2) Why do you think the social vulnerability of Dalits, even decades after reservation and dedicated laws meant to uplift and empower them were put in place, has increased? Critically comment.

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Topic: Salient features of Indian society

2) Why do you think the social vulnerability of Dalits, even decades after reservation and dedicated laws meant to uplift and empower them were put in place, has increased? Critically comment. (150 Words)

The Hindu

  • Rishi Ranjan Singh

    The reservation policy and various other laws specially related to untouchability and the contribution of various other social movement did help to pull out some dalits from the acute poverty. They previously use to work as a bonded labour or land labourers in the farms of the upper caste people. But now they got educated and had other source of economic empowerment. This economic empowerment did help them to learn and assert for their human rights. But this doesn’t go well with the upper caste community. In a way, the life of dalits became more humane but upper caste attitude didn’t change. This results in a social tension between conservative upper caste and dalits. With the growing empowerment of the dalit community atrocities commited against them is also increasing.

    There is need of sensitising the police to act with alacrity in cases in which people are denied their right to life with dignity, and in more effectively communicating egalitarian ideas vis-à-vis caste within society. Political representatives are the leader of this communities, they should lead by examples. They need come forward and raise awareness among upper caste regarding the crime they are committing and punishment they are entitled to under law. They should now always thinking about vote bank politics and try to take some moral stand. If political representatives doesn’t come forward to protect the right of minority this atrocities will keep on rising.

  • Atin Srivastava

    B R Ambedkar believed that without the upliftment of dalits
    among other backward classes, true independence cannot be achieved. However,
    even after reservation policy and laws against the atrocities against SCs and
    STs, the situation seems to be worse now. It can be attributed to a number of factors:

    Though reservation was meant to bring to
    mainstream the dalits, they have not been provided with proper education and
    health facilities needed to augment their development. This also gives rise to
    frustration among youth to further discriminate among them as they feel

    Politicians and media houses need to play a
    constructive role and need not exaggerate incidents which further increases the
    distance among classes.

    There has also been increase in misuse of the acts
    provided for safety which have simmer discomfort among citizens.

    The government should emphasize more on a holistic
    development approach for the class so that their social inclusion can be
    achieved. Instead of providing reservation and specific acts, more concrete
    steps like building up small societies with equal number of dalits and other
    classes being given houses can be taken.

    • Nazar

      you write about solution to curb the problem but question ask about why?????????? check it out if . review it if i m wrong

      • Atin Srivastava

        Agreed. But I try to present a “way-ahead” kind of approach.

        Thanks for your review! 🙂

  • Ankit

    Stalwarts like Gandhiji, B.R.Ambedkar rightly believed that without upliftment of lower castes and Dalits, India as nation will not be able to develop, in this regard they took necessary actions like opening up of Harijan sabhas, reservations etc.
    Inspite of such encouraging steps,the atrocities and violence continue till date. Many factors can be attributed to this,which are as below.
    1.Since onset of LPG era,the inequality in society has spread further, some sections of Dalits have used benefits of reservation in jobs and study and moved ahead than upper castes which was not so tradtionally.
    2. Polticians have the tendency to divide people on lines of caste for vote bank politics,thus society has never been able to mingle properly.
    3. The practise of discrimination against Dalit are centuries old, and so it will take some more time for society for shed them as 65-70 years is nothing in comparison to 1000-2000 years.
    4. The policy of reservation has not been inclusive in sense that same section of people are enjoying the benefits, thus the tendency to exploit to the excluded ones has aggravated.
    5. On judicial front, acts and commissions to protect rights of SCs and STs have not fulfilled their role properly.Even state machinery has not much proactive role in protecting and insulating them.

    • maverick unchained

      good answer

  • RRV

    Please review:

    After more than six decades of independence, India is still divided over various sociological planks like religious differences, upper and lower caste divergence, and patriarchal mind set; still prevalent in this world of EQUALITY.

    Though there have been laws and reservation policies meant to uplift and empower these vulnerable sections, they have not fully realised the dreams of founding fathers of constitution which aimed to bring vulnerable sections of society, i.e. Dalits, at par with the general category society not only economically but also socially and culturally.

    Reasons why this trend is still prevalent:

    —> Political leaders have generally kept themselves away to bring these traditional atrocities to the forefront; as this might hamper their political careers.
    —> Thinking of rich class and upper middle class society has still not changed towards the lower caste and they still see them as class which is only meant ‘to follow rules and not to rule’.
    —> Laws like the “Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955” and the “Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989” are not implemented at its fullest and are realised only on papers.

    Way forward:

    —> Sensitising police to act with eagerness in cases in which people are denied their right to life with dignity.
    —> Atrocity Tracking and Monitoring (ATM) system which is a web based tool to monitor atrocities and to ensure speedy justice, is required to be disseminated widely.

    Hence to enforce the basic structure of constitution which is “Right to Life”, it is required that laws against atrocities are enforced in a proper manner.

    • aashish 2000

      Good one.

    • pink

      good pl review mine

    • shruthi

      ATM point is innovative.. overall good one..


      nice flow of the answer . all the best

    • deepak

      nice answer

    • amit

      flow is really appreaciable

      pls guide me hw to write if u can pls do review mine

    • ssaurabh0711

      good answer…but intro a bit lengthy

      pl. review mine

    • anurag

      good answer..plz review mine

  • Shasya

    Dalit is the word used to denote the most backward among the scheduled caste and scheduled tribes

    The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled tribes(Prevention of Autocracies)Act,1989 and Protection of civil rights Act Had although given some legislative rights to these vulnerable sections of Indian society still there are some impending issues that is making then more vulnerable.

    Some of the issues are:
    1.Prejudice of the so called upper castes against the Sceheduled caste people and hence a sense of superiority among them.

    2.Negligent Attitude of Political Arena towards their cause

    3.Police generally do not support their cause and is biased toward upper castes especially in the country side.

    4.Illiteracy and Poverty still rampant among the dalits and hence make them Vulnerable.

    Although there are issues involved but it can not be said with the full voice that we as a nation have failed completely to protect them as there has been a gradual uprising level among them and with the involvement of the media and some political will we can curb these vulnerabilities in the times to come.

  • M.V

    Social vulnerability of the Dalits even after around seven decades of independence seems to persist largely. Since the promulgation of constitution till now a number of provisions are being made in order to protect them from the atrocities against them by other social classes entailed with certain pseudo prejudices. Provision of reservation in educational institutes and employments and also elections, Prevention of atrocities act and its amendment etc. are some of the steps to protect them. But, still it prevails because:
    1.) Lack of spirit of implementation by the bureaucrats, mainly due to ignorance of dalits’ interests due to their consideration as being from the lowest strata.
    2.) Historical reasons: “shastras” which have cited the “varna ” system are considered religious and so followed religiously and irrationally.
    3.) Lack of awareness among the dalits themselves about the availability of such provisions.
    4.)Lack of reach out by civil society organisations, NGOs to this section.
    5.) Political Representatives belonging to this section has forgotten their promises.
    Therefore, the need is not just of a stringent law, but its effective and stringent implementation with vigilance, course corrections and inclusiveness(of the people for whom the law has been promulgated and awareness generating organisations etc.) at its core.

  • Puneeth

    The recent incidents in Haryana and himachal pradesh, where dalits were killed, shows that inspite of laws in places, there has bee atrocities committed on them. The national crimes bureau has reported that incidents of crime on dalits in 2014 was 830. The corresponding figure for 2013 was 490. This shows the increasing levels of atrocities committed on them.

    The existence of crime towards dailts can be attributed to the following reasons:
    1) Prevalence of prejudice against dalits due to belief of superiority of higher castes.
    2) Police not reporting incidents of atrocities committed against dalits,due to political pressures
    3) Long delay in courts in awarding justices to dalits. As most of the dalits are still poor, they cant affort the legal expenses.

    In light of the above reasons, it is time that the new Bill of SC and ST( prevention of atrocites),2014 which gives more rights is passed in the coming winter session. Also, there needs to be a proper enforcing mechanism so that the above laws are implemented on ground.

  • Ujjwal Kansal

    Despite abolishment of untouchability, reservation in jobs and politics, constitutional and legal protection, dalits who comprise 16% of India’s population are the most vulnerable section of society even after six decades of independence. sexual assault, rapes, atrocities, killing, humiliation and denial of justice and entry to certain places, refusal in hospitals are the common scene in the countryside. following the the reasons for this:
    1. Legal laws like Protection of civil rights and SC ST POA act 1989 has legal power and scrutiny, whereas castism is a social institution. It requires social acceptability, parity of thought, and moral power to mitigate this social void.
    2. The status of dalits has improved in both economic and non economic spheres. The intermixing of marriages in not an uncommon phenomenon at least in cities. But some narrow minded individuals and sections of society can’t tolerate this rising status of dalits. They have become more brutal and repressive.
    3. The modern thinking has still not reached in cities. the fabric of village society is still traditional. Ambedkar was strong opponent of self sufficiency of villages when Gandhiji was advocating for it. Additionally there are some institutions like Khap, which at time shows their prejudices against dalits.
    4. The executive, especially the police is less sensitive in preventing atrociites against dalits. They support powerful, upper cast, dominant persons and refuse to protect dalits.


      You can start with the history of subjugation of Dalits, since the vedic times and the mindset of upper castes, people how they were considered and in some rural places still they’re considered Untouchables.
      It is all because of the mindset of people, that things are not changing for dalits, Police, Judiciary, Legislators everywhere their is domination of upper caste and they can’t see upliftment of dalits on their cost.
      You must think on these lines too.

  • dalit constitutes around 15 percent and belongs to lower rungs of the society ,and facing social,psycological.economical,emotional discrimation therefor government introduced many policies to bring them into mainstream but despite of all the discrimination instead of reducinng it increased which includes follwing =

    1)positive discrimination-policies like reservation which introduced with the good intension to include them in society by giving the compensation in the form of reservation
    but many upper class feel it negative against them thus make suspicious them about their potential
    2)land reforms-after independence various laws made which made them owner of the land
    but data shows that instead of increasing land owner they are incrasing in wage labor not owner
    3)various intiatives taken by social reformers like mahatma gandhi,jyotiba phule
    but it could succesful making society egalitarian
    4)democratic form of government-which works on numerical strength since it is 15%
    most important caste base politics making people concious about their caste,further widening the gulf
    5)urbanisation/industralisation which doesnt distinguish between the labour
    upper class feel bad when they have to work with them
    6)material conditions are improving of dalits now they are not dependent on the mercy of dominate groups
    this is not tolerable by dominate groups coz fear of daits that could usurp them
    thus beside passing the laws government is to do more like by crating the awareness,teaching the universal values about brotherhood,stopping the caste base politics
    for this strong political commitment,participation of masses,role of bureacracy making people aware the human values are the need of the hour

  • aashish 2000

    Plants has grown up and spread their roots deep inside the ground will be tough to remove those as like Caste. Caste which deepen its roots in the ground of society brings tough challenge to the government to remove it include Haryana attacks.
    Watering with Reservations and dedicated laws :
    – The reservation for SC/ST under the constitution will show the intention of government to uplift them and promote equality.
    – The SC/ST POA Act, Protection of Civil rights Act, 1955 will condemn any atrocities on dalits and protect their right to life.
    The reservations and dedicated laws are well written but not well implemented which effects the nurturing process to promote equality because of
    – Less political interest towards the atrocities on dalits and caste based politics are helping to grow the tree.
    – Lack of proper implementation and political pressures on bureaucrats strikes down the nurturing process.
    To cut down the roots completely government has to monitor and implement at grass root level creating awareness by forming a special unbiased autonomous body to control the atrocities and to look forward proper implementation of laws will succinct the removing of tree which is needed for the growth of Equality in society.

    • aashish 2000

      Please review friends…

    • why_so_serious?

      I like your metaphor in the intro, but try to limit it to that only. Also take care of your grammar. I found yur content well enough. NICE attempt.. and please review mine too 🙂

    • ssaurabh0711

      nice style of answering

    • anurag

      nice answer,plz review mine

    • Manoj

      Good answer Ashish…Literary style of writing has made it even better.
      In response to your conclusion I have a counter argument-we already have an unbiased autonomous body to control atrocities-National Commission for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. What is the point establishing a new body?

  • pink

    Dr ambedkar himself being dalit understand their situation and made laws for their inclusive development through laws ,reservation etc depite this they are vulnerable because

    1-there is lack of implementation of laws at ground level due to ignorance of bureaucratic will.

    2-lack of awareness among people wrt what protection they have.

    3-lack of morals ,values ,sympathy,compassion among peoples who feel themlves of higher class despite constitution provides equality.

    4-lack of will among political representative

    way forward

    1-create awareness among people by govenment

    2-sensitise police wrt this issue

    recent incident in haryana of killing of dalit family made wrong face of india in world therefore to make india world leadr there is need to sddress such dometic iisues first

    • RRV

      good answer
      but yr u can add some examples of laws and measures as well, because it gives more weightage to the answer. As per ur answer you have touched basic points, but to get good marks it is required to dig deeper. Pls take it constructively, it will definitely help u.
      Thank u
      keep writing and keep reviewing.

      • pink

        thanx i will take your pt to improve

  • Vivek Kumar Singh

    Recent Incident in Faridabad killing of two Dalit children is a gross indication of social-injustice prevailing in the society.Reservations and other affirmatives actions PoA SC/Sts , Untouchability related Art. 17 and many other laws too protects the rights of Dalits in India.
    —Reservation has not yielded the result as it was envisaged.Actually it has been politicised and used as a vote bank
    —Non- introduction of creamy layers in Dalits is doing great disservice to the real real poor people of the society.
    —Indian Intellectual’s are not paying attention to this aspect and brainstorming is much needed in India, how to get benefit our downtrodden citizens.

    Conflicts that arises are mainly due to the hierarchical structure of the society(Caste system) . Which inherently contradictory to a democratic set-up.Govt. still uses caste identities publicly which in a way legitimises this. Society has become more and more complex to understand owing to communication dissemination.
    We are seeing a new phenomena of “caste-bureaucracy” in states, where with every change of govt. it come to the fore.
    High-ideals envisaged in the constt. and big-dreams that India has can only be achieved only when all this segregation of identities is replaced by the Identity of Indian.

    • maverick unchained

      Pointedly well presented.No Beating around the bush!! Keep writing.

    • anurag

      well dne ..plz review mine

    • Manoj

      Good points Vivek…specially the Introduction of Creamy Layers in Dalits.
      Concise and to the point answer

  • Dalits,as a caste group,have faced ire of other upper caste social groups even after constitutional and legal protection was given to them through the constitution and laws that were enacted by the government.Following reasons could be ascribed to the spike in violence against the dalits.
    *Dalits have moved up the social hierarchy and this upward mobility has not gone down well with the upper caste groups that resist their assimilation into the mainstream.
    **Post independence,Dalits became a powerful vote bank for the political interests and hence any act of omission or commission of violence against them suited the political agenda of the vested interests.
    **There have also been problems regarding the effective and efficient implementation of laws meant to protect the Dalit interests.Case in point being “Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955” and the “Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989”.

    **With the advent of services sector in the country and rise of the Dalit middle class,Dalit aspirations to join the corporate world has also gone up.But one doesn’t find too many Dalit business and corporate leaders in the industry.This is because of the preferential ,non-violent discrimination against the Dalits.
    **At the school level,proper sensitisation and awareness is not imparted to students to practise abhorrence towards any practise of discrimination against their fellow Dalit mates.
    **At the societal level,the government ,civil society,public intellectuals and NGOs are not working in tandem and concerted manner to root out this social malice against the Dalits.
    **At the intellectual level,people of country across caste and class are not observing the principles equality,social justice and egalitarianism that is the cornerstone of our constitution.

    One hopes,once the society awakens to this reality and starts observing these principles,hatred and animosity towards the Dalits will go down drastically and with the government pitching in with a proposed SC and ST (prevention of atrocities) bill,2014 to give further protection to them the situation on the ground would more than conducive for the Dalits.

  • pujaHzb

    A number of herculean efforts in form of constitutional, legislative and social measures (viz. reservation system) have been taken to improve the position ,dignity and status of dalits but still our newspaper is bloodied with horrendous act committed against the them.

    Few Reasons behind their cruel fate and increased vulnerability:
    -Mentality of upper castes of considering low caste menial, unworthy and weak.
    -The growing economic status of the low caste people is at times unwanted.
    -The prejudices among teachers, fellow-peers, dominant caste against low caste.
    -Ineffective SC and ST (prevention of atrocities) Act and delay in implementation of its amended bill.
    -Insensitive police, inadequate judiciary structure.
    -Media and intellectuals professing silence over atrocities against dalits.
    -Improper or no protection to witnesses and victims, at times forced to withdraw complaints.
    -Ineffective dalit pressure group.
    -Reservation benefits harnessed only by middle class dalits.

    There is imminent need of strong will and collaboration among intellectuals, civil society, administration, government and judiciary to bring justice to the dalits.

    • Chandan kumar

      Nice structure with comprehensive list of reasons..

      • Chandan kumar

        Do review my answer

    • Ace.Reviewer

      Flawed reservation policy,lack of economic development and rise of Naxalism..

    • why_so_serious?

      I liked the introduction 🙂
      reasons portion:
      1- agreed
      2- This statement is debatable so please avoid it.
      3-can be merged with the first point as the conclusion of both is same “prejudiced mindset”
      4- yu need to give a reason why this is ineffective, not mere mentioning.
      5- “inadequate”judiciary structure isn’t what yu should be writing. Try writing the reason behind this insensitive police as the cases being entered under IPC
      6- isn’t actually correct. had it not been for the media, yu wouldn’t be writing this answer 😉
      7- correct
      8- again give the reason
      9- very nice point

      suggest some concrete measures that needs to be done in the conclusion. Yu have mentioned it no doubt, but also suggest measures to enforcing legislative steps to make sure the laws have a ground implementation.

      nice attempt overall 🙂 (please take the suggestions positively, its for yur own good and m no master, evry1’s here to learn 🙂

      • pujaHzb

        I appreciate ur reviewing power. The thng is wrd limit ne mere haath baandh diye 😀

        • why_so_serious?

          no worries.. nice attempt 🙂

    • anurag

      nice attempt ..keep witng plz review my ans

    • Manoj

      Nice introduction…use of jargons have made it even better.
      Good points but they seem a little diffused 🙂
      PArdon if I am being too critical

  • FinalAttempt

    please review..

  • Rahul Agarwal

    Dalits and other socially backward communities at the time of independence constituted the most oppressed class of Indian Society. To alleviate their conditions, government started with affirmative action in form of reservations to mainstream them in society. Also, ‘protection of civil rights’ and ‘prevention of atrocities act’ were enacted to provide legal protection their safety , security and dignity.

    Still, the recent incident in Haryana shows the existing vulnerabilities of dalits in indian society. The data from national crime record bureau corroborate this fact, by mentioning that crimes against dalits are on its rise in recent years. Some of the factors for this increase are :
    A. Increased hostility among upper castes , as they are yet to accept dalits rising to similar position as of them.
    B.resentment due to perception of the government benefits cornered by dalits due to existence of reservation
    C. In certain states like Haryana, dominance of institutions like Khap panchayat which work on caste principles.
    D. Still existing feudal mindset in police and other government institutions which results in lack of sensitivity of dalit affairs.

    Though, there are some other factors also, like political mobilization of dalits against the upper castes, increased assertiveness of dalit rights and rise of them as influential pressure groups. Thus , despite presence of so many enabling factors , dalits have become more vulnerable in society.

  • Chandan kumar

    Kindly review

  • Anuradha

    the vulnerability and increasing physical attacks on Dalits openly shows thee prejudice in society and intolerance among various castes. The increasing vulnerability inspite of Civil Rights Act,1955 and SC and ST(POA),1989 can be attributed to various reasons.

    1. growing dalit independence and assertion is not liked by so-called upper caste as their dominance is being questioned.
    2. persistence of Khap Panchayat add up to atrocities.
    3.apathy of police: most of them do not register reports on unjust on dalits.
    4. reservation policy still resented by many.
    5. No adequate knowledge or misinformation on the prejudiced faced by dalits for thousands of years and lack of empathy for their social condition.
    6. lack of political and administrative will in curbing the open vulnerability and vote bank politics.
    7. social media are not very active in highlighting the atrocities against dalits .

    adequate and concrete steps are necessity of the time. not only the institutions but the civil society should break these barriers that take away peace o our country and malign its image in the world.

    plz review

    • Mritunjay Singh

      very well organised answer…

      • Anuradha

        thank you….

  • Mritunjay Singh

    Dalits have always been the easy target, since the ancient times,of so-called upper castes.Many reformer tried to change the mindset of Indians against this prejudices but in vain.Gandhiji always worked for the upliftment of the “untouchables”.Dr.B.R Ambedkar came up with the separate electorate for SCs which was later concluded with poona pact in 1932.Even after independence many provisions were included in the Constitution to protect the Dalits from subjugation.73 rd and 74 th amendment act aimed at reducing the political gap and to help in social mobility.Also the reservation system at place contributed in the upliftment of the community.
    This favouratism by the subsequent government have instilled a sense of alienation among the upper caste and thus trying to take out their frustation on the lower caste group.
    The evolution of patidaar party is the evident example of the growing dissatisfaction among the masses.

    Thus it is high time that the government and people should work toward the upliftment of the poor and down-trodden group based on their economic disadvantage rather than the caste system.

  • Legolas

    The recent acts of violence against Dalits in Faridabad, Dharmapuri, etc. remind us that they are still a very vulnerable group. Some
    reasons for the failure to empower them could be:

    1. Distribution of Dalits across the country does not give them a numerical advantage anywhere. Even the BSP cannot manage a
    victory without support from other parties.
    2. The reservations granted have been taken by a small class of Dalit elite.
    3. Major economic revolutions like the Green Revolution or the IT boom, etc. have not given any focus to the Dalits. These only improved position of dominant castes and increased the inequalities.
    4. In spite of legislations, the executing machinery, i.e. the Police, bureaucracy and panchayats have very little representation of
    Dalits. Hence, they take a partisan view in support of the dominant castes.

    Some of the positive developments over the decades have been:
    1. Emergence of the BSP with a distinct Dalit ideology. There is hope that the Dalit identity in the making will emerge stronger.
    2. The ‘Dalit elite’ created by reservation is slowing growing up the professional hierarchy, a trickle-down effect is expected.

  • PK

    Even with laws dealing with prevention of attrocities against dalits in place, there has been a rise in the number of violent attacks against Dalits according to NCRB data. This phenomenon arises out of a number of reasons:

    1. The dominant classes of the society, especially in country side, still do not see Dalits as equal human beings. So, what the constitution and law actually says hasn’t penetrated to the ground level.
    2. With such mindsets, the dominant castes have been unable to deal with the rise in independence of Dalits owing to industrialization and affirmative actions. These two aspects have brought an increase in material life of Dalits.
    3. Combined with the above factors, the fear of law is not present among these sections of the society for any of their actions against Dalits. The police often do not register complaints given by Dalits as they too suffer from such prejudices at ground level.
    4. The political class hasn’t been able to take any steps to radically overhaul the existing societal organization and mindsets for the fear of backlash in electoral politics.

    All these factors form a deadly cocktail for the safety of Dalits at the ground level in spite of laws being present in statute books. Information, Education, Communication are the keys to bring about societal reforms to change this scenario.

  • why_so_serious?

    India has had a long history confined around the different varnas of the society. While the VEDAS described the “shudras” (present time dalits) to have emerged from the feet of GOD, I still wonder why if an individual has to show respect to an elder, he/she touches his feet.

    There have been two major laws , The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, and the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 which along with the various national commissions, and the reservation policies, so as to make sure the interest of this lower strata is preserved. But the number of emerging cases in the recent past ha shown a picture that is really caustic. Inspite of the law being equal to all, their has been as much as 21% of the cases against the minorities as well the SC’s and ST’s, not to forget the growing voilence against them. There are three reasons for this:

    1) The conservative mindset.
    2)The income inequalities.
    3)Vote bank politics and various flammable statements that hurt the sentiments of the different communities.
    Several reports says that the untouchability still continues and the cases and FIR’s being registered are acoording to the normal IPC’s and not according to these acts.

    A proper monitoring of these cases need to be done. NGO’s can come into picture.In my view, it is us who are more to be blamed. The day we start feeling humanity comes before religion and cast will be the day when all these public violence will stop. Its US who need to act with practicality and intelligence.

    • _Raider_

      0.5 mks extraa for the Intro 🙂

      Pros :

      Good Structure
      Simple Language
      Intro and Conclusion was good

      Overall – would fetch very good mks in the exam :

      Suggestions :
      Missed out on the Role education could play.

      • why_so_serious?

        thanx for the review bro… yes I’ll 🙂

        • Ray

          Overall superb bro, even though I am new to this I like your answer writing.Fantastic

          • why_so_serious?

            hey thanx a lot for the encouraging words bro… keep reviewing 🙂

    • _Raider_

      Do review mine as well 🙂

    • shruthi

      nice conclusion. you can suggest the measures that can be taken up to address the issue..

      • why_so_serious?

        YUP… thanx for the review

    • Ace.Reviewer

      Include other reasons are:
      1. Flawed reservation policy whixh benefits only a select few elite famikirs.
      2. Apathetic police and compliant regsitry, slow disposal of cases.
      3. Lacunae in Prevention of Ayrcitories agaibst sC sT act.
      4. Stereotyping in literature, arts.
      5. Failure of poevrty allebiation programs, frieght equaizat polocy, rise of Naxals


      1. Empower Prevrntion atrocities actlike in the amendent prospoede in 2013.
      2. Empower natinal commisisin for SC st
      3. Sensitise police, strict punishment for anti dalit bodies like Ranveer Sena.
      4. Include more sC sT offoers in poloce in prone areas, communitu policng, identify more offenses.
      5. Education of all with vakues, Gabdhina concpet of Hrijan

      • why_so_serious?

        1st I agree
        2nd one, see the para after reasons
        3rd: already in the reasons part, self explanatory
        4th:already include : conservative mindset includes everything
        5th :I agree

        1st: the incidents are happening one month after the government has amended the law
        2nd: already written in conclusion
        3rd: self expalanatory, no need of separate point
        4th: agree
        5th: already written in conclusion

        Yu read my answer ryt?
        anyways thanx for review 🙂

        • Ace.Reviewer

          But the points are rarely comprehensible in paragrpah style of writing.

