1) Analyse the trends of sex ratio in India and its impact on socio-economic development of the country. (200 Words)

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Topic: Population; Salient features of Indian society

1) Analyse the trends of sex ratio in India and its impact on socio-economic development of the country. (200 Words)

The Hindu

  • archana

    Review it friends

    • aashish 2000

      Good one archana…. Check on Word limit

      • archana

        Thanks for reviewing… Ya word limit exceeds… I will improve on that

  • ashwin jai

    As our country is working towards fulfilment of one
    of cherished goal of gandhiji and UN MDG- “Full empowerment of women”, still
    outcome of effort seems to be bleak. One of the reason is “skewed sex ratio” in

    As reported by National Cenus, our last century we have
    been marked with a large and growing deficit of females. The no. of females to 1000
    male was 972 in 1901 to 921 in 2011. The skewed sex ratio is more skewed in industrialised
    states like Haryana,etc and urban areas.

    Sex ratio is often considered as a manifestation of gender relations in a
    society. Ours is a male-dominated society, where human relations are governed
    by patriarchal structures. Male- dominated social ethos discriminate against
    females in several ways. This is manifest in the sex differentials in mortality
    rates, both during childhood and childbearing age groups. It also strengthened
    the argument that sex-selective abortion is playing havoc with the sex
    composition of population in the country.

    The impact of this skewed sex ratio in socio
    development of country are :

    It will lead to lower fertility
    rate in future and which would lower than replacement rate. This would lead to
    increase in dependent population over earning people.

    There would be migration
    of brides to skewed sex ratio states for marriage. Eg- many kerala brides are going
    to Haryana for marriage.

    It would impact the
    women empowerment, absence of women in certain field which would lead to
    non-holistic decision making.

    Decrease in care for
    well being of girl child.

    So to address this skewed ratio, the patriarchal
    attitude and need to bear son over girl child must change.

  • Shreya

    The Sex Ratio in India according to 2011 census was 940 females per 1000 males, which is a slight improvement from 933 in the preceding census. The sex ratio also varies across states, with Kerala and Puducherry having a greater number of women than men, and states like Haryana where the sex ratio is extremely low. Child sex ratio is even worse at 910.

    There are substantial implications of a skewed sex ratio on India’s socio-economic development. There’s a decline in number of marriageable age women, hence leading to “child marriage” in Haryana as well as states such as Kerala, which is otherwise literate and a high HDI state.

    With an already low participation rate of women in the labor force, a worsening sex ratio is detrimental to bridging the gender gap in labor force, which is crucial for accelerating the economic growth of the country.

    Skewed Sex Ration is a direct manifestation of gender discrimination, leading to prenatal sex determination and sex selective abortions. Parents spend less resources and time in bringing up their girl child, leading to low literacy, high drop out rates and early marriage among girls.

    Decline in sex ratio is an indicator of women disempowerment. Campaigns such as Beti Bachao Beti Padhao seek to correct the gender bias. A son is preferred for old age support, inheritance and evils such as dowry. There fore besides strengthening the old age welfare programmes, the society needs to do away with the practice of dowry, educate and empower women financially, socially and politically.

    • Anil Sharma

      Hi Shreya,
      Wouldn’t it be more appropriate if u highlight the consequences rather than discussing the issue. If we need to analyze the trends we need to emphasize on how and why the declining sex ration and what made iverall.covering again. policy implications in this course and impacts

      • Shreya

        Hey Anil, thanks for reviewing. The first paragraph is about trends. Third, fourth and fifth paragraphs talk about consequences. The last is about policy implications.

        • PaPa_RanjeeT

          good answer.. u have written it with flow. one of the best answer i have read.

  • Rishi

    Current trend of sex ratio in India is highly discouraging. Recent reports claimed that the preference for male child over female child is still a harsh reality of our society. Families which cannot or do not practise prenatal sex selection goes on reproducing children in their quest for a son. If we take the date of total no of male child and female child in a family with 1 or 2 children, the result is highly skewed towards male child. This represents the mentality of our society and social injustice practised towards women.

    This will have adverse impact on the socio-economic development of our country.

    1. As data shows, the survival odds of girl children in a family with more no. of girl child is faltering.

    2. Family that grew in quest of boy, won’t be able to provide adequate child care if they have limited resources.

    3. In this way we won’t be able to overcome patriarchal nature of our society where women will be in minority and men will exercise more control.

    4. Less educated and less skilled workforce will find it tough to get jobs and might have to live a poor life.

    To become a developed and prosperous nation, India needs to overcome this social and cultural shackles. Government has started many programmes for women empowerment. the result has been both positive but slow.

    • aashish 2000

      It will be better if you include census data for one line. The connectivity with census data to social economic factor implications is lacking. Just keep a check on it…Good try.

      • Rishi

        I agree. 🙂

  • why_so_serious?

    The sex ratio in India has had astonishing results, indicating that people belonging to SC and ST category who more often are regared as being illiterate and opportunity grabber have a better female to male sex ratio then the country average. A better trend was seen in the Christian community who had more number of females as compared to male.

    Although there has been subsequent improvement over the years with regard to sex ratio, the number is still haunting and has been a major deterrent in socio-economic development :

    1) Less number of female child which means less number for female to marry with which in the long run may have a serious social impact and also a loss to the cycle of the nature. Example : Sex ratio in Harayana and Punjab.

    2)A larger family in the hope of getting a male child which will have further stress upon the available resources.

    3)Slower growth rate for most cases as women are important reproductive counter parts.

    4)Reduced labor participation and hence per capita income, GDP growth hampered.

    5)Affects the demography.

    What needs to be done?

    A check on the female infanticide. Regular inspection by the responsible officers on the illegal firms committing this grave mistake underground. Along with this attitudinal change among people is the most important aspect.

    • black mamba

      i see you are back 🙂

      your answer needs more specific explanation.
      in first point, less brides has led to what all social evil?
      in third, how the slower growth rate? + shouldn’t third and fourth be merged? (just a suggestion)
      on a whole – be a little more specific, i know u write much better 😀
      review mine.

      • why_so_serious?

        Yes bro finally m back but not in my best form. Too busy with the hectic schedule n not able to give time to secure.
        I agree with your points, could have been much better.
        ys I’ll

        • black mamba

          just write 2-3 questions a day
          doing all is impossible and too much time consuming.
          but definitely write.
          set a timer – 2-3 hours for secure (whatever u comfortable with, ill say keep 2.5 for now and late jan feb onwards bring it down to even less)

          • why_so_serious?

            yes bro will try 🙂

    • PaPa_RanjeeT

      very good joker.

      • why_so_serious?

        thanx papa ranjeet for being generous always 😀

        • PaPa_RanjeeT

          if i will not be generous with u then who will?

          • why_so_serious?

            lol was that a taunt? 😛

            • PaPa_RanjeeT

              No dude. u r one of my good friend.

    • Don John

      good points fella..

      • why_so_serious?

        thanx budd

    • Himanshu Rawat

      Introduction is very unique and showing a different picture which many of us may not have noticed/known (at least me ). But still I will prefer a broader look than limit it to community, caste or religion especially when I have to write only few lines on this.

      By the way good to see you again… Welcome my dear friend 🙂

      • why_so_serious?

        yeah Bro m back.was very busy with my scheduled. I knew most wont know my intro, I tried to be a bit different.
        reviewing yurs

    • Niharika Sharma

      nice balance.. .still u can put some govt schemes in conclusion like others..

    • IAS @ 2016

      good one
      try to write some schemes initiated by the govt
      keep writing bro

      • why_so_serious?

        yeah okay. Thanx for the review friend 🙂

    • Achilles

      good…..but your analysis parts needs some value addition:
      National average of sex ratio has improved but child sex ratio has decline since 1991. This is because of improved health care facilities for women leading to longer life but sex selective abortions and infanticides might have led to decline child ratio+1 line on State wise comparison+families with fewer or no sons were the ones choosing to have repeated pregnancies….I understand the word constraints u will hv to write these in given word limit.
      2nd part is good
      keep writing

      • why_so_serious?

        Thanx for those points bro. Will surely include them.
        Isn’t is the average age of women that is better and not the “national average of sex ratio”?
        correct me if m wrong 🙂

  • aashish 2000

    In India, we pray to female deities and look up to them as embodiments of strength, courage, wealth and education, we still practice deep rooted traditional preference to male child or the son. By observing the census figures periodically, it is evident that Women Sex Ratio is declining.
    According to 1991 census for 1000 boys- 945 girls, 2001—> 1000 boys- 927 girls and in 2011 for 1000 boys- 918 girls. Gender Critical Districts include Haryana, Punjab, J&K, even thriving states considered advanced like Gujarat, Maharashtra have handful of districts with dismissal figures.
    If this continues, the upcoming future will have an huge impact on Socio-Economic factors as
    —-> Unable to Marry: Due to low women ratios, men will unable to marry results aging without proper support.
    —-> Old age poverty: Low educated and economic status people will be effected more results lower employment opportunities and lower wages.
    —-> Lower capacity to build personal savings for old age.
    —-> Lack of women decreases the income levels and increases the expenditures.
    Due to decrease in sex ratio results to decrease in GDP levels by reduced participation of labour. Hence, to avoid the menace Government of India launched Beti Bacho Beti Padhao, Sukanya Samridhi Yojana, Regulation on Sex determination with objective of to make stable and balance the sex ratio.

    • Rishi

      Lack of women decreases the income levels and increases the expenditures. Any report in support of this statement?

      It is a good answer

      • aashish 2000

        I mean the household activities will be done by servants and the expenditure will increase….

  • pink

    there is widening gap in sex ratio in india during last ten years .as the preference of male child over female child is a reality of indian society either by ways of prenatal sex and succesive pregnancy.this clearly shows the mentality of indian people towards preference for male child.due to this patriarchial mindset the image of country is aslo hampering in process.

    this have an adverse effect on socio economic development of country are as follows-

    on social front-
    1-less female child means less no of female to marry so have social impact on society
    2-in long term this will decrese population
    3- if this trend continue then the position of women in society will decline
    4- this will increase gender discrimination

    on economic front –
    1-affects demography of country
    2-affects growth of country due to lessser women participation
    3-affects women empowernment
    as it is known that women participation will increase country growth therefore women are considered as pivotal to development process.further the government scheme wrt women to suceed require to break such irrational practices.for this government need to step in to change the mindset of people.

    • PaPa_RanjeeT

      good one…like that u have dealt with socio and economic separately ..nobody has mentioned more than one point in economic front.. good effort….but dont flag answers..

      • pink

        hey i never flag any answer and even i didnot know its meaning

        • PaPa_RanjeeT

          then you should take Science and tech portion more seriously. It will help you both in prelims and mains brother.

          • pink

            in what context you said

            • PaPa_RanjeeT

              In context of Flag.

              • pink

                hey how it is related to science and tech section

                • PaPa_RanjeeT

                  topic: “Recent Development in the field of I.T.” and “Cyber crimes” both are related to it brother/sister. I wrote sister bcz of Pink

                  • pink

                    ok i get it

  • IAS @ 2016

    Sex ratio is used to describe the number of females per 1000 of males. Sex ratio is a valuable source for finding the population of women in India and what is the ratio of women to that of men in India .India has an uneven composition of population as compared to most of the developed countries in the world .

    In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio in India 2011 is 940 females per 1000 of males. The Sex Ratio 2011 shows an upward trend from the census 2001 data. Census 2001 revealed that there were 933 females to that of 1000 males .

    Impacts of sex ratio on the socio economic development are

    1) Murder rates in India are correlated with the female-male ratio; districts with higher proportion of females actually have lower murder rates.

    2) An effect of the imbalance in sex ratios is the mismatch in the marriage market, which is referred to as the “marriage squeeze”

    3) Unequal participation of women in economic sector result in low growth of the GDP

    4) Low participation of women in decission making process.

    5) The demographics will be pretty complex.

    6) Chance of increase in sexual crimes against women

    Thus the “self-correction” of skewed sex ratios cannot be left to happen by itself over a long duration. Rather, communities and governments need to take proactive steps to engender an equal value of the girl child.The government has luanched several schemes like ” Aapki Beti Hamari Beti “, Balri Rakshak Yojana for the upliftment of skewed sex ratios

    • IAS @ 2016

      review pls

    • Niharika Sharma

      good one.. conclusion is excellent.

    • PaPa_RanjeeT


    • Sujith

      good answer
      try to write more points on impact on economy
      very good conclusion

      • IAS @ 2016

        more points added
        thanku for the review sir

    • why_so_serious?

      I liked the conclusion a lot. I have read so many answers and it seems more and more people have stressed upon the post intro part. Also, can we be a bit optimistic about how the ratio has infact been improving to some areas?( as I MENTIoned in my answer)
      Nice answer as always 🙂

    • Raj

      Really liked the answer! Though could you please explain what you mean by a complex demography?
      Keep writing and review mine if possible 🙂

  • Himanshu Rawat

    “Sex Ratio” is defined as the number of females per thousand males. It is one of the indicator that shows the equality of males and females in a society at a given period of time.

    India’s sex ratio declined tremendously, the worst since the country’s independence. However, according to census 2011, there is an improving trend that can be noticed but that too is very nominal. It has increased from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011.

    The sex ratio in India varies from region to region. On one hand we have Kerala and Pondicherry where total female population is more than the male population. Few states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra are showing improving trend. On the other hand we have states like Haryana who despite of prosperity have the lowest sex ratio in the country.

    However, the impacts of low sex ratio can be seen in various strata of life but the most visible and haunting effect is on our socio-economic condition.

    1- Shortage of brides leads to crimes like trafficking, abuse, physical violence against women.
    2- Societies with adverse sex ratio have the presence of customs like polyandry, abduction and purchase of women.
    3- Desire to have a male child force the women to have repetitive pregnancy. This not only effect her health but also the economical condition of the family turns worse.
    4- Slow economic growth rate as women forms a major part in labor force.

    Initiatives like ‘Beti Padhao Beti Bachao’ are some of the commendable steps government has taken. But more efforts are required to promote gender equality through emphasis on education of girls,empowerment of women,legislation to prevent domestic violence, strict bans on gender identification techniqes etc.

    • Niharika Sharma

      nice answer… u have balanced it well. please review mine… also….

      • Himanshu Rawat

        Thanks… Surely I will review your answer 🙂

    • why_so_serious?

      good intro and post intro. Giving an example is always good.

      The points are very good.
      excellent conclusion.
      Very nice answer, cannot be critical on this

      • Himanshu Rawat

        Now I can say that I have written a nice answer. 🙂

        • why_so_serious?

          hahaha No budd. The master is yet to review it 😀

          • Himanshu Rawat

            yaa… but hope that our answers don’t get flagged till master come for the review. 😉

            • why_so_serious?

              Seriously bro that’s the biggest problem here 🙁

    • IAS @ 2016

      good answer
      what is polyandry ( i dont understand )

      • Himanshu Rawat

        Polyandry- Having more than one husband at a time.

        • Uday Kumar

          Mamba wrote polyandry emerging…. where is it happening ?

          • parveen barak

            it can be construct of mind of a thinker

          • parveen barak


          • Bhavika

            Lol 😉

          • Kartik

            hehehe 🙂 u have to tag Mamba to know 🙂

          • Pranjal Saraswat

            It often happens in rural areas specially part of backward states like Bihar, UP, Orissa etc. where often wives are again forced to marry brothers within the same family. This is due to paucity of girls for marriage.

            • Uday Kumar

              Yaar, if only number of points is to be increased then even I will write this, but i myself am from Bihar and I have not come up across such news so far. Further, what you have cited is the special case and that too within few families where after the death of husband, the wife was forced to marry husband’s brother. But linking this fact to adverse sex ratio engendering polyandry seems a bit exaggeration. Just my opinion.

          • fresh aspirant..

            he is right bro! specially rural areas are affected by this social menace named ‘polyandry’..there are even villages in maharashtra where women are subjected to bidding, its like dowry but in the opposite way. one has to bid a large amount to marry a girl and that causes multiple partners of a woman since the price is too high and shared by multiple men

            • Uday Kumar

              ok. agreed 🙂 but serious problem really

    • pooja

      mentioning of schemes is lus pt.gud

    • neha

      second para is indeed important i wish i could have added it..can you plz review mine..

    • Arkham Knight

      good answer Para 2 cud have been more data oriented like between 2001-2011 somewhere around 29 states improved their Sex ratios only 3 had decreasing trend
      have i attempted I wud have mentioned about declining child sex ration ( 0-6 yrs) as my main argument as it continues to decrease In 1991 it was 940 ,2011 it was 927 now in 2011 it is 911 ( bhagwan bachey humere desh ko)
      Liked the way u clubbed socio-economic impact ( full marks on structure of answer)
      hope it helps

      • Himanshu Rawat

        Thanks buddy for the valuable input. Will definitely add them in my notes 🙂

    • Harikrishna Naik

      gd answer bro

    • jaguar

      hey if m nt wrong its puducherry nw nd ur 1st part is amazing .

      • Himanshu Rawat

        Ya its Puducherry now. Thanks for the correction and review 🙂

    • InsightsOfficialReview

      You can also mention decline in Child-sex ratio, which is a cause of worry. You focused less on economic aspects. Social aspects are mentioned well. Giving solutions in end gives a really nice ending to your answer.

      Marks – 5/10

  • Shiuli

    Trends of sex ratio in India:

    Positives –
    (i) According to Census 2011, overall sex ratio has increased by 7 points since 2001
    (ii) The present sex ratio is highest in India since 1971
    (iii) An increasing trend in child sex ratio (0-6) years has been observed in States like Punjab and Haryana which are amongst the poorest performers

    Negatives –
    (i) Chid sex ratio has fallen in India since 2001 despite a number of measures to check girl infanticide and foeticide
    (ii) The prosperous States of northern India have comparatively lower sex ratio. This is against the accepted norm that increasing incomes will reduce discrimination
    (iii) Men in Haryana have compelled them to seek brides from other states like West Bengal and Kerala

    Impact of low sex ratio Socio-economic development of the country:

    (i) On GDP – Underutilization of 49% of India’s population. According to a recent Mckinsey Report, India’s GDP could be boosted by 60% by solving current gender inequality issues

    (ii) Life expectancy – Being the primary care-givers, they play a critical role in reducing IMR and U5MR

    (iii) Literacy – Lesser number of educated women, resulting in lower empowerment. This prevents them from having an equal say I household matters and regarding the education of children especially girls, setting up a vicious cycle

    (iv) Distortion of demographics – Demand for brides from States like Haryana may affect the gender ratio of eastern and southern States

    (v) Gender budgeting – Although it may bring about gender equality, gender budgeting may not be based on purely economic principles and wouldn’t have been required if women were treated at par with men

    • king

      exactly in tune with the demand of the question…good answer keep writing …

    • analyzer

      long time no see (on insights), shiuli!! are u writing mains this time?

      • Shiuli

        Hello analyzer..:) Yup been away for sometime.. I am giving the CSE in 2016..

        • analyzer

          what’s ur optional? and will this be ur first attempt?

          • Shiuli

            Chemistry.. Yup first attempt..

  • Niharika Sharma

    According to Census 2011, the trends of Sex Ratio in India are:

    1) Female Sex ratio increase from 940 females per 1000 of males in 2011 from 933 females in 2001.
    2) Decrease of the female birth ratio in India.
    Though sex ratio shows some good signs in the last 10 yrs but still some states like haryana showing decreasing trends are causes of concerns. The main cause of the decline of the sex ration in India is due to the biased attitude which is meted out to the women. The main cause of this gender bias is inadequate education.
    1) Hamper economic growth of our country.
    2) Will lead to com-modification of women.
    3) Young men with poor prospects of ever starting a family spell danger to themselves and to their societies
    4) Large number of men-women left with no offspring.
    5) large numbers of young men competing for dominance elevate local rates of violence, homicide and lawlessness.

    Gender inequality holds back the growth of individuals, the development of nations and the evolution of societies to the disadvantage of both men and women and these loose strings will lead to fundamentalism and possibly terrorism in society.

    • Don John

      I read recently that it has come up to 898 women / 1000 men in 2015 by some org

    • PaPa_RanjeeT

      why do u always skip introduction? conclusion is very strong. rest is good.. ur point 3,4,5 wins the race bcz nobody wrote it

    • black mamba

      how would it lead to fundamentalism?
      a genuine question, + ill suggest when linking two things like this you should provide some justification.

      • Niharika Sharma

        Scattered or broken or No families always leads to fundamentalism.

        • black mamba

          but the same for missing dads.
          in fact it is one of the fore-going arguments in western countries (read USA) that, biased arrest of africans, african american men and putting them in jail generally push their children to the negative path. indirectly leading to high crime rate.

          i feel what u are saying, in india context it would be related more with educating women so that they can raise children to be better and not fall in crime.

          It doesn’t match with skewed sex ratio
          Feel free to disagree 🙂

    • Harsh (Learning Unlimited!!!)

      2) Will lead to com-modification of women ?? what does that mean ?

      • Niharika Sharma

        trafficking, prostitution. etc…

        • Harsh (Learning Unlimited!!!)

          ok , got ur point . thanks

    • why_so_serious?

      good points buddy.
      can you please expalin me com-modification?

      also review mine if yu have time

      • Niharika Sharma

        trafficking, prostitution. etc.

        • why_so_serious?

          okay.. so try to write these, coz you know the examiner may get irritated with these words

          • Niharika Sharma

            r u sure? dont u think writing less will earn me more marks?

            • why_so_serious?

              see, it depends. Your point on “prostitution and trafficking” is valid. I just said the word was complicated. Most wont know. Anyways its up to you 🙂

              • Niharika Sharma

                yeah u r right…..

            • Himanshu Rawat

              w l m c t e……………… writing less may confuse the examiner. Write concise 🙂

        • black mamba

          Niharika, commodification is a very broad term
          a harmless person looking at a girl he doesn’t even know, starts lusting after her or whatever, without acting on it; bollywood item number, trophy wives etc all are in their way commodification of women.

          write specific words that symbolise actual crime. Because commodification is an aspect that deals with mindset rather than IPC.

          • Niharika Sharma

            thanks for explaining. good point….

    • Himanshu Rawat

      Little elaboration of points you mentioned in impacts is required. For example- we need to write about socio-economic impacts and in economic impacts you have written only a single point and that too is very vague. “hamper economic growth of our country”. You made a very general statement. Try to explain a bit.

      Keep writing 🙂

    • IAS @ 2016

      good poins ( 3,5)
      try to write a small intro
      rest is good
      kepp writing

      • Niharika Sharma


    • Arun Kumar

      how 2nd point of intro is correct, in 1st you explain its increase by 7 points. I did not get it please make me understand?

      • Niharika Sharma

        Its according to Census —2nd point is correct. female birth ratio and sex ratio is totally different.

    • unacademy

      u sud explain that how economic growth will be hampered.can u elaborate point3.

      • Niharika Sharma

        1st of all tell me. r u roman saini from unacademy?

        • unacademy

          logically think,so much administrative burden already he has on his head why he will be entangled here on insight and did u ever ask to Gandhi”r u Gandhi”or Terminator”r u Arnold”.i think u never did.i liked this name so I am riding on this it.I think it will not violate anybody’s patent right.
          now I hope u will give the answer of my ques that is more imp than roman saini.

          • Niharika Sharma

            The McKinsey Global Institute estimates that India’s economic output in 2025 can be higher by as much as 60% if there is women’s participation in the economy.

            • unacademy

              and cheap labor also that will profitable for multinational companies.

  • anonymous

    Sex ratio defined male to female or female to male ratio in a population. Ideally it should be 1:1 i.e equal representation of male and female in population.
    Unfortunately India does not shows this ideal picture. According to 2011 census the average sex ratio around the country was 940 women per thousand males which is slightly better than last census data shows 934 women per thousand males.While when it comes to sex ratio of children under 6-age group the condition is more disastrous with 919 :1000.On deeper introspection is found that condition is worst economically strong western states like punjab Hariyana Gujarat having 800+ women per 1000 males.Daman And Diu has worst ratio in India with 640 :1000. While due educational advancement and change mindset of people , Kerala and Puducherry are having normal sex ratio.The reason for these depressing figures is related to patriarchal misogynatic mindset of majority population which laid the foundation of preference of male child and female infanticides. The impact will going to disastrous-

    _It will further facilitate male superiority complex and will treat women as second grade citizen of the country with restricted freedom of choice_Men are not getting bride for marriage which will disturb the population size
    _Commodification of women and hike in sexual crime against women like women trafficking , prostitution, rape , etc
    _It will allow mal-practice of kill girl child and encourage illegal clinics for method of abortion
    _It will further decrease female contribution in work force which will hamper the growth
    _Women plays important role in education and development of child which is important for healthy skilled labour.
    _It will bring shame and harrasment of country at international level will also affects economic relation . For eg. tourism may get affect due to consequence of skewed sex ratio.
    Government has taken many initiatives like” Beti Bachao Beti Padao” , selfie with daughter, rewards etc but actually this problem related more to society and mindset..Men and women are equally important civilized society and growth & development of nation. So government , people civil society has to come forward to fight for gender equality

  • GandhiReturn

    The overall sex ratio (OSR) at nationwide (the number of females per 1000 males) in 2011 Census has improved by seven percentage points to 940 against 933 in census of 2001. This is the highest sex ratio at the national level since census of 1971 and a shade lower than 1961.However, the area of grave concern remained the lowest ever child sex ratio(CSR) of 914. The provisional data in 2011 Census showed that the child sex ratio (0 to 6) come down to 914 females per 1000 males against 927 in 2001 .It showed a continuing preference for male children to female children in the last decade. Rapid decline in child sex ratio is a serious problem with severe socio-economic, demographic and cultural implication.

    Present sex composition of child population determines the future vital events such as marriage rate, labour force, age structure, birth and deaths, migration, and replacement etc. Therefore deficit in girl child population, leads to serious demographic imbalance and adverse social consequences. However, in recent decades, the drastic decline in child sex ratio is an issue of grave concern in India. Therefore, efforts are needed to solve the issue thereby create equal regard and affection for the girl child. Otherwise, the child population will become skewed leading to a host of several societal problems. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save girl child, educate girl child) is a scheme launched by Government of India to improve efficiency of welfare services meant for women.

  • Lakshmi

    As per the 2011 census there are 940 girls per 1000 boys and it shows that among women with only one child, 22 million are blessed
    with girl child and 28.5 million are blessed with male child. The same trend is continued with increase in the number of children in the family.
    If prenatal sex selection is not practiced or unaffordable they are opting for repeated pregnancies in a pursuit of male child.

    This data and attitude states that males are more preferred to girls in India.

    Few reasons for this:
    1) Considered as bad investment for future (dowry).
    2) Practice of female infancticide or foeticide.
    3) Patriarchal mindset.
    4) Security for girl child.

    Economic Impact:

    1) Work force: With less number of women involved in work, results in slow economic growth as women participation has become backbone of Indian economy in the current situation (eg: 85% of women are involved in agricultural activity).

    Social Impact:
    1) Due to shortage of brides will be forced into long time or permanent bachelorhood. (eg: Malwa region of Punjab)
    2) Leads to more violence rather than improving the status.

    The legislation have formulated many policies to save girl child like Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques act 1994, the immoral trafficking
    (prevention) act 1986, Balika samriddhi Yojana and recent programs being Betti Bacho Beti Padho.
    However, a drastic change can be expected only by moral responsibility and change of the attitude of the Indian society towards the girl child.

  • bakir malik

    According the census data families have inclination towards boys than girl child.

    Families with fewer on no sons choose to have repeated pregnancies who do not perform prenatal sex determination.
    As the size of the family grows the survival rate of girl child is at odds.
    Families having one boy are more common than families having one girl.
    similarly families with three children are more likely to have two boys and one girl as compared to two girls and one boy.

    This relentless pursuit of boy over girl is having a toll the the financial stability of the family. Be it prenatal sex determination. the regular visit to doctors and clinics is making the people spend disproportionately especially the poor.
    the families that get bigger and bigger find it difficult to provide better facilities to their family and the care to the new born.
    It make people especially the poor economically unstable.

  • Pooja

    India is on a path to become the 2nd largest economy by 2050 and most populous by 2028. Big schemes of Make in India, SMART cities are in the offing. Yet, the sex ratio among its population continues to dwindle.

    Sex ratio, as we know, is the number of females per thousand males at a given place and time. Census 2011 data revealed it to be 943, with the regional variation ranging from 1000 in Kerala to 915 in Haryana. Though the overall sex ratio has increased from the previous census, child sex ratio has deteriorated further to 918. This shows that lesser number of girls were born. Further, there is a declining trend some states like Nagaland.

    This shows that the condition of Indian women remains fenced off from development. Issues of violence against women, dowry, polyandry plague the society, more so in the countryside. There is a preference for male child which makes pre-natal screening and repeated pregnancies very common. All of it is linked to a larger system of inequality and imbalance of power in society. Men still dominate politics in India, inspite of higher winnability of contesting women candidates. Together, these factor fuel kidnapping, trafficking of women and rape.

    Sex ratio is an important demographic indicator reflecting the socioeconomic structure of any society. Govt schemes like ‘Beti Bachao’, ‘Sabla’, PCPNDT will go a long way in correcting this skewed sex ratio.

  • black mamba

    India historically has had a skewed sex ratio primarily because of a high preference for sons. Recent Census data indicated that this trend continues by means of prenatal sex determination and repeated pregnancies. It is worrisome as declining female population has risen above the social domain and has following socio-economic impacts:

    1) Statistical research shows that shortage of women in society leads to violence against women rather than improving their status. There’re increase in incidents of rape, prostitution and violence against women. It becomes more complex when couples do not wish to beget girls as they fear the threat of violence and dignity.
    2) Due to shortage of brides, issues like bride purchasing and abduction, polyandry (re-emerging phenomenon), mismatched marriages have emerged. The worst affected are the socio-economically poor men.

    Economically women’s labour contribution has become the backbone of the Indian economy’s current growth path. Moreover as men switch to non‐farm activities, women are increasingly becoming the primary cultivators. Moreover, they are the face of consumer power as they’ve traditionally done most household shopping and are primary consumers of entire beauty industry. So, with a huge footprint in all sectors, a persisting unbalanced ratio would damage economic (and social) system beyond repair.

    This challenge can only be met by all‐round realisation that even in the patriarchal set up, it is essential to maintain a natural balance between the sexes. Government along with social and religious institutions can incentivise widow remarriages and dowry-less marriages. Schemes like concessional houses for such couples should be considered. To discourage female infanticide, Government could consider a ‘mothering allowance” to the mother for first six years after the birth of a girl child.

    • why_so_serious?

      good answer. linking skewed sex ratio with rape is a very broad and I Should say very daring point 😛
      I don’t find any flaw in the answer. Has the content can cannot suggest any point as there are many.
      very good conclusion

      • black mamba

        it has been said by jean dreze in a research.
        and he is like a boss economist, so I’m biting his words 😀

    • PaPa_RanjeeT

      good one. R u a sociology student??

      • black mamba

        no. never studied sociology (even the ncert bit till now :X)

        • PaPa_RanjeeT

          you write very nice answer brother..

          • black mamba

            Thank you so much 😀

          • black mamba

            u didn’t write?

            • PaPa_RanjeeT

              i like to check answers..to get different perspective.

              • Please check my answer.

                • PaPa_RanjeeT

                  which answer??/

    • Harsh (Learning Unlimited!!!)

      Excellent answer . Exactly what the question required.

    • Sujith

      very good balanced answer
      keep writing bro

    • aakansha jaimini

      You really do write good answers..

    • IAS @ 2016

      you have written according to the demand of question
      well balanced
      keep writing

    • Himanshu Rawat

      1- Excellent content. Wide coverage of all the issues.
      2- Exceeded the word limit by a fair distance. Just try to be more concise. Rest is perfect. 🙂

    • Shruti

      May want to include PCPNDT act and its impact.

      • black mamba

        i could but i’ve grossly crossed word limit. + question specifically asked impacts.
        so ill have to delete something to add. can u suggest what to delete ?

    • vaibhav

      the “trend” part is missing you could have included points like
      2001 and 2011 census figures, northern states poor performer as compared to southern states, mention of kerla and haryana on the opposite spectrum, and what we should expect by next census. rest is very well written.

      • black mamba

        You are right.
        I restructured to a little extent to accommodate analysis of trend, but didn’t include data exactly.
        Hope it is not as divergent as before.
        And thanks for noticing this mistake.
        Appreciated 😀

    • Achilles

      hv a look here:https://factly.in/beti-bachao-india-needs-to-learn-from-its-scheduled-tribes-sts/
      u hv to analyse the trend….
      2nd part has only been dealt….

      • black mamba

        You are right.
        I tried a little bit of restructuring, though didn’t give all inter state , inter community comparisons due to word limit.
        Mind going through again?

        And thanks for pointing it out 😀

      • neha

        hey can you plz review mine as well

    • parveen barak

      very nice

    • neha

      comprehensive can you plz review mine

    • Arkham Knight

      good answer deserved to be top rated, having said that there still could be some critical review

      Social Impact Point 1 controversial and lop sided ( my suggestion as a well wisher dont make sweeping statements with any data or reliable reference practically the point might be true imagine u r sitting in an UPSC interview and give Point 1 as ur reply ppl will grill u big time)
      overall i like ur answer but i felt u should have written more points in both social and economic impacts 2 points are too less

      • black mamba

        There are fairly a lot of studies supporting this.
        There’s ofcourse no direct causal connection (after all it’s social science not natural science with direct cause effect relations) but statistics over time points towards this, not just in India but all over.
        One such prominent study is by Jean dreze and reetika Khera.
        It might probably be related to mindset against women in a society with skewed sex ratio.
        Still, If I Apply reverse engineering – low sex ratio, why? They prefer male… Direct implication of such preference? Well they don’t respect women enough, commodify them….What does this mean ? They might as well commit crimes against them as it might be okay, ‘she’s just a woman what can she do?’ Type mentality.
        This is what I come to.

        And if I can justify myself like this, I guess I might be safe in interview
        Thanks though. Honest review always appreciated ?
        I agree the point is little abrupt but I think it is true.

        • Arkham Knight

          if u know the research and source quote them to increase credibility of ur answers

    • Bhavika

      Nicely edited…made ur answer perfect

    • Udai

      Good Answer…Felt Economic could be improved… Fear of assaults etc may force women back to homes… Women are better managers.. They carry their own skillset to the jobs.. Hence important to companies…

    • Bhavika

      I m confused abt the figures…927 and 914…are they csr

      • Pranjal Saraswat

        Indeed they are figures for child sex ratio.

        • Bhavika

          Thnx .The child sex ratio (the number of girls per 1000 boys) in India has gone down from 976 in 1961 to 918 in 2011. Thats why i wanted to ask

    • Raj

      An ideal and most importantly, coherent answer with great examples to substantiate every point. Keep writing! 🙂

      (and review mine if you can :P)

    • Pranjal Saraswat

      Nice answer. The figures you mentioned for female sex ratio are instead for Child sex ratio(0-6yrs). I further feel you could have addressed the trend part better in your answer. In the economic impact part you can add more points like a higher female sex ratio leads to:
      1. Higher savings rate.
      2. More productive investment of household income. ex- food security, health, sanitation etc.

    • InsightsOfficialReview

      Reduce the introduction to half. Writing so big intro. won’t be possible in real examination. Body is good, and including suggestions in end makes your answer perfect.

      Marks – 5/10

      • black mamba

        I wrote the intro part as question asked us to ‘analyse the trends’ as well. Should I delete the first introductory sentence and start by the comparison line btw 2001-and 2011 census ? And o felt mentioning the two recent trends of increasing family till they get a boy and prenatal sex selection would be important too.

        And the word limit has been crossed too.

        Please clarify this doubt sir.
        Thank you so much 🙂

  • Abhijit

    India,since a long time has faced the problem of skewed sex ratio.This has adversely impacted the balance of our country in a variety of aspects.
    Trends in India:
    1) Preference for son
    2) Patriarchal mindset,fear of payment of dowry in case a girl child is born
    3) Sex determination tests which leads to abortion.Usually women with lesser autonomy and weaker decision making powers do so.
    4) Possibility of girl child being born is high depending on the job,education of parents
    5) Stabilized Sex Ratio post 96-97 period possibly because of PNDT Act,1994.
    1) Society: With the number of girls decreasing and boys increasing,a sense of dominance creeps in whereby patriarchal mindset prevails.They are forced to inculcate in household chores only,thereby hampering their personality.Harassment,torture becomes evident too.It leads to forced marriages,killings for non-payment of dowry etc.Core family values might see a decreased trend with increase in exploitation of women.
    2) Economic: It adversely affects the economic prospects of our country. With more migration to urban areas in search of better prospects, the demographic dividend gets affected.Consumer demand will decrease with lesser population of women.
    The Western countries have a larger participation of in political,economic fields.It increases the overall development of the country leading to better cohesiveness.It is high time that our Government( which is trying hard for decreasing mortality rates and is somewhat successful regarding fulfillment of MDG ) focus on changing the mindset by ensuring more women participation and giving them a much greater role in the development process

  • aditya

    The main cause of this gender inequality is inadequate education . Puducherry and kerela houses the maximum number of females while haryana , reigon of daman and diu houses lowest density of female population.Acc to census 2011, there is 945 females per 1000 males . Though the trend is upwarding in comparison to census 2001 , which says 930 females per 1000 males .
    The impact on socio development of country will be -:
    1. Gender inequality has adverse effect on the economic development as it reduces economic growth of country.
    2.Gender inequality reduces productivity and make institutions less representative.
    3. This also decrease the status of indian economy and its GDP also gets effected.
    4. It increases the crime against female population.
    The government is making effort to balance the gender inequality , by launching differentwelfare schemes in order to empower the women. The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the indian constitution in its preamble , fundamental rights as well as fundamental duties and directive principle of state policy.

  • knight_rider

    this trend of decresing female number is
    a great problem for india.

    cause of this trend
    1. desire of male child
    2. prenatal test for sex detection
    3. social problem and attitude relating to girls like
    dowry system,regarded as lower in status

    consequences of this problem on economic
    1. it would gradually weaken demographic dividend of our country
    which in long term would affect economic system negatively
    2. in the desire of getting male child,it can create population
    explosion,which already making family and country poor.
    3. women contribute at equal par with men especially in rural and unorganised sector

    on social development
    1. inequality
    2. boost to women trafficking,prostitution and rape like events
    3. family work and management will be hampered.

    recent census has shown slight improvment in sex ratio
    and initiative by govt like beti baccho,beti padhao,laws to prevent prenatal test and other awareness programmes,
    together with cooperative and proactive action of society as whole, we can further improve this.

  • neha

    The country which worships women as goddesses and earned reputation of killing its daughters leading to only 943 women for 1000 men.The cause of this brutality can be attributed to:-

    1-Traditional belief of Hindu culture where only if son does the last rites man can attain Mukti.
    2-Son treated as an asset as he gets money through earning and dowry and daughter as liability.because parents need to pay.
    3-Thought process of women upholds and defy family repute the most leading to not having daughters to escape such situation.

    1-Increase in crime against women due to non availability of brides.
    2-Practices such as “BRIDE-BUYING” from Odisha, Bengal and Kerla and not giving them their legal dues or leaving them.
    3-Lower status in economic and political field still only 49% of population has only 11% representation in parliament.
    4-Lower participation in economic field due to lack of education and opportunities provided.
    5-Work place harassment due to dominance of women drag them back to houses.

    Empowerment of women is only possible if she is given chance to take birth and grow in healthy environment.Till she will be called “paraya dhan” and an instrument to get Son empowerment will never start.

    • neha

      Dear Friends plz review

    • black mamba

      Avoid words like ‘brutality’, ‘paraya dhan’.
      Causes were not asked, analysis of ‘trend’ was asked. So u need to compare 2011 with previous years’ ratio and draw conclusions out of it.
      3 and 4 points need language revision.
      “Women’s Right to property” is the correct phrase.
      Liked your point about lack of education.
      Keep writing 🙂

  • Bhavika

    Sex ratio is expressed as the number of females per 1000 males in a given population which currently stands at 943 for India acc to 2011 census.

    The New Census data reveal that this has been done by means of (a) prenatal sex determination

    (b)repeated pregnancies.

    It is disgraceful for a country like india which is set to become second largest economy by 2025.



    1.it will lead to commodification of women & revival of customs like polyandry.
    2.shortage of brides which will further increase trafficking,abuse,abduction & sale and purchase of women.
    3.adverse effects on health of woman and child.
    4.male chauvinist society which will increase crimes like rape,molestation,harassment,eve teasing.
    5.further decrease the preference for girl child due to security concerns & increase in the cases of female feticide and infanticide.


    1.adverse effects on economic prospects at national and individual level because of less productivity due to lower labour participation eventually leading to lower income.
    2.adverse consequences for women centric industries.
    3.lower representation by women and less participation in decision making.

    According to “The Power of Parity ” report by Mckinsey Global institute, India’s gross domestic product could see a jump of about 60% by 2025 if the gender inequality issue in society is resolved and more women are allowed to join the workforce.

    hence various govt initiatives like beti bachao beti padhao,ladli laxmi yojana,aapki beti humari beti scheme,selfie with daughter , #100 women initiative by MWCD and legislations like Pre Conception Pre Natal Diagnostic Technique act,1994 will go a long way in correcting the skewed sex ratios along with the initiatives and cooperation of varios social and religious institutions in changing the patriarchal attitudes.

    • black mamba

      dont link commodification with prostitution. Commodification is much broader (even Bollywood item number can be said to promote commodification of women)
      1st and 4th points can be clubbed.
      I liked your representation point 🙂
      Answer is good but i think u crossed the word limit (so did I) but try to avoid that. U can delete McKinsey report point.

      + I took data directly from source article given. I’m not sure either.

      • Bhavika

        I mentioned dat prostitute word jst cz i saw u ppl commntg on some ans abt explaing dat commodification word;)..even i edited my ans twice..dat made me exceed d limit..anyways thanx a lot..will take care next time 🙂

        • black mamba

          Even in earlier answer, I don’t think usage of commodificAtion was appropriate

          • Bhavika

            Why?? And wht other word can be substituted for this

            • black mamba

              I guess you don’t know what commodification means.

            • black mamba

              U can’t equate it to prostitution.

              • Bhavika

                I knw d meaning i wrote it only after confirming frm google…prostitution is jst an eg of it acc to me..so initially i dint want to explain d term as i agree with u that its a broad term..but lookg at the comments i did…
                Wanting to do something to someone is objectifying. Wanting someone to do your bidding is objectifying.so y do u think its nt an appropriate word? Not getting ur point

                • black mamba

                  Your profile it private!
                  Takes a long time to otherwise track your answer.
                  See what I’m saying is – prostitution is not a right example of commodification. Why? Because commodification is a very very broad term.
                  Either write that the chauvinist mindset and preference for male leads to a kind of society where women are frequently commodified. Such attitude tends to increase crime against women like rape, forced prostitution etc

                • black mamba

                  Else straight away write about increasing rate of crime.

                  So, either build progression(from mindset to commodification to crime), or straight away mention the crime.

                  Don’t mix commodification and crime.

                  • Bhavika

                    Got ur point…thanx a lot…

                    • black mamba

                      Keep writing and reviewing

                    • Bhavika

                      Ya sure…and ur answers are really good…but dont u think we should not directly copy from the source…it might be detrimental in exam time…my personal view.

                    • black mamba

                      We should write what ever we can remember and comfortably write during exam.
                      Sometimes source itself is like this, sometimes u have to change it in your words

                    • Bhavika

                      Thanx.. 🙂

    • InsightsOfficialReview

      You have written a single sentence in five lines in your conclusion. You have to take care of comfort of the person reading your answer. Its hard to concentrate on such long sentences.

      If examiner looses interest, or is unable to understand your long sentence, you get less marks. So, improve your structure. Your points are good, but answer has crossed word-limit by huge margin.

      Marks – 4/10

      • Bhavika

        Thank you very much insights will definitely take care of this.

  • king


  • king

    polyandry is not the result of skewed sex ratio its a traditional belief ..male mind set. thanks

  • king

    Unbalanced sex ratio or altered XX:XY , is a curse in itself and a curse for the society which tries to live it .A declined sex ratio forces the society to live with certain adverse socio-economic considerations,which of course are results of natural as well as (largely) of unscientific-orthodox and perhaps the patriarchal mind set of the society.
    1 Trends;
    –Disparity in XX:XY is still prevalent in India despite wide ranging awareness activism by various non governmental as well as governmental agencies .
    –This adversity is far more prevalent in states like Haryana where, in one district(jajjar) the xx:xy is as low as 782:1000.
    –When we see sex ratio of Urban India which is 900 is ,much less than rural India (946) and India as a whole(933) and this is alarming.
    2 Impacts on Social well being;
    –Far less women participation in decision making from family to higher echelons in government bodies.
    –Burden of patriarchal mind set on female health like forced abortions.
    –Lack of same sex colleague at work places enforces a fear of lacking safe and secure environment in male dominated work places.
    3 Impacts on economic development;
    –21st century is dictated by economy so proportional participation of all groups from both the sex’s is a must to usher the health of economic parameters.
    –Of late ,more and more women are working for the sustenance of agrarian set up of the country in the wake of HDI trends that compels male members of the society to flock to the urban centers for job employment
    –A greater number of educated women is now seen as deriving force for the self emancipation and hence economic empowerment .
    Thus its worth mentioning that though the recent statistical trends of sex ratio are not up to the desired goals but, economic empowerment of XX sex is slowly seen as the major deriving force working for the elimination of XX:XY related patriarchal-orthodox and unscientific mind set.

  • Inner Peace

    Sex ratio
    is male to female ratio in a society. In india male population is more than
    that of the female population. In india families prefer male children over
    female children and women get pregnant repeatedly till they give birth to male
    child. This is due to two reasons. One is a male children can contribute to the
    economic conditions of the family and take care of the parents till their end
    while a female child will be married and move with her husbands family. Another
    reason is dignity of the female child has to be protected, dowry has to be
    given for marriage and if she becomes widow/divorcee/ raped then the society
    may alienate her and she eventually has to be dependent on her parents or some
    male member of the family.

    Statistics reveals that the sex ratio has gone down. But according
    to census 2011 there has been an considerable increase compared to the census
    2001 but still there is shortage in female to male. Therefore this leads to
    some impacts.
    1. Contribution of women labor force will decrease and hence leading to decrease in GDP
    of the country. (mainly in service sector)
    2. The injustice meted out to women in the form of domestic violence, rape, trafficking etc will
    continue as men would want to control and dominate. This might still decrease the female population.
    3. Shortage of bride.
    Proper education and awareness should be given in rural india where these age old beliefs are prevalent. Cinemas and soaps which potray women in disrespectful way should be banned as they play a main
    role in framing the mindset of the people. Women and men should both be given
    basic sex education and schemes/policies/jobs that focus on gender equality
    should be encouraged by the government.

  • Since time immemorial, girls have been abhorred by our society. People believe that they are not cut for the more rigorous chores. This situation was made even worse by the introduction of dowry system.

    Girl child is discarded as unwanted. This has led to a social stigma being attached with her. She is constantly ostracized. The implications of this trend is going to be serious-

    1. Increase in crimes against women. If women are not given respect within the family, then how will the children learn to respect them?

    2. The family welfare schemes and other such measures introduced by the government would not see the light of the day. The money allotted for them would be squandered away.

    3. In the long run, this would seriously hamper India’s diversity and leave a debilitating mark on the society. After all, women are the pith of Indian family.

    Measures need to be taken and implemented in right earnest to control this disease from acquiring an even more ferocious form. The various forums need to be strengthened and more awareness needs to be spread about girl’s education and further opportunities. The provision for reservation along the gender lines may be debated. Hopefully, the situation would take turn for the better in the future.

  • JAM

    pls review and correct

  • Abha goel

    “if more women are educated and employed, the indian gdp will be boosted by 10% and by 25% if they go for higher studies” were the words of IMF chief Christine lagarde.
    The sex ratio is abysmally poor in India barring few south Indian states like Kerala and puducherry where women exceed the men in population. The states like UP, Bihar, Chattisgarh have high rate of fertility, IMR and even record gross crimes like rapes and female infanticide. Even the comparitively better off states like Gujarat , delhi and Haryana record a low sex ratio because of the patriarchal mindset of the people and resistence to change.
    Such a trend is not common amongst rural population alone but richer people tend to favour male births more: also, becaue of the technology access and money they have. PCPNDT act was specially passed to avoid such sex selective abortions but it has failed miserably.

    Our second and MDG goal is to bring parity in male and female ratio in primary education and also, focuses on empowerment of women. The good news is there is a parity of 1 in case of primary school enrollment and retention and even in higher education the gap is bridging because of the recent effors and awareness of the government and the people.

    Quick reasons for skewed sex ratio:
    1. patriarchal mindset
    2. 36% people are illiterate and so continue to live with their stereotypical beliefs.
    3. droopout rate is high and the student:teacher ratio is poor
    4. Infrastructure bottlenecks
    5. insecure women in in dia because of prevelant crimes like rapes, voyeurism and no hasty steps taken by governmet i.e the funds, the mechanisms and the regulation exists like fast track courts, sexual harassment bill, PCPNDT act but the implementation is poor.

    How it affects socio economic development:
    1. women are more illiterate as they are still at around 62% whereas men have soared to 70% in terms of literacy.
    2. we lose on our gdp because there are certain sector like weaving, handicrafts, silk rearing, agriculture where women can out perform men but their potential is not well utilised.
    3. many families prefer boys over girls and therefore, its affecting the feale population as well
    4. women are not well represented in political bodies. Their representation is as low as 8% amongst the MP’s and 12% amongst the MLA’s.
    5. the women reservation bill is still pending in parliament
    6. because of skewed sex ratio , in many communities the number of women has reduced ubstantially and which is leading to forced or bonded marriages in states like rajasthan and haryana

    1. abetting the programs like beti bachao beti padhao and releasing various scholarships in their favor.
    2. improving infrastructure and adding toilet as the basic element in any school
    3. strict control over sex selective abortions.
    4. the abortions have already been legalised which is a good step but there is also a need to train midwives and nurses in conducting operations so that women can go in for safe abortions (not illegal) and their health is not affected.
    5. educating and creating awareness amongst the masses via media and various other social online platforms.

  • KN

    The preference of boys over girls is not the new concept in India as India has the history on it. The recent data indicate that the concepts of prenatal sex selection and repeated pregnancies are still dominating in India. However, this trends of a male child over female have been escalating the more odds and atrocities against women and creating hurdles in the socio-economic development of the country. There are following factors which led to the impact on socio-economic development-
    1-As the recent data shows that due to the prenatal mindset of people creating many odds like violence against women, prostitution, pregnancy before marriage, rape, abductions of women, shortage of brides etc.
    2- These concepts lead to undermining the women empowerment initiatives like Sukanya samadhi yojana(SSY), Beti Padao, Beti Bachao Andolan(BPBB) etc.
    3-this will lead to increasing the Gender Gap rather declining.
    However, recent data also shows that there are only 17% of women labour forces are employed in the formal sector due to gender disparity and remaining women labour forces are working in the informal sectors like agriculture, mills because of their poor illiteracy rate.
    However, according to India tradition and culture women are considered as Goddess(Lakshmi), then why are people having a mind set of prenatal sex? This is a matter of concern if India really wants to gender parity and equity in the labour forces.

    please review

  • Pushkin Negi

    PLS REVIEW!!!!!

    With a patriarchal mindset dominating the Indian society, India has been a witness to skewed sex ratio that has worsened over the years. Sex ratio has seen a see- saw growth with 1961 at 941 and 2011 data sees it coming back to 940 after a low dip to 927
    in 1991.

    Smaller states like Kerala and Pondicherry are outdoing the bigger states like Maharashtra, UP, Gujarat with better Sex-ratios.

    The declining sex-ratio not only highlights the still continuing wish for a male child but has deep socio-economic impact for the society as a whole:-

    Socio Impacts:-

    1. With fewer females available, we see the practice of polyandry prevalent in many areas.

    2. Human trafficking- Young brides being trafficked from Nepal, Bangladesh for grooms in states like

    3. Lack of effectiveness of Govt. Social Programs- With women as the focal point of govt.
    social initiatives, a skewed sex ratio, hampers this.

    4. Strengthens the existing patriarchal mindset with fewer females to represent in the existing
    democratic setup.

    5. Early child marriages

    Economic Impacts

    1. Repetitive abortions in hope of a male child cause financial problems on the family and also have adverse impact on the health of the mother.

    2. Women have been the key drivers of the Indian Economy both as a consumer and an income generator. A skewed sex ratio adversely impacts economy.

    A more gender balanced sex ratio is the need of the hour. Govt. has enacted laws that prevent early child marriage, prohibit pre-birth gender testing but a stricter enforcement has to be followed. State govts are incenticivising families for a single female child, marriages, girl education and initiatives like ‘ ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ give hope to upturn the skewed gender ratio.

    • Arkham Knight

      good answer liked the way u used the data and I appreciate ur originality of ur points felt like it added value to my knowledge
      try including conclusions
      keep writing

    • black mamba

      Your points are really good.
      Very good interlinking especially trafficking and abortion bit.

      Instead of prebirth write prenatal, in place of more ‘gender balanced sex ratio, write balanced sex ratio (gender is implied)

      Concluding line gives a sense of closure and hope.
      Very nice 😀

  • mahadev chavan

    From ancient time people had prayed to god for children” O GOD GIVE US MORE AND MORE CHILDREN” specially son because that time they had to go to forest for hunting and for war etc. so that trend have been existing even today.

    Country like india where, family still prefer to give birth to son rather than equally treating birth of son and daughter. according to 2011 census sex ratio is 1000:927 in india.


    1.Even mother wanted to give birth to female child, her family force her to Abortion. kind of cases happening till today in rural.

    2.during first or second pregnancy most of the family could wish to have male or female child but later there is huge chances of getting abortion.

    3.poverty is one of the fact that in most family they won’t wish to give birth to female child because of dowry is still practicing in most parts of the country

    4.Education is one more factor. literacy rate is low of female as compare to male.

    5.family prefer two boys and a girl suppose they wanted three children.

    Recently the survey conducted mckinsey global institute, more than 60% contribution for india’s economic development if females were treat as equally as men at workplace.


    1.Kidnapping of female child will increase in future more and more

    2.harassment of women at work place increase

    3. assaulting on female and school children will increase.

    4.Economic development will slow down

    Recently the survey conducted mckinsey global institute, more than 60% contribution for india’s economic development if females were treat as equally as men at workplace.education and reduce poverty will help to fill this sex ratio trend so india can see socio-economic development in a rapid manner far better in future.

    • mahadev chavan

      please review it.thank you

    • neha

      Hie m also a beginner but felt reasons arent askd n evn if u wish to mention can b done in short.. Also same words can b used fr more impacts?or an elaboration on the impacts mayb Jus a suggestion..

      • mahadev chavan

        thank you neha….i will take into consider your suggestion while answering now onward

  • Titan

    India has been always highlighted for its skewed sex ratio in the world. The wish for a boy child and ill treatment towards the other sex is not just an age old mindset but has become a part of daily chores. Though we have improved from 933 to 940 females per 1000 males from 2001 to 2011. We still got long way to go.

    State wise, India’s sex ratio scenario touches both the end of the bar where Kerela boast more than thousand female per thousand male who are educated, employed and are in the front stream of the society, on the other hand Haryana projects mere 800 or less females per thousand males who are mostly illiterate, backward and confined within the walls of their house.

    The impact of such scenario effects the social, economical, political and overall progress of the nation.

    Social and political:
    1. A large section of capable population is inadequately nurtured and kept out from participation in national growth.
    2. Their health and lives are completely lead by the dictum of their husbands and fail to make any prudent decision in their life.
    3. Decision making capability is completely blunted.
    4. Their precious votes are casted as per their guardian wish.


    1. A large chunk of working labour is locked down which could add on to nations GDP.
    2. With proper training, man power crunch sectors like teaching, craft an other is underdeveloped.
    3. Nation fails to progress when almost half the section of the nation is lll treated and the rest try to soar.

    Overall, the nation fails to soar when others catch the wind. Hence, for development of the country the nation needs to uplift this section which has immense potentiality, as it can’t fly with one wing tied.

  • siddharthan p v

    Please review

  • neha

    Plz review


    Sex ratio in India has been consistently going adverse against the female for the past few years mainly because of socio-economic factors that drives the attitude of our society. Girls are still considered as an asset and the prevailed dowry system discourages the poor in particular, and accession on male lines, a feature of our patriarchal system, discourages the rich to prefer for a girl child.

    Still the trend varies across different states. States comparatively better at the indicators of education like Kerala and Manipur are well placed while those educationally backward like Bihar are among the worst . Also states like Haryana where the honor killings and dominance of unconstitutional khap panchahayats prevails are poor in this regards. Haryana’s adverse sex ration indicate that sex ratio has little to do with development status of the state, given the better economic condition of haryana, and more to do with social attitude and customs.

    This trend may obstructing our economy from realising its full potential as:

    – women, currently contribute indirectly to the labor productivity by doing invaluable services at home and making the male healthy-physically and psychologically, and work more productively.

    – women are essential in expansion of population base providing economy with prospective intellectuals, professionals etc.

    – this may trigger protests by feminists which may create disruption and derail public projects and investments.

    – this will set a negative image of India globally, and given growing consciousness of the world towards gender empowerment, India may be forced via economic boycott to improve the situation.

    This trend may spell a disaster, and India should try the best to reverse this trend by joint state and center efforts.

  • SP

    The sex ratio of India is going on decreasing because of social ,cultural and economic backwardness.according to the 2011 census it is 940.sex discrimination started itself from before birth of a child,then in infant stage and then in adulthood.Even the child sex ratio India has is not encouraging.It is only only 914.In the society it is a big challenge as it is the result of direct discrimination to the female.The female participation in nation building would be decreased.Indeed in the economic development it has big impact as some brains are being not allowed to contribute towards nation building.

  • analyzer

    Sex ratio of a country is defined as the number of females per thousands male. The trends of sex ratio is not uniform and balanced in India:
    1) In states like Kerala and some northeastern states, the ratio is in the favour of women. On the other hand, in states like Punjab and Haryana, it is highly skewed.
    2) even in states the ratio varies to a large extent in urban and rural areas, thus area-wise disparity is evident.
    3) sex ratio is also dependent on the level of education amongst different castes, though it is not necessary that a so called high caste will have sex ratio in the favour of women.
    Impact on socio-economic development :
    1) it has badly affected the GDP of India.
    2) women are not treated at par with man in work and other dimensions of life.
    3) A society where women are not educated leads to underdevelopment of whole nation.
    4) rise in social evils like rape, and harassements.
    way forward:
    1) schemes like ‘Beti Padhao and beti bachao’ and ‘Mid day meal scheme’ promote education of women, an educated woman can only know that a girl is at par with boys in taking care of them
    2) effective implementation of maternity leave and facilitites to take care of pregnant mother.

  • shankar

    The state of sex-ratio in a society or a state or a nation, is the reflection of the maturity, prosperity, integrity and intellectuality. The more balanced sex-ratio having in a society or a nation the better opportunity of peace, prosperity and fraternity. In India from the ancient time, the preference for male child entails a skewed sex- ratio.
    Though in child sex-ratio some improvement has been seen over the last decade. The same trend is with the sex-ratio in adult increasing from (933/1000, 2001 to 940/1000, 2014). but still have a long away. The skewed sex-ratio has great socio-economic and cultural problem as diverse a country as India.

    Soci-economic impacts;
    -The increasing incidents of physical abuse, abducting, women trafficking, prostitution, acid attack, honour killing, child abuse sexually, gang rape, killing etc.
    -Increasing abuse of extra-marital relationship further destroying the very fabric of prosperous and peaceful society and its cultural ethos.
    -Unmatched marriage causing life long mis-understanding between the couple leading to stress in the relation and subsequently rise in divorce, widow, sucide etc
    -lack labour forces in women oriented industries such weaving, bpo, it etc.
    -hindrance for SMEs leading to close of many industries
    -Increase in manual, domestic and industrial labour wage due to lack labour force
    -set back for agriculture; most of agriculture work done women in rural area
    -Increase in early marriage leads to MMR, CDR, underweight child, immature delivery, stunted growth etc.
    -animal husbandry would get affected leading to low per-capita milk consumption and status of world largest producer of milk and milk based products.
    It augurs well to have a favourable child-sex ratio encompassing every dimesnsions of socio-economic well-being. The government in this field such “Beti Bachao, Beti Padhaon”, “Ban on pre-natal sex determination” is laudable step. But more awareness programme through mass media, social networking sites, newspaper, mock drill, nooker natak in school about women achievement and better monotoring and stricter punishment for the offender is required. In this intiative participation of religious teacher, clerics, ngo would be fruitful.
    So, hoping this trend of upward continue till the goal of child sex parity would be achieved as soon as possible.

    plz rvw frnds

  • Kartik

    “Sex Ratio” is a term used to define number of females per 1000 males. As per latest census 2011, sex ratio in India is 940. In the initial years of 20th century, figure hovered around 960-970. Since then, sex ratio has seen constant declined except few aberrations. There are several factors for this declining trend :-

    (a) Female infanticide, genital mutilation, incidents of honor crime etc reflect the patriarchal mindset of family
    (b) Families expect male child so that he cant take care of them at old age.
    (c) High demand of dowry upon marriage discourages parents to have female child.
    (d) Family with no or less sons resort to repeated pregnancies in the hope of a male child.
    (e) Some families go for pre-natal sex selection
    (f) Large gap between migration of male and women workforce

    Sex ratio generally is a measurement for equality of males and females in our society over a period of time. More skewed sex ratio has several direct or indirect impact on socio-economic development of a society
    – Women are regarded subordinate to men that largely inhibits their personal growth.
    – Women less empowered
    – Less participation of women in economic activities causing big economic loss
    – Growth of gender-based crime
    So, it is high time when other states replicate the model of Kerala state that has seen constant improvement in the sex ratio graph in last several decades.

    • Shubham Kothari

      well written try to include more points on economic impact and the potential of women in society.
      ending is nice

      • Kartik

        Sure…ll take care of it !! Thanks

  • Rohit

    Sex ratio which measures number of females per 1000 males which is 940 according to 2011 census.The trends in sex ratio in India showed following trends-

    – It shows an upward trend from the census since last two decades.
    -It was 933/1000 males in 2001, which gradually increased in 2011 to 940.

    -Since decades India has seen a decrease in the sex ratio till 1991.

    census yea . sex ratio
    1901. 972
    1951. 946
    1991 . 927
    2001. 933
    2011. 940.

    -since the last two of the decades there has been slight increase in the sex ratio i.e 2001 & 2011.

    The number of females in country matters for its social and economic development. socially and economically sex ratio impact country as follows-

    -decreased sex ratio make it difficult to find females for marriage creating chaos in society.

    -It can give rise to sextual exploitation of women’s in society with reduced sex ratio.

    -it may act as detterent for the growth of population.

    – It can give rise to crime against women and act as deterrent in women empowerment.

    As declining sex ratio creates chaos in country adversely affecting growth of coutry.Therefore its need of time to educate people and create awareness and effectively implement schemes like Beti bacho and beti paseo.

  • Shubham Kothari

    we are in the 21st century and yet our society is male male chauvinist. This is very well seen in the skewed nature of our families which still prefer male child over female due to the dominance male enjoys in the society.
    the sex ratio of India showed upward trend in India in the past decade with ratio rising from 933 to 940 female per 1000 male, but if we consider the pace of growth which is extremely slow and their are some states which are still moving in the negative direction. Well off household where the male can earn enough for the house holds the highest no. of potential unemployed women. On the other hand women in poor families are forced to work to run the house.
    women population in India counts up to 567.8 million out of which 70% are under the age of 35. The true potential of the economy can only be exploited by shedding the stereotype male dominated growth and including women in every field of development. According to a report of The Times magazine, India could raise its GDP by a quarter if women plays an equivalent role in the economy generation process.
    even though govt has come up with thoughtful initiatives like “beti bachao beti padhao”, but funds for this has barely reached the grass root level and the implementation of such schemes is very slow and directionless.
    To introduce women in the countries economy better transport for women, safer working condition and most importantly change in mindset of society which bounds women with household work and working outside this is still considered below dignity. quick steps and awareness programs with better implementation and direction must be taken to exploit the economy to its full potential.

  • Raj

    India’s skewed sex ratio due to preference of a male child
    can be explained by a popular saying,
    “Bringing up a daughter is like watering a plant in another’s

    The family resources, be it health, nutritional, educational
    or financial, are diverted since the very beginning to male wellbeing. It lends
    women to physical and consequently social disadvantages and disabilities,
    strengthening the stereotype of female inferiority.

    As proportion of women compared to males shrinks, it leads to
    increased violence and crimes against women like prostitution, rape, abduction,
    child marriage, etc, leading to a dysfunctional society.

    Not only does it project an archaic social paradigm of the
    country in the world community, such a mentality has its economic implications

    Increased expenditure of exchequer on welfare
    and aid schemes for women

    An inability to work and contribute to the
    economy leads to increased unemployment, further hurting India’s demographic

    Multiple pregnancies to conceive children
    increases financial burden on the family, lowering purchasing power and leading
    to stagnation of the economy.

    Health complications due to discriminate and
    inadequate care to women lead to burden on the already inadequate health infrastructure
    of the country, for problems that are preventable.

    Yet, however
    miniscule, census report of 2011 shows a nominal rise in the sex ratio from 933
    of 2001 to 940, which will get a fillip through
    Government schemes like ‘’Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’’, ” Aapki Beti Hamari
    Beti ” , implementation of PCPNDT Act and public awareness and
    education campaigns.

    • black mamba

      Your interlinking is really good!
      I never thought of the exchequer point. It makes sense but I’m not sure how appropriate it would be to write this!
      A little more analysis of trend would be needed. The conclusion is very good. So is the flow!
      Keep writing and reviewing

      • Raj

        Agreed. I missed out on the trend part! Also can you please explain what isn’t appropriate aboutthe exchequer point? I’d like to make changes in my notes.
        Thank you for the review! 🙂

  • Legolas

    Pls review

  • BRK

    Rich states such as Punjab , Haryana and Kerala suffer from low sex ratio. Farming is large scale and profitable and male dominated . NE states and Odisha , Jharkhand have healthy sex ratio. Women enter farming only in areas where it is of the subsistence , small landholding ,marginal type. Another interseting phenomenon is that women are better off in these aress with healthy sex ratios despite being poor. I think social impacts can easily be enlisted for this answer but the economic impact is vague and difficult to pinpoint.

  • Disco Dancer

    Sex ratio has always been a cause of concern for the govt in India due to its figure showing selective preference to males. Reasons for this trend disrobes the patriarchal thinking of our society. Sons are preferred as they dont are not a societal burden for them ,they shows them brighter economic prospects etc.
    Sex ratio has been declining since 1961, reaching a mere 914 in 2011 census. Now this could have many negative socio-economic impacts:

    =>Less no of women decrease their status, they become vulnerable & faces many adversaries in male dominant society like violence & harassment, education declines.
    =>Low status in house, often blamed for giving birth to girl child. Many time illegal adoption which are not received well under Pre conception & pre natal diagnostic techniques act.
    =>Moreover, the reformers like police , panchayats etc also focus give men centric judgement.

    =>Women are not allowed to work outside home especially when monthly income of family is more. this lead to loss of self confidence, indignity etc
    =>Less women participation is hampering the growth of india according to world bank , Mckinsey report etc
    =>With less money in hand they are not properly covered under banks, women oriented incentives etc.

    Here, we could take an example from tribal societies which has maintained a respectable sex ratio. As a result, women has a place of dignity in society, they take all decisions related to their lives are involved in occupation just like their male counter parts.

    Apart from robust schemes from govt what we need today is to just change our attitude towards the subject. We should give women the respect she commands. Self dependent women is a sign of healthy progressing nation.

    • Jay Chander

      have you written the answer spontaneously or how much time did you take in writing this answer……..good answer

      • Disco Dancer

        i think i wrote this in less than 5 minutes 🙂

    • Amit

      You have not justified the question.Pls check the question again.

  • By sex ratio we mean number of females per 1000 males in country. If we go through the past census of the country it is already skewed and the deviation from normalcy is increasing with time. In 1901 we had 972 females per 1000 males and according to census of 2001 it decreased to 940. The same skewness is seen in case of child sex ratio. According to census of 2001 national average was 927 female children per 1000 male children. In case of prosperous states it was even worse, for ex. it was 800/1000
    for Punjab.
    Reason:- It may be due to various reason such as preference of boys over girls, sex specific abortion in prosperous states due to availability of advanced medical equipments, preferential treatment to girl baby or dowry issue in marriage of girl child.

    Impact on socio-economic development:- It is observed that the development of a family on social or economic ground depends on how much the females of that family is empowered. And if our society is giving preference to male over female the possibility of this
    prosperousness decreases. Less number of females will also lead to problems in marriage in near future as number of girls will be less and will lead to female trafficking.

  • shraddha

    Declining sex ratio in India has been a cause of concern for the policy makers. In India sex ratio is tilted towards male than female and this is particularly true regarding child sex ratio. In India, due to various socio economic reasons, male child is preferred than female child. Female child becomes the victim of patriarchy and aborted in the form of female foeticide or infanticide. the skewed sex ratio can lead to various socio-economic repercussions, some of them can be highlighted in the following manner:
    1-skewed sex ratio results into various women related crime for eg. child sex abuse, sex trafficking, sexual violence etc.
    2. Due to skewed sex ratio less women are available compared to men and it can lead to breaking of the institution of family. It has recently been witnessed in Punjab, Haryana and other north Indian states that women are being bought in the name of marriage but in fact used as a medium just to produce child and thus reduced to be a commodity. Their dignity of human being is thus violated.
    3. It has further promoted the patriarchal mindset in the society where every one wants to save the girl child but not in his own family.
    4. Apart from social repercussions, skewed sex ratio is harmful for the economic development in the country. Amartya Sen has called them “missing women”. The country is denied by the benefits of talent of each unborn female child. In the recent IMF and World Bank report also, it has been claimed that more female participation can lead to more GDP growth of the world including India.
    5.The unsafe and insecure atmosphere which is created due to less women presented is responsible for sexual violence at work places and women are further demotivated to participate in the economy

    Women are the face of any society. A society where the rights of 50% of its population is violated can never progress. the preservation of the rights of women is necessary for the just and egalitarian society as well as progressive economy.

    • Well written. Please review my answer.

  • Rashmi

    Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males. It is an important and useful indicator to assess relative excess of deficit of men or women in a given population at that point of time.
    In the Population Census of 2011 it was revealed that the population ratio in India 2011 is 940 females per 1000 of males. The Sex Ratio 2011 shows an upward trend from the census 2001 data. Census 2001 revealed that there were 933 females to that of 1000 males.

    There has been some improvement in the Sex Ratio of India but it has gone down in some states like Haryana. The state of Kerala with 1084 females for every 1000 males has the best sex ratio in India. It has shown tremendous improvement in the last 10 years. Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877 females per 1000 males. Thus, Sex Ratio of India varies from region to region.

    The impact:
    Gender equality matters for society more broadly. Empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices.Efforts to promote gender equality through emphasis on education of girls, empowerment of women, legislation to prevent domestic violence against women, ban on the use of scans and other techniques to determine the sex of the foetus, etc. have been mounted to tackle these issues in the recent years.In India, giving power to women at the local level led to increases in the provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women.Declining sex ratio is a silent emergency. But the crisis is real, and its persistence has profound and frightening implications for society and the future of humankind.

    Government’s Role

    As for tackling the demand side – i.e. addressing the complex reasons that son preference-daughter aversion is so prevalent – our policy response has included marking the National Girl Child Day (declared in 2009) on January 24, sporadically putting up billboards at major intersections telling us to ‘love the girl child,’ ‘beti bachao’, ‘stop killing girls’, and a slew of ill-conceived conditional cash transfer schemes to incentivise the birth of girls at both the Centre and the State level.

    • pink

      good pl review mine

  • Innocent

    For a surprise backward and tribal states (UP, MP, Bihar JH, CG) have more girls (so dowry is flourishing there as there is a over supply of girls beacause they keep on producing kids till they have a boy so for one boy they might gv birth to 3 girls) and developed states have less girls (Hrayana, Guj, Punjab, Delhi, Mah) because these states outright use Pre natal detection and get a boy at the first attempt or atmost in second attempt surely…so for every boy taking birth their is no girl or atmost on girl is born. HERE I will Say Urban and Developed India is more responsible for Skew…