1) What do you understand by Life Expectancy? Based on recent data, analyse life expectancy trends for men and women in India.

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Topic:Population and related issues

1) What do you understand by Life Expectancy? Based on recent data, analyse life expectancy trends for men and women in India. (200 Words)

The Hindu

  • Rupi23

    –Life expectancy refers to the perceived
    life longevity of a person, based on their living conditions, family history
    and other external factors, which can change while migrating from one place to
    another (like access to health facilities, etc.)

    –Historically, women have lived longer
    than men, due to various biological and psychological advantages. But due to
    the recent change in lifestyle of women, when they are trying to balance home
    and work life, they are also suffering from, what were once categorised as men’s

    –Due to such observations, it has been
    seen that the life expectancy gap has decreased considerably decreased between
    both genders.

    –Also, the life expectancy is increasing
    for both, in old age, due to the increased medical facilities, in most
    countries, which has led to a decrease in death rate, with the financially
    pronounced living longer.

    –But taking account of the prevalent patriarchial
    traditions in India, it has been seen that life expectancy of females is low in
    rural areas.

    –Such anomalies need to be eliminated for
    an inclusive development of the country, which is the goal of the present government,
    as it will help in including more people in the “Make in India” initiative of
    the country and fasten the pace of growth of the country

    • phoenix

      short , crisp and relevant

    • Asim kumar

      U have analysed the trends very well but u should have added trends also,for me make in India is worthless,review mine

      • Sudanita Sanchez

        Please analyse asim

  • does it matter?

    Life expectancy is the average period that an individual is expected to live in a country. Life expectancy in India has increased from about 32 in 1947 to about 68 in 2015. Life expectancy may differ between different groups of people and those living in different parts of the country and even by gender. Life expectancy often keeps up with the level of development of the country and the health care delivery in the country.

    Life expectancy of men has increased from 57 in 1990 to 64 and that of women from 59 to 68 during the same period. This is a general trend across the world, where women have more life expectancy than men due to their biological advantages. The genral increase across the genders can be attributed to the economic development of the country.

    However, the increase in women life expectancy can be attributed to better health care delivery and higher education among women.This is evident from the lowering Maternal Mortality rate from about 350 in 1990 to about 214 in 2013. Other factors such as better financial condition and the increased insurance coverage for women. This can also be attributed to higher incidence of life style and chronic diseases among men than women.

    While the life expectancy is on the rise, the issue is with the disability adjusted life expectancy which includes the loss of active life due to chronic and other diseases. We have to ensure that this has to come down in order to ensure that we have a healthy and productive life with less burden due to health.

    • Ajay Rathod

      I’m no expert but i will suggest something “you should folllow the trend and diffrentate between like what was the trend in 1990 and 2013. i think that will give you the needed edege to your answer..

      • does it matter?

        Point taken, Thanks so much for the review.

        • Madhav Kamble

          writing first time
          may seem childish…please review

          • does it matter?

            CHill, work with the same spirit, dont ask one to review, read some other answers, you will understand and alsofinish your syllabus first, without that frankly writing doesnt help. Good Luck!!


    Life expectancy refers to the number of years a person is expected to live based on the statical average, life expectancy varies by geographical area and by era. In the Bronze age for example- life expectancy was 26 years, while in 2010 it was 67 years.
    The life expectancy for a particular person or population group depends on several variables such as their lifestyle, access to healthcare, diet, economic status and the relevant morbility data. However it is calculated on average, a person may life for many years more or less than expected.
    In India people significantly live longer compared to 1990. Life expectancy increased by 6.9 years for men and 10.3 years for women between 1990 to 2013. In 1990the figure were 57.25 years for men and 59.19 for women. This rose to 64.16 for men and 68.48 women by 2013. health expectancy to is increased for women. For men it increased from 50.07 in 1990 to 56.322 in 2013, while for women it rose from 50.15 to 59.11.
    This increased in life expectancy shows that:
    01. government health scheme are reaching to people.
    02.. believe of people get increased on medical science.
    03. encourasement of government to deliver baby in hospital.
    04. people are getting balance deit.
    Either than this data very big percentage are still away from balanced diet. and proper health and many other basic needs.

    • Asim kumar

      Well attempt, review mine

    • Vijay

      Nice answer but just add few lines on diseases responsible and lifestyle issues.


        Thanks this is my first day to write answer keep comments on my answers it encourage me to write more. THANKS

    • Draconian

      avoid too much technical data……..as u wouldn’t be able to remember that much data in exam…..focus only on the core part……..

    • Sudanita Sanchez

      Please !!! REVEIW mine …also.!!!

  • Kartik

    Life expectancy is one of the indicator to measure the Human Development Index. It is a statistical measure of how
    long a person may live based on their year of birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.
    Though life expectancy in India has increased from 58.5 years in 1990 to 66.4 years in 2013 , it is way below world average of 70.8 years and least among our neighbourhood countries.
    On an average, a woman lives longer than men in India. Life expectancy figures for men increased by 6.9 years to 64.16 for men and by 10.3 years to 68.48 for women between 1990 and 2013. Additionally, figures of healthy life expectancy helps us to visualize the number of years beyond which the population becomes prone to life-threatening ailments. Major causes contributing to the same are Ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis and neonatal disorders. Even this data too is more favourable for women lying around 59.11 for women and 56.15 for men.
    Nevertheless, with the growth in the standards of living, India is transitioning and inheriting the diseases common to the developed countries. So, while borrowing the living style of the first or second world countries, care should be taken that we don’t yield to disease-prone cultures

    • Danish Ranjan

      we should suggest more methods ( general / conventional / innovative ) to improve life expectancy in the conclusion part .

      • Kartik

        Yes, I agree ! Word limit didn’t allow me, though I should try to include the same within the word limit.

    • Asim kumar

      Analysis of trends is missing,others good,review mine

      • Kartik

        Can you please tell me what all contents I could have added ?

  • Danish Ranjan

    Life expectancy means the average period of time a man or woman lives .

    Recently a study published by a British medical journal The Lancet , shows that the life expectancy in India has been increased for both the genders , male and female .While it has been seen that increment in life expectancy of men is 6.9 years , in case of women it is 10.3 years in comparison to the data of 1990 . In 1990, life expectancy of men were 57.25 and 59.19 for women. This rose to 64.16 and 68.48 respectively by 2013. While health life expectancy increased in men from 50.07 to 56.52 and in women it rose from 50.15 to 59.11 . It is clear that women health during these two decades has improved significantly more than men .It has been said that the big jump in life expectancy is in keeping with the development of the country .India is improving day by day as well as the life expectancy / health life of its citizens .

