1) “The causes, sources and impact of air quality issues are interconnected and they need to be addressed together.” In the light of increasing air pollution in Delhi and other big cities in India, analyse the statement.

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Topic: Urbanization, their problems and their remedies

1) “The causes, sources and impact of air quality issues are interconnected and they need to be addressed together.” In the light of increasing air pollution in Delhi and other big cities in India, analyse the statement. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

  • why_so_serious?

    According to reports of WHO, Delhi is the highest offender in terms of air pollution. The causes, sources and hence the impact are interconnected.

    1) Increased number of personal vehicles.
    2) National ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) not followed by most urban agglomerations.
    3) No quality standards for the small and medium scale industries and no inspections on the gases being released.
    4) Some of the pollutuant releasing industries in urban localities.
    5) The shift of heavy duty vehicles to transport goods to NCR’s via Delhi.
    6)Burning of straw in the neighbouring states.
    7)Land locked from all sides unlike Chennai, Calcutta and Mumbai and hence air ventilation of the city is not as high as these cities.
    8) Rising traffic and rising pollution.


    1) Heavy duty vehicles.
    2) personal vehicles.
    3) Increased straw burning plus open burning of plastic and tyres.
    4) Indoor air pollution.
    5)Factories and industries.

    Impacts :

    1) Lung cancer, chronic pulmonary diseases, loss of vision, cataracts.
    2) Major reason for death.
    3) Increased stress level.
    4) Non communicable diseases.
    5) Ozone depletion.
    6) Increased blood pressures.

    1) Unleaded petrol with proper inspection.
    2) Check on the vehicles which are major source of pollution.
    3) Planting trees ( INDC and the carbon sink).
    4) Emission rates to be controlled and kept at permissible level.
    5) Industries outside the human inhabited regions.
    6) Waste disposal outside the city.
    7)The factory fumes be dealt with chemical treatment.

    Futhermore, there is a need of “attitudinal approach” which includes encouraging people to use public transports like buses and metros.

    • Pacify

      Ques asked to analyse and not to list..

      • why_so_serious?

        So what according to yu is analyze? For me its like looking for the causes and then giving measures to control it. And anyways the question asked to analyze the statement. I guess I did it

    • black mamba

      your enumeration is really nice.
      infact im leeching some points off of your answer 😛
      but ill say add one line each in the end of each sub head to portray the interconnection.
      then it will look like a solid answer rather than an intelligent collection of points.

      • why_so_serious?

        thanx bro for the review… I guess yu’re right, will surely take care of that 🙂

        • black mamba

          review mine now

    • James

      Plz review my answer.

    • IAS @ 2016

      good coverage of points
      keep writing bro

    • amit

      u covered a lot of points
      highly informative

      but hw u covered thier interconnectedness i thnk u had nt done justice with that(personal view)
      keep writing keep reviewing

      pls review mine

      • why_so_serious?

        Yes bro yu’re right. Now its seems I’ve done a blunder. Yes I’ll

      • Ankit

        Hi please review mine too….

    • Himanshu Rawat

      Oh god. First we came on consensus and now our answers are almost identical. Today we need others opinion… 🙂

      • why_so_serious?

        hahaha Yes indeed 😛

      • ragini sharma

        Pl review mine

    • ragini sharma

      wao nice way of answring

      review mine plz.

    • Swathi

      Nice Answer..Very wide coverage.

    • yogi

      nice points joker, but where is the interconnecction
      Plz review mine..:)

      • why_so_serious?

        yes I forgot that

    • Ankit

      Hi..your answer is good and exhaustive but u did’nt cover the interconnection part…please take care…overall good answer…please review mine…

      • why_so_serious?

        yes sir

  • IAS @ 2016

    Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earths atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or building enviornment.

    The main causes and source of Air pollution are :-

    1) Burning of fossil fuels:- Sulfur dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and other factory combustibles is one the major cause of air pollution. Pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause immense amount of pollution.

    2) Agricultural activities :- Ammonia is a very common by product from agriculture related activities and is one of the most hazardous gases in the atmosphere.

    3) Exhuast from Industries :-Manufacturng industries release large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air thereby depleting the quality of air.

    The main impacts of air pollution are

    –> Global warming:- With increased temperatures world wide, increase in sea levels and melting of ice from colder regions and icebergs, displacement and loss of habitat have already signaled an impending disaster.

    –> Respiratory and heart problems :-The effects of Air pollution are known to create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other threats to the body.

    Thus, the causes, sources and impact of air quality issues are interconnected and they need to be addressed together.It can be done by

    – promoting public transport systems like metro, public buses
    – Conserve energy
    -initiating schemes like air cleaning campaing with public private partnership
    -Emphasis on clean energy
    -Understanding the concept of reduce ,Re-use and recycle
    -use energy efficient devices

    Thus the issue regarding the air quality should be addressed in a systematic way to prevent our planet and human life.

    • Pacify

      In my views ques asked to analyse statement and not to discuss. I may be wrong. Pl review mine

      • krish

        Yes I too agree wit you… Analysis by co-relating causes,sources,impact and suggesting possible comprehensive sols.

        • Pacify

          Review mine

    • dr.dipika

      you could have shorten cause n impact n analysed a bit about solutions and their impact improving air quality,
      please review mine….

      • IAS @ 2016

        thanku for the review

    • why_so_serious?

      nicely written. I forgot eutrophication and acid rain. Can yu please review mine bro?

    • ajay

      very nice ans dude just a little control over word limit and its more about air pollution so u can focus more on that.just my view i may be wrong

    • ajay

      pls review mine

    • Anshuman upadhyay

      conclusion is very short
      plz review

    • James

      Please review my answer.

    • James

      Your answer is good.
      I am not sure that we have to analyse sources and causes separately or in one heading.
      You also missed the particular context of Delhi what question asked.
      368 words a lot to write. Remain within word limit.

    • yogi

      Brilliant answer
      u have made very nice points and tried to establish the interconnection through impacts
      only concern ->verbosity
      plz review mine

  • Shiva Kumar

    India’s capital Delhi is one the worlds worst airpolluted city after Beijing. Which is causing great concern regarding health of the local people

    – Traffic emission due to high vehicle density on roads
    – Particles from burning fields of Punjab and Haryana
    – Industrial effluents from pollution causing factories and industries in and around Delhi
    – Level of PM 2.5 is 3 to 4 times more than acceptable threshold limits

    – Indoor and outdoor pollution can trigger lung cancer,chronic obstrutive pulmonary diseases,pneumonia and acute respiratory infections
    – Long term exposure to pollution may lead to loss of vision ,cataracts,cardiovascular diseases
    – WHO has ranked outdoor air pollution among top killers in India

    – Reducing emissions that causes poor air quality,ozone depletion and climate change
    – Reduce number of vehicles on road by promoting public transport system like local MMTS trains, metro rails, buses , etc
    – Initiate clean air compaign through electronic and print media on regular basis
    – Promote vehicles which have less impact on environment like LPG,CNG,Hydeogen fuel,renewable energy

    Only better regulation and adopt action of inclusive approach that promotes inclusive health lifestyle will result into cleaner air

    • ajay

      can work on interconnecting the points a litle bit more shiva,pls review mine

    • Anshuman upadhyay

      plz review

  • Pacify

    1) “The causes, sources and impact of air quality issues are interconnected and they need to be addressed together.” In the light of increasing air pollution in Delhi and other big cities in India, analyse the statement. (200 Words)

    Major causes, sources and the masses impacted by these causes are entangled with each other in webbed form. With the increasing level of pollution in India specifically in Metropolitan cities it become difficult to maintain the sustainable level which results into a number of serious health and atmospheric ill.

    Therefore, addressing one air quality issue can often help to reduce other kinds of pollution.
    For example, Particulate matter is mainly released by burning of fossil fuel and wood, if we will be able to cut down this combustion than it will reduce number of particulate matter in atmosphere and also many other emission like Co2 which are the major reason for global warming and chronic health disease.

    Reducing such harmful emissions like particulate matter, Co2, GHGs that causes poor air quality, Ozone depletion and negative climate change need to be tackled by Teamwork.
    It becomes necessary from now itself to work together as Individuals, communities, industry and business, and governments to be a part of the solution.

    At this critical stage saving the planet i.e EARTH is the dire need and the rewards of addressing air pollution include improved human health, increased productivity and reduced health costs and a healthier, more productive environment. In turn, these benefits will result in a healthier, more sustainable economy.