          • why_so_serious?

            yes I absolutely agree with yu sir, sorry for the inconvenience caused, I’ll make sure i write in points… 🙂

      • Abhishekasymptote

        bhai pls enlighten us ….but use correct spellings….ha ha …thanks

    • shubham

      hey.U look nice writer please review my answer

    • jeet_singh

      one more reason and solution as well can b included…

      the ppl who has got benefited with the reservation policies are nw required to give-up the facility as it is restricting the needy from mainstream….it was never a tool but a helping hand for the benefit of economically,socially weaker sections of the society..

      • why_so_serious?

        dude I agree to yur point… but its quite debatable… just imagine if the examiner himself is a handsome earning person and still using the reservation benefits, he may detect marks. Moroever, as all the governments in the past as well the present government confirms that there shall be no provision for economy based reservations. So its just like imagining things without having any base.. a dream most of the people see.. but can never be a reality 🙂

        • jeet_singh

          its not about economy based reservation…only those who have entered into the mainstream…. point regarding the examiner, i agree but it can be seen both way… anyway thanks for ur reply…

    • Kant

      Good attempt.
      1 half of the answer establishes the WHAT is the current picture, which is not demanded by the question. You could just mention in one line intro how grim (not caustic) the picture is.
      2 Since it is critically comment(we are giving opining here), your reasons have to be substantiated with logic, analysis and reasoning.
      3 don’t use first person in the answers. For gs4 its OK.

      Though conclusion is good.

      • amit

        hey pls review mine
        n pls suggests hw to end with gud conclusion i realised that i had ended badly

        tell me hw to improve

      • pujaHzb

        Good one though breached wrd limit. Best was the feet analogy ! If possible review my answer 🙂

        • why_so_serious?

          haha… thanx ma’am 😀 just edit the comment.. its for me I guess 😀

      • pujaHzb

        Good one though breached wrd limit. Best was the feet analogy ! If possible review my answer 🙂 Autocorrect Applied 😀

      • Tiger

        hey kant pls review mine.

        • Kant

          Suggest me some improvements.

    • Shubham Vijay

      a great answer i have to say..:) best intro…

      • why_so_serious?

        thanx bro… keep reviewing 🙂

    • pujaHzb

      Good one though breached wrd limit. Best was the feet analogy ! If possible review my answer 🙂 Autocorrect Applied 😛

      • why_so_serious?

        haha… after 3 tries finally 😀 yes I’ll 🙂

      • why_so_serious?

        yu have a privacy… can’t see yur answer… please uncheck it first

  • _Raider_

    ‘Castesism’ has been prevalent in India since ancient times. After Independence , the law makers mooted for upright removal of such social evil, and thereby inserted Article 17 in the Constitution – which declares unapproachability as an Offense , which led to the enactment of ‘Protection of Civil Rights Act’. Also, the Reservation policy of the government was also to uplift such vulnerable section .

    However, even decades after reservation and dedicated laws meant to uplift and empower them were put in place, their Social Vulnerability has increased, because of the following reason :

    ~ Mindset – the mindset of people have not changed

    ~Reservation Policy have also been beneficial for mostly the Creamy Layer within such groups.

    ~Education Policy – has also not been effective in tackling such an issue. Mid-Day meal initiative is an positive step , but what is required is an most Holistic Step.

    ~Caste-Polarisation , for Political benefits – is also one of the important reason for continuation of such social practices.

    The recent attack on an Dalit Family in Haryana showcases the Social vulnerabilities of such people and thereby affecting the ‘unity and Integrity’ of India. making Laws should not be the only step, the government should focus more on the Implementation part and in due process should involve Civil Society Org. , NGO’s etc to effectively curb such nuisance.

    • why_so_serious?

      income inequalities missed but I guess 3 points are Okay. Yu missed the prevention of atrocities act. Also since yu have mentioned about the minddet of the people, do mention the individual contribution one should make. NGO’s involvement point is nice 🙂 Overall nicely written, specially kudos for the simple language that yu used! Stick to this as its better to have one’s own style rather than adapting the features of an editorial writer/… all the best 🙂

    • anurag

      nice ans..plz review my answer

  • Historically baxkward and oppressed.
    1. Poor implementation of Protrxtionnof Civil Rights and Prevention of atrocities against SC ST.
    2. Flawed reservation policy whixh benefits only selected few.
    3. Petty vote bank politics and apathy of police.
    4. Stereotyping of dalits as poor, fools and downtrodden stemming from histoeical records.
    5. Economicla disempoewent due to frieght euwlaizatio policy, rise of Naxals, class struggle idea and anti India.

    Way forwaerd:
    1. Stringent provisons in Prevention of atrocities act as proposed in amnendment bill.
    2. Sensitization of police, community policing, includeing SC ST police officers in more prone areas.
    3.More powers with National commisisin on SC ST.
    4. Revising the reservation policy.
    5. Incnetiivse civil society to bring up compliants and spread awareness.
    6. Observe national day for harmony with SC ST.
    7. Incnetiivse inter caste marriages to break the caste identities

  • Ashish Agrawal

    Article 17 (Constitution), Protection of Civil Rights Act-1955, SC ST (POA) Act-1989, Reservation policy then different dedicated schemes and many more interventions for Schedule Castes but very little relief. They are still considered socially velnerable. Although heinous atrocities like rape, lynching, murder, assualt takes the limelight but everyday social and emotional boycott largely go unnoticed. This problem of 16% of our population calls for explanation :

    > After independence, bacause of many targeted welfare schemes, there has been rise of middle class among Dalits. Their economic improvement has made dominant caste more restive. And this has led to more boycott and suppression.

    > Social discrimination is widely known, but recent studies have pointed that leadership of major political party suffers from diversity deficit. Barring a few, in many, Dalits have been under-represented in leadership. This hurts the process of social activism.

    > Many loopholes are there in present Atrocities Act. A nexus between police-dominant groups, less favourable atitude of public servants are other problems. Vote bank politics also prevent their social empowerment and uplift.

    There are many stakeholders with their vested interests which clashes. A cooperative approach with civil society organisation at front is required.

    • Disco Dancer

      nice..plz review mine:)

  • Saurabh Singh

    India is a diverse country either it is caste religion,language etc.Consistently since Independence,the government as well as other sections of the society like NGO’S,intellectuals and artists tried to melt the feeling of alienation of one community from other but still after around six decades incidents still happening shows that efforts failed to reach its goal.The major reasons for failures are;
    1.Deep en rooted sentiments-The caste prejudice is said to be so long that it is some where deep in the bloods of Indians,can’t be flushed out easily.
    2.Laws exists but complicated-Independent India made many laws to discourage caste system like-SC ST act,act against untouchability,manual scavenging etc but the acts are so complicated to understand.
    3.Poor Enforcement agencies-Laws are meaningless if not implemented properly.The same thing is happening with the laws and acts made for the security of dalits and poor.
    4.Political games and exploitation of sentiments-These are the political parties which always arose the casteist feeling for their electoral benefits.
    5.Illiteracy-most of the sc and st or dalits are illiterate and unaware about their rights and legal supports given by the government
    6.Misuse of reservation-only some of the members of scheduled community got the benefit of reservation from generations and mass of the dalits failed to ripe the benefits of it.

    To remove this system and the feeling of separatism could only be done by mass initiative involving lower caste as well as upper caste people;and any incident on caste prejudice should be strongly handled

  • shruthi

    Indian reservation policy and laws are the positive actions by the state to bring in social justice to socially and educationally backward backed by article 15 and article 40 of constitution. But even after decades the fruitfulness of the measure is not visible. the reason can be summed up as

    1. The government action though have uplifted dalit from economic difficulty the lack of behavioral change components in the schemes have lead to social nonacceptance. The policies are more emphasized on segregation rather than integration. The caste based politics has further fuelled segregation.
    2. Flawed economic growth that has left many people behind & increasing inequalities coupled with absent of economic component has made upper caste poor to pursue the policy as depriving them the resources. The resent has manifested in form of wrath against dalits.
    3. The benefits have been garnered by the few elites. The people at gross root level are not aware of their rights, the schemes and policies. The apathy of public institutions have compounded the problem.

    The need of the hour is to
    1. Restructure the policy to exclude creamy layer & redefining the path of economic growth to make it inclusive.
    2. Synergising all public programmes to address the issue rather than through few dedicated laws.
    3. Awareness drive to sensitise society, specially the public istitutions, towards human rights and equality and to empower the people with the information.

    Equality is a value for which we have to stuggle long with collective struggle and positive states action. After all vulnerables like dalits, children,women are the responsibity of all rather than state alone in whose welfare rests the prosperiry of society.

  • Contrary to popular perception , inspite of reservations and dedicated laws like Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 , along with rising trend of urbanization , globalization and affirmative actions , the social vulnerability of Dalits has increased . Example includes manual scavenging by dalits , sexual abuse , denial of access to public places , etc.

