1) Analyse the interrelationship between poverty and migration in India.

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TopicPoverty and developmental issues

1) Analyse the interrelationship between poverty and migration in India. (200 Words)

The Hindu


  • siddhartha paul

    India is a rainfed country & more than 50% of the population is agriculture dependent.
    In this condition whenever there is shortfall in monsoon or crop failure or impact of climatic change, people depended directly or indirectly on agriculture is bound to be affected.

    The basic requirements of a rural family – subsistence, nutrition, education and healthcare – are not met merely by Govt. schemes like MNREGS or food subsidy. These are complementary to their regular source of income from agri – products.

    Hence in case of disruption to their regular source of income they search for alternatives and bondage child labourers or trafficking is the easiest and the most lucrative of all since it provides easy and continuous money for the family.
    The recent busts of similar trafficking rackets are example to this.

    The govt need to enrich programmes like MNREGS – by linking them to local infrastructure development and higher pay so that the menace of poverty can be arrested thereby putting control on migration.

    • Gaurav Nagpal

      good answer siddhart need to work on structure alittle bit

      plz review mines

      • siddhartha paul

        yeah all my ans lack this str. but I am nt able to do it…….can u explain a bit more plz ….n thank u fr reviewing

        • Gaurav Nagpal

          every issue can be divided into two structures 1.intro 2. body 3.cpnclusion so try writing in these points secondly each issue have several implication but major are just 4 or 5 economic ,social politics,geographic try to frame ur answer onj these lines the structure will automatically come keep writing thanks for reveiing man

          • siddhartha paul

            that wz a grt suggestion……thank u dude…..plz keep reviewing

    • Kanak Sharma

      Simple and good answer. Nice approach.
      Review mine please.

      • siddhartha paul

        thank u…plz keep reviewing

  • siddhartha paul

    plz review

  • Sepoy No 1446

    Poverty is deeply related to unemployment. Unemployment leads to migration in search of better livelihood conditions. The inter-relationship should be seen considering these three factors.

    India remains primarily an agrarian society with more than 50% of its population dependent on Agriculture. Not all of them are suitable employed. At the same time, cities show invariably a peculiar income inequality which is extensively visible in slums, footpaths and refugee camps. With these two distinct features there are two types of migration that can be identified:

    1.Intra-nation migration: Here country people migrate to cities, generally. The outward migration of people from UP,Bihar,Jharkhand to places like Mumbai,Punjab,Haryana,Gurgaon,Pune,Delhi etc can be cited. This is a poverty-driven, employment seeking migration. Thus intra-nation migration is mostly rural-urban in nature. There is a reverse migration (urban-rural) also, but it is more of aesthetic and has little to do with poverty.

    2.International migration: This is also dominated by rural-international migration shown by a large diaspora in middle east and gulf countries namely Oman,Saudi Arabia,Iraq,Kuwait,Dubai etc. But here more diversity is seen. People belonging to relatively better conditions are also moving. Nurses from Kerala and Masonries from UP-Bihar form a big chunk of immigrants in middle east countries.

    Both the movements are occasioned by better prospects of livelihood. Hence programmes like MNREGA,PMKVY,USTAAD and Skill India aim to create livelihood conditions here itself. This will have a significant impact on migration phenomenon in coming days.

    • anvit

      1)International migration is not due to poverty, how about migration from remote areas to better village , why city only.
      2) In Conclusion we could add poverty alleviation schemes also – NFSA , PDS , ICDS etc
      1950-60 – growth and development oriented approach (trickle down)
      1960 – Work and self employment
      1990 – Loans , Self help groups

  • MSI

    Ans: Migration is the movement of people between two distant locations. It is going on for centuries and is a proof of dynamic nature of human beings. There are multiple push and pull factors causing migration. All these factors have their genesis in livelihood security.

    Livelihood security i.e. ability to enjoy descent standard of life on sustained basis is intrinsically linked with the economic and social abilities. Poverty is the absence of these abilities and hence a root cause of migration in India.

    Poverty cripples the ability of individual to survive. From food, water, medicine, home to other needs like education, leisure etc all becomes a distant dream for poor. This generates a push factor and the willingness to migrate. But poverty alone is not sufficient to generate migration. There has to be a comparatively prosperous region to migrate to. This prosperous region generates a pull factor as livelihood security is better assured there with less amount of effort.

    In India regions of U.P. and Bihar with scare employment opportunities have widespread poverty and act as source region while Gujarat, Mumbai etc with its prosperity act as destinations that attract migrant streams.

    Migration assures better balance between population and resource. But it also have devastating impact on local economy and social life of source region. Hence programs like MGNREGA should be pursued zealously to make a dent on poverty and break the poverty-migration linkage.

    • wings on fire

      you have nicely covered the geographical consideration while migration.

      could have worked on relation between poverty and migration.
      pls review mine.

  • mukul

    Poverty in economic parlance means condition in which a person is deprived of certain basic goods which are necessary for sustenance. It is a relative term.

    Migration connotes the movement of people from one place to another in search of better economic prospects, educational opportunities, spiritual fulfillment etc.

    The relation between migration and poverty is two fold.

    Poverty as source of migration: Rural poverty is the main reason for migration from rural to urban areas. Seasonal nature of agriculture, lack of rural infrastructure, better educational and health facilities and most importantly better economic opportunities in urban areas make rural people to migrate.

    Poverty as a consequence of migration.

    NSSO survey 69th Round has indicated that in urban areas, the poverty is concentrated in a few pockets of slums wherein there are several migrants who came to urban areas but could not find employment commensurate with their abilities. Urban poverty has often been seen as a consequence of migration.

    Migration entails a lot of social cost in the form of sense of detachment. Schemes like MNREGA, PURA, IAY, NRLM, DDUGSY, DDUGJY need to properly implemented to minimise this migration.

    • Kanak Sharma

      Good conclusion. From where you got to know about so many schemes?

      Please review mine too.

      • mukul

        Current budget mentioned all these schemes.

  • Gaurav Nagpal

    Migration due to poverty and unemployment also known as DISTRESS MIGRATION is taking a toll on the country’s economic condition and its infrastructure.The migration due to poverty is solely responsible for majority of human trafficking incidents
    1.MIGRATION AS THE OUTCOME OF POVERTY: poor people when they have nothing to eat land into the clutches of contractors who keep all the labour law at bay and provides meagre income to migrants.
    2.MIGRATION AS DISGUISED UNEMPLOYMENT LEADING TO POVERTY; when 50 percent of labour force is in agricultural sector. they find little work during the lean period as most of the agriculture is subsistence type its not possible for poor to sit ideal during the period.
    3.MIGRATION AS HEALTH STRESS LEADING TO POVERTY. its often seen that when one member of family fall prey to chronic health issues like cancer or aids the other member migrate towards urban centre to supplement their meagre income
    4. THE ILLUSION;most rural people think urban centre as advanced and high tech and want to live and prosper in cities to enjoy high living standards.
    5.HIGHER EDUCATION.since the public sector education is in shambles in the rural area they migrate to urban cities to provide good employment opportunities to their wards.
    The migration has continued for a long time and will continue it is needed to make urban cities more prepared to it there is also need of launching more scheme like and SKILL DEVELOPMENT to elevate the conditions of migrants and to draw them away from clutches of poverty.

    plz review friends

    • Kanak Sharma

      Good structure of the answer.
      You have also included conclusion, giving perfect end to the answer.

      Review mine please.

    • siddhartha paul

      Well presented
      keep on writing

  • Dheeraj

    Poverty and migration share an extremely direct,dynamic relationship.Conditions of poverty can force one to migrate for livelihood and the same way,depressive migration can drag people into poverty.

    Usually migration is associated with upward mobility.Migrants from regions of scare livelihood chances such as remote rural areas, move to regions,mainly urban and industrial in look of better opportunities.This generally helps them in gaining better incomes,enabling expenditure on health,education and in a way alleviates poverty to some extent.Migrants possessing minimum education,skills achieve significant improvements in their life chances.

    On the flip-side,children and illiterate agricultural labourers,petty peasants are worst affected by migration.Children miss out education,illiterates fail to gain better employment.This is more visible in chronically poor families wherein migration doesn’t usually improve their chances of mobility.Other consequences such as loosing family care,feminisation of rural households which puts entire household burden on the women as men migrate.

    Government interventions such as the National Rural Livelihoods Mission with its holistic approach,MNREGA have started to turn the tide against negative affects of migration and checked depressed migration to noticeable extent.Concerted and sustainable success of such schemes shall help migrants to break the shackles of poverty.

    • J Ahmed

      best answer i have found till now….you have explained the INTERRELATIONSHIP well… thanks….if u have time kindly review my ans..

      • Dheeraj


    • Kanak Sharma

      Good answer, different from others.
      Did you read the whole reference given for this question?

      Please review mine too.

      • Dheeraj

        Thanks.Not really,I glanced through the preface and used my previous knowledge of the issue.

    • Kash


    • rajan

      Good answer, shows both the sides of the coin.
      Kindly review mine, too

    • HD

      The poverty and migration has a close relationship with each other.


      This happens particularly in rural areas . Due to seasonal unemployment , landlessness among marginalized sections ,underdeveloped village industry , lack of opportunities in rural areas , migration from occurs from rural to urban areas in search of jobs and fulfillment of aspirations.


      India’s growth is largely driven by service sector and highly skilled labour. Industrial sector particularly manufacturing sector is in limbos which has the absorptive capacity of surplus labour. Unskilled labour in cