar

        thanks a lot Shreya. I was not aware of the FB’s paternity leave. thanks alot for for suggesting it.

      • satyam gandhi

        Please review my answer

    • v2v

      very well-organised answer! way to go!

  • Equal pay for equal work has still not been achieved in India and employees are still discriminated based on their gender. The reasons are as follows :-

    1. Women’s work is undervalued :- When any job is dominated by women, then it is undervalued even if it requires a lot of skill, experience and qualification.
    2. Mindset issue :- The patriarchal mindset of society gets transferred to the employers too, and they tend to prefer male employees for a higher post than female. This is due to their prejudiced notion of inferiority of female as a gender.
    3. Private life a hindrance :- Mostly, women take care of family and domestic responsibilities are not equally shared. Therefore, it often happens that they have to take more breaks from job which has a negative impact on their chance of promotion and career development.

    Following remedies can help in this regard :-

    1. Reward employers who adhere to gender equality.
    2. Government should make strict regulations regarding equal pay for equal work and should punish those who deviate from it.
    3. Community awareness programmes should be organised to educate people on the inherent equality of male and female gender. It would help in transforming the mindset of people.
    4. People should be encouraged to share domestic responsibilities with their female counterpart.

    There is an urgent need to address this anachronistic practice in the age of gender equality as it is against human rights and constitutional provisions which are fundamental to the dignity of human beings.

  • Krishna

    India’s problem of gender inequality has once again surfaced with the huge gender pay gap witnessed in the country. The reasons are:

    No Women in higher pay jobs:- Lack of women in the high pay jobs is evident in every industry. The reasons for this are the career breaks which the women needs to take mostly in the first 5-6 years of her career due to pregnancy, migration after marriage etc. This has given advantage to the men over women in promotions

    Inequality:- For the same work, women are paid less in few industries. This is owing to the stereotype that women can’t give output as men.

    Societal Pressures :- The mentality of the society that women shouldn’t work late nights, women shouldn’t travel much, and other stereotypes pressure women from not taking challenging jobs and settling with lower pay.

    Remedies:-
    Awareness:- Parents should be made aware of how women empowerment can make the country prosper. We should make sure that the potential of about 50% of the workforce is properly tapped.

    Educate Women:- Women should be educated and motivated to work. Independency should be taught to women to make them work instead of going into a marriage.

    Educate Men:- Men should understand how a well earning wife will help in making a good family in todays competitive world. In today’s patriarchal society, men needs to support their wives with out stereotypes.

  • pink

    answer

    • awaneesh

      nice answer.revie wmine

      • pink

        ya sure

  • Ishita

    Plaese review –
    Why huge gender gap?

    Organised job sectors –

    1. Cultural mind set issues – less women employed in supervisory or managerial or senior positions – mindset that they would not be able to lead from the front

    2. Companies prefer male over female in most of the job positions & employment rate of men more than women – because women take long breaks in their career to take care of their family. Besides this, they often miss opportunities to climb the ladder in the companies

    Unorganised job sector – majority of women workforce belongs to this sector

    1. In absence of maternity leaves, social security benefits, career progress becomes close to nil

    2. Time taken by women to do household chores, take care of the children – lead them to devote less time to jobs

    3. Along with them, Patriarchial mind set of incapability of women &

    4. Non availability of suitable jobs eg. Less textile factories in North India than South &

    5. Higher illiteracy among females than in males add to this trauma

    These leda to dearth of jobs & more of part time jobs – women become less committed leading to gender pay gap.

    Remedies –

    1. Through Skill India, women could be given suitable skills – this will make them more suited to getting jobs

    2. Through beti bachao, beti padhao campaign – literacy could be increased

    3. Behavioural mindset in families needs to e changed – than women can also contribute equally to earn bread

    4. Recent Govt initiative to increase maternity leave in companies – could institutionalise better chances of getting higher positions for women in organised sector
    5. Incease entrepreneurship through Stand up India
    6. Crèches in work place

    According to a report, equal participation fromwomen could increase our GDP by a wide margin & better participation will also reduce the gender gap once women are more integrated in the job sector.

    • awaneesh

      good answer.review mine

  • Ankith

    Historically across many cultures in India, women were accorded secondary status, such an attitude restricted them in the fields of education, employment. The huge gender pay gap also pertains to the manifestations created by these historic reasons, a brief look at various causes follows:

    1 Percentage of women in the higher education is lower to that of men. For example, the ratio of women taking admission in to IITs, IIMs, IISc etc are lower compared to men

    2 Women are more preferred in the routine and lesser demanding jobs, where pay and growth is lesser. For example, tele callers, receptionists etc

    3 Long career breaks of women to take care of their families pushes them behind in the race

    4 Women have to balance their families and work, which means the amount of time they spend on job is less which effects their effeciency in the professional life

    5 Continuity of service in an organisation gets affected for women, pre-marriage and post-marriage because of relocation to husband’s place

    6 Even in the informal sector where physical work is required, women are paid less on the premise that men are physically strong and give more output

    7 Patriarchal atmosphere has even limited the voice of women, who were forced to get satisfied with what is present rather than aspiring for bigger things

    Remedies:

    1 Flexible work policies and extended leave for female work force by the companies, example Indian PSUs like coal India provides 2 year career break for female to look after their children and these women are not discriminated during the promotions

    2 Stricter implementation of the equal pay legislations and also creating discrimination free environment in the offices, with still majority of the organisations failing to implement the prevention of harassment at work places act

    3 Educating women of their rights

    4 On a long term strategy, ensuring higher percentage of girls to continue with their studies atleast till graduation level

  • We Stand for JUSTICE

    pls review

  • Gardaa

    Countries develop only when there is gender equality in all forms but the recent Monster salary index brings out the huge differences in salary of male and female.

    Causes
    1- Women are thought of less flexible in the corporate which results in pay differences
    2- They tend to take more leaves because of family responsibilities, the hiring person is unsure of their availability
    3- Social barriers to be involved in more household work and they miss out on big projects which devalue their profile
    4- Biological distinction between male and female hinders their growth
    5- low female literacy rates leading to unskilled jobs, less pay.

    Remedies
    1- Administrative measures- Proper and structured support to women regarding any inequality
    2- Equal opportunities at work
    3- Confidence building measures- women should be motivated to enhance their skills by grooming their full potential
    4- Examples like kalpana chawla, Sunita williams, Malala yosufzai, Angela merkel should be promoted that women have full potential to work at higher levels
    5- Integration of skill development mission with corporate with focus on women

    Equal wages act as a tool which uplifts the standard of women in society and with our DPSP ART 39 stating that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. It is imperative for the corporate to rethink their decision while hiring women on equal pay basis because definitely they will give impetus to the growth of organization and country.