    The reasons include :
    1. Traditional power asymmetry prevalent in society where dalits are at the mercy of patronizing higher castes , due to landlessness and exploitation
    2. Nexus between local powerful population , politicians and administrative machinery against dalits , causing under-reporting , lower conviction and exclusion from government services
    3. Poverty , illiteracy and poor health lowers their employment oppurtunities and awareness of socio-economic and political rights
    4. Electoral politics on caste lines and lack of political will to address the issue
    5. Continuation of ancient Social stratification practices based on birth
    Way forward
    1. Promoting security and effective justice delivery
    2. Awareness and sensitization towards vulnerable sections
    3. Democratic participation in planning , decision making andmonitoring the government services
    4. Improve human development parameters like education , employment and health
    These measures will help in achieving equality and social justice while reducing their social vulnerabity

    • Plz review

    • Nazar

      good answer

    • anurag

      nice attempt .plz review mine

  • Ashwani K. Chaudhary

    kindly review

  • Fazil Mohd

    –((review please))–

    • Nazar

      nice ans but if u add a little more info about acts, or solution in bulet points it will be better!!!!!

      • Nazar

        need of improving ur hand writing!!!

        • Fazil Mohd

          What facts would you have me add?. Could you please tell me that too.
          Yea, i know , this handwriting is too bad 🙁

          • Disco Dancer

            nice answer 🙂
            My review:
            1)Take a suitable start by defining various aspects asked in question
            2)Police role & less justice from higher judiciary can be included.
            3)I like how u frame your answer & end within the word limit. (i m still trying though!)
            4)You can give suitable examples.

            PLZ REVIEW MINE 🙂

            • Fazil Mohd

              Thanks a lot 🙂 . Proper inputs. Will improve hopefully

              • Disco Dancer

                bhai can i have your whatsapp no plz, if u dont mind 🙂
                mail me at [email protected] 🙂

    • anurag

      good anser..keep wrtig ,, plz review mine

  • Ritesh Kumar

    our country has a deep social hierarchy and prejudiced caste segregation .though we have positive discrimination and various constitutional safeguard to protect the interest of these marginalised people.but this has failed to bring an end to spate of incidents which shows the discrimination and fissure within the society on caste lines.

    politicasion of issues has further tried to divide .

    the reservation benefits has been limited to few well off among scs/sts.

    laws like protection of civil rights act and protection of atrocities has not been fully detterent as there has been cases where it has not resulted into coviction due to poor investigation.

    bureucracy and lae enforcement agencies are also proving to be biased and many times incidence go unreported.

    huge backlog of seats in educational institutes , govt jobs has only been pointing to mismatch between supply and demands and else.

    way forward:-

    sensitisation about the atrocities at grass root level and involving society at large .

    though political emancipation has been achieved but economic has not been. so need to upgrade the skill of these section.

    Atrocity Tracking and Monitoring (ATM) system which is a web based tool to monitor atrocities and to ensure speedy justice, is required to be disseminated widely

  • Ipshita

    Friends, please review….
    Recent happenings against Dalit community in India has brought into fore once again the atrocities committed against Dalits. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data shows such atrocities are widespread in many states like Haryana, UP, Bihar, MP etc

    Its shocking that even after decades of reservation they are facing such vulnerability in society. Several reasons :

    1. Reservation is not the only criteria to get done with age old prejudice embedded in society against them. Egalitarian views
    should be communicated effectively within society

    2. Reservation may be the reason for such atrocities – middle class among dalits rising economically and in other aspects
    – not to the liking of upper catstes

    3. Reservation makes them more distinct in the society – divides the society between reserved and unreserved category – Reservation should be given based on economic status to reduce the distinction it creates against the Dalits.

    4. Dalits – 16% of India’s population –their votes matter. But not only as political discourse, their voice should matter at ground level too

    5. not proper implementation SC & ST (PoA) Act, 1989 and Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 – Police should be sensitised towards their need

    Indian society needs to make amends to get rid of the age old evil of casteism. Only then, there will be equality for all as amended in the Constitution.

    • Nazar

      you can add more point like education backwardness ,economic backgd, social inharmony beyond reservation. more way forward can b mention!!!

      • Ipshita

        yaar, 150 words limit already crossed 🙁 but thanks for the suggestion 🙂

    • anurag

      nice answer..keep writing .review mine

  • ankgarg0402

    The caste system is an undeniable reality of the Indian society. The associated social stigma and prejudice have remained in the society in spite of dedicated legislation including Protection of Civil Rights Act, The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act and the reservation laws.

    The legislation has increased the social vulnerability in the following ways-

    1. By creating a sense of resentment in the unreserved category, leading to increased incidences of violence.

    2. The increased economic status of the SCs/STs is being seen with a sense of unrest in the upper castes.

    3. The conviction rate in the registered cases remains low showcases the insensitivity of the implementing agencies.

    4. The strict legislations have created a divide between different sections of the society and thus deter constructive interaction essential for removing social stigma and prejudices.

    The legislation has decreased the social vulnerability in the following ways-

    1. Economic empowerment- due to policies like that of Reservation.

    2. Social empowerment- The strict legislations against the traditional practices have empowered them at par to other sections.

    3. Legal empowerment- The legal framework provides ways to address any injustice done towards them.

    There exists a strong legislative framework but still recent incidences highlight the vulnerability of weaker section and need to further empower them by legislative and executive action. The SC and ST (Amendment) Bill along with greater sensitivity among the enforcing agencies is the need of the hour.


    Indians form centuries living together in harmony, we have rich heritage of tolerance be it religious, caste or other. But in recent time Vulnerability of minorities, dalits has increased. NCRB data suggests four fold increase in the case against dalits in recent years.Reasons leading to it can be seen as:-

    1) Politicizing the matters related to dalits:
    Political parties during time of election play their ‘Dalits Card’ to gain their valuable votes and once they comes to power they forget their earlier promises.

    2)Public Mindset:
    Even after 60 years of independence and several laws enactment, untouchablities and harted felling against dalits still prevalent in Indian society.

    3)Reservation Politics:
    Reservation for dalits was aimed at improving their status but during the course of time it become a contentious topic in today time with other groups who are self capable are demanding reservation.This has hurt the real core of reservation system and dalits has not been able to take benefit of it.

    Government by its various measures like banning untouchablity,reservation quota, slashing fee in education, opening up centers for upliftment of dalits in villages and towns etc has been trying hard to bring dalits in main stream of population. However, a change from society is too needed we have to change our vision for dalits only then they will get benefited from govt. measures.

  • 2) Why do you think the social vulnerability of Dalits, even decades
    after reservation and dedicated laws meant to uplift and empower them
    were put in place, has increased? Critically comment. (150 Words)

  • shubham

    Dalits or previously described as Untouchables are the victims of atrocities of other social groups from time immemorial.Since Rigvedic period they were termed as Outcasts and therefore socially and physically oppressed.But since independence Government Of India took several measures to bring them into mainstream of social and economic development.These were constitutional (art 15,16(4),art 18 art 46 etc) , legal(Protection of Civil Rights act 1955 and SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989) ,and various affirmative actions in terms of reservation policy, Sub plans, Special assistance etc.
    But these measures have not been proved successful and violence against them is still unabated.The reasons are the ritualistic ways in which the welfare measures for the vulnerable groups are implemented in India.The grass root democracy in form of panchayats though have given them a chance but at the same time have also increased their vulnerability.Most of the time even police forces have deeply entrenched prejudices against them.
    So what we require is better social messaging ,sensitivity in police forces,more political responsibility and result oriented welfare measures.It should not be forgotten that welfare of vulnerable groups in any country act as a barometer of the effectiveness of its development.

    • why_so_serious?

      good attempt. Yu’ve content but yu just need a bit of polishing I guess if yu mention these in bullet points it will be more effective. Overall nice attempt (Y)

      • shubham

        thanks.though i feel a bit uncomfortable to write in bullets as i think it disturbs the flow of answer but i will try to highlight my points more effectively.thanks for review

  • shubham

    please review

  • Disco Dancer

    Caste dominant thinking in the past has always ensured a low level for Dalits in the society. Our Constitution tried to address these problems by ending untouchability & providing requisite safeguards to SCs & STs. Moreover, Govt tried to solve their plight through two major act namely, Civil Rights protection Act 1955 & SC & ST (Prevention of atrocities act)1989. A suitable reservation policy for them was also adopted, ensuring their representation at high post. But these measures have received mixed success due to following reasons:
    1)Caste still dominant: Many parts of the country still suffers from high caste paralysis. Caste has a say in important decision of ones life. Thus, dalits still receives ill treatment.
    According to NCRB data, less educated people from countryside of haryana, UP etc are major in creating this discrimination. They justify discrimination on behalf of India’s history & tradition.
    2)Reservation Model: People criticize the reservation model which provide representation to people from low caste.This system has increased the middle class dalits & are not being liked by dominant class. Many times they attack them on this regard.
    3)Police Role: Police dont want to risk for dalits who are in minority in most part of country. Even after SC & St (POA) Act 1989, they dont register complain or provide proper compensation etc, Thus people from high strata continue to expliot them without much fear.
    4)New Economic Model: This model attacks on the livelihood of minorities rather than them. The idea is to destroy them by attacking on their livelihoods.
    5)Vote Bank Politics: Exploitation of dalits in name of politics is still a stratagem of political parties.
    6)Less judicial justice: Higher courts have acquitted arrested persons on lack of evidence. Ex= Acquitted person of Ranvir sena
    Thus, not proper justice have been provided to aggrieved person.

    So, these causes ensures their vulnerability. Long term solution includes providing education, creating public awareness etc. Government can take a variety of measure like strict implementation of SC & ST(POA) amendment bill 2015, judicial justice, end of vote bank politics etc Only these measures would fulfill Gandhiji’s dream of Equality.

    • anurag

      nicly done.plz review mine

  • Yashaswi


  • Alfa

    Constitution of India vide Art.14, 16, 335,338,240,41&42 explicitly makes provision for reservation to socially backward
    castes including Dalits.
    Also, “Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955”& “The SC/ST Act 1989” aim to prevent and punish social/criminal atrocities against
    inter-alia Dalits.
    Despite of above measures, Dalits in today’s India are increasingly finding it difficult to withstand social stresses as in their social interaction with “upper castes”, fighting caste stereotypes, skill development etc.
    Reasons for such phenomenon are myriad, the important ones are:

    1. Reservation benefits have failed to reach the lower strata of Dalit population: “the first movers” among Dalits have (mis)appropriated reservation for themselves in perpetuity virtually blocking this opportunity for their rural brethren.
    2. Reservation per se, instead of dissolving the caste boundaries, has reinforced the caste identities in people, both Dalits & Non- Dalits.
    3. Indian Society tacitly approves caste distinction, and a seemingly independent & economically prosperous Dalit middle class threats this distinction. Violence against rich and land owning Dalits of Haryana in 2005 is an example for the same.
    4. Politics: Caste politicians reiterate the plight of Dalits in political & public discourses but at societal level do nothing or even try to perpetuate the subhuman existence of Dalits to secure Dalit Vote.
    5. The Laws enforcing agencies generally have lethargic attitude towards victims and in case of crimes against Dalits, it is often worsened by the caste loyalties of the officer concerned.
    1. Shaping the public opinion in favour of Caste & class less society through education & public debate.
    2. Sensitising and training the Law Enforcement Agencies for acting with alacrity in cases of crime against Dalits.
    3. Pushing reservation to the hitherto unexposed segment of Dalit population.

    • Raghav

      1. Vocabulary is good
      2. Multidimensional approach of Constitution, Law, Society, Politics

      Negatives [ Question asks to critically Comment i.e ]
      1. You have given direct solution instead if you could have taken each dimension [ eg. Law ] explain it, critique it, improve it
      2. You started heavily with constitution Articles but they are irrelevant here.

      Good effort, Keep Writing.

  • Fabian

    The age old Indian society is fragmented based on the caste system which has placed Dallas on the lower rung of the society.the independent India and the father of Indiaan Constitution Dr.Ambedkar have strived to improve the wellbeing of the downtrodden by framing various acts and commissions, there hasn’t been much improvement of the fate of Dalits mainly because..
    1. Apathy by the high classes of the society because of the unchanged mindset
    2. Poor socio-economic conditions of the Dalits resulting in deaf ears of political class
    3. Using Dalits merely as pawns in vote bank politics
    4. Voicing the concerns of Dalits only by the opposition parties to target the ruling party
    5. Lack of awareness of the policies and acts for their benefits by the needy who require such protection measures
    6. Laws enacted benefitting only the upper sections or already benefited people thereby making the rich richer and poor poorer among the Dalits and hence increasing the divide

    Hence there is need to revisit the age old laws enacted in the light of modern day and thus utilize the ICT services, CSR initiatives and e-governance and E-judiciary, etc for erasing the inequalities and establishing a casteless and classless society

  • amit

    critics welcome

    • Raghav

      Dear Amit, by commenting your answer I am learning as well.

      1. irregular flow of answer
      2. Unnecessary underlining and Quotes. – i was misguided to read them first.

      The question : increased vulnerability inspite of laws and support system. and Critically commenting.

      1. Give few core points about why vulnerability, persistence of vulnerability and give your opinion with supporting arguments
      2. When you give your opinion it should be critical [ Positive and Negative]

      Good effort. Keep writing.

      • amit

        i myself find difficult how to write

        thanks frnd
        can u pls review my other ans too

      • amit

        well i had given points for their continous vulnerabilty
        view abt incidents wat may be cause from both sides and thn commnet on it

        n i had to work on flow can u pls guide hw it can be done

    • Kant

      You write very well.
      – write point wise. Takes less time.
      -type the answer here. People don’t want to open images. Moreover, your handwriting is not legible. My eyes started paining while reading the answer. Think about the reader man 🙂
      – is not a colonial mindset but social prejudice.

      Very nice conclusion.

      • amit

        thanks 4 ur review
        pls keep reviewing
        i m bad at typing moreover in exams we hav to write
        i m working on hand writing
        however if we open images then it will be visible

    • anurag

      nicee..keep witing , plz review mine

    • RRV

      Hi amit,
      I must say it is a good attempt.

      But i want to tell u few points.
      — pls try to bring in positive and negative points while you answer Critical questions.
      — concluding with positive and some kind of way forward is always beneficial.
      — i found that u imphasied more on reservation.
      — lastly, legible writing. It helps in fetching u more marks. Coincidently i am also working on my hand writing, thats why i m telling u.

      Keep writing and reviewing.

      • amit

        i get to knw that thi s ques i had not written up to std but feedbak really shows me the way fwd
        kindly keep guiding

  • JD

    Dalits constitute around 16% of the Indian population as per the census 2011. Not only they constitute a significant chunk of the population, they are also important from the point of view of government’s efforts towards establishing an equal and just society, considering the fact that they had been subjected to various atrocities and oppression in the past due to their low hiearchy in the caste system of India. The state brought in various measures–both constitutional and legal to ensure that the Dalits are protected and are given equal opportunities for development e.g. provision of reservation in government jobs, prevention of atrocities, etc. so as to ensure their freedom from age old oppression. However, even after almost seven decades of independence, atrocities towards Dalits in the form of public beatings, not allowing their entry in certain areas, rape, manual scavening, etc. show that they are still socially vulnerable. This persistence can be attributed to:-
    1) Reservations provided to the Dalits have given some of them a higher economic status as compared to other castes which has been a cause of resentment among the latter.
    2) Psychological perception of Dalits being outcaste still persists in the minds of people. especially in the rural areas and areas having a dominant caste system.
    3) There had been some need for reforms in judicial, police, administrative, etc. which has not been addressed properly. e.g. ensuring posting of dalit police personnel in proportion to the population of dalits in that area, fastening the hearing of cases pertaining to atrocities inflicted on dalits, etc.
    4) Civil society and SHGs etc, which had a transforming impact on Indian poor and vulnerable sections, have not been uniform in the whole country thus limiting the avenues for dalits for their freedom through self employment opportunities.
    Although the measures of government in promoting the welfare of dalits through multifarious ways by giving them scholarships, promoting their business confederation, etc have been launched, a large part of their population is still unaware of the benefits which they are entitled to and make them more vulnerable. Empowering them through various means of media, local governance is a must in this regard. However, at the end, it is the society at large which has to develop ethos towards promoting harmony and equality.

  • KC

    Our Constitution has provided various safeguards to the Dalits.A number of laws have been passed in the independent India to protect the interests of the Dalits. But still we observe instances of ban on entry of Dalits into the temples; derogatory occupations like manual scavenging, grave digging,sweeping etc being exclusively reserved for the Dalits; Dalit children being forced to clean the toilets in the schools; they are not invited to the celebrations in the village and functions organised by them are not attended by the upper castes.In the urban areas , a lot of importance is given to caste at the time of fixing matrimonial alliances and alliances with lower castes are usually not preferred.

    There are many reasons responsible for this.Firstly, the discrimination on the basis of caste has been deeply routed in the societal mindset throughout the centuries.This has been ingrained in the psyche of the people and no law matters to them.Secondly, the dalits are dependent on the so called upper castes for their economic well being.Thus, they do not dare to raise an organised voice against the atrocities committed on them.Thirdly, even when they gather the courage to raise the voice, the indifferent attitude of the police and inefficiency of the judiciary try to suppress them and ultimately justice is denied to them.This emboldens their exploitation by other castes.

    The sensitization of the people who man the institutions which are responsible for maintaining law and order and providing justice along with the change in attitude of the people can only help to end this menace of caste discrimination.