    But downside of this recent study is that the diseases that were not seen in 1990 are seen now. As India is moving inch by inch towards the status of developed country , diseases seems to be transitioning and inheriting from the developing countries.

    In order to tackle these new diseases better , the ICMR and Public Health Foundation of India, along with the ministry of Health and Family welfare , are planning a disease burden study at the state level . To keep improving in general life expectancy of men and women along with new study / research there are also need of better health equipment in rural areas , opening and most importantly better maintenance of govt hospitals are required .Along with these , the better synchronization of information tech and communication tools with public hospital amenities can prove vital in improving life expectancy of the people in this age science and technology .

    • Inspector Kay

      I think u should have also added the general causes of health loss.
      Rest seems perfect to me… I would have also written exactly the same after reading the article.

      • Danish Ranjan

        Well ! I just thought it will make my answer more like statistics as it already is way more stat but I used that much only which will be easy to remember and I thought it will not be that harmful to go into such details because I wonder at exam time how will I write which disease was dominated for which gender and many more complications.

    • Ambalika

      I am not sure if you could remember so much of data and institutions name such as ICMR, lancet, public health foundation, etc in the exam.
      rest is fine but yet can be simplified.

      • Danish Ranjan

        Just used it because it was given in the article though does not matter if I will not be able to remember these names we can always use attributes such as some study stated this or Govt Institution Responsible for Health related matter should do this or that .

        • Kartik

          I agree to the views of Ambalika. Your reply stating “though does not matter if I will not be able to remember these names we can always use attributes ” implied you took this writing not so seriously as you would in the exam hall 🙂 What I want to say is , you can here itself substitute those data. Secondly, what I feel is while writing the INSIGHTS answer, we should avoid time and again looking into the article or reference and putting all the ingredients in the answer. Though the answer should contain good points/data but unnecessary details should be avoided and it can happen only when we write the article in one go after reading the article else you feel like every bit of data is relevant. And unknowingly, you exceed the word limit. Not sure if you noticed or not, you word limit is way too much than specified 200 words. Please treat this as constructive feedback 🙂

          • Danish Ranjan

            I knew of word limit though still I avoided it , just didn’t wanted to trim anything !
            And about the first point , I just included those terms in my answer as it was given in the article , what I am trying to say I will not try to memorize these words but if accidentally I remember those that will be a plus point .Isn’t it ? 🙂 and if not I will just use some constructive method to point to them .

            • Kartik

              Wow…your response forced me to respond again 🙂 Again you statement ” knew of word limit though still I avoided it , just didn’t wanted to trim anything ” suggests your lack of level of commitment towards genuine exam environment. Secondly, if you have written those nitty-gritty details memorizing them, it is excellent but if you have time and again copied those from article , it is of no use. Lastly, my dear friend regarding ” as it was given in the article”, ARTICLE what insights give is not the BIBLE, what you write finally with all good and important points makes it one 🙂

              • Danish Ranjan

                I already said I will not memorize those nitty-gritty details ( as you didn’t notice it in my previous reply ) it covers your “BIBLE point ” while yes there is a lack of commitment towards genuine exam environment because I just started preparing ( 2016 aspirant ) so I am trying to make a habit of writing and in time I will do cover the word-limit too .
                Every person tries its own strategy , not others’ .
                By the way thanks for pointing , I will certainly cover this shortcoming in future .

                • Kartik


  • sridhar

    plz review

    • sridhar

      i am writing after 5 months… i need your help to write good answers ,so friends plzz review

  • ShwethaB

    Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or an organism might live by taking into account the year of birth,their current age,gender.The recent data shows the following trends:
    1.Both men and women life longer now then 1990s ,with an increase of 6.9 years for men and 10.3 years for women from 1990 to 2013.
    2.The life expectancy of women is greater at 59.11 years whereas men it is about 56.52 years.
    3.The most common causes of diseases affecting life expectancy are Isochemic heart disease ,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,lower respiratory track infections,TB,neonatal preterm birth,neck and back pain,road injuries,stoke ,neo natal encelopathy etc.
    4. For most men leading causes of health loss is self harm,stroke,heart disease and for women it is heart disease ,depressive disorders and stroke.Depressive disorders was not a cause in 1990s.
    The data brings about the following trends
    1.Diseases not prevalent in 1990s are finding its way now for example depressive disorders.This can be attributed to complex lifestyles demanding physical and mental labor.Eg sitting in front of computers for long hours .
    2.Increase in life expectancy can be attributed to recent advancements in technology like e medicine,3d printing technology etc
    3.Government schemes like Janani Shishu Suraksha Abhiyan,anganwadi workers,ICDS have made public health care accessible and affordable.
    The life style oriented diseases like heart diseases needs to be check governmental bodies like Ayush,can play an important role further the health has been cited as the major cause leading to debts ,proper patenting regime needs to be kept in place to check affordable healthcare.

    • Ajay Rathod

      Flawless !! the way you connected Gov initatives with this report made this answer perfect..

    • Appa

      Guess you’ve quoted 1990 figures in point 2.

  • siddhartha paul

    Based on demographic factors including sex, date of birth and present age, life expectancy is a measure of how long an individual may live.

    Several findings on life expectancy (le) have been revealed based on recent data:
    – It has increased for both men and women in 2013 compared to 90’s.
    – Life expectancy of women is around 4 yrs more comparative to men.
    – Healthy life expectancy for men and women has also increased from 2009 to 2013 by around 6 and 9 yrs respectively.

    These indicate that the country is developing and public health spending is being utilised plus awareness is also increasing – which are positive indicators for India.

    Other findings include:
    – Most of health losses are caused due to COPD, TB, lower respiratory tract
    infections, back and neck pain, etc.
    – Some older diseases are getting eradicated now like anaemia in men.
    – On the other hand, occurrences of new diseases are found in women now like heart disease, depressive disorders and stroke.

    These are sources of concern since these are found in developed nations and it indicates change of lifestyle vis-à-vis economic development.

    Such reports are becoming an integral part of sustainable development as “human resource” is an important capital of a developed cum adaptive cum sustained nation.

  • Sampat Dash

    Life expectancy Can be defined as the statistical measures of Man or Women Live Based on some demographic measures.