  • PS2016

    which employs the educated people. The causes are:-

    1. Mindset issues:- Lack of belief in women’s capability by employer and peers , leading to less promotions to higher levels

    2. Long maternity leaves:- With women taking leaves to take care of their new borns, often they miss the opportunity of hike/promotion in the meanwhile

    3. Higher attrition rate amongst women:- At present, the home care and onus of household chores fall on women (owing to a patriarchal society), as a result many women not able to balance the professional and personal life resign.

    4. Increasing trend of nuclear families- makes the conditions worse, where the entire responsibility of home and children falls back on women shoulders.

    Remedies are:-

    1. Public intervention:- The recent ruling of Monistry of Women and Child Development to make it compulsory for organisations with a particular strength to provide crèche facility is a huge respite

    2. Recognition, Reduction and Redistribution of the unpaid household work carried out by women

    3. Change in societal mindset:- Where women are treated at par with men and families should come forward and provide an enabling environment

    The labour force participation rate (LFPR)– number of women employed or are currently looking for work to the total working age population , in the country is low and if this pay disparity is not rectified urgently then it might act as a disincentive for women to work and there is a risk that LFPR might fall further – depriving India of the services of half its population.

  • Manjul

    1.

  • Ankit

    Though the participation of women in the work force in India is increasing but the social prejudice and discrimination they face gets resonated even in the pay scale as revealed by the Monster Salary index.

    The causes –

    1. Societal mindset – patriarchal mindset is mainly responsible for this difference. Even the management resorts to exploiting the women staff by paying less.

    2. Poverty and Vulnerable situation – most of the women in workforce come from poor background and doesn’t have enough bargaining power. Absence of Women Trade Unions is another reason for this.

    3. Poor enforcement of Legislations like Minimum Wages Act and unawareness on the part of women employees about such legislation. There is also a laxity on the part of administration to implement such laws and rules in their spirit.

    Remedies –

    1. Implementation of legal measures in their letter and spirit to uphold the constitutional principles of Equality and Equal pay for Equal work.

    2. Creating awareness about these measures by conducting workshops and seminars in workplace to better educate women employees about them.

    3. Better grievance redressal mechanism in case of pay gap and quick resolution of the complaints.

    4. Government should launch a campaign to ensure a change in societal mindset and that women get paid according to their work to prevent their exploitation.

    Women workforce contributes in Nation building and it’s economy so it must be treated at parity to male counterparts.

  • According to Monster Salary Index, India suffers from huge gender pay gap. Discuss the causes and remedies.
    Monster Salary Index states that in the IT sector women receive less compensation (to the tune of 34%) as compared with the men. The cause for the same are:-
    1) Mid Career Break for women because of the pressure to raise a family. This restricts their further promotion.
    2) Absence of the support system from the government in the form of child care centre.
    3) Growth of nuclear family which has reduced traditional support system such as Grandmother.
    4) The presence of men at the higher level of hierarchy which gives less emphasis to women payment.
    Remedies:-
    1) Provide child care system in form of daily creches.
    2) Ensure representation of the women at the highest level so as to promote the women from Junior level to achieve the higher position.
    3) Provide legislation so as to ensure that “equal pay for equal work” is enforced.
    The above remedial steps will ensure that women traverse a path which will provide them equal opportunity for their future growth.

  • amit

    There are reports citing that if female labour force participation increases, our GDP would grow by extra 2%- but seeking the prevalent trends of gender pay gap, gender parity seems a distant dream in workforce. Various reasons for this increasing pay gap are:

    –social attitude- biased against women -doubting capabilities of women and giving them lesser payable jobs

    –divided family-work loyalty- whole family responsibility lies on women and thus they face problem in balancing their private and professional life

    –carreer breaks-since women go for more leaves like maternity leave or leaves due to family and child responsibilities , thus companies prefer males and promote them faster for superior posts ,leaving women behind on lower posts. Also women wind up their carreer suddenly due reasons like marriage, child care,etc.

    –poor enforcement of laws like minimum wages Act and unawareness among women also adds to their cause

    REMEDIES:
    –strict legal enforcement to cherish principles of constitution-like equal pay for equal work envisaged in directive principles
    –sharing family responsibilties – make peolpe aware of success stories of dual family income like in Singapore and thus encorage man to come shoulder-to-shoulder with woman at both home and work.
    –awareness-provide digital literacy so that women can easily learn about their rights and thus can fight for them
    –also give due compensation for voluntary household work by women

    • amit

      do review friends

  • Michelin

    Although females contribute half the total population of India, they continue to be marginalized. The gender pay gap is a manifestation of this.
     
    Causes
    • Patriarchal mindset of the society that treats males as superior to females
    • Lack of recognition of domestic duties and their value addition to the economy
    • Comparatively lower educational attainment level among females and consequently lower skill level
    • High employment of females in the informal sector which fall outside legal and statutory provisions
    • Violation of legislative provisions such as Equal Wages Act as a result of weak regulation
    • Lack of awareness among females about their rights and entitlements
     
    Remedies
    • Recognition of household work as this will change the prevalent mindset about female participation in GDP
    • Strict punitive action for non-compliance with legal provisions
    • Special schemes for women empowerment with focus on education right from infancy to adulthood. Eg: Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, SABLA, etc
    • Mass-based awareness to change the patriarchal outlook through civil society participation

  • GODDAMN Batman!!

    { 235 Words }

    That, despite SEBI’s directives & extensions, many of the listed companies still have not appointed women directors, speaks volumes about the gender disparities and sexism in our workplaces. The recent MSI report points towards the glaring gender pay gap (GPG) in India.

    CAUSES:
    1.
    Patriarchal attitudes of promoting males over female employees, paying lower wages to women (despite qualifications, experience), stereotyped feminine-masculine jobs etc. Even in so-called ‘female-friendly’ IT Industry, GPG has increased.
    2. Unfriendly/unsafe work environment, late/overtime work hours, family pressures disincentivise women from active participation in workforce.
    3. Voluntary termination due to increasing household burden, childcare, other household chores etc. which remain unaccounted as savings/incomes.
    4. Increasing male-female gap from lower to higher educational levels, especially in technical graduation.
    Thus, with lower pays, and lower Female Workforce Participation (FWP), the GPG has become one of the lowest for India.

    REMEDIES:
    1.
    Ensuring compliance of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, safe transportation, separate toilets, gender-sensitising workforce, etc. to make workplace more female-friendly.
    2. Stringent implementation of Equal Remuneration Act (‘Equal Pay for Equal Work’)
    3. Ensuring crèche facilities at/near workplace, employing & incentivising fathers to take paternity leaves etc. can go long way in equal sharing of work-family responsibilities.
    4. Motivating women to not just be employees, but also employers, innovators, entrepreneurs, leaders e.g. with Bharatiya Mahila Bank, Stand-up India etc.

    Breaking the glass-ceiling in pays & positions, and better FWP will have significant socio-economic gains for the country.

  • ashwin jai

    If there is differentiation in Payment of wages on basis of gender despite performing same type of work, then there is gender pay gap. In monster salary index, it was found that india suffering from huge gender pay gap because :
    a) Preference of male employee over female employees during employment and promotion, despite no evidence to prove women are less hard working than men.
    b) Due to division of female employee attention between home and work, employers pay less amount .
    c) Lack of support for female employee from HR department to ensure there is reduced pay gap. Lack of support whenever she raises issue of equal pay grade.
    d) Most employers assume that female employees would drop out during maternity period and slim chances of returning back to work, so they would not prefer to make investment in female employee by paying same salary as men.
    In order to remove this gender pay gap, the steps to be taken are :
    a) Government must legislate equal gender pay law, so that women are not discriminated.
    b) Need to create flexible work policies so that women can devote time to work and family.
    c) Need to build crèche facilities at the offices this would enable women to come to work early during the maternity period.
    d) Husbands must step up to create a proper family support to their wives so that both can earn for their family.
    Even though the gender pay gap is world wide phenomenon, but only thru united action we can remove it.

  • Chutta nahi hai

    A gender pay-gap exists because women and men are not paid equally for equal work. Despite the Right to Equality being guaranteed through Article 14 this exists. The government has passed laws and the courts judgements echoing the Directive Principles of State Policy which seeks to eliminate the gender pay gap. But the gap still exists because:
    – In many jobs, especially low skill labor female labor is used to replace male labor as it comes cheaper. The excess supply of labor ensures that the wage differential persists and women are paid less. This also happens because much of this work is done in the informal sector which has very few protective measures for labor.
    – The worry of employers that women will leave jobs once they become mothers or the long maternity benefits they will have to give which will add to the cost of doing business
    – The misconception that women are not good at certain jobs like engineering
    – The lack or organization of the female workforce to demand equal pay

    The remedies for correcting the gender pay gap is:
    – Female workers must organize themselves to demand equal pay and other benefits that have been guaranteed to them through different laws
    – Correcting societal attitudes by ensuring more female leaders emerge in different sectors.

    – Sticking to minimum wage limits even if cheaper female labor is available through better oversight by the administration of state governments. This will also ensure labor is not exploited by being paid less

    The persistence of the gender wage gap has both social and economic reasons and both will have to be addressed to eliminate it.

  • durgesh patel

    kripaya samiksha karen

  • I4anI

    Despite being enshrined in our constitution under article-14 and specifically art-16 i.e. equality in opportunity in matters of public employment there is a huge gender discrimination against equal pay. For history our women have been neglected from the mainstream strata of the society.
    Causes:-
    –India still being an orthodox society majorly facing the ordeal due to its inferior treatment and thinking towards women.
    –Gender prejudices like women are made to do household works, take care of children and
    seldom need to go out of four walls of their house.
    –They are vulnerable to go outside and cannot compete with work against men.
    –Some biological issues, though less effective, are there like menstrual cycle, pregnancy and
    their biological
    –From the beginning girls are treated less equals than boys, thus deprived them from the
    basic facilities which most of the boys are getting. Education, healthcare, amenities,etc are
    not available to girls at par with boys making them further vulnerable to society.
    –Liking for boy child results in frequent female foeticide and thus skewed sex ratio making
    women less further more vulnerable.

    Remedies:-
    –Education is the best panacea for all such prejudices.
    –Sensitization about the importance of women in workforce, like they can increase your
    household earnings and according to recent report by IMF, gender parity in India can
    increase its GDP by 27%.
    –Schemes like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Sukanya Samriddhi yojna, Ujjawala for BPL
    women, etc will surely create the path for gender parity.
    –Through education and for short term giving reservations to women in education institutions
    and in jobs can place women at par with men.
    Man and woman were born equals with two hands to work and brain to think. We need to end such prejudices against woman and work together.

  • ankgarg0402

    The various surveys have highlighted the huge gender pay gap prevailing in India. Although a similar trend is seen in majority parts of the world, but in India, the situation is much worse.

    Causes & their remedies-

    1. Social- Social stigma and prejudices deter women from taking employment outside the home premises

    Remedy- Sensitization of people by highlighting achievements of successful women

    2. Political- The skewed gender profile towards males in legislatures translated to legislature biased towards men.

    Remedy- Extending reservations for women at State and Union Legislature

    3. Psychological- Negative psychology (embedded in society) against women at top levels of management

    Remedy- Policies like recent SEBI’s guidelines of atleast one women director in board of listed companies

    4. Lack of skills and education- The girl child is always the last recipient of quality education and training that reduces her employability.

    Remedy- Government interventions like Beti Bachao Beti Padao

    5. Biological- The maternal phase requires huge absence and thus breaks continuity. Also employer fear of legal financial reimbursement during the period.

    Remedy- Recent government’s decision to increase paid leave from 12 to 26 weeks. The employer needs to understand these constructive legislatures only increase the loyalty towards the company.

    6. Security- lack of security in offices and during transit deters women from giving long working hours

    Remedy- Strict implementation of legislatures like The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act and ensuring safe public transport.

    7. Lack of entrepreneurship- due to lack of finances

    Remedy- Easier access to finance by establishing more Mahila Banks etc.

    These remedies could only provide for a temporary thrust for women-empowerment, but a long-term solution would require a change in the mindset of the society and especially women to take these as an opportunity for a sustainable empowerment.

  • Machiavelli

    Gender gap in India is deeply entrenched and this is also visible in salaries too . Monster salary index is a testimony to already recognised fact . But India is not an exception as this is observed all over the world. fact that it is very high in high skill jobs like IT (34 percent ) is a matter of worry . various reasons attributes to gender gap are :

    > SOCIETAL : a bias and patriarchal society is contend with low wages to women irrespective of the work . women are susceptible to leaving jobs post marriage or pregnancy and hence employer prefer them at lower levels only. secondly they are considered solely responsible for children upbringing , making difficult to manage work -family balance .
    > REGULATORY : poor implementation of various laws like equal renumeration act etc.
    > LACK OF SKILL : this goes to the gender gap in education itself as girls either drop out before secondary education for supporting family chores or married off post graduation or even before .
    > INFRASTRUCTURE : lack of infrastructure like lack of crèches etc. forcing women to quit jobs .
    > SAFETY : as always a big concern for working women , forcing them to loose job , if not suitable to their timing or transport facilities.

    The remedy to this lies mainly in societal change along with regulatory and working culture too need revision ;

    – Better enforcement of regulation , laws etc for equal pay to women.
    – changing societal mindset , through advertisements, quoting examples of successful women etc.
    – providing sufficient infrastructure so that they can work efficiently , in IT industry facilities like working from home need to be promoted.
    – safety issue need to be addressed ,using various safety apps for women , GPS based phones , dedicated transport will work .

    still India suffers poor in gender pay gap due to poor female labor force participation(FLFP) is dismal (33 percent ) as compared to world average 50 percent . These all can be addressed with suitable measures and efficient implementation

  • chaman jain

    According to Monster Salary Index, India suffers from huge gender pay gap between male and female where an average salary of male earns Rs288.68 per hour where female earns only Rs 207.85.
    Monster Salary Index is aimed to establish benchmark to compare the salary of various group into anonymous profiles across broad spectrum of industry domain, experience, functional groups both in India and other global markets.

    Causes of the salary gap between male and female entities are:-

    1) IT sector reported 34% of salary gap between male and female which was 29% earlier. This is due to the mindset of the companies preferring male employees over female employees and also promoting more male employees to the supervisory positions in spite of the known fact that there is hardly any incidence of females not competing them.

    2) Women’s between junior to middle management are greater than between middle to senior level positions because of divided work-family loyalties, as women take more time off from work to care for their families, leading to long career breaks. Also it has been noted that attrition rate of women into junior to middle management is also high .

    3)According to an International Monetary Fund working paper published last year. At around 33 per cent at the national level in 2012, India’s FLFP(Female Labour force participation) rate is well below the global average of around 50 per cent.

    Remedies:-

    1) India is not only the country which is facing this issue .Consider the US. It’s well known that for every dollar a man makes in the US, a woman earns just 78 cents for doing the same job. Article 39 (A) of the Indian constitution says that the citizen, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood . There should be awareness among women about their rights and these provisions should be considered under judicial review if they are being violated.

    2) There should be more employee friendly policies in the companies so that they can work at home also . Most of the women leave their job because of family and their children .Since , men are less liable to their families . there should be a balance .

    3) Women’s are not less skilled than men . There should be provisions inside the companies to have certain number of female employees fixed for higher post. In a very famous book Lean In ,written by Facebook CFO Cheryl Sandberg. She said she was the only female in her team when she become CFO .

    As a developing economy, India needs to take severe measures to lessen the gap between these entities . This will also help in women empowerment , more no of women will get the equal wages so that they can also support their family and children and hence , enhancing the quality of their life .

    • awaneesh

      very well written.review mine

  • Tim

    causes-
    1-Doubt on women’s capabilities and dimensions that they can’t fulfill or accomplish the task given to them in efficient way that’s why less promotion to the higher pay scale grade.
    2-Woman’s have to divide their time both to family and office, sometime they take break ,when they resume colleagues get promoted to the higher positions .
    3-Rate of quitting job in women is greater than the man even after gaining sufficient experience ,this hinders their progress and promotion to higher management .
    4-Private sector demands to work for late hours in return of payment , higher you devote time and skill more you will earn , but women can’t pay that much of time because of family load .
    Remedies-
    1-Flexible work policies like provision of extended maternal leave , monthly breaks .
    2-Companies should requrite and promote on the basis of skill ,educational qualification not on the basis of gender .
    3-Providing support system at home so that they can manage both family and office without affecting each other .
    This gender pay gap is not only confined to India , even in US a woman earns only 78% of the man earns for the same job in the same organisation.The economist quoted an analysis done by Korn Ferry, which looked at employees in 33 countries and found that on average, women earn 18 per cent less than men, which indicate that this is widespread problem .

  • Mrinal Mukherjee

    The revelations to the latest Monster Salary Index presents a startling fact on India’s gender pay gap which has been widening for quite some time now.The gender pay gap of 27% with the median gross hourly salary of men (Rs 288.68) more than that of woman(Rs 207.85) gets us to the issue of why there is a huge gender pay gap and steps needed to curb it.

    Why there is a huge pay gap ?

    –Marital Pressures : The culture of getting women married at their early ages and compromising their education often leads to such an anomaly in the future.Unlike women , there is no such restrictions on men , giving them an edge.By increasing their qualifications, men reap the benefits in terms of more salary in their professional spheres.

    –Work Family Loyalties : Even if the woman is well educated and better qualified , lack of shared responsibility(EG no paternal leaves and only maternal leaves) with the spouse makes her bear the entire weight of her family’s welfare.This makes ‘them’ take more time off from work to take care of their families ,leading to long career breaks which ultimately stakes her professional life.

    –Lack of Awareness of the Equal Wages Act : According to the report , highest pay gap was envisaged at the manufacturing industry among the organized sectors.This clearly shows the lack of awareness of the Equal Wages and Remunerations Act that excessively focuses on the “Equal Pay for Equal Work’ concept.

    How can it be curbed ?

    –More focus on the quality of work done and its impact on the firm rather than its quantity.
    –The background due to which women aren’t able to show up regularly should be considered with proper arrangements.Eg Work from home , Universal Paid Maternity leaves etc
    –The board which decides the salary of its employees should be equally represented of men and woman to avoid any sort of dominance
    –More awareness of the acts that facilitate “Equal pay for Equal work” specially in the manufacturing sector
    –Providing women with extra perks (like official conveyance or carpool) so as to compensate with the wage difference.

    • Mrinal Mukherjee

      Pls Review 🙂

    • awaneesh

      great answer.review mine

  • iasnav2016

    india is one such country were gender gap continue from centuries and gender gap in pay system is one such phinomina. there is some reason as argued by scholars-
    1. due to poverty, they have minimum bargaining power which furthered by their negotiation power.

    2. awareness lacuna about their rights
    3. it is supplemented by exploitative and patriarchal mindset of employers.

    this gap can be minimised by effective implimentation of various constitutional provision like article 39, various statutory provision which should supplemented by awareness program and gender sensitive initiative.

  • SAVE TIME

    words : 222

    Monster salary Index gives account gender pay gap in employment. India women are less payed than their male counterparts for the same nature of job. Reasons are : –
    1 Patriarchal mindset of society : considers women as inferior to man.
    2.Wrong productivity notion : women are considered less productive than their male counterparts.
    3. Division of loyalty between home and office : women do not focus entirely on job because of home responsibilities like child care, cooking, other household related works.
    4. Break in the service : women take a break in the mid of their career to full fill home responsibilities.results in loss of experience, skill and opportunity.

    Remedies suggested are : –
    1. Establishing a system of child support for working women.
    2. Break in service should not be counted loss of experience for future employment.
    3. Promoting rights to equal pay through campaigns such as twitters # positionofstrength, NITI aayog’s women transforming India
    4. legal reforms like amendment of maternity benefit act, so that women do not quit jobs.
    5. special training schools for training in women specialized jobs like embroidery, handicrafts etc.
    6. Jobs which required more of mental skills than physical labour like IT sector, make equal pays mandatory.

    Demographic dividend can be utilized, only if above measure are taken to improve Female labour participation rate.

    • awaneesh

      nice points.review mine

    • Amazing Peter Parker

      “Division of loyalty between home and office” – Very good indeed; Thanks for that.

      You could have avoided 5 and 6; Especially six as it shows you can’t have equal pay in physical work.

      Please review mine too.

  • Sumit

    Gender disparity is prominent in India guided by sex roles which derives their social sanctity from ancient and religious set of norms.
    Gender pay gap is widening in India due to the following reasons:

    * Dominance of sex based divisions in the psyche of Indian population: women are not considered fit for employment in various MNC’s compared to men due to physical limitations.
    * Glass ceiling effect hind res upward mobility of women for leadership roles despite at par performance with males.
    * Insecure and unstable nature of their recruitment: issues like sexual amassment and accusations put organizations in bad light , hence they are given less preference in training, mentoring and e-ship roles and opportunities.
    * Gender pay gap helps in retaining of male workers and employees since long term commitment can be expected from them in times of inflation and social issues.

    Measures needed:
    * gender sensitization among corporate and leaders of prominent MNC’s like infosys, TCS will help in diminishing this male-bias prejudices.
    * gender budgeting with increased emphasis on girl’s education and their training and economic well being should become an integral part of govt schemes.
    * technology dissemination like laptops, smart phones will enable their upliftment in terms of knowledge and give a head start in jobs.
    Patriarchal nature prevalence in corporate and MNC’s needed to be replaced with inclusive and equality based work-culture.

    • awaneesh

      nice answer.revie wmine

  • Dheeraj

    Growth in participation of women in active workforce, though increasing has remained at very low rate, both in rural and urban areas. In addition, wage gap for different gender is an added disadvantage for women to work. Add to this, their non monetary services- household chores, looking after family. It is estimated that increasing women workforce to world average would grow Indian GDP by 3-4% additionally.

    Causes:
    1) Agriculture
    – Age old practises of paying low wages for female labour than men
    – Acceptance of women of this age old practise- they have accepted superiority of male counterparts due to patriarchal mindsets
    – Abudance of work resource: Even if women demand equal wages, they can be replaced by other lot of labourers
    2) Manufacturing & Construction
    – prevalence of contractual employment- hence not covered under Factory Act

    – Unawareness in many cases of rural areas about equal wages; this changed effectively after introduction of nationwide NREGA

    Remedies:
    – Bringing contractors within ambit of Factory Act, strict overlooking of the implementation
    – Making Gram Panchayats accountable and more powerful in handling cases of unequal wages
    – clear demarcation of jobs where productivity may not be the same for both genders. Setting up wages accordingly in those based on work done and paying proportionately

  • awaneesh

    Answer-reasons behind the huge gender pay gap:

    1.

    social-due to patriarchal mindset women are not treated equally.

    they are considered as inferior compared to men.

    2.

    poverty-women from the poor family are unable to demend for fair and equal treatment with respect wages.

    3.

    poor enforcement of the existing laws- the centre and state level act that provides for equal pay for women and men.but they are not implemented effectively.

    4.

    lack of awareness-many of women are not aware of their rights.

    5.

    women often lack support from thier family to raise their voice against unequal wages.

    Measures need to be taken to address this problem:

    1.

    awreness about rights should be spread among women by NGOs and civil socities.

    2.

    the existing laws should be implemnted effectively.

    3.

    there should be women grivience redressal mechanism regagarding wages.

    4.

    NGO and civil society should be encouraged to change the patriarchal mindset of the society.

    everyone has right to get equal wages.so there should be no discrimination regarding wages.india should try to taken steps to bridge the gap that is harmful for its economic developemnt

    • SAVE TIME

      nice answer.good points :))

    • pink

      as your answer is good but still i want to find mistake if any so as to improve .so i think you can strengthen your measures part

  • satyam gandhi

    Hello…please please review my answer. I am in class 12 science stream and my aim is to qualify upsc and this is my second mains answer.there may be some grammatical mistakes. My english is not good. Please evaluate as per my level.
    Q. 1) According to Monster Salary Index, India suffers from huge gender pay gap. Discuss the causes and remedies. (200 Words)

    Answer:-
    Gender discrimination is one of the biggest challenge of the modern civilised society. Women faces gender discrimination from birth to death in the form of discrimination in emplyoment, in giving education and higher studies, in freedom expressions,etc. Although many programmes and campaign even from UN are run throughout the world but it is a harsh reality that it is increasing day by day. Women are discriminated in paying good salaries so Gender pay gap has increased and became a major problem.

    A recent research of Monster India and paycheck.in clearly shows that india is suffering from huge gender pay gap. Women are not treated equally even in paying salaries.
    There exist gender pay gap of 27% in india. It is 34% in IT sector which was 27% last year. So it is increasing alarmingly.

    There are many reasons of gender pay gap:-

    1.] High prefrence to male employees is given in jobs.

    2.] It is a thinking among companies that women are less capable in doing productive work than men. So they give less salaries to women.

    3.] There is lack of awareness among women about salaries.

    4.] A research showed that women does not demand high salaries for them. They are ready to work at any salary Whereas men always demand 5 to 10% more salary than offered.

    5.] It is seen that in promotion, mainly male employees are promoted to high ranks. Due to this high ranker male employees get high salaries than low ranker female employees. This widens gender pay gap.

    6.] Women often demand non pay voluntary leave to take care of her family and babies. These non pay career breaks increases gender pay gap.

    7.] There are also some socio-cultural factors like Women are not allowed to work at high ranks.

    Remedies to mitigate gender pay gap:-

    1.] Salary seceracy should be ended so that women can have idea about salaries.

    2.] Women should be aware about salary. They should demand 5-10% more salary than offered.

    3.] Companies should provide reservation to women in promotion.

    3.] Government should launch new programmes in private sector that binds all companies under strict law to grant ‘on pay leave’ for womens to take care of her family.

    4.] Government should start programmes to grant Women fixed number of special holidays in a year.

    5.] Companies should give high salaries to women’s to provide them better opportunities.
    This will help in ending gender pay gap.

    6.] Government should start a new scheme that would offer high interest rates on women’s salaries in depositing money in banks.

    Gender pay gap is infact a big problem but it has Solutions also. All is required is Determination in government, Companies and female employees to end gender pay gaps.

    • Amazing Peter Parker

      “Salary secrecy” is a very nice point;

      Remedies are generic – you could have added, Questioning gender roles as a long term solution, Gender sensitisation in the workplace, entrepreneurship through Standup India + Skill India + Digital India, Favourable legislation, Creches in workplace for lactating mothers, favourable treatment to Pregnant (say Parking slots near the door, we had these in our office) etc

      KWAR

  • Amazing Peter Parker

    A1 – Please review

    • satyam gandhi

      Hello bro…please review my answer..

    • Azor Ahai

      good point in remedy segment about questioning gender stereoptypes.
      i think more points can be added.
      please review my answer .
      KWAR

      • Amazing Peter Parker

        I am finding it difficult to write more in 8-9 minutes;
        May be I should consolidate, and have more perspectives in less words – at least without missing core answer.

  • Kush Jain

    The gender pay gap in India is not a new phenomenon. And this dreaded trend is not limited to India alone.
    There are several causes which can be said responsible for this, these are;
    1. Family work responsibility of women in India- Women in India are generally seen as care taker and not as bread earner. Around 78% of eligible female population do not even join the organised workforce. And in un-organised sector, if due to some financial necessity they start working,they stop working as soon as the position changes. Also those who join take more time off for familial responsibilities than men.
    2. Statistically women also tend to not resume the workforce after taking a break, this causes asset loss for the companies.
    3. The mentality of India Inc. also plays a crucial role in pay gap as many company prefer male employee over female.
    4. Data also suggest that in India the female employees tend to drop out at lower level of employment.
    Remedies for these problems could be:
    a. Legal provisions for the safety and flexible working of women employee are must and should be implemented strongly.
    b. Women should be encouraged to join the workforce and change of mentality by widespread campaigning is required.

    Please comment!!

  • ashish

    Gender pay Gap is a world wide phenomena but it is acute in case of India.. and the problem is not hard to find .

    Causes :
    1.balancing act done by the women between job and family , put a drag force on their growth. and given the patriarchal mindset of the society and no concrete support system back home , it becomes worse.
    2. Many surveys have shown that women are not good at salary negotiation, because they do not want to be seen as problematic and again being a patriarchal society, which always expect a women to be easily yielding.
    3.most of the time women do not look for “the best among the rest job ” rather they look for job that give them flexibility to manage home and office ,does not matter if it comes at low salary.
    4.in case of in- job promotion ,company don’t prefer women to be on top, because it thinks that men won’t like working under a women and hence will not perform better.
    5. in case of unorganized sector the situation is rather worse, where there is no transparency and accountability at all.

    Remedies :
    1. Enabling environment should be created in terms of better trasnportaion, better job opportunity, better assistance tools like creche and child care home.
    2. awareness among the women regarding the legal rights(wage act 1976) and constitutional(DPSP, art 39) provision should be created.
    3. supervision over the employer and making the men counterparts of the same organisation party to it , will create a good watch dog.
    4. encouraging more women centric entrepreneur that employee only women , so that it creates a demand supply mismatch and compels the company to raise the salary.

  • Da_Vinchii

    plzz review..!!!

  • satyam gandhi

    Hello…please please review my answer. I am in class 12 science stream and my aim is to qualify upsc and this is my second mains answer. there could be some grammatical mistakes. Please review according to my level.

    Q.
    . 1) According to Monster Salary Index, India suffers from huge gender pay gap. Discuss the causes and remedies. (200 Words)

    Answer:-
    Gender discrimination is one of the biggest challenge of the modern civilised society. Women faces gender discrimination from birth to death in the form of discrimination in emplyoment, in giving education and higher studies, in freedom expressions,etc. Although many programmes and campaign even from UN are run throughout the world but it is a harsh reality that it is increasing day by day. Women are discriminated in paying good salaries so Gender pay gap has increased and became a major problem.

    A recent research of Monster India and paycheck.in clearly shows that india is suffering from huge gender pay gap. Women are not treated equally even in paying salaries.
    There exist gender pay gap of 27% in india. It is 34% in IT sector which was 27% last year. So it is increasing alarmingly.

    There are many reasons of gender pay gap:-

    1.] High prefrence to male employees is given in jobs.

    2.] It is a thinking among companies that women are less capable in doing productive work than men. So they give less salaries to women.

    3.] There is lack of awareness among women about salaries.

    4.] A research showed that women does not demand high salaries for them. They are ready to work at any salary Whereas men always demand 5 to 10% more salary than offered.

    5.] It is seen that in promotion, mainly male employees are promoted to high ranks. Due to this high ranker male employees get high salaries than low ranker female employees. This widens gender pay gap.

    6.] Women often demand non pay voluntary leave to take care of her family and babies. These non pay career breaks increases gender pay gap.

    7.] There are also some socio-cultural factors like Women are not allowed to work at high ranks.

    Remedies to mitigate gender pay gap:-

    1.] Salary seceracy should be ended so that women can have idea about salaries.

    2.] Women should be aware about salary. They should demand 5-10% more salary than offered.

    3.] Companies should provide reservation to women in promotion.

    3.] Government should launch new programmes in private sector that binds all companies under strict law to grant ‘on pay leave’ for womens to take care of her family.

    4.] Government should start programmes to grant Women fixed number of special holidays in a year.

    5.] Companies should give high salaries to women’s to provide them better opportunities.
    This will help in ending gender pay gap.

    6.] Government should start a new scheme that would offer high interest rates on women’s salaries in depositing money in banks.

    Gender pay gap is infact a big problem but it has Solutions also. All is required is Determination in government, Companies and female employees to end gender pay gaps.

    • raj

      …………good………….

    • raj

      …….just for fun…………
      ………a person, at your age, became king………..He was a student of Aristotle………….after 3 years, this person embarked on massive wars,the world ever witnessed……..He was Great…………
      ………can u guess who the person was?

      • satyam gandhi

        He was alexander the great….but why are u telling this? And plz tell me where to improve in wrting answers?

      • satyam gandhi

        He was alexander… why are u telling this to me? And plz tell me how to improve my writing skill…is my answer good?

        • raj

          good……..u said 12 th science………..just for fun i asked that……..dont take otherwise…….. answer is good……….

        • raj

          i think……..after 3 or 4 years you will be eligible to write civils exam……i hope you succeed……….

        • raj

          so with this intention i told u that……..u rightly guessed……..good luck…

    • DANISH

      Good answer,,, no need for so much intro,, direct come to the question,,

  • Dreamer

    India suffers from a huge gender pay gap is an open secret. The recent Monster Salary Index has once again emphasised the same.

    Causes:

    1) Social mind-set: Even today, despite the progress made in education levels, economic system and variety of job opportunities, women are expected to spend effort for development care of the child.

    2) Perceived loyalty divide: The employers expect a loyalty divide between work and family and thus do not promote women to top managerial positions. As the report states, in India, the voluntary ending happens at the lower and middle job positions as against other Asian nations where such ending happens at middle-top positions.

    3) Less representation of women in top decision making bodies: As a consequence, the pay demands and promotion decisions are mostly made in favour of men.

    Remedies:

    1) There must be more representation for women in the law making bodies to begin with. This will ensure in making amends in various labour laws in favour of women to a great extent.

    2) There has to be policies that encourage companies to recruit optimal percentage of women with appropriate skill levels for every level of employment. This will add specificity.

    3) Women must be given flexible timings and if possible allow for work from home as most of the top level jobs need work do be done at the terminal or decision made after elaborate analysis by those below in hierarchy.

    The recent National Policy for Women has provided for leave to both husband and wife for child care and has shifted its approach to a rights based one from viewing women as benefactors of social schemes.This is the right beginning and more can be hoped as well.

  • Ironman

    Monster Salary Index about pay gap among gender is high in INDIA. Pay gap among genders show discrimination among male and female working at same position. Following are the causes for such a gap:-

    1) Dominant Male Society i.e. Patriarchal mindset- Men are superior than women. It is not only the problem of India, it is worldwide.

    2) Feudal Mindset- Thinking of women only fit for work at home as they belong to men is a common thinking of the society. Due to this even women who are working are neglected and generally paid less.

    3) Biasness against women- It is commonly seen that women at workplace are ignored and paid less because they are considered inefficient and less suitable for jobs, especially for job.

    4) Lack of will- Even women who are paid less, never demand of equal salary due to patriarchal and feudal mindset.

    5) Objectification of women- Women in the society is generally viewed as object and generally discriminated.

    6) Global issue- Pay gap is not confined to developing countries but is a worldwide issue, and hence is an inherent part of society and thus generally neglected.

    7) Lack of entrepreneurship among women- Women as entrepreneur are very few and hence there are very less role model. Even women entrepreneur at that position don’t pay attention to such issues.

    8) Lack of political interventions- There is no such law/act for equal pay among women.

    9) Family role- Women who do work often try to balance family and professional life, so being involved in doing so, they often do not pay attention to raise voice.

    10) Supportive role- Women often do work as complementary to men, and in a family salary of men is majorly focused as job and salary of women are not seriously taken into account.

    Remedies-

    This issue can’t be removed overnight. Strong steps and societal transformation is needed, which are-

    1) It is imperative to women to understand her role in society, not only being as housewife but a much more and equal to men.

    2) Men need to understand and have to remove his patriarchal and feudal mindset.

    3) Women role in political and administrative field should be increased.

    4) Women presence in parliament and law making process is also important.

    5) Women independence economically, and emotionally should be promoted.

    6) Women roles in political institutions is also important.

    7) More awareness and education program for women empowerment.

    Conclusion:- Salary gap among gender just show the social, economic, and gender discrimination. Solution lies in the remedial work at grass root level, especially at rural areas. Role of women should be enhanced at local level with active role of men and women. Women should raise voice to remove such gaps.

    • Ironman

      Please review.

  • Yogesh Gupta

    Ans: India, along with other developing and developed nations is witnessing gender pay gap in various form of jobs, be it high skilled IT jobs, or bollywood, and even in prize money of reputed sports events of cricket, badminton etc. Following are the causes :

    – Social mindset:

    – Reduces primary role of women to household care and job is only secondary option.

    – Belief that women are not suited to higher managerial positions.

    – Market reasons:

    – High attrition rate due to marriage, child care and parents care. This results in slow promotions and low focus on skill development as companies fear losing the incentive of their investment.

    – Companies consider maternal leave as gap.

    – Political

    – Poor representation in legislative process.

    – Acceptance of pay-gap within women communities largely.

    – Low awareness about their rights

    These socio-economic and political reasons create a vicious cycle of exploitation of women in wages at various level.

    Remedies:

    – Shared responsibility:

    – Information dissemination and campaigns to sensitize man of their role in home

    – Equal Maternal and paternal leave.

    – Work from Home: Provides flexibility to women to balance their life without compromising their job.

    – Capacity building at time of maternal leave through online courses for skill development

    – Govt. step of compulsory Women directors in companies Board.

    Since, pay gap exists largely in private sector , radical legislative measures alone are not sufficient to bring change. In long term, only attitudinal change can improve the situation for the better.

  • Azor Ahai

    Right to equality u/ar 14, right against discrimination u/ar 16 of indian contitution, equal pay for equal work under part IV of constitution provides the basis for pay parity across gender. Various statutes viz. minimum wages act, MGNREG act etc also guarantees gender parity in pay scale. Still india suffers from huge gender gap.

    Cause:
    1. Sexual division of labour: where by some jobs are considered inferior to others and are traditionally allocated to women by the society. Such jobs fetch lower pay as compared to others. This also results in preference to male candidates even when equally or more competent female candidate is available.
    2. patriarchy: indian society considers males as bread winners and females & elders are considered dependents. Thus traditionally pay structure favours males even if same work is being done by either of the gender. Also, patriarchy has a skewed power structure. Lack of access to power and decision making makes demanding equal or higher pay difficult.
    3. Vulnerability: Poor women are more vulnerable and thus easy to manipulate and bargain with.
    4.biological stereotypes: it is assumed that biologically women are less capable of handling the work load, inefficient and more gullable than men.
    5. Third Gender: Untill recenly thid gender was not recognised in india and is heavily stigmatised. This has resulted in very less job opportunities and increased vulnerability. Thus more often than not this gender gets menal and very low paying jobs.