    • anurag

      nice ans..myy answer

  • ssaurabh0711

    Making laws doesn’t change hearts. People may choose break the law instead of getting rid of their deep-seated beliefs. Problem of casteism is deeply rooted in age-old traditions.
    Reservation may have raised economic status of dalits. Economic well-off dalits are rivals to limited resources, a matter of jealousy to upper-castes.
    Making of laws to prevent atrocities and giving them rights to lead a dignified life hadn’t have the desired results.
    The very existence of reservation and laws to protect dalits have been a hindrance in their social acceptance.
    Dalits are specially vulnerable in rural areas where development benefits haven’t trickled down. In urban areas, where people are influenced by modern ideas and development levels are high, discrimination on the basis of caste is very low.
    So, government should weaker and vulnerable section on the basis of economic criteria not on the basis of caste. Otherwise, people will to identify their existence with their caste and it will only take deeper roots. They should made themselves to identify with development.

    pl. review friends

    • anurag

      good attmpt ,plz revw mine

    • RRV

      To critically quote… Pls try to connect points, it will be better if you could right in paragraphs or give specific heading before giving ur points.
      Else is nice… Keep writing and keep reviewing.

  • DSR

    Even after almost 7 decades of independence there are groups and communities which are discriminated against on lines of caste, creed, religion etc. The historical bondage of caste based discrimination still stifles the growth of society.

    The constitution mentions clear provisions for attainment of equality and justice for all and specifically directs the government to formulate and execute policies in a manner which lessens the vulnerability of groups and communities which have been marginalised on the lines of caste. Also the dalits constitute almost 16% of country’s population but still they face discrimination and atrocities are performed against them. The policy of reservation has helped in bringing up a middle class of dalits and to a certain extent they have been successful in joining the mainstream of the society. This rise of a dalit middle class is against the liking of certain sections of dominant classes especially in the villages and small towns.

    The main reason behind the perpetuation of atrocities is not the absence of laws for their protection, rather it is the lack of effective implementation of these laws which is responsible for the plight of dalits. The lucky few from among the dalits who were able to enter the political mainstream have done little for uplifting their clan. Instead they have purposefully denied the benefits of state policies and programmes from reaching their doors in order to perpetuate their backwardness so that the petty vote bank politics of caste can be practiced.

    A strong administrative and political will is required to address the issue. The civil society needs to be educated in general about how the discrimination in caste lines is stifling the economic and social growth. The field agencies and directorates of government departments should carry out exhaustive review and analysis of implemented programmes and policies. The creamy layer should be prevented from taking further advantages of the reservation policies and the benefits should be ensured for the less fortunate one’s.

    • DSR

      Please review friends 🙂

    • deepak

      good introduction and body but please mention some points as your suggestions to tackle problems like “ineffectiveness” of policies etc

      • DSR

        Thanks for the review bro!!
        I saved the answer without completing it 😛
        have mentioned the suggestions now. Thanks a lot for your effort in reviewing 🙂

  • deepak

    In our country even after so many years of attaining independence and progress in many spheres,one of the features of our society that has remained intact and has shown little or no signs of weakening is the Indian caste system. Dalits or adivasis who have been on the receiving end ever since the inception still face vulnerability despite many economic and political tools because:

    * high rates of poverty among Scheduled caste and tribes.
    * lack of access to basic education even after many political tools like reservation etc which force them to be stuck with occupations like sweeping,manual scavenging,low wage menial jobs etc.
    * the judicial remedies like prevention of atrocities act have low conviction rate, in many cases the authorities even fail to register basic complaint and try to “sweep things under the rug”.
    * the fear of repercussions from the upper caste people especially in the rural setting if their voices are being raised against injustice.
    * the casteist mindset which is strong especially in rural setting which invokes clashes,exclusion sanctions,honor killings etc which makes life difficult for dalits and adivasis.

    Some suggested steps:
    * to make sure the money which is allocated for the benefits and upliftment of SC/ST by the government is properly and efficiently used by maintaining strict vigilance.
    * give more teeth to laws like prevention of atrocities and protection of civil rights and take complaints and actions seriously and cases must be solved under a prescribed time limit for active participation from the police
    *Government must also promote reservation policies in ways that encourage poorer sections from the community to reach forward and participate rather that making it just a political tool.
    lastly encourage the spirit of “emancipation” and promote enrolling in education especially among children and also women through various NGOs because education is only way one can liberate oneself from clutches of poverty and oppression.

    Please review

    • anurag

      ggod , reiew my answer

  • anurag

    answer-dalits are being exploited haressed in indian society. NCRB data show put the
    number of incidents against crimes against dalits in haryana in 2014 at 830.in haryana
    the number of atrocities against dalits is more than any other state. haryana is not only
    culprit for violence against dalits. NCRB data show high incidence of such atrocitiess
    in states like utter praadesh , Gujrat, panjab , Rajasthan, madhya pradesh among others.

    despite some laws atrocities against dalits have not decreased. the prevention of
    civil rights act 1955 and the sheduled castes and sheduled tribes act 1989 are the two
    important laws that deal with crimes against dalits. the existing laws have not stopped
    atrocities against dalits.resevation is also provided to the SC & ST individual. but they
    are not benefitting from this.if a persons belonging to SC is elected in panchayat elections,
    he face many problems like untouchability.

    to live with dignity is a fundamental right of a person. so the right sould not not be violated by
    any one.if a person violates a person’s right to live with dignity , he should be punished by
    the judiciary that is the protector of fundamental rights ot the people.article 46 of the constitution
    of india also promotes the state to protect SC & ST individuals from social injustice and exploitation.
    so state should protect them through enacting laws.

    • ssaurabh0711

      lack of coherency in answer….mind the grammar

  • Tiger

    The recent killing of two children from dalit family, shows the increased social vulnerability of dalits. Following reasons are responsible for it:-
    1)Earlier dalits were confined to menial jobs but the reservation policy of the govt. helped them participate in the mainstream.This has lead to increased interaction of dalits with high caste ppl.due to traditional mindset and lack of sensitization of police system there has been increased exploitation of dalits at work place.
    2) With time dalits have emerged as a significant middle class population and at the same time there is lack of job opportunities for masses. This has lead to feeling of envy which makes it way out in the form of killing,hatred.
    3)Empowerment of dalits and their significant representation in politics has infused confidence among them.This has lead to incrsd registration of cases.
    4)Inability of the govt. to control org. like khap panchayats and ranvir sena which fearlessly keep on issuing diktat’s for the killing of dalits.

    • Kant

      Congratulation for your first answer!!
      You are writing very well.
      Try to give a positive conclusion.
      Overall, I liked the answer.
      Keep writing.

      • Tiger

        THNKXX bro

  • Singularity

    Since independence there have been many steps taken to empower the socially vulnerable Dalits through legislations like the Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of atrocities) Act 1989, setting up of
    commissions like the National Commission for SC/ST, reservations in local self governments. Though these steps have improved the social awareness of Dalits to an extent, the desired results have not been achieved. This is due to the following reasons:
    1. The increased social awareness among Dalits has led to increased conflicts with the upper castes who feel threatened of losing their usual dominant position.
    2. Unholy nexus between upper caste political class and bureaucracy has led to apathetic implementation of the laws
    3. Inefficient policing as the police are not informed about the specific social problem involved with Dalits
    Some ways forward could be:
    1. Change of mindset through educational and social awareness program
    2. Fair policing and stringent implementation of legislations

  • Manoj

    Dalits-the depressed class of India have been given Constitutional and Legislative Safeguards to bring them at par with Higher Caste, to include them in Main Stream Socially, Culturally and Materially. Despite these measures their condition in the country is a matter to worry about. Following reasons can be help responsible for it-

    —-> Constitutional Reservation has been effective but to a limited scope- Only Dalits in Metropolitan and Cosmopolitan cities have benefited from it.

    —-> In Rural Areas, Higher Caste people are dominant, depriving Dalits of their Basic Rights and Statutory benefits.

    —-> Constitutional & Statutory measures are effective only on paper, implementation part is very poor- Be it Schedule Caste & Schedule Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 or Civil Rights Act, 1955.

    —-> Political parties use the 16% population of Dalits as vote banks only, nothing is done by them to improve their condition.


    —-> Creamy layer should be introduced in Reservations for Dalits so that Poor Dalits could get benefit from it.

    —-> Mentality of Higher Caste people need to be changed and Dalits in Rural areas are required to be made aware of their rights.

    —-> Effective implementation of Constitutional & Statutory measures must be given impetus- Amendment to Schedule Caste & Schedule Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 should be passed.

    —-> Political Leadership with unbiased and Holistic mindset should come forward and All the people including Dalits should vote candidates with an unbiased mindset.

    Though Constitutional and Statutory measures were given to uplift Dalits but it has separated them from the mainstream. Reservation has made Dalits the most envied people in the Society. Constitutional & Statutory measures must be reviewed and be given on the basis of Economic Status of the family.

  • pubad

    Thanks to our constitution which provided equality as basic theme of our constitution and a dignified life for everyone with right agianst untouchability but we orthodox people not leave any chance to put down our constitution on the basis of casteism ,regionalism ,communilism etc.legislature also provide law like sc and St atrocities act and separate commission for them but condition going down day by day
    Even after decades reservation not provide much effect as envisage because
    …reservation policy provide infinite times reservation to a single person and no creamy layer concept so prosper is again prospering with this many time this prosper student compete with other general student which create rivalry.how we can envisage a
    Negative marks human can compete with greater marks people in field
    Political org use casteism for their gain and big culprit is khap panchayat
    We have many law but an illiterate and less literate not aware of these
    So with reservation we need special package and iniciative for the them .after selection we have to provide extra help to them like tuition and other material benefit.as they are illiterate and less literate so in a night it not possible they became literate so for it it necessary that ADM. should be proactive and strict action taken against people who spread hatred speech . need of their democratic org who give suggestion to diff govt .because we see most of these state are bimaru state where illiteracy ,poverty is privilent and lot of inequality so need to tackle these problem by target basis

  • Tyler Durden

    Reservation in educational institutions and government jobs, as affirmative action to uplift Dalits hasnt been effective in curbing incidents of oppression subjected to them . Despite stringent laws to protect them, the lax implementation of these laws has led to a dismal situation, where incidents such as Dalit killings and discriminatory practices constantly shame the country. Following are fee reasons that can be attributed to this –
    1) Uneven development – There remains no uniformity in upliftment of Dalit sections. Benefit of affirmative action have accrued unequally between states and also urban-rural regions. Dalits in backward regions still become easy victims of oppression due to lack of education and awareness
    2)Social stigma – Deep rooted social notions about Dalits still exist in the society. Recently a Dalit man was beaten to death for entering a temple in UP, this despicable event shows the hollowness of progress we claim as a society. Rural areas are especially affected by this regressive thinking
    3)Wrath of upper castes due to affirmative actions – In states like UP, Bihar, MP, Rajasthan and Haryana, deep seated caste system still prevails. Rise of Dalit middle class is seen as a challenge to superiority by upper castes, which furthers the animosity and sometimes translates into heinous actions
    4)Divisive politics – Votebank policies by some political parties instills a feeling of alienation amongst different sections of society. This is a factor of perpetuation of caste and class differentiation
    5)Lack of representation at higher levels – There are very few Dalit leaders who have risen to higher levels even after all these years of independenxe. Short sighted politics by these leaders exacerbated the situation further

    There is a fire need for social sensitization of Dalit rights. The perpetrators of Dalits need to get punishments commensurate to their heinous crimes, to dissaue others from practicing such methods.

    In a free society where terrible wrongs exist, some are guilty; all are responsible. We, as a society, need to make concerted efforts to make it an equal place. Our oppressed brethren need our voices the most.

    • bootstrap

      Good coherent answer and a nice conclusion.Please review mine

      • Tyler Durden

        Thanks 🙂 keep reviewing and suggesting improvements. Sure il take a look

  • drakshay


  • target 2016

    Despite several laws for the socioeconomic upliftment of Dalits- 1) the protection of the civil rights act 1955
    2) SC ST prevention of atrocities act 1989,
    along with reservation in education and job opportunities, the social vulnerability of Dalits has increased significantly.

    There are several reasons behind this-

    1) lack of awareness among Dalits about their rights to claim against atrocities to lead dignified life.

    2) acceptance of social hierarchy within society due to which crimes against Dalits do not get registered quickly.

    3) increase in material status of Dalits due to reservation was not welcomed by the dominant class

    4) Laws failed to remove the prejudices from the minds of people led to lack of inclusiveness

    It is imperative to sensitize the police to act with alacrity and need to create awareness campaign for Dalit masses. To remove prejudices from the minds of people efforts need to put from the childhood through education.

    • target 2016

      please review.

  • bootstrap

    Dalit Community has been at the receiving end of caste violence,discrimination,injustice and abuse ever since the Varna system took roots centuries ago.To improve their conditions several constitutional provisions were made when India became independent.Numerous laws were enacted and institutional initiatives were undertaken for their upliftment and welfare.But even after so many years of the existence of such laws,the social vulnerability of Dalits has increased
    Possible reasons:
    ->Faulty implementation of laws meant for their protection and justice in various states. (eg SC & ST prevention of atrocities act..which is planned to be amended again)
    ->Resentment among unreserved class people over losing out seats in education and jobs to Dalits despite being more meritorious and financially less able.
    ->Education and progressive thinking and outlook still eludes sizeable part of our population->it is no coincidence that the recent incident of Dalit violence took place in Haryana,a state that is synonymous with anti woman, anti minority and now anti dalit tendencies.
    ->Sometimes incidents of caste abuse are politically motivated where the aim is to polarise society on the basis of caste for vote bank.
    To lessen the social vulnerability of Dalits,laws are not enough as is evident.People need to be sensitized to the historical sufferings that dalits have experienced.Role of Civil society and NGOs will be crucial here.Caste vote bank politics should be shunned by politicians and politics of growth and progress should prevail.Effective Implementation RPI Act and role of Election commission will be crucial.Reservations may be made even for financially weak among the unreserved class
    These steps may help in reducing reduce incidents of caste based abuse in India.

    • bootstrap

      plz review the answer

    • Tyler Durden

      Good answer, I liked your point about NGOs and reservation for financially backward section. Keep writing.

      • bootstrap

        Thnks bro

        • Tyler Durden

          Bro being gender-neutral ;)…keep writing , keep reviewing

  • bootstrap

    plz review friends

  • Surendra Seth

    Kindly review

  • untamed science

    The recent incidents of dadri lynching and attacks of dalits have raise questioned about vunerability of the of sc/st people even after six decades of freedom of our country the country have not over this stigma of caste diffrentiation.

    still the country’s political system is using the caste politics for their personal gain to use these incidents to divide society of caste system, hate speeches to incite mob to are common.
    another reason our laws that take action against this have not fully reaslised their objectives, untoucbility , bonded labour are not fully implemented .
    lax police and adminstration against these act is also a reason of flaring up these incidents.
    our society is also have fully understood the meaning of secularism the middle class , and upper class people still plagued by the caste culture.

    its imperative for our society to done away with this growing intolerance against free speech and caste division there is a need of sensitisation of people , moral policing of commuities.
    Strict action should be taken against politician to use class politics and inciting people and use them as vote bank.
    judiciary should paly an active role , police must be active, media should play a posive role to curb this menace.

  • Aditya Prasad

    Dalits i.e. oppressed ones, from the lowest rungs of the well stratified Indian society are still vulnerable after positive discrimination or affirmative actions and dedicated laws and acts due to following reasons:
    1) Political parties are more concerned about the vote bank politics of socially discriminated society than real development due to significant percentage of population (15% of total population).
    2) The feudal & castiest mindset of upper strata of the deeply caste entrenched society who don’t want to leave their domination easliy.
    3) Poor vertical social mobility of dalits due to bad education, absence of money generation avenues and least presence in politico-administrative systems.
    4) Absence of pan India dalit social movement for their personal emancipation.
    5) Protection of Civil Rights (PCR) Act, 1955 & SC ST Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989 have not been proven tough in action and perpetrators get free easily due to political nexus.

    Although constitution has provided right of equality and non discrimination of individuals on the basis of race, sex & creed but present situation of weakest sections of society is pathetic. Following solutions are possible:
    1) More stringent new laws & existing laws must be passed to tackle the caste related crimes.
    2) Electoral reforms are must to filter out the anti social people to get elected who make fake promises before the elections.
    3) Awareness of social facts that caste system and its ramifications, is big impediment in overall development of the India.

  • hemant

    The reasons are:
    a) Psychological: fear that atrocities that have been perpetrated upon this vulnerable community
    will now be perpetrated on the doer in the first place. Reputation and public
    image of dominant group is getting hurt due to resistance, assertion and counter
    arguments provided by Schedules castes.

    b) Unawareness regarding laws related to empower Dalits and Low education among other high
    class people in villages lead to similar old discriminated practices against them.

    c) The division created long time ago on lines of class and caste is generations old and still exists.

    d) Divide and rule is the only policy that has been taught by Britishers to India and the same is being followed by acting politicians and therefore removal of this differentiation will jeopardise their ballot banks.

    e) Implementation of Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and the SC &ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is not full fledged but left only in papers.

    In absence of any political motivation to correct this situation in the society, it is a way of society to correct itself and it is taking its own natural course of action to quarantine the systems in the society.

  • Reformer

    Providing reservation to the disadvantages class of society was a novel feature of Indian constitution borne out of the decades of atrocity meted out to them socially and economically . Reservation would provide them the necessary tool for upward mobility and social empowerment . It has resulted in the growth of middle class among the dalits with a greater independence and increased assertiveness. However it is not liked by many especially among the poors of upward caste who feel resented by increasing power of the hitherto downtrodden fractions.We have dedicated laws in place -protection of civil rights act(1955) ,Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes(prevention of atrocity act ) 1988 to provide them adequate safeguards but it has not been an active deterrent to such violent acts.The laws needs to be implemented in spirit and the dalits needs to be educated regarding the safeguard in place for them . Only a Harmonious and closely knitted society can bring inclusive and prosperity .