    • Pacify

      Kindly reviews..

    • arundhathi

      Nice ,but Can u explain me clearly you one air quality issue can help to reduce other kinds of pollution because I didn’t get it clearly.

    • dr.dipika

      but some additions in solution part would be better here..
      pls review min

    • ajay

      gud analysis but u can have more issues to touch upon pls review mine

    • Anshuman upadhyay

      Should be point wise
      plz review

    • IAS @ 2016

      good , you have interconnected well
      good conclusion

  • Shreya

    India has second largest number of premature deaths because of outdoor air pollution. Increasing urbanization, increasing number of vehicles, industrial and biomass burning, residential energy used for heating and cooking, straw burning – are various causes responsible for increasing outdoor and indoor pollution. Indian cities are among the most polluted cities in the world.
    Air pollution can cause lung cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, loss of vision, cardiovascular disease, growth in stress levels and hypertension. There are also huge economic costs of pollution.

    The causes, the sources and the impact of the air pollution should be addressed together in order to achieve sustainable results.
    – Besides strengthening emission standards, more innovative concepts like self contained neighborhoods should be adopted, so that most places (health care centres, offices, schools, market) are accessible by walking and cycling.

    – Along with increased public investment to expand the reach of public transport, strong campaigning should be undertaken to incentivise behavioral changes among people.

    – Green tax for commercial vehicles entering the cities such as the one introduced in Delhi.

    – Setting up of bioethanol factories to tackle to chronic problem of straw burning

    – Inducing people to reduce wood burning stoves to gas stoves, increasing the use of renewable energy such as solar energy, and conventional yet most important measure- planting trees.

    • arundhathi

      Can you tell me what is meant by huge economic costs of pollution

    • ajay

      very well strucured add a conclusion will enhance ans pls review mine

    • Anshuman upadhyay

      Dam nhi hai ans me
      plz review

  • ashwin jai

    With increasing awareness among people
    about the affect of air polluting on the health of society, there is gamut of
    the measures taken to address this problem in urban, so that its causes and
    impact of the pollution are addressed together.

    The sources and causes of the air pollution
    in urban area are :

    a) With increase usage of personal vehicles over public
    transportation, not only created infrastructure problem. But also increased the
    pollution thru traffic emission, despite improvement in fuel standard
    like CNG and LPG.

    b) The practice of burning of field and crops
    after harvesting, and practice of burning of plastic and other discarded items.

    c) Disposal of untreated of various sewage and industrial waste in open area,
    and emission from factories.

    d) Increased in urbanization of villages to cities, and migration of labour to
    existing cities.

    The implication of the air pollution in urban

    a) The air pollution affects the health of individual,
    and causes various respiratory diseases.

    b) Increase of particulate matter in air, due to which major
    cities in India are worst in particulate matter.

    c) Due to increase urbanization, reduction of forest

    d) Increase in average temperature in urban areas, formation
    of “Heat Island” and increased
    usage of air condition to beat the heat.

    e) Climate change
    is major impact due air pollution, and also deterioration of air quality.

    To address this problem, measures to be taken
    are :

    the use of public transportation, ban of
    old polluting vehicle thru frequent checking of PUC certificate, and improve
    emission norms of the vehicles as per Saumitra

    Chaudhuri committee’s report.

    Checking the burning of crops, field, and discarded items in urban
    items. Diverting it as inputs to bio-gas plant.

    Addressing the
    issue of air quality, by raising awareness among people to use public
    transport, and use bicycles.

    Encourage usage
    of electric cars like reva.

    Checking if the
    emission control norms are followed by various factories.

    To address this problem, there must be holistic
    approach both from society, government with each performing their role.

    • Anshuman upadhyay

      balanced approach nice
      plz review

  • Georgi Mathan Ninan

    The rapid urbanization in developing countries like India have caused exponential increases in polluting activities and thus, the causes, sources, and impact of air quality issues are interconnected and has to be addressed together.

    1) The burning of large swathes of farmland contributes towards the descent of polluted air towards cities. During winter months, the burning of straw affects the air and in turn leading to a health hazard.

    2)Irrespective of better fuel and higher emission standards, the increase in ownership of vehicles on roads has overtaken the benefits of better fuel and higher emission standards.

    3)Household appliances that burn fuel for warmth or cooking.

    1) Air pollution can trigger a variety of harmful diseases ranging from lung cancer to loss of vision and to risk of cardiovascular disease

    2)The annual cost of environmental damage due to outdoor and indoor air pollution has been estimated to be Rs 1,10,000 crore and Rs 87,000 crore respectively.

    The government needs to focus on legislative and infrastructural reforms such as more efficient public transportation system, setting up of more bioethanol refineries and increasing the dependence on renewable energy.

    Addressing one air quality issue can often help to reduce other kinds of pollution. Bette regulation and the adoption of an inclusive approach that promotes healthier lifestyles will result in cleaner air.

  • dr.dipika

    please review friends….!!!

    Increasing air pollution in India, especially in the metropolitan cities needs to be addressed as it has crossed the acceptable limits by WHO.
    Major causes of air pollution like PM2.5,PM10,carbon monoxide,aerosols,GHGs etc are released from the sources like burning fuel wood,biomass burning,fuel adulteration,traffic congestion,increase in no. of vehicles,industrial effluents,etc.These seriously impacted health and environment a lot causing diseases like lung cancers,COPD,pneumonia,acute LRTI,cardio-vascular diseases,increasing stress level,ozone depletion etc.
    So,the way cause,its sources and effects are interconnected,these need essentially to be addressed in the same way:-
    1.Use of clean fuels like CNG in vehicles like bus,taxi,use of renewable energy like solar,bio gas shall be encouraged.
    2.Avoiding traffic congestion by increasing transport facilities like metros,and developing fly overs and bridges in efficient way, use of public transport,etc.
    3.improve legislation and apply strictly regarding fuel standards,standards for vehicles and industries emission.
    4.Along with these, problem of increasing population needs to be addressed which is root cause,and increasing awareness among masses regarding air quality,integrated measures of civil society and government for clean air is needed.
    To sum up,reducing causes by solving problem sources would result in the reducing its impact.

    • ajay

      COPD,LRTI?? don’t use shortcuts as far as i think gud ans though pls review mine

      • dr.dipika

        but these are shortcut from books of medical science,u might not be knowing,being a doctor i use it,but will try to not to use.

        thanx for review

        • Anshuman upadhyay

          overall ans is good but u can add more points

          • dr.dipika

            ok,thanks for review

  • Swathi

    With the increasing air pollution in cities specially in Delhi , an alarm has been raised about how to effectively control this. Air pollution has not only affected human health , but implicitly impacted the complete ecosystem , water cycle, destroying biodiversity, causing climate change with increase of Green House gas like CO2, methane , Nitrogen and sulphur oxides . Tackling air pollution need a collaborates approach analyzing impacts, causes and source together.
    This can be divided into three main sections :

    1). Source : Vehicular Emissions
    Causes: Increased Co2 , CO, NO2, SO2
    Impacts : On human health : respiratory and lung disorders, lung cancer, asthma.
    On environment : Increased GHG, thus trapping the long wave terrestrial radiation , leading to global increase in temperature resulting in glacial melting, floods, urban heat Island Effect, changes in biodiversity pattern
    Solution : Government must adhere to the technical expertise in handling pollution.
    Citizens must have an attitudinal change. Use more of metro, public transport, car pooling , adhere to emission tests .

    2) Source : Burning of fossil fuels , burning of straws( seen in Punjab recently ) , Agricultural burning – ( In slash and burn agricultural practice )
    Causes : Increased Particulate Matter 2.5 and Particulate Matter 10, black carbon, SO2 , NO2
    Impacts : Respiratory Ailments, cancers , Acid rain and its effects, weakening of monuments
    Solution : Shift to scientific approach for discarding waste/straw/agricultural output . Slash and burn agriculture need a detailed introspection by the Government in collaboration with the tribes indulging in such activity. Fossil Fuel emission must be checked in public places, residential areas and methods to shift to more advanced cooking techniques.

    3)Source : Industrial Emissions
    Causes : Increased GHG, PM2.5 , PM10, SO2, Lead oxides, NO2
    Solution : EIA before any industry establishment
    Industry must be outside the vicinity of the towns/cities
    chimneys must be long enough according to Governmental standards.
    Checks and inspection by the government regularly whether industries are keeping up the emission standards.