    Remedies:
    1.Enforcement of existing laws: strict enforcement of current laws, regular labour inspections will help
    2. Organised labour: oranised labour helps in increasing the bargaining power of the employee groups and thus helpoos them to secure pay parity
    3. formalisation of employment: casualisation of workforce and informal enterprises makes monitoring and eforcement of wage related laws very difficult. Formalisation of workforce mandates the employer to provide lawful wages along with other job benefits
    4. women empowerment: social awareness, education, advocacy campaigns etc helps in empowering women with ways and means to demand their rights
    5. grievance redressal mechanisms: helps in seeking justice when lawful rights are not upheld
    6. Respect for labour: Indian society needs to learn to respect labour irrespectove of the the type of work. Thereby so called easier jobs like homecare, nursing etc will fetch the deserving pay.

    Thus, to fill the gender pay gap, which is systemically ingrained in Indian society, a multi dimensional approach is required.

    • Amazing Peter Parker

      Good answer;
      Third gender – very good comprehensive thinking!! (but report is not related to it though)
      Some other remedies (copy pasting from my other comment)
      ———————————-
      Questioning gender roles as a long term solution, Gender sensitisation in the workplace, entrepreneurship through Standup India + Skill India + Digital India, Favourable legislation, Creches in workplace for lactating mothers, favourable treatment to Pregnant (say Parking slots near the door, we had these in our office) etc
      ———————————–

      Try reducing the number of words you use to make it sustainable in the examination hall. This is extremely important;

  • Uncle Carlos

    Recent surveys have shown that there is a huge gender pay gap in India. Even though our constitution envisages equal pay for equal work , the reality is far from what is expected.
    Causes for this gap is:

    1.) Women are often seen as a section , who are not as efficient in work as men.This can be attributed to the patriarchal mindset which is deep rooted.
    2.) More than 92% of the workforce is engaged in informal sector , where any kind of supervision by government is very difficult. Women here are generally paid less , because of social conventions, even if they are more efficient than men.The best example if agriculture sector.
    3.) Even in formal sector , employers tend to prefer male employers because of the maternal leave can cause disruptions and uneasiness for the organisation.
    4.) Unfortunately , even today , poverty is the only reason why majority of females want to work , rather than traditionally doing household chores. In such situations , employers tend to take advantage by paying them lower wages.
    5.) Household chores by women are hardly taken into account , resulting in huge gap in pay.

    Remedies :

    1.) Strict enforcement of laws. For this , regulations and supervision must be carried out , especially in informal sectors.
    2.) If social reasons such as security of women , especially during night , are tackled, automatically it’ll lead to better efficiency among women workers.
    3.) Spread awareness : Most of the women are unaware that unequal pay for equal work is a violation of law. If they are educated about these , they could put forward their rightful demands in an organised way. Women NGO’s can be involved for this purpose.

    No country can progress if half of its population is facing discrimination in economic sphere. Hence , effective measures must be taken to bridge this gender gap.

  • Nivedita Singh

    India is country where poverty is also leads to many problems which ultimately lead to poor socio-economic development of the country. Gender-pay gap is one among them. In India gender pay gap 22%. But India is not an exceptional case. The world gender pay gap is 18 %. Thus the situation of women can also be understood by these facts.

    Cause of Gender-pay gap

    1. Social mind- In India women are considered as less efficient in doing work. So they are considered for comparatively less wage. The so called patriarchal mindset is also responsible for that. These mindset not only work at lower level but also at higher level , that is, at corporate level in promotion and giving higher salary.

    2. The divide of work-family responsibilities- It is regarded that women has extra responsibiliyu of family, hence she is not able to give her 100% to the job, hence she is awarded comparatively less salaries especially in non-formal sector.

    3. Poverty- Poverty in India is also a biggest reason behind the gender pay gap. In the non-formal sector in India female engaged in small businesses are getting comparatively very less remuneration than their male counterparts. They do not think as a wages. They think that they are somehow giving contribution to the family income. They do not ask for their rights.

    4. Lack of Education- Education gives skill as well as understanding of the right with which a person abide. Most of the women engaged in non-formal work force are not educated. This creates a huge gap in understanding their own right and demand of right wages and suitable working environment.

    5. Most of the women engaged in small business are not considered as work force and not recognised by labour union as a workforce. Hence they are under the deep clutch of their employees. These women have not much bargain power.

    Remedies

    1. Making the work environment suitable for employing women workforce.
    2. The facilities of separate toilet, creches etc
    3. By giving them skill for the increasing their participation
    4. Education is the biggest requirement to reap the demographic dividend of almost this half of the entire population to give their active share in economic growth.
    5. Government should consider women engaged in small businesses as a labour and should take their rights.

    Women represents almost half of the population. Their participation in the economy is not only imperative for economic growth but also for inclusive development of all sphere of the development.

  • Nicky

    It is Monster Salary Index now. Before that UN Women Report 2015 also brought out gender pay gap in India and South Asia. Gender pay gap mean difference between of pay between men and women. Gender pay gap can also be seen as equal payment even if one gender(say women) are working more number of hours than other gender(say men). In India’s case, gender pay gap means women are at disadvantage when compared to men.

    Causes for this huge gender pay gap:
    1) Women were given miniscule jobs and were paid less. Ex: Agriculture wage labourers.
    2) Women were stereotyped of having less abilities than men. So pay of women is also less.
    3) Number of women occupying higher positions are less when compared to men. So average pay of women is less.
    4) Lack of organised women movements, women pressure groups to bring out such issues.
    5) Less number of women legislators. So this issue will be gone to lower priority.

    Remedies: Article 15 of the constitution provides for prohibition of discrimination. So gender pay gap should be addressed on priority.
    1) One-third reservation for women in legislatures. So that women have more voice to bring out a legislation for addressing this issue.
    2) Organised women movements and women pressure groups are needed if the government fails to address the issue.
    3) Giving more rights and voice to women through legislations.

    We can see dynamics of women participation in economic sphere from 1947 to till now. Women participation is increasing gradually and rapidly after NEP. The ultimate goal should be gender gap in economic sphere in terms of pay, participation should be reduced to nil.
    .