    Based on the Current trends Life Expectancy of Indian has significantly increased from pre-Independence . which was merely 31 Has significantly 64 during current decade. We Were far behind the developed Nations during 1950 where country like USA has 68 as life expectancy.

    But Still we are behind of them as USA has 77 currently

    If we consider the current trend in india between men and women there are significant increase in both the genders and Women are Ahead of men as they have 68 age as expectancy compared to 64 of men.

    compared with 1990 Many of the diseases has changed and Many diseases has been inherited from the developed countries.

    diseases like heart stroke and depression are causing significant impact on life expetancy.

    that has to curbed. we have improved a lot on Healthcare but Many miles to cover.as still some remote area and Tribal areas they Lag behind due to lack of health care.

    primary health center and community health center can also help in increasing these expectancy .

    So finally current trend is inspiring But We have to catch upon the developed nations and May be can also curve the gender differences

  • TGV

    Life Expectancy refers to the average number of years an individual lives. It is affected by the environmental conditions, social opportunities for growth and development and also the health and medical facilities available to individuals.
    The trend of Life expectancy based on the data available from 1990-2013 indicates an increase in Life Expectancy for both men and women. In case of the men, the Life expectancy increased to 64.16 years from 57.25 years in 1990 and for women it increased to 68.48 years from 59.19 years in 1990.

    The environmental conditions have deteriorated caused by pollution of air and water. The immunity levels have declined leading to new causes of health loss which include Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, tuberculosis, neonatal disorders along with stroke and depressive disorders which were absent in 1990s have particularly affected Indian men.

    There has been more awareness of mental health issues and better detection and documentation of depressive disorders in the present times. Consequently, self-harm which was absent in 1990 has become a factor for lowering life expectancy among men.

    Women have been affected by ischemic heart disease along with stroke and depressive disorders. Women health is affected by biological as well as social factors. Poor health during maternal years takes a toll on health and use of smoke emitting chulhas in rural areas cause respiratory problems in women.

    There is a need to focus on providing better quality of life which nourishes an individual mentally as well attending to the physical needs. The environment plays a central role where all individuals live. It is only then can we boast of longer life expectancy when quality of life is also improved.

    • The Failure.

      Your point on environment and respiratory infections is very good. Never thought of that link at all.

    • smile

      nice answer…

  • Ramit

    Life expectancy is a measurement of how long a person may live. Recently according to a study published by the British medical journal The Lancet, people of India now live longer as compared wit 1990 data. In 1990 the figures were 57.25 for men and 59.19 for women which rose to 64.16 and 64.48 respectively in 2013. healthy life expectancy too as increased which is the number of years that a person can expect to live in “full health” by taking into
    account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or
    The top 10 causes of disability-adjusted in both the sexes in India were ischemic heart disease, road accidents, TB, lower neck pain, COPD, lower respiratory tract infections, neonatal pre-term birth, neonatal encephalopathy, diarroeah and strokes. It can be seen that India is transitioning and is inherent the disease that are prevalent in the developed world.
    This increase in life expectancy of the country are mainly due to:
    1. better infiltration of the health benefits of government schemes
    2. more awareness of health issues and better detection
    3. healthy diet
    The following can be done to improve the life expectancy further:
    1. National health assurance mission will give a major boost
    2. contraction of life threatening disease and childhood vaccination through Mission Indradhanush
    3. stringent environmental norms for better control of non-communicable diseases.

  • KC

    The World Health Organization defines life expectancy as the ”average number of years a person is expected to live on the basis of the current mortality rates and prevalence distribution of health states in a population.”

    A Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in the journal The Lancet points out that in the case of India, the life expectancy at birth during the period 1990 to 2013 had increased for both men and women.Life expectancy increased by 6.9 years to 64.16 for men and 10.3 years to 68.48 for women between 1990 and 2013.

    For men, the leading causes of health loss are self-harm, ischemic heart disease and stroke and for women the leading causes are ischemic heart disease , depressive disorders , and stroke .

    This increase in life expectancy can be attributed to-

    1.Better immunization of children

    2.Prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, maternal and neonatal disorders

    3. More awareness of mental health issues and their better detection

    4.Supply of clean drinking water

    5.Family planning has helped to ensure balanced diet to children

    But it is unacceptable that tuberculosis continues to be among the top five leading causes of disease burden in India in 2013, as it was 25 years ago. Though preventable, road injuries is a major concern and one that predominantly affects men in the working and productive age group. Also, diseases that were earlier seen only in the developed countries are increasingly being seen in India today.

    • The Failure.

      Your point on TB is top notch.

    • MIP

      Nice answer

    • yashi

      Nice answer

    • Asim kumar

      Well attempted,review mine

  • The Failure.

    Measurement of Life expectancy data towards determining HDI is evidence of its importance as a statistic. Life expectancy defines itself as the average number of years a citizen of a nation is expected to live. This average has been prennially increasing through the ages, showing our technological growth, specifically in health care. The recent publication from Lancet, a British medical journal puts India’s present life expectancy of men at 64.16 years and women at 64.5 years.

    It is pertinent to note that the report states ischemic heart disease as the primary cause of death among both sexes. Furthermore, self harm and iron deficient anaemia, which were causes for men in the 1990s, no longer demand attention. For the women, depressive disroders has been seen as a huge cause for health loss. The positive of that statistic is that the stigma associated with mental ilnesses is decreasing in India and are being treated more openly. The negative of that statistic is that, our social environmental problems, like dowry harrasment, preference of male child, have attributed to the high stress that women face and fall into depression. Hence the Disease burden study planned by ICMR needs to include a special factor for the psyche of a human, especially in states like Haryana and UP for women, and in barren land regions like Vidarbha for men, owing to the high farmer suicides in the area. Though we may rejoice at the increase in our life expectancy and celebrate our growth, an increasing number of psychological disorders is big reason to worry, and the nation needs to address this swiftly.

    Grossly exceeded the word limit. Please review though.

  • Appa

    Life expectancy refers to the average number of years a person is expected to live factoring in year of birth, current age and other demographic aspects.

    Following trends are visible from recent data:

    1. Increased life expectancy: Over the years, life expectancy has grown in India aided by better living conditions, economic development and diagnostic facilities. It is greater for women (68 yrs from 59 in 1990) than men (64 from 57 years in 1990).

    Corresponding healthy life expectancy i.e. years without any major ailment has increased to 56 years and 59 years for men and women.

    2. Disease burden: has increased in its extent. The occurence of non-communicable diseases is gradually increasing – heart disease, respiratory ailments, TB, neonatal disorders being primary culprits.

    3. Changed disease mix: Diseases like iron deficiency no longer figure prominently among men like they did in 1990 which can be attributed to better nutrition levels.

    Same can be said of depressive disorder for women which accounted for minor share in 1990. Better detection, documentation and awareness can be reason behind.

    The data highlights the need to gradually shift focus from communicable to non-communicable diseases by promoting better lifestyle, increased surveillance and R&D into causative agents. A fresh survey on state-wise disease burden is needed further to tackle the disease at local level.

  • Ank2016

    Life expectancy is a statistical measurement of how long a person is expected
    to live based on his year of birth, current age and other demographic factors
    like gender.

    The recent data on life expectancy has showed that both Indian men and women now tends to live longer by almost a decade than in 1990. The life expectancy among women has increased more than their male counterpart. This may be the outcome of successive government schemes focusing on children; adolescent girls; pregnant and lactating mothers like Integrated and Child development schemes. On the other side, India is transitioning and inheriting new diseases like High Blood Pressure and obesity from the developing world.

    The increase in life expectancy is a positive indicator and there is an equal need to focus on other health indices like underweight and stunted growth. An all round development could only lead to India successively utilizing its demographic dividend.

  • Sumant K.

    Life expectancy is the average years a person is expected to live in a particular region from his birth. We can also call it ‘average lifespan of a person in a particular region’. For example life expectancy in India was 66.2 Years in 2012.

    Life expectancy depends on various factors like healthcare services available to the people, quality and adequacy of diet, immunization level etc. If a country provides better healthcare services and better immunization of its citizens from different diseases then life expectancy in that country will be high.

    Trend of life expectancy for men and women in India :-

    1. Life expectancy of men and women in India has been increasing steadily in our country since independence. Life expectancy was mere 48 in 1980 which has increased to 66.2 years in 2012.

    2. Life expectancy of women is more than men in India.

    #145 Words
    अगर मैं इस answer को mains मे भी लिख रहा होता तो इससे ज्यादा नही लिख पाता/

  • Roshan

    Life expectancy can be defined as the average period a person can expect to live. The recent study shows that the life expectancy has increased for both men and women. For men it is around 64 years while for women it’s 68 years. Development of medicine and health care facilities and the active involvement of the government with health related schemes are the main reasons for this increase in life expectancy. Certain life threatening diseases of the 90s no longer pose any serious threat. However it has been seen that Indians have started inheriting diseases that are usually seen in the developed countries. Besides diseases like Ischemic heart disease, stroke etc are still a point of concern.
    The government needs to do a proper study of diseases state wise and allocate funds accordingly to tackle these diseases. Government hospitals and health care centres should be upgraded to keep up with the changing pattern of diseases. Focus should also be given to mental health to fight diseases related with depression. Awareness about proper nutrition should also be on the governments agenda.

  • rajan

    Life expectancy refers to the average age upto which a person is expected to lice, at the time of his/her birth. The following analysis can be made

    1. Change across time – The life exectancy has made a steady progress. It increased from a no in 30s after independence to around 66 as per the 2011 census.
    Reasons- Steady increase in public health expenditure in absoulute terms , growth of technology to cure diseases, and decrease in poverty rates

    2. Regional Change – Unsurprisingly, states like Kerala which, in spite of lower economic growth, spend the most on social security schemes fare the best. At the same time even the richer states like Gujarat, where public expenditure is less, lag behind

    3. Variation according to gender- It has been found that women all across the world and not just India live longer than men. This was reaffirmed by the census data of 2011, which placed the life expectancy of women 4 years greater than men’s
    Possible reasons- Traditionally, men have been involved much more in the activities which require greater physical labour, and hence are generally risky and dangerous.

    While the increase in life expectancy has definitely been a positive change, it still lags far behind countries like Japan and Israel where people live approximately 20 years more. At the same time, increase in age, is a reminder that the state needs to prepare itself to take care of the vulnerable elderly population, whose population is bound to grow

    • Asim kumar

      rajan,analysis of trends should be ur focus,women are genetically stronger than men,other points are good,review mine

    • Sudanita Sanchez

      Please analyse mine

  • Ambalika

    Life expectancy is defined as the number of years a normal healthy
    person is expected to live. There are number of factor that affects life
    expectancy such as proper food and nutrition, timely availability and
    affordability of basic and advanced health services, maternal and child care,
    sanitation, access to water and healthy environment and so on.
    Trends in life expectancy
    – Life expectancy in India has improved much with respect to 1990s level, both for men and women. It used to be around 50 years but is now 65-70 years, a considerable improvement. This was possible because of several governmental initiatives, education and awareness among the people about good health.
    – Ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis and neonatal disorders cause most health loss.
    – For men, most leading cause for health loss are self harm, ischemic heart disease and stroke.
    – For women also ischemic heart disease is one of the leading cause along with depressive disorders (DD).
    – For women where anemia used to be one of leading health loss cause(HLC) is not so anymore while DD and strokes are the new HLC.
    – India has inherited some disease seen in developed countries especially with regard to lifestyle diseases like obesity, diabetes, etc.

    • Asim kumar

      The first part is trends and rest are analysis,use headings wisely,others are good,review mine

      • Ambalika

        sure. will keep that in mind.. thanks for reviewing 🙂

  • Asim kumar

    Please review

    • Danish Ranjan

      You should show how more future improvement can come in health service thereby improving life-expectancy . It should be a short-one , visiting several methods separated by comma and all in one line within your conclusion part .

      • Asim kumar

        OK I will keep it in mind,thanks for review

    • Kartik

      Your answer looks fine to me. In the last stanza, you gave a general picture regarding the reasons that helped to increase life expectancy and then again narrowed down to reasons why women have more life expectancy than men. I think somehow you could have skipped second set of reasons and included the points asked for by Danish for more future improvement. If still word limits allowed, then you could have very well added those second set of reasons. Overall, your answer is nice.

      • +1 on that last stanza ..
        he could have skipped that..

        and the reasons in point could have been better and please do underline..

    • QCA

      nice attempt Asim.

  • Wolverine

    The Statistical measure of how long a person or an organism may live, based on their Year of Birth, current age and other demographic factors including Gender. The recent data on Life expectancy has shown on improvement on the 1990 data, coincided with the development of the country.