    Summing up, Air pollution control need a collaborated approach by the citizens, industries, by the government, civil society organisations and scientific research institutes. Without which air pollution control seems like a “distant dream”.

    • ajay

      nice structuring,very gud solutions,nice conclusion,pls review mine

      • Swathi

        Thanks for reviewing

    • INXS

      your write beautifully! in my understanding ,u grasped the question really well

      • Swathi

        Thanks a lot for reviewing

    • yogi

      Nice structre+currents+solution , just 2 concerns
      1 if u could have added just one line in each about how impact is again becoming the source , ur answer would be more comprehesive as per the demand of the word “interconnection”
      2. word limit
      Plz review mine , criticisms are welcome

      • Swathi

        Agree.. Will consider your suggestions. thanks so much for reviewing

  • ajay

    the recent reports of WHO has highlighted the increasing level of pollution in big cities of india.it has rated delhi as one of the worst polluted city in the world.this grim situation has been caused due to multitude of factors which include

    -increasing vehicular pollution due to exponential rise in the number of private,passenger and polluting vehicles
    -paddy pollution and burning of stubble in neighbouring states of punjab and haryana cause increase in the level of particulate matter in the air of delhi.
    -absence of bypasses across major cities causes polluting diesel trucks and buses to cross through the city at night.this furthers the level of polluting gases and dangerous particulate matter across the city
    -the large scale busting of firecrackers in winter season accentuates the problem due to presence of high pressure and absence of upward movement of air
    -the timings of office hours are such that it often causes serious rise in level of pollutants in the evening and morning.

    NO2,SO2,Ozone,PM2.5 AND pm10 are the main culprits for increasing health hazards in our cities.they cause respiratory problems,dyspnoea,obstructive lung diseases,cardiac problems,stress and high blood pressure levels.moreover it can cause irritation of eyes,allergy,cataract and even loss of vision.they adversely effect our children,adolescents,elderly and women .a recent study has held that delhites loose 3 years of productive life due to pollution.

    therefore there is urgent need to take holistic view of the matter and put up measures like-

    -banning diesel vehicles more than 10 years old(recent NGT order) and adoption of euro 6 standards in vehicles.
    popularising use of cng public transport ,brts and metro.
    -varying office hours and school timings to minimise sudden rise in pollution levels
    -diverting stubble burning in punjab ,haryana towards cardboard making and productive manure with persuasion and govt support
    -use OF National air quality index and SAFAR technology for constant monitoring of polltion and.as color enters marron closure of polluting industrial units and transport .(as in beijing)
    -increasing use of renewable energy,energy efficient technologies,green budgeting ,imposition of green tax etc

    concludingly it can be said that rising pollution is one of the most pressing concerns of today and needs to be handled urgently.

    • ajay

      pls review friends

    • Swathi

      Well covered .If you would have Integrated causes, impacts, solutions , it would have been great. Just my view:)

      • ajay

        thnx for review swathi will try to keep ur suggestions in mind

    • dr.dipika

      answer is good.But i think it seems to be about air pollution and misses somewhere the demand of question about ‘interconnected approach’.

      • ajay

        thanx for the review dipika will try to better it next time

    • dr.dipika

      try to reduce it,as word limit would permit in exams
      keep writing…:)

      • ajay

        k 🙂

    • Pacify

      Ur answers is rally nice n covering wide aspect just bit interconnections will fetch more marks,, keeps writing and reviewing,.. 🙂

      • ajay

        thanx for the review pacify thanx a lot

    • IAS @ 2016

      briliant answer bro
      good content
      keep writing and reviewing

      • ajay

        Thanx a lot for the review

    • Anshuman upadhyay

      Excellent and but arranging thisinformation in points is much better

      • ajay

        Thanx anshuman…..

    • Ace.Reviewer

      Rich content but deviating from answer. Focus must be in interconnectedness like:
      1. Increasing urbanization causing more industries to be set up to tap markets. More vehicles as congestion on public transport. More construct dust spreads, more mining, etc. More commmercual vehicles ply the citirs like Delhi to meet more demands.
      2. Asian brown cloud due to biomass burning delays monsoom and so crop yield reduces and so farmers divert to more biomass burning for their needs.
      3, to keep away polluted air, we travel in AC cars or live in AC rooms which impact global warming.
      4. Crackers in winters cause more pollution.

      Then effects like lung cancers, etc.

      Then some suggestions like attitude change, air indes, etc,

      • ragini sharma

        Pl review mine….

      • ajay

        Thanx for detailed review sir lots of value additions in depth thinking….

      • Bhokal

        Point 2 is awesome.
        But about point 4,
        Crackers in winters cause more pollution.
        Do u mean >> in winters, there is low temperature near the surface so more fog and more smog due to crackers pollution.

        If any other meaning please clear it.
        Review mine too
        and ye Ace 1.0 kb se aa gya ?

        • Ace.Reviewer

          Yes more smog…

      • INXS

        pls review mine

      • ragini sharma

        i hope i hv done same
        plz review

      • Sahil Sangwan

        can we add 2 more points like:
        a) to keep away from using cow dung, coal, coke.. we shifted towards biogas production but it increase CH4 ( a greenhouse gas) that causes global warming.
        c) to save the ozone layer we started using hydrofluorocarbons instead of chlorofluorocarbons, but hydrofluorocarbons persist in atmosphere for years cause production of secondary pollutant like PAN and increase global waming.
        please correct me if i’m wrong…

        • Ace.Reviewer

          CH4 burns to give CO2 only.

      • Ankit Patel

        Please review my answer

    • ragini sharma

      interrelation nahi batay h aapne

      • ragini sharma

        plz review mine

    • Ankit Patel

      Please review my answer

      There is rapid rise in the pollution in Delhi and metropolitan cities.The causes of pollution is population explosion,unplanned development, faster urbanisation, industries, faster industrialisation with unappropriate choices, large private vehicle, congestion in the roads, poverty, unemployment,burning of stubble/fire woods, Unequal development, unsustainable lifestyle. The root cause of pollution is population explosion which puts heavy pressure on natural resources, basic amenities which could not be manageable by civic bodies.It also creates unemployment, leading to poverty, slum life and deteriorate the standard of living. The faster urbanisation attracts Industries to tap the demand and causing unequal growth creating asymmetry between Rural-Urban leading more migration rather than trickling down the growth to rural areas. All these causes of pollutions are interrelated to each other and solution of one may result in ending others. For example a planned development with Smarts cities may remove all the problems as it handles the problem smartly.
      The possible solutions may be:-
      1.Bringing Bharat Stage V or VI early
      2. Incentives given to renewable energy based electricity than fossil fuel based electricity.
      3.Facilitating technology transfer and reducing royalty for clean and green tech.
      4.Import free for tools, parts of solar panel, Wind energy, Hydel energy instrument.
      5.Providing effective, efficient public transport.
      6.Popularising Car free day, Use of cycles.

      • ajay

        Bhai question is on air pollution not urbanisation and it’s side effects u are trying to show interrelation in wrong direction population explosion is certainly a cause I agree but don’t take the logic too far solutions u have provided are healthy and relevant sorry if i was critical

        • Ankit Patel

          Sorry i presume Pollution rather than air pollution. In my opinion, population explosion is the main culprit of all the pollution since it cause unplanned development,puts pressure on resources and create unemployment. I may be wrong but i see the pollution in that way. Thanks for the review.

  • arundhathi

    One of the main causes of the air pollution is manufacturing.This source of pollution spews particulate matter and chemicals in to atmosphere. The exhaust from a factory includes, sulphur dioxide, carbonmonoxide,carbon dioxide and pareticulated.

    • ajay

      arundhati where’s full ans

      • arundhathi

        Thank you for your review,
        There are several main causes of air pollution but the majority of them can be attributed to man.
        One of the main causes of air pollution is manufacturing.
        This source of pollution spews particulate matter and chemicals into the atmosphere.
        The exhaust from a factory includes sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides,carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide as well as volatile compounds and particulates.
        There is not an area of the earth’s atmosphere or an ecosystem that has not been altered by the long term effects at the pollution created by manufacturing.
        Strides have been made to filter the matter coming from manufacturing plants ,but it may take earth millenia to completely recover from the damage already done.
        The earth itself contributes to air pollution like volcanic eruptions,wild fires and other natural process ,but it is capable of recovering from those sources .
        As humans continue to put industrialise with a dependence on fossil fuels ,we put our planets future in jeopardy and shorten the longevity of our species.

      • arundhathi

        Review on mine plz

  • SKB

    pl reviw….

  • Sneha


  • IAS @ 2016

    pls review

  • James

    Air pollution is threatening to life in urban agglomerates with very diverse negative effects and impacts. Its major causes are listed below-


    1. Less use of public transport.

    2. Burning of straw, woods etc. in neighbouring areas

    3. Less promotion of clean renewal energy sources as well as environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies.

    4. Corruption and laxity in pollution control measures

    5. Proliferation of unregulated small and medium industries, illegal mining etc.

    6. Apathy of public towards environment and ecology.

    Major sources are polluting vehicles, smoking industries, generators, polluting household appliances and unwanted burning of organic materials.

    Impacts of Air Pollution:
    Whether it is indoor or outdoor, air pollution can trigger lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, loss of vision, including cataracts, and it heightens the risk of cardiovascular disease. Bad air is also blamed for the growth in stress levels as well as non-communicable diseases, such as high blood pressure. It cause poor air quality, ozone depletion and climate change.
    Extent of problem is that WHO has reported that 13 of the 20 international cities with the worst fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air pollution are in India.

    It is evident that increase use of public transport will decrease polluting vehicles in roads and in turn will reduce traffic congestion. Efficient, accountable and non corrupt pollution controlling agencies will regulate the industries in sustainable way in harmony of environment. More use of renewal resources and clean technologies will decrease the burden on fossil fuels. Increase public awareness will result into pollution controlling measures by pro-active civil society.

    Also these measures will lead to less environmental and health loss to nation and public which in turn will have more resources to invest in cleaner technologies. Otherwise more environmental and health burden will increase poverty and pollution.
    Thus causes, sources and impacts of pollution are integrated to each other. To solve the problem of Air Pollution government has to take measures in innovative, planned and holistic manners. Isolating certain causes or measures will not help to increase air quality.

    • InsightsOfficialReview

      1st – Your answer is absolutely brilliant. Words used (349 – try to shorten it)

      2nd point is that when you are enumerating causes or consequences or anything in point format, always write the major/most important points in starting of answer. You should have enumerated point 5 above point 2.

      3rd – Question specifically asks analyse in context of Delhi and other big cities in India. In your answer, you have no where mentioned these big cities. Mention them, give specific examples from these cities, such as local train in Mumbai, Delhi Metro, Dedicated bus corridor, use of CNG in Delhi which are successful possible solutions.

      Marks – 5/10

      • James

        Thank you sir for reviewing.
        I will sure mention the context of question next time onwards and also will try to remain within word limit.

    • IAS @ 2016

      good answer
      you have structured well
      keep writing
      review mine

    • why_so_serious?

      The leader himself has reviewed it… Do yu need any1 further? 😛

  • Anshuman upadhyay

    Air (prevention &pollution control)act was came into effect in 1981 but still after 35 Years,air quality is worsening day by day.If talk about indian metro cities ,Delhi is the 4th largest polluted city of the world.
    *burning of crop residue
    *wood fuel
    *burning of plastic & tyres
    * mining
    *indoor pollution

    *increasing private vehicles(more than 85 Lakh cars)
    *straw burning in neighbouring states
    *landlocked city(no ventilation)
    *rising particulate matter
    *industries and factories in mid of city
    *rising population due to emigration as a result increase in indoor pollution

    *lung diseases
    *high blood pressure
    *non communicable diseases
    *pulmonary diseses
    *increase in stress level,loss of vision
    *acid rain
    *ozone depletion
    * effect on wildlife
    * deterioration of status of city
    *public transport should be encouraged
    *crop residue should be converted into compost and ethanol
    *seperate centre and state environment pollution controls should be setup
    *seperate Indian Environment Service should be formed
    *unleaded petrol use or more use gasohol
    *tree plantation
    *seperate fund for air pollution control
    *regular check of emisson of vehicles and industries
    *industries and factories should be setup outside inhabited area.

    Offcourse causes,sources and measures are interconnected concept,proper handling of one of these can lead to automatic handling of other two .so by working &properly implementing these measures air pollution can be reduced to permissible limits.

    • ajay

      anshuman u can analyse and interconnect a little more nice listing of points,pls review mine

    • dr.dipika

      the question itself says these 3 are interconnected and asked to analyse which misses in ur answ,
      plz review mine

    • IAS @ 2016

      good points
      good intro
      keep writing

  • Mama

    Please review friends.

    The causes, sources & impact of air quality issues are linked to each other in a web like structure. If one case is addressed properly then it can provide domino effect to another cases to curb the air pollution issues.
    For example; the major source of air pollution is the buring of coal and fossile fuel in manufacturing industries which in turn releases CO, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, particulate matters, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur etc. These pollutants impact our health, deplects ozone layer, create global warming and acid rain. If the use of coal is gradually reduced and replaced by solar,wind or nuclear energy then the health issues can also be addressed as by using these non conventional energy resources the production of pollutants is also reduced.
    To control the rapid growing problems of air pollution, people’s participation along with govt regulations are important. Some steps like 3R principle( reduce, reuse, recycle waste ), using public transportation, stop the slash and burn technique in agriculture, efficient technology to produce clean energy can be taken into account. Further more, greater awareness campaign should be created to change the attitude of people to curtail global warming.

  • Rashmi

    Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal.

    With the increasing population and the needs of the population this problem has to be addressed by focusing on public participation. Creating and promoting awareness among people to use public transport, to get the emission tests done regularly, car pooling and reducing the use of motor vehicles etc, could considerably reduce the pollution to an extent.

    Also, with the help of PPP, Various NGO, Tribunals etc, monitoring the air quality and bringing up campaigns showing the potential effects of poor air quality could transform people’s mind to being up the change.

    The Central and State board for the prevention and control of Air pollution has to take up the reports given by the WHO regarding the increasing the pollution and monitor the pollutants which are potentially harmful. Strict steps have to be taken by the government for improving the quality of air by active participation with the public.

  • Himanshu Rawat

    Increase in air pollution in India especially in big cities like Delhi is a serious issue and needs to be addressed on urgent basis.

    Causes :-

    1- Rapid increase in number of personal vehicles.
    2- pollutant released by factories and industries.
    3- improper waste management system leads to burning of several harmful elements like Plastic etc.

    Sources :-

    1- huge number of vehicles
    2- Industries
    3- Indoor air pollution
    4- In case of Delhi burning of straw in neighboring areas.

    Impacts :-

    1- health issues – lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pneumonia, loss of vision, increase stress level and high blood pressure.
    2- economic issue – huge annual cost of environment damage.
    3- environment issue – ozone depletion and climate change.

    Measures :-

    1- extensive public transport
    2- use of renewable energy such as solar and bio gas.
    3- proper waste disposable
    4- promote tree plantation
    5- check on industries. It’s preferable to locate them outside resident areas.
    6- awareness campaigns by government and NGOs.
    7- greater official assertion of emission standards.
    8- promote use of CNG more.

    It requires an inclusive and holistic approach from not only government but also from NGOs and citizens to attain cleaner air.

    • ragini sharma

      🙂 same as jocker

      • Himanshu Rawat

        Ya… Thts what I commented on his answer. 🙂

    • ragini sharma

      inerrelation ?

      plz review mine

      • Himanshu Rawat

        I am not able to see your answer as pages are not opening due to slow network. Will review soon …

        • ragini sharma

          ok ….

        • ragini sharma

          “…………… that sanctuaries are places where killing (poaching) or capturing of animals is strictly prohibited. ” (pg 82 class 8 science)



          Ø Limited activities are permitted within the sanctuary.hunder with permission… ”

          which 1 is correc

          • Himanshu Rawat

            I think both are correct. Limited human activities are allowed but poaching is prohibited. Plz confirm

  • amit


    • why_so_serious?

      Nicely interconnected. But sometimes yur handwriting gets unreadable. Please work on that.

  • arundhathi

    Please review

  • Debula

    Independent studies by organisations have shown a dangerous trend in air quality developing over major metropolises in India. The issue is well-known with the causes having been discussed multiple times before. However, the resulting action still does not account for the interconnected quality of the issues at hand. This means that many measures have largely been taken without accounting for future trends. Therefore, the sources and successive measures to counter these causes needs to be done in a holistic manner.

    The sources of pollution are well known: large number of cars, and users refusing to comprehend the effect of extensive damage on health. However, the sources cannot be understood singularly. If pollution is to be measured, it cannot be done based on the existing number of vehicles. Rather, the measure should be EXISTING+FUTURE BUYING CAPACITY OF HOUSEHOLDS and HOUSEHOLD SIZE. Factors as varied as FESTIVAL LOANS and CONSUMER TRENDS needs to be assessed as well.

    Impact + Solution:
    Again, the impact is well known. The resulting air pollution has an effect on air quality and is especially poor for particular age groups. However, the impact of this assessment needs to be understood better. The launch of the air index has not contributed in any manner. There are no daily PSAs regarding the extend of damage. Especially during peak work+school hours, this assessment can greatly benefit office-going and school-children alike. To really think out of the box, a sense of competition needs to be instilled among cities. For example, cities can be COMPETITIVELY COMPELLED to carry out specific pre-decided pollution measures. Based on this, model cities can be awarded more funds from the centre to carry out development projects.

  • Shruti

    Air quality is a measure of how polluted the air is, in a given surrounding. Recently Indian government had launched an Air Quality index based on One Number- One colour- One condition principle. This allows citizens to take precautionary measures should air quality drops drastically.
    Based on US Clean Air Act, Air quality comprises of 5 factors. – Ground level ozone, 2) No2, 3) SO2, CO and particulate matter
    Causes and sources of air quality issues.-
    1) Green house gas emissions. In fact Cattle breeding is a major factor of GHG emission
    2) Industrial Pollutants – NO2 , SO2
    3) Vehicular pollution – Particulate matter and CO.
    4) Agricultural activities – Particulate matter.

    Impact of poor air quality is manifold.
    1) Health related issues reduce the productive capacity of people leading to lower economic growth of country.
    2) Poor air quality impact the poorest segment of society the most. Health related issues increase spending on healthcare and reduce purchasing power and avenues for development.
    3) Impact on children is reduced physical growth and lesser concentration in school which eventually impedes their intellectual progress.
    4) Increased government spending on providing healthcare to the affected population.
    5) In extreme cases, the agricultural produce is also impacted if there is a lingering particulate matter in atmosphere.
    The impact perpetuates the sources of air pollution and a vicious cycle is created. The need of the hour is to build a holistic solution to the problem of air pollution. Not only should we focus on measuring air quality, we have to bring all stakeholders to decide a common framework on mitigating and adjusting the impact of air pollution.

    • yogi

      i think the key word in the Qn is interconnection, which seems to be missing in ur answer.
      i mean how impact is again leading to source or cause is missing here
      Should not we deal all of them together(just my opinion , plz feel free to counter if u think otherwise)
      plz review mine

  • SVSR

    Delhi has been listed as top polluter among world’s top 20 polluters and in the recent release of National Air Quality Index, Delhi has been placed under ‘severely polluted’ category, under which sustaining life is highly risky.

    If we analyse the cause, sources and impact of air quality, all these are interconnected to changing lifestyles urbanised trends. For example, there is enormous increase in vehicular traffic in and around Delhi, this cause is the source of huge amounts of toxic gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere. Adding fuel to the fire, some reports show that vehicular traffic, per capita income and pollution are directly proportional to each other. More the pollution, people of even average income opt for personal four wheeler to get rid of smoke and also the same with the case of sub-standard public transportation system.

    Recently, the Supreme Court ordered the government to take measures to curb straw burning in fields particularly in winter season to check the uncontrolled air quality situations. For this, the government is planning to increase the density of bio-ethanol plants to make straw remunerative to farmers. This will bring mutual benefits for both the farmers and the people.

    Further, increasing the efficiency, comfort and affordability of public transportation helps in decongestion of roads and subsequent comparatively low emissions, especially after acquiring buses of high emission standards and alternate low carbon fuels. Apart from this, higher promotion of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles through National Electric Mobility Mission which subsidies hybrid and electric vehicles to attract customers will help. In addition to this, behavioural change is at the core to make these missions successful. For this, government, NGOs and media must coordinate and initiate awareness programs at every state. Moreover, implementing strict industrial emission norms by increasing powers, facilities and personnel to Pollution Control Boards will be useful.

    By taking up these measures release of pollutants can be limited at source itself by modifying the causes and ultimately air quality index will be sustainable.

  • ragini sharma

    review plz

    • why_so_serious?

      bahut hi ummda. Mujhe nai lagta kisi v tarah k badlao ki zarurat hai 🙂

      • ragini sharma


        bt aapki tarah pt. banake likhne se marks achhe milenge ?

        • why_so_serious?

          Zaruri nai hai. Uttar sahi hona chahiye aur bhasa saral honi chahiye 🙂

          • ragini sharma

            hmmmm seriously

    • Himanshu Rawat

      Behatrin. Very simple and matured answer. Keep writing dear. Well done 🙂

      • ragini sharma


  • black mamba

    The problem of air pollution in India is so magnified that we can’t look at causes and impacts individually, rather we need a comprehensive approach.

    The causes:
    1) Increasing vehicular pollution due to exponential rise in automobiles despite availability of public transport.
    2) Proliferation of unregulated small and medium industries, illegal mining etc. which do not have standards nor inspection on gases released.
    3) Corrupt and lax pollution controlling measures.
    4) Apathy of public towards environment and ecology.
    5) Burning of straw, cow dung in neighbouring areas.

    The common sources are automobiles, heavy duty transport vehicles, indoor air pollution and unwanted burning of organic matter and tyres etc.

    Excessive air pollution leads to lung problems, eye irritation (sometimes weak vision), slowing down of photosynthesis-disrupting carbon cycle which further aggravates the pollution. Extent is such that WHO has reported that 13 of the 20 international cities with high PM2.5 are in India. It can lead to chronic bronchitis, lung cancer and heart disease.

    Like the problem, measures to contain it also need to be comprehensive. We can start by increased use of public transport, and bringing awareness regarding green lifestyle + planting tress. Other than that, govt needs to promote renewable modes of energy + Ensure efficient and accountable pollution control agencies. Green India approach can infect be clubbed with Swacch Bharat Mission as an offshoot into provision of clean air, water and environment.

    • why_so_serious?

      Nicely written… Isn’t Green india already a component of SBM? I maybe wrong.
      Otherwise really good an answer 🙂

      • black mamba

        i don’t know.
        i felt i was making it up.

        • why_so_serious?

          No yaar… Always be confident for what yu write… i didn’t feel yu were “making it up” . Most of us though do that… but its just the learning stage… long way to go :p

          • black mamba

            thanks. that’s reassuring 😀

            • why_so_serious?

              HAHA… anytime bro 🙂 lets attack the mains self study 😀

  • INXS

    Recently New Delhi has been ranked by WHO as one of the most polluted cities of the world.Breathing in Delhi’s air has health consequences equivalent to smoking 2 cigarettes a day! The situation is no different in other metros and big cities.To understand this problem a fragmented approach had always been adopted that focussed more on outlays than outcomes.For e.g.: the BRT corridor in Delhi built with huge expenidture is a failure today as it finds few takers. until the causes,sources and impacts are treated together,no policy can help.
    This interlinkage can be understood as:
    vehicular emissions :emit SO2,NOX,CO2 etc
    industrial exhaust : emits HF6,HFC,SO2,NO2 etc
    household fuels(chullhas,cow dung burning in lower strata households in slums):emit CO2,CH4,PM 2.5
    burning of waste,rubber tyres etc in order to dispel mosquitoes and also in winters to fight cold weather.

    LINKED to these are the CAUSES:
    vehicles cause pollution as there is lax implementation of laws,resistance in moving to BS-VI norms,corruption,increase in their number as vehicles are taken as a status symbol which is also the reason why people avoid public transport,lack of connectivity,inferior fuel quality .

    industries cause pollution for the similar reason of lack of infrastructure,absence of strict implementation of pollution laws etc.

    other sources of pollution are caused due to improper planning in the cities,rise of slums,congestion,lack of resources which leads to people using inefficient chullhas etc.

    IMPACTS resulting from these causes are:
    increasing instances of pulmonary diseases like bronchitis,asthma.
    carcinogens present in air also pose danger to human health.
    bad air quality affects other components of ecosystem also e.g.:it leads to reduced plant growth that damages land quality.

    Thus these three are interlinked and form a VICIOUS CIRCLE.for e.g.: use of bad cooking fuel causes health deterioration which reduces earning ability and thus can’t procure better fuel or cooking means.
    govt policies like Air quality index,smart cities,introduction of metro rails,no car day initiative in delhi,awareness programmes are important initiates and all the ministries should work together to upgrade the status of indian cities.

    • yogi

      how does impact become cause is somewhat missing , rest all is fine
      good that u have respected every word of the qn and that is visible in your answer,
      nice conclusion wit current touch
      plz review mine

      • INXS

        thanks for reviewing

  • Bhokal

    Recently WHO has declared Delhi as the worst polluted city in the world.
    Many other big cities such as Mumbai, Bangalore are not much far away than delhi in air pollution.
    The causes,sources and impact all are interconnected in the following manner
    Big cities attracts migration from rural areas and hence more population which in turn leads to
    (a) more construction leading to dust particles and hence increase in PM2.5 and PM10
    (b) more industries leading to release of greenhouse gases and other polluting gases
    (c) more demand of food leads to unconventional way of cooking by slum population and even unconventional way of cropping and crop buring in nearby areas.
    (d) more demand of vehicles leading to release of gases like CO2.
    (e) high standard of living increases use of refrigerators, Ac,perfumes,paints which releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere

    Hence the problems are inter related and these should be addressed together by reducing migration by opening employment opportunities, promoting public transport, strict rules for industries, promoting awareness about proper cropping pattern.

    • Bhokal

      Kindly Review

  • yogi

    Friends plz review!!
    Indian cities are figuring in topmost polluted cities in the word.This poses an insight into the causes, source, impact and the remedies of air pollution.

    Source of air pollution become its cause which impacts the environment.Sustained impact becomes the source again. This is illustrated by following examples

    1.Increase in population in cities ->to increase of personal vehicles/ flights/ burning of garbage-> more emissions-> air pollution-> acid rain->corrodes certain metals and other materials->release of poisonous gases->source of air pollution (at every stage there is impact on environment including that on human health and plants)

    2. Increase in construction activities drilling, etc.->increase in demand for cement, etc.->more emissions of particulate matter and harmful gases->impact on health of living beings + deterioration of quality of life -> increase in demand for health facilities->more hospital waste +more construction – > air pollution

    The close relationship between source, cause and impact shows that these should not be dealt in isolation. This can be done by,
    adopting cleaner fuel like CNG, Biogas for personal vehicle too, better management of household and hospital waste, along with cleaning of ware bodies, afforestation, making public transport efficient and pollution free and most importantly generating awareness among people about adopting such life-styles that reinforces the efforts of government in controlling pollution.

    • INXS

      you have nice control over the word limit.your causes seem to focus only on vehicle and construction.you could expand there a bit.and as always…it is articulate .

    • IAS @ 2016

      good answer
      add more points
      keep writing

      • yogi

        thnx friend

    • Shruti

      fantastic interlinking of topics. i would suggest to include more factual points as well. like components of air quality etc. any recent examples.

      • yogi

        thnx for review and suggestions

    • Swathi

      Very Nice interlinking. Keep writing

    • why_so_serious?

      try to elaborate and write more points… Overall its good. Yu tried to address the second part and that’s the best point. keep writing 🙂

  • Powerpufgurl

    According to world health Organization air pollution is among the top killers in India and delhi is among the highly polluted state and effect can be seen in other cities too.

    Source cause and Impact of Air pollution are as follows:

    1- Source: Explosive growth in number of vehicles, fumes of car dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates
    i- Burgeoning Population
    ii- Easy availability of car loans
    iii- Lack of Pool car system
    i- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ( Lungs) disease and other respiratory infection
    i- Awareness about public transport and encourage car pool system
    ii- Strict emission standard
    Initiative taken
    i- Car free day once in a week in Delhi

    2 – Source: Crop Burning (Burning of Straw), old practice as farmers believes it bring back nutrient back in ground and control pest but expert differ on this.
    i- Farmers burn paddy to prepare soil for next crop
    ii- Practice emit carbon dioxide and monoxide and nitrous oxide the atmosphere
    iii- NASA publishes image indicating red outlines,fire burning across large swathe of Punjab and harayana affecting Delhi
    i-Setting of ethanol refineries

    3- Festive Pollution especially in Diwali as firework sit on water droplets and mutiply in more particle and mix in air cause more harm.

    As we can see from above examples there is interconnections in source cause and Impact, many serious step have been taken like car free day, anti cracker campaign by noida government, but it is important to form strict legislation as well as behaviour-changing approaches especially in colleges and universities.

  • Atul

    Dramatic rise of Air pollution events are particularly due to confluence of many factors. Taking example of Delhi
    – The onset of agricultural season and farmer practice of burning hay leftover from produce in nearby states is a main source of Particulate matter
    – Geography and climate – The winter season leads to trapped cold air nearer to earth surface worsening the situation
    – The traffic management and routes – Heavy diesel trucks which are not destined to Delhi enter because of absence of bypass roads. Nitrogen oxides, particulates etc. are released in huge quantities because of their entry
    – Delhi’s own burgeoning traffic problem and widespread use of diesel cars due to price differential and fuel economy
    – Poor municipal waste management leading to open incineration. Toxic elements being released.
    – Heavy construction activity in National Capital territory and poor implementation of environment guidelines is another source of pollution
    – Worsening air quality and its health impacts can be seen in Asthma patients, elderly folks and young children more easily. The healthcare facilities need to be prepared for meeting these per prevailing conditions

    Given the interconnected of sources and resultant health effects the problem cannot be tackled in isolated silos. An integrated approach attacking all vectors is must. For eg – farmers need to be incentivised for abandoning practice, Bypass roads are needed, Better fuels for Personal vehicles and stringent implementation of construction works.

  • Nitesh Bhargava

    According to global report, 13 out of 20 most polluted cities are in india. Furthermore Delhi is the most polluted city in the world, this is due to several factors

    * Primitive intensive agriculture in the neighbouring regions of Delhi and the practice of slash and burn agriculture(straw burning) has led to pollution of Delhi
    * The explosive growth of population in the capital and the major cities due to real and perceptional push factors of migration. This has led to explosive unplanned growth of cities with malfunctioning infrastructure and administration to handle it.
    * The exponential growth has led to explosive growth of vehicles in the cities thus leading to increase in particulate emission and pollution, due to shear size of the number even the vehicle is following all rules and regulations of CPCB the problem still exists.
    According to CPCB, air quality standards of capital reduces drastically in winters due to burning straw and wood to keep warm and due to cold air the pollution stays clos to the surface of the earth leading to various problems such as lung cancer, skin and eye irritations pneumonia, acute respiratory problems, loss of vision, rise in stress level of a person and high blood pressure. The pollution has emerged as a top killer in the recent past. Economic loss of more than 1 lakh crore is estimated due to these problems.

  • Wolverine

    India is home to 13 our of 20 worst international cities in
    terms of Air pollution. Delhi is further worst among those 13 cities. The
    increasing no. of personal vehicles, burning of straw, low level of public
    transport system and lax regulation of Environmental laws are some causes and
    sources for it. The pollution cause various ailments including Lung Cancer,
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Loss of Vision including Cataract etc.
    These problems are required to be addressed together by both the govt. and the
    public. The govt. should-

    -Ensure the Bharat Stage IV technology in the vehicles.

    -Should educate public to use public transport and reduce
    the no. of vehicles on roads.

    -Use the ‘Environment Tax’ collected by the commercial
    vehicles to improve the quality of air etc.

    The Public should-

    -Report their health problems and get the treatment at the
    earliest to avoid any future complications.

    -Use Public transport and CNG engines in their vehicles.

    -Actively support the govt. in taking the measures to reduce
    air pollution.

    –The level of Pollution is making India infamous all over
    the world. It is time we get our environment clean for not just the benefit of
    our Economy and tourism but to provide a liveable environment to our present
    and future population. It will be on the lines of Article 21 of our Constitution
    and will restore the nation’s image as a Socialist state.

  • Ankit

    Please Review…..

    According to the recent report of WHO on the level of air pollution among the major cities in India, Delhi tops the list. Even with the adoption of CNG in public transport such as buses, taxis and autos along with the higher standard level to check pollution, the concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) in air remains high.

    Cause of increasing air pollution in Delhi:

    1. Increase in number of personal vehicles resulting in emission of toxic gases in atmosphere.
    2. Dependence on Non-renewable fossil fuels such as coal to meet the growing energy demands in industries.
    3. Pollution due to industrial affluents, burning fields in nearby states (Punjab and Haryana).
    4. Lack of government initiatives to address this issue.

    Source of air pollution: Automobile exhaust, Burning of fossil fuels, Pollution from petroleum refinery, chimneys in industries.

    Impact of increasing air pollution:

    1. Heath diseases such as lung cancer, cataract, asthma, increasing stress, depression.
    2. Global warming; Increase in earth temperature (climate change), Ozone depletion
    3. Affecting the beauty of cultural heritage eg. emissions from mathura oil refinery polluting Taj Mahal.
    4. Disturbing the marine life, fauna and rich biodiversity of country.

    With increase in pollution from automobile, industries (cause/source) etc., the natural stability of the organisms living in the environment is disturbed (impact). Hence, there is a close coordination between the cause/source and impact of air pollution and need to be addressed together.

    In order to reduce the impact of increasing air pollution, Gvt along with NGO should work together to launch ‘clean air compaign’ giving proper knowledge to the citizens about the impact of increasing air pollution and imposing fines, taxes on the inappropriate use of fuels. This will further helps in fulfilling our target of reducing carbon emission by 33-35% till 2030 as stated under INDC for paris climate meet 2015.

    • why_so_serious?

      nice bro.. wrote within the world limit. all the best 🙂

  • invincible angel

    India has the largest number of inhabitants that are being effected by air pollution.WHO has reported 13 out of 20 International cities with worst fine particulate matter [PM 2.5] in air pollution lies in India and Delhi tops the list of most polluted cities in the world.India has lower greenhouse gas emission rates than developed countries, pollution in India, particularly Indian cities is far worse than those countries
    1.Vehicular pollution-Toxic vehicular exhausts are a source of considerable air pollution. The ever increasing vehicular traffic density has posed continued threat to the ambient air quality.The exhaust produces many air pollutants including un-burnt hydrocarbons,CO,NOX and lead oxides.
    2.Industrial chimney wastes-Chief gases are SO2 and NO2.Mathura-based petroleum refinery is posing threat to Taj Mahal in Agra and other monuments at Fatehpur Sikri.Cement factories emit dust,a potential health hazard.
    3.Thermal power stations-A number of thermal power stations like The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) are Badarpur near Delhietc.The chief pollutants are fly ash, SO2 and other gases and hydrocarbons.
    4.The burning of solid fuels and wood is the major cause of high levels of air pollution in Indian cities.
    5.Adulterated fuel-To lower down the price cheaper additives are added to fuel but this further deteriorates the air quality by emitting unsafe pollutants.
    SOURCES of air pollution Smoke from burning, industries, vehicles, smog and particulate pollution,poorly maintained and old vehicles etc.
    1.WEATHER FLUCTUATIONS-Pollution caused by burning fuelwood and biomass is one of the main causes of the Asian brown cloud. This cloud delays the monsoon in India
    2.IMPACT ON HEALTH-Indoor cooking fire is the third and outdoor air pollution is the fifth leading cause of death in India.Delhi school children show poor lung function and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    30%children in Bangalore suffer from Asthma due to air pollution. The city is also regarded as the asthma capital of India.Other diseases are lung cancer, losss of vision, cataracts,cardiovascular diseases etcNew born infants now present with respiratory diseases.foetus exposed to high pollution could be born prematurely or with low birth weight and birth defects.
    3.REDUCES LIFE EXPECTANCY – Excess pollution reduces life expectancy of Indians by 3.2 years, a study finds.
    4.IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE- Burning of fossil fuel such as coal and diesel has reduced the growth of rice harvest in India.Acid rains damages the crop as well as contimate the water , vegetation and cause erosion .
    Addressing one air quality issue can help to address other issues as well.
    Cutting down fossil fuel burning by encouraging use of natural gas and renewable sources like biogas etc will not only decrease PM but also CO2, the main cause of global warming.
    Making stringent laws for the industries set up around cities will help to curb pollution in cities.
    Mandatory use of solar panels on governement and industrial setups as well as encouraging ‘green buildings will improve the air quality.
    Other steps are use of CNG vehicles, imposition of time limits on vehicle usage[10 years for diesel and 15 yrs on petrol vehicles].
    Reward of addressing air pollution are improved human health,increased producitivity and heathy and productive environment resulting in sustainable economy.

    • invincible angel

      plz reviewww……………………

    • invincible angel

      Plz review…… 🙁 :@ sob Sob…..

  • shankar

    Detoriating level of air quality in India specially in and around few megacities is largely attributed to the interconnectedness of the causes, source and impact of air quality. According WHO report, 13 out of the 20 international cities with the worst fine (2.5) particulate matter in the air are in India. This implies the following activities in and around these megacities;
    -The Industrial grwoth in the cities followed by the explosive growth of urbanisation resulting in floods of immigration in the cities exponentially. As high populace urban areas require large number of transportation for mobility of food items, cloth, growth in private and public transport and also generate huge amount of domestic and industrial waste causing increase in emission of harmful gase in the form of fine particulate matter.
    -Burning of crops remanant specially straw in the neighbouring Punjab and Haryana states have posed an additional factor in already deteriorating air quality of the meg a cities like Delhi, NOIDA, GURGAON etc.
    -rampant and unscientific use of chemicals, herbicides and pesticides and paints in the construction sector have contributed to the worst air quality in Delhi.
    -Pollution causes delay in monsoon that has a huge impact on the poverty and the dependency of agricutural sectors. Any mismatch of monsoon directly or indirectly impact around 60% of Indian population.
    -rapid urbanisation, explosive vehicles growth
    -spray pesticides, herbicide and painting in the cities.
    -burning of fossil fuels, straw etc.
    -open transportation and deposition of garbages without covering of landfill sites.

    There is deadly impact on the very on the very survival of human being and flora and fauna;
    -Respiratory problem, lung cancer, cardio-vascular diseases, chronic obstructive plumonary diseases, pneumonia etc.
    -ozone depletion, climate change etc.
    – acid rain causing damage of historical buildings, eye itching, skin disease and loss of crops.
    To save the lives, is to save one of the most important perhaps the matchless life-living object on the earth, ‘the air’ is of vital importance. For this to happen, such steps need to be followed;
    – mandatory ply of CNG run vehicles in the NCT and the NCR.
    -better and more extensive public transport, such as metro and buses
    -A clean air compaign; govts with the help of NGOs, technical specialists and research organisations.
    -effective legislation as well as behavioural changing approaches.
    -low carbon future; Both the central and state govts reasses the consumptiona and producion of energy by promoting natural gas and increasing share of renewable energy such solar and bio-gas etc.
    Thus, only better regulation and the adoption of an inclusive approach that promotes a healthier lifestyles result in cleaner air.

    plz rvw frnds

  • Dilip Kumar

    plz review

  • Vikram

    Please review !!

    In India air quality is one of the biggest concern which is affecting health , causing various communicable and non communicable(blood pressure) , respiratory and cardio pulmonary diseases.

    Below mentioned points suggest about the level of air pollution:

    1)Survey done on international cities it was found that 13 cities are Indian out of 20 major polluted cities.
    2)More than 90 % of population lives with polluted air as per standard set by the world health organisation(WHO).
    3) Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) level is quite alarming in Indian cities like Delhi,Bombay etc.

    Reason for pollution:
    1)Traditional agriculture practices like burning straw and other agriculture waste. Delhi is worst sufferer of such practice by the farmers of Haryana and Punjab.
    2)Large number of personal vehicle is contributing large scale emission on roads in big cities.
    3)India has large population to support for their transportation,food and other economic activities which ultimately one way or other causing air pollution.
    4)In adequate plantation in urban regions and over all less forest cover in India.
    6)Unhealthy practices by the industries, leaving the suspended particles,ash,industrial waste without treated appropriately
    especially brick kiln,cement, coal,Iron, construction and fertilizer industries.

    Required measures.
    1)Appropriate regulation of industries based of pre set standard. Need more plantation in waste and fellow lands.
    2)Healthy transport practices like transportation using public means and bicycles etc
    3)Population control and education and awareness among the farmer and educate them alternate means of
    using agriculture waste such as making it compost,manure etc.

    Air pollution problems ,its cause and require measured is interlinked and involves various sections of society.
    It mandate immediate government intervention and support from various sections of society such as farmers,professional,NGO’s.

  • Nilesh

    Please Review:

    Causes and sources:
    1. Vehicular pollution especially by heavy diesel vehicles.
    2. Rising number of vehicles due to failed public transportation system.
    3. Failure of municipalities in timely and proper garbage collection and preference of people in burning the dump in open.
    4. Increasing consumerism of people producing more waste to be handled, some of which is occassionaly burned resulting into air pollution.
    5. Pollution by factories which eject hazardous smoke around cities without doing any treatment.

    1. People in cities are suffering with air pollution related diseases like asthama, bronchitis, lungs cancer etc.
    2. Carbon Monoxide gas from vehicular pollution causes irritation to eyes, dizziness.
    3. Smoke when combined with fog results in SMOG which results in lowered visibility and irritation to eyes, nose.
    4. SO2 and NO2 from diesel exhausts when combined with rains results into acid rains.

    1. Public transportation should be strengthened so that people tend to use less vehicles which would in turn result in less pollution.
    2. Garbage collection and proper disposal of garbage should be encouraged, burning garbage in open should be discouraged.
    3. Stringent norms should be placed for factories releasing smoke and permissions should be given after checking that proper pollution control mechanisms are installed by them.

    4. By pass roads should be provided at the outskirts of the cities so that heavy vehicles like buses and trucks will not have to traverse inside the cities.

  • Munish

    words: 162 time taken: 14 mins

    Recently, Delhi was declared as the most polluted city in India. NGT has also raised concerns against pollution in big cities in India.

    Causes and sources of air pollution are non-point sources. Some of the causes and sources are:

    * Vehicular pollution in form of particulate matter
    * Burning of agricultural waste and garbage release poisonous gases
    * Construction work and mining
    * Emissions from industries due to use of inefficient technology
    * Indoor air pollution caused by use of paints, pollens.

    Impacts of air pollution caused by the above sources are:

    *Respiration problem such as asthma
    *Irritation in eyes
    * Lung Cancer
    * Acid rain
    * Urban heat domes

    These adverse impacts affect productivity of working force of the country. Therefore, causes, sources and impacts must be addressed together.

    To address the problem of air pollution, government has launched National air quality index. In addition to this, use of public transport and bi-cycle, specially in big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, awareness among people will help to address this problem.

    • Munish

      Please review.. this is my first write up on insights..
      constructive criticism most welcome.

  • BRK

    Air pollution has become a critical problem in India highlighted by the WHO reports which claims that 13 out of 20 cities with the most polluted air are in India. Indian cities are more affected than rural areas emphasising that air pollution is to a large extent an urban problem in India.

    Weakness of urban infrastructure exacerbates air pollution. Lack of:
    1)continuous power supply -diesel generators emitting C0 ,Nox and S02.
    2)public transport leading to an explosion in the usage of private vehicles.
    3)good roads -narrow and potholed-resulting in traffic snarls and excessive vehicular pollution.
    4)robust waste disposal systems , waste is burnt in open landfills.

    Institutional weaknesses of urban local bodies and pollution control board to enforce rules on emission standards on industries.

    Slums and squatter settlements that fringe urban areas use firewood stoves and the women there suffer the most from indoor air pollution.

    Urban residents suffer the consequences of prolonged exposure to polluted air:lung cancer , heart attack, pulmonary disease , asthma and general loss of economic and human resource productivity.Air Quality Index introduced in select cities perform an indicative role only and need to be followed by substantive measures like phasing out old vehicles , improving mass transport systems , locating factories away from urban conglomerations , etc.

  • madhanky

    “The causes ,sources and the impact of air quality issues are
    interconnected and they need to be addressed together”

    1)vehicular air

    With the
    increased number of personal vehicles in major metropolitan cities like Mumbai,Chennai
    and Delhi in particular ,the pollutants have increased too. The use of CNG in public transport of Delhi have
    not gained any positive effects because of the use of personal vehicles.


    In case of
    Delhi, the Particulate matter (PM) has
    increased and it is due to the straw burning in the nearby agricultural areas
    of Punjab and Haryana. Similarly the
    agricultural areas surrounding the other metro cities have contributed to the
    air pollution by burning out the agricultural wastes.


    industries in the urban areas and the employment it offers have attracted large
    settlements migrate from rural areas
    to urban areas . The industries keeping only profit in mind neglect the
    environmental impacts and release the wastes directly into the environment without treating it.


    Various cultural factors have contributed to the air pollution .For
    example, During Diwali,in metropolitan cities People enjoy burning crackers
    which is one of the most important and potent threat to the environment and
    amounts to air pollution. Crackers release huge amounts of gaseous pollutants
    which is hazardous and causes skin cancer and lung cancer.

    From the
    various factors mentioned above , the impacts are more or less the same . Its
    effects are harmful to the environment causing Air pollution and also health hazards
    to human beings.and it is also evident
    that the causes,source and the impact are to be treated altogether. Recent steps
    like Delhi metro,CNG in public
    transports in Delhi,Bio ethanol refinery in Punjab,are all the most welcome
    steps to address the issue .

    • madhanky

      please review ..

  • Ankit Patel

    There is rapid rise in the pollution in Delhi and metropolitan cities.The causes of pollution is population explosion,unplanned development, faster urbanisation, industries, faster industrialisation with unappropriate choices, large private vehicle, congestion in the roads, poverty, unemployment,burning of stubble/fire woods, Unequal development, unsustainable lifestyle. The root cause of pollution is population explosion which puts heavy pressure on natural resources, basic amenities which could not be manageable by civic bodies.It also creates unemployment, leading to poverty, slum life and deteriorate the standard of living. The faster urbanisation attracts Industries to tap the demand and causing unequal growth creating asymmetry between Rural-Urban leading more migration rather than trickling down the growth to rural areas. All these causes of pollutions are interrelated to each other and solution of one may result in ending others. For example a planned development with Smarts cities may remove all the problems as it handles the problem smartly.
    The possible solutions may be:-
    1.Bringing Bharat Stage V or VI early
    2. Incentives given to renewable energy based electricity than fossil fuel based electricity.
    3.Facilitating technology transfer and reducing royalty for clean and green tech.
    4.Import free for tools, parts of solar panel, Wind energy, Hydel energy instrument.
    5.Providing effective, efficient public transport.
    6.Popularising Car free day, Use of cycles.

  • Asha

    Interlink: more public transport & using clean fuels -> less pollution, better public health -> more money saved for govt by not needing to spend on environmental re-building & which can be invested into more public infrastructure , usage of clean fuels and up-gradation of environment.

    I believe this is the crux, can you please add points?


    Dear All , this is my first post . I know i have over shot the word limit but still ….. I request all you to please review and give your inputs so that i can improve 😉

    As per recent WHO report it indicates 13 out of 20
    most polluting cities are form India. Pollution control has always been a sorry
    state affair for the India

    The major causes , Sources and Impacts are :

    1) To meet the demand of increasing population the more no of industries
    have been set up then ,which has resulted in high industrial pollution in cities like Delhi , Kolkata
    and Chennai.

    2) Due to change in attitude and lifestyle ,
    people are using more personal vehicle
    for daily commuting thereby increasing high vehicular pollution causing severe pulmonary
    disease like bronchitis and asthma

    3) Poor air quality standards and their
    implementation has also led to increase in pollution . Air pollution is one of
    major reason of deaths in India

    4) To become economic power and world leader , more and more industries are being set up by clearing forests which acts as a natural carbon

    5) Smog created by burning of straws left
    over of post-harvest has always been a
    concern in delhi –NCR region which not only affects the air quality but also
    causes heavy economic loss due to delay in flights and trains.

    6) High Indoor pollution due to presence of
    intoxicants like lead, mercury in paints and plastics.

    7) Indian largely meets its energy
    requirement through non-renewable sources


    1) Review and revision in Air quality standards
    as per global standard is need of hour and also strict implementation of the

    2) Incentivising and promoting use of non-renewable energy and alternate fuels to
    meet it’s energy demands

    3) Govt should try to rope in NGS and other
    civil society to create mass awareness for using public transport system ( like
    Car free Day in Delhi and Gurgaon)

    4) National Green highway policy and similar
    policies are needs to be implemented to create natural carbon sink

    5) Penalizing the framers for burning the
    straws in farms

    Given the
    current state of Indian air quality and
    it’s commitment to achieve SDG it’s
    imperative to adopt an integrated approach
    that addresses all interconnected
    cause , source and Impact of pollution .
    Then only India can have a healthy and prosperous growth