    –Life Expectancy of Men–

    It has increased due to —

    — An Increase in Healthcare services.

    –Less occurence of Wars.

    –Improvement in Education leadig to low falling for various resporatory, lifestyle and sexually transmitted diseases.

    It can be further improved by–

    –Reducing the acts of Self harm for Men.

    –Reducing the cases of Stroke and Ischemic Heart Diseases and Road Accidents.

    –Life Expectancy of Women–

    Has Increased due to —

    –Reduction in Strokes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonatory Disease (COPD) etc.

    –Better Healthcare services.

    –A Significant improvement in Education leadin to low life-style and sexually transmitted diseases.

    –It can be further improved by–

    –Reducing Maternal Mortality Rate.

    –Improving the lifestyle by making exercises a part of it.

    –Reducing female infanticide in States like Haryaa.

    —-Though, the Life Expectancy increased significantly, especially for Women. Some new diseases have arrived i India which continue to pose threat. Hence, instead of becoming complacent by the recent data, we should be judicious and keep making improvements in the field of Life Expectancy.

  • Mahinder

    Life expectancy measure how long, on an average, a person is expected to live based on the current age and sex specific death rate i.e it gives a probable number of years a person likely to live from his current age. Most commonly it is used for the defining the average number of years a new born child expected to live.

    Recently the life expectancy for both men and women in India, has been gone up from 57 yrs and 59 yrs in 1990 to 64 yrs and 68 yrs in 2013 respectively, and we can clearly observe the increase is more in the life expectancy of women.

    Since the life expectancy depend on lifestyle, diet, access to health care etc thus an increase in life expectancy indicates an increase in the healthy life of person, and in recent survey it has been found the healthy life expectancy too has increased.

    This trend not only signify the improved health and life aspect but a positive efforts towards women empowerment. Also if we are be able to design a sound National Health policy, we can eradicate the top health problem like ischemic heart disease, TB, neonatal pre-term birth, neonatal encephalopathy, diarrhea, stroke etc and thus maximize the life expectancy

  • Vijay

    Life expectancy refers to the number of years a person will live after birth. This is a parameter which reflects the health standards of the population of any country. Higher life expectancy reflects healthier population, developed nature of country and prosperous environment.

    Recently 2011 Census data has revealed the figures of life expectancy. Life expectancy for man has increased to 64 years in 2013 compared to 57 years in 1990. Similarly life expectancy has increase for women from 59 to 68 years during the same duration.

    Healthy life expectancy has also increased and women gets to live more healthy life than men.

    However census data reveals some worrying facts also. Many new diseases have been made responsible for killing men and women which didn’t figure in 1990 survey. Men are mostly killed by heart disease, stroke and self harm. Self harm was not included in 1990 list. Similary major death causes for women include heart diseases, strokes and mental health disorders. Strokes and mental health disorders were not included in 1990 list.

    Thus it clearly reveals increase in lifestyle related diseases and other diseases which were more heard to in western nations. Thus census data provides a timely reminder to us to take immediate steps to change our lifestyles and adopt healthier pratices, yoga and other exercises to lead a better and healthier lives.

  • Subhash Rabindra Jha

    I have tried answering the question in a paragraph manner. I have also tried answering the second half of the question in a tabular fashion. Please refer the image.

  • Subhash Rabindra Jha

    Answering the second half of the question in a tabular form may also be explored. I believe it leads to a more lucid illustration to the points (easier to read as well). Please have a read and kindly suggest improvements.

    • IAS GOI

      It is good, moreover if you are able to recall these many points in the exam it is well and good otherwise make a generalised list also. Given the paucity of time in the hall it becomes really difficulty to recall these. I have been through that phase hence suggesting. Take it positively 🙂

      • Subhash Rabindra Jha

        Thank you for the review. Points well taken. Will surely keep in mind.

        Kindest Regards,



    Life expectancy at birth(LEB) is a measure of the average number of years a person
    is expected to live given that the prevailing social, medical, technological
    and mortality conditions remain same. A number of factors contribute in
    determining the life expectancy of the population of a particular geographical
    area and geological era.

    India has witnessed an increasing trend in the life expectancy of both males
    and females.

    The reasons for the same can be analyzed as follows:

    Changes in social conditions-> Indian society has changed manifold as compared to
    1970’s- 80’s. Society has become more open to both preventive and
    diagnostic methods which were earlier considered as demeaning.
    Census 2011 shows a clear decline in the premature deaths due to sexually transmitted diseases( STD’s)
    especially for women.

    Advancement in field of medical sciences-> This has been one of the significant factors in
    contributing to decline of the LEB. The field has provided solutions to
    make diseases which were thought to be incurable in the last century.
    Advancement in the field of gene therapy even provide potential of
    detecting and curing pre birth defects which increases the chances of

    Increased human development index( HDI)-> Increased HDI has a strong correlation with the LEB of
    the population.

    Role of government programs-> Concerted efforts like Integrated child development schemes
    (ICDS), Indira matritya sahyog yojana , Human Immunization program, pulse polio campaign etc,
    have played a crucial role in reducing premature death rates.

    Growth of agriculture sector-> India becoming self reliant in agriculture sector is one of
    the most critical factors leading decrease in malnutrition and premature death because of increased availability of food to
    larger proportion of population in the country.

    Though increasing LEB is positive sign but recent data also shows newer potential risk
    factors that needs to be tackled.
    Diseases like pulmonary arrests, diabetes, obesity related disorders are increasingly
    taking a heavy toll on Indian human capital. Changing lifestyle also been one
    of the reasons for this increase. Also disease burden increases with LEB and
    hence now the pondering question should be:
    “It is true that we will live longer but how healthy our lives would

  • yogesh

    Life expectancy: Life Expectancy is defined as the average number of years a person is expected to live on the basis of the current mortality rates and prevalence distribution of health states in population.
    ¤ Recent data shows that life expectancyincreased for both women and men.
    ¤ Life expectancy increased by 6.9 years for men and 10.3 year for women.
    ¤ In 2013 life expectancy stood at 64.16 for men against 57.25 in 1990 and for women 68.48 in 2013 against 59.19 in 1990.
    ¤ Life expectancy for both women and men has been increasing since previous decades due to immutization and nutrition, coupled with prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
    ¤ Also there is a trend of higher life expectancy for women than men because female harmones and role of women in reproduction have been linked to greater longevity. Estrogen, for example facilitates the elimination of bad cholestrol and thus offer some protection against heart disease.
    ¤ Recent data also shows that Ischemic heart disease, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lower respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis and neonatal disorders, and self harm also caused the most health loss.
    ¤ This higher increase in life expectancy is achieved by disease contol and life threatening diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough have been eliminated completely.
    ¤ India has also been recently declared a polio free nation.

    This higher life expectancy is the result of efforts of medical science and technology which is helpful in eliminating most of the diseases and creating a nation with healty life expectancy. For higher life expectancy healthy diet, hygine and disease control play a very important role.

    • yogesh

      this is my first attempt guys.. pls review..

  • Shashank Shahi

    Life expectancy define two things about the country one from internal citizens point of view and second international pint of view about other country’s different parameter related to health , medicine and gender gap graph. And its help to understand where one country is lacking in health index , human development and gender gap parameter comparing to other European , Asian , and American country in 21st century.
    – Life expectancy shows about country’s minimum age living capacity of one country in total average. Is it possible that in india few states have high percentage of decaling population example Nagaland and few states have low decaling rate for example Maharashtra.
    – Life expectancy also show how far a country had improved themselves in medical , health awareness , and treatment facility in every year compare to past.
    – Life expectancy show government policy toward human development index and how much is government is sensitive toward this issue and its how much government and government hospital have to improve themselves in everyday increasing population.
    – In India life expectancy is 68 years. But when it compare to other European country like Norway and England or Netherlands its steel low which have life expectancy more than 79 year. Its show how much India is still lack in providing medical facility to its rural population. In 2001 where women compare to man was 931 to 1000 male rose to in 2015 to 936 female on 1000 male. Growth is slow but little improvement shows good and positive indicator toward future. But we think in coming year life expectancy will going to improve and many initiative of government like advertisement awareness about cleanness and health awareness advertisement campaign will going to create health awareness in rural side uneducated citizen of India who don’t have knowledge about health awareness.
    Life expectancy also have different parameter its not same for both man and women in india and its also differ comparing to city life and village life of man – women and also physical structure of man & women.
    City life –
    In city life like Mumbai , delhi , Chennai , bengluru , lucknow the gap between man and women life expectancy don’t have a higher gap. In city life medical facility and availability of doctor are easily available for man and women. But due to fast life , pollution and easily available traveling facility create health issue due to lack of fitness and high food obesity. health issue like BP , heart issue , cancer , diabetes. More man die because of this health problem. But when its come to women life expectancy is not only decide on the basis of health , economic and medical facility but emotional and happy family environment also play’s important role. In recent data its found that women are the highest number in suicide killing and pachim bengla recorded the highest number of women suicide case , dowry murder , depression , domestic violence play the more major role in life expectancy of women where you can’t improve the situation of life expectancy of women only one the basis of medical and health care point of view but here you have to also check society point of view toward women and how we (society) have to solve this issue. And due to these parameter and on the recent survey women have high death rate compare to man.
    Village life.
    Life expectancy in rural life is different compare to city life. Here man and women they both face the day to day life challenge.
    – Medical facility not easily available to villager and for good facility or treatment they have to travel close city which some time or most of the time due to late treatment villager died on way toward hospital.
    – Recent data shows women are involved in more hard work in village in farm work compare to man. Due to this issue its create negative health impact on women health.
    – Negative impact toward women is still the main issue in india for state like Haryana and Punjab have the lowest rate of female compare to man Punjab – 836 female to 1000 male and Haryana – 831 female to 1000 male. 1st preference to son is creating huge loss to female birth rate is they survive then their health issue don’t taken seriously and its also one of the major Couse of female low life expectancy.
    Female structure of women –
    – Female are not strong when its come to physical body structure. Women give girth man don’t. Its the biggest different between man and women. Here women are at more at risk to lose life while giving birth to child. And child is also have the risk to lose life if timely medical facility are not reached to women.
    – Many disease which are only vulnerable to women like breast cancer , after pregnancy disease are also one of the reason of life expectancy gap between man and women.
    Medicine mafia –
    – In day to day its increasing problem is also the one of the major threat to society. If people reached to hospital they get expired medicine for treatment which create major health problem and most of the time kill most of the people. For example country like Pakistan and African country like sudan , hati , Nigeria people died due to expired medicine use.
    – Village and rural population don’t to know how to read the expire date on medicine and they trust blind faith on doctor and chemist.

  • sri

    1)life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person may live based on the year of birth,current age and others demographic factors including gender.it is considered to be a important measure for constructing human development index.
    Bsed on the recent data published in the british journal-lancet,life expectancy has been improved greatly for women than men(10.3yrs-women&6.9yrs-men).the common factors that causes health disorders are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,anaemia etc.Life expectancy trend for women is improved far because the reasons for health loss is not from the top 10 causes.But for the men,the contributors are from the top 10 causes as said above except anaemia eradicated copletly in india in 2013.Although there has been an improvement there are certain things we have to be prepared of,they were considered to be new reasons for health loss(stroke and depressive disorder).So in order to tackle this government is planning for disease burden study at state level.

    • sri

      review plz sir

  • Leiter The Leader

    What do you understand by Life Expectancy? Based on recent data, analyse life expectancy trends for men and women in India.
    Life expectancy means the average number of years that a person is expected to live.India’s life expectancy has increased over a period of time i.e 32 at the time of independence to 66 in 2012.

    The recent data has shown that Life expectancy has increased from 57.25 to 64.16 and women by 59.19 to 68.48 registering a increase of 6.9 years and 10.3 years respectively.

    The following reasons throws some light on why women live longer than men:

    1.Men usually engage in dangerous jobs,which women often resist.
    2.Women generally do all household work,so no separate exercise is needed.This will help a lot in breathing and blood circulation in old age,whereas men take rest after post retirement usually suffer from all health diseases due to his inactivity.
    3.Men’s alcohol drinking and cigarettes smoking is usually more when compared to women.Hence prone to all health diseases.
    4.A study show that men commit more suicide,when compared with Women.

    Even though there is sense of accomplishment about the improvement in our life expectancy,we are far behind World Life expectancy.i.e 71 years.Government should create a healthy environment to its citizens providing access to clean air,water and proper sanitation facilities and at the same individuals should take care about their fitness and diet.With combined effort of government and Individuals we will soon achieve world life expectancy in India.

    • Kartik

      “Historically, women have lived longer than men, due to various biological and psychological advantages. But due to the recent change in lifestyle of women, when they are trying to balance home and work life, they are also suffering from, what were once categorized as men’s diseases.”..Just in case it is of use to you ! Copied from the writer Rupi23 below.

      • Leiter The Leader

        Will use it..Thanks

  • sri

    2)The industries location are mostly influenced by geographical and non geographical factors.The geographical factors include transport,labour,rawmaterials etc while non geographical factors are capital, policies etc.the textile industry is mainly labour intensive that too it involves large employment generation during cotton seed production.The positive factors that arise from the textile industry being a good initiative in make in india program are it has the largest potential to boost the make in india campaign.it has more favourable geographical and non geographical factors favouring the textile industries which can be great growth ncontributor to the textile industry.The negative factors are already we have a good development in this sector from history so it needs less attention. and it develops in a slow phase since more mechanisation cannot be introduced in to this sector. and moreover there occurs a shifiting of industries towards tribal areas

  • IFS

    review plz

  • Cindrella Man

    Life expectancy (LE) is the average period that a person may expect to live. It is average number of years that is likely to be lived by a group of individuals exposed to the same mortality conditions.

    Recent data on Life Expectancy in India (Study published in the British medical journal The Lancet)

    SexLE (HLE) in 1990LE (HLE) in 2013Men57 (50)64 (60)Women59 (50)68 (59)

    Some of the observations made in the study are in keeping with the development of the country in fields such as healthcare services & nutritional security, education, among others.

    1. There is a significant increase in LE between 1990 & 2013.

    2. Women live four years longer than men in India.

    3. Top 10 leading causes of health loss for both sexes are- ischemic heart disease, COPD, TB, lower respiratory tract
    infections, neonatal pre-term birth, neonatal encephalopathy, diarrhoea, stroke, road-injuries & low back and neck pain.

    4. Self-harm, one of the leading causes of health loss in men between 1990 & 2013, implies men are facing psychological
    problems such as depression, anxiety disorders.

    5. Along with ischemic heart disease, depression & strokes were listed as top leading causes of health loss in women. It may
    be attributed to rising awareness of mental health issues, better detection & documentation.

    Ensuring healthy eating environment in public places & reducing intake of salt, implementing WHO’s recommendations on marketing of food will go a long way in reducing heart diseases & strokes. Dairrhoea-which kills more than 50000 children each
    year- listed among the top 10 causes of health loss indicates that sanitation was not given its due importance in public health policy. Low back & neck pain is due to sedentary lifestyle can be overcome by yoga. Increasing the coverage of antenatal care from existing 50%, avoiding teenage pregnancies are need of the hour to improve upon Neonatal Mortality Rate. Swatch Bharat
    Abhiyan, Government’s initiatives on Yoga, among others play a decisive role in achieving higher LE & Healthy Life Expectancy in the coming years.

  • Shreyas

    Life Expectancy is the number of years a person is expected to live, which is calculated with following parameters:
    1. Accessibility to Medical Facility.
    2. Quality & Quantity of food.
    3. Literacy.
    4. Pollution.
    5. HDI.

    As per latest data:
    1. Life
    expectancy of men has increased from 57 to 64, whereas for women it’s risen
    from 59 to 68.
    2. Life
    expectancy has increased by 6.9 years for men and 10.3 years for women.
    3. Healthy life expectancy also increases for both men (from 50.07 in 1990 to 56.52 in 2013) & women (from 50.15 to 59.11).
    4. Heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis (TB) and neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, stroke, road injuries, and low back and neck pain are the main cause of health loss.

    Following are the reasons for increase in life expectancy:

    1. Iron-deficiency anemia no longer a cause for men, along with Self-harm also not in top 10 list of main cause.
    2. Awareness about mental health issues among women shows up, which reduces depressive disorders.
    3. Stroke also got less significant in recent year among women, which was list in the main cause of 1990.
    4. As the country developing so the life expectancy also increasing.
    5. Better health planning, policy framing and fund allocation for the study of diseases & its pattern at state level.
    6. Early alertness to citizen over major diseases and its risk factors to city & village.
    7. Preparedness with precautionary measure to face the seasonal & migrated diseases.

    • sreekanth

      nicely written with apt statistics 🙂

  • Cindrella Man

    Hi, please review my answer.. I am new here.. is that correct analysis of recent data?

  • hemant

    expectancy is defined as the average life of a human being in years. Recent
    study by British Medical Journal launcet in India has indicated that Life
    Expectancy for men and women have increased by 6.9 and 10.3 years respectively
    from 1990 to 2013. It shows that women lives 4 more years than men. Presently
    it is 64.16 and 68.48 for men and women respectively.

    Health life expectancy is also increased by
    6.45 years and 8.96 years for men and women respectively during the same

    The main reason for health loss among men
    are self-harm along with heart problem, strokes among which the former is
    observed lately. Where as in women, reasons are heart ailments, depression,
    strokes among which the later two are observed lately.

    More awareness, better detection and
    documentation can also be said to be the reasons for these ailments to appear
    in the list.

    These trends may be a result of high
    corporate pressure among men and women, work-life misbalance, lifestyle diseases
    being major reasons among them.

    It seems that we are inheriting them from
    west and therefore better planning is required to assess the situation to know
    major diseases and prevent them.

  • Arshad

    Life expectancy is number of years a person lives.Life expectancy has shown a positive trends in the last two decades owing to the improvement in health care services and sanitation.

    Life expectancy during the colonial times was very low.Lack of health service,poor sanitation,famines and wars were some reasons for the low numbers.The colonial policy of economic drain had a great impact on the health of the people.

    Post-independence there was emphasis on the self-reliance and a socialist economy which helped to improve the life expectancy gradually over a period of time.

    Post- the economy reform in 1991, paved the way to private sector entry into the health sector and greater emphasis over the sanitation,drinking water and research in the medical field,green revolution etc help to improve the overall condition of the health and food security.

    In the present times, the initiatives like “Swatch Bharat” and promotion of the “yoga” will help in improving the health of the citizens .All the health initiative will be success only when they are citizen-centric and here is people participation.

    However,in the recent times there has been shift in the lifestyle of the citizen especially in urban.Some of the diseases prevalent in the Western countries have been migrating to India owing to the fast paced life.

    India has long way to travel to achieve excellence in the health sector.Promoting spirituality ,yoga and meditation will help immensely in making India a health and prosperous country.

  • Ankush

    Life expectancy is a statistical measure a person is going to live based on the current age and sex. Normally life expectancy is calculated at birth using statistical tools such as Life Table based on various parameters including sex specific death rates.

    India has shows considerable improvement in its life expectancy figures wrt to 1990 levels. With life expectancy of about 64 years in men and 68 years in women, as in 2013, India stands much higher with most of the African countries and but few south Asian countries. Countries like Srilanka, China, Brazil stand much higher than India.

    Among men, major causes of health loss remains self injury and heart related disease. This can be attributed not only due to improved data reporting and collection but also to rising difficulties due to current lifestyle and pollution levels. Many diseases which were not reported till the last decade of 20th century have taken important place in the current list.

    In women, major causes of health loss are heart related disorders and depression. Women face higher difficulties in carrying out their responsibility due to our societal structure and customs. Concerted effort by the government and other stakeholders towards providing women centric healthcare services have generated significant improvement in life expectancy among women vis a vis men.

    On the one hand, improvement in life expectancy corroborate the fact that healthcare services have improved along with overall economic development in the country, slower improvement and lower figures than other developing countries in south Asia and BRICS nations reminds us to renew our efforts towards providing inclusive health care services to all sections of society particularly women.

  • nicksyna

    Life expectancy is the statistical average of how many years a person may live based on the year of his birth, demographic factors, gender etc. In India it has increased to almost 64 years for men and 68 for women, whereas the healthy life is only 56 for men and 59 for women.

    For many developed countries this age is even higher than India, which shows that even though we have improved but still there is a long way to go and there are chances for improvement. The main reason for illness is the addiction to alcohol cigarettes etc. or too much consumption of junk food and over diet leading to obesity which further leads to chronic heart disease, lack of exercise etc.

    With new schemes like Indradhanush, National Health Mission etc. the life expectancy will further increase, plus awareness campaign must be launched to let people know about benefits of a healthy life style and ill effects of alcohol and cigarette consumption out of which the later leads to cancer. Weekly or monthly a marathon or yoga camp must be launched by local administrator to encourage people for a healthy life all over India.

  • Sitender Choudhary

    Life expectancy is the average years a person is going to be lived and its estimated at the time of birth. Life expectancy has been improved over the years in India and across the world. At the time of independence life expectancy in India was around 33 years but has been improved to about 66 years in 2012. This trend of improving the status is the indication of :
    1. Improved health facilities and reach to the grass root level
    2. Greater participation of people
    3.Positive results of government initiated schemes
    3.Rise in the level of nutrition and awareness about health.
    4.Check on epidemics and drought induced deaths.
    5.Development of medical science, Education system and basic infrastructure facilities.
    6. Overall improvement of GDP and globalization.
    Life expectancy in women is more than men in India due to many reasons including biological adaptations, work culture and food habits etc.
    Rise in life expectancy is the direct indication of a nation’s health and productive population. Despite gradual increase if it, India is far behind as compared to developed nations. So, Robust steps need to be taken to improve it in the form of health delivery system, child and maternal mortality, basic infrastructure and adopting digital technology are some of them.

  • Sitender Choudhary

    i wrote an answer here. It is not shown here now. Where has it gone?

  • Sudanita Sanchez

    Life expectancy of a given population is equivalent to the average number of years an individual in the population is expected to stay alive.
    Thus, it serves as a measure of the health and life prospects of a population.
    The higher the life expectancy at birth, greater are the chances of survival of an individual born in that population. However an individual may live shorter or longer depending upon ones own life style choices and other extraneous and independent factors like environment and genetics.

    In India, at the time of Indepedence, the life expectancy was very low owing to lack of access to health and medical facilities and extremely high birth and death rates.
    For both the sexes the life expectancy at birth was somewhere around 31, although the immediate causes for such a low figure differed. In women, it was due to the low nutrition and high susceptibility to death, both pre and post natal.

    Over the years, as the nation progressed, the health and medical facilities improved, and birth and death rates both cam under control. As a consequence the life expectancy started improving gradually and reached the half century mark around 1980.
    Thereafter it has been continuously and consistently improving and most recently has been hovering around the 65 years mark for both the sexes. This figure is encouraging and tends to move closer to that observed in the more developed countries with higher incomes and growth prospects.
    The government through awareness drives and welfare schemes has played a great role in this development in the field of health and must be commended.

  • lebowski

    Life expectancy refers to the number of years a newborn is expected to live. Healthy life expectancy on the other hand refers to how many years a newborn is expected to live free of disease or disability i.e in a ‘healthy’ state. Both of these are direct indicators of the state of public health in a nation and as such, reflects the level of socio-economic development attained in the country.

    India has shown an improving trend as far as life expectancy is concerned. As compared to 1990, the life expectancy has increased by around 7 yrs for men and 10 yrs for women in 2013. Though increase in life expectancy is a natural corollary to socio economic development, India is lagging behind global life expectancy of around 68 yrs for males and 73 yrs for females by around 4 yrs for both and needs to do more to address this deficit. The life expectancies in many developed countries is above 80 yrs.

    As far as healthy life expectancy is concerned, it has gone up by around 6 yrs for men and 9 yrs for women in 2013. However 8-10 yrs are still affected by disease. The greatest health loss b/w 1990-2013 in men was due to ischemic heart disease,self harm and stroke. The reasons for the same period for women include, ischemic heart disease, depression and stroke. For both the sexes combined, infectious disease still are a major cause for loss of healthy years.

    the increase in prevalence of lifestyle or non communicable diseases like ischemic heart disease is alarming and will further stretch our preventive health system. Factors like self harm, depression may be due to increased reporting of such cases which is a welcome step but stresses the need for a robust mental health framenwork. The continued presence of infectious diseases remains a cause of worry. Increased public spending of health, awareness programmes for lifestyle modification and striving for open defecation free environment along with clean drinking water for all are the need of the hour to decrease morbidity and enhance quality of living in our country,

  • akshayp

    Life expectancy is the number of years a normal person can expect to live after birth.
    Women have historically had higher life expectancy than men due to inherent advantages. However this gap is reducing now due to better healthcare facilities.
    Life expectancy in India is around 70 for a person who has access to reasonably good medical facilities. The govermnent’s attempts to provide universal healthcare have improved life expectancy for the poor too.
    Within urban areas, men and women have nearly the same life expectancy. This is due to superior healthcare facilities that both groups enjoy. However increasing stress in urban lifestyles is contributing to morbidity and increase in the disease burden.

  • Madhav Kamble

    writing for first time…may seem childish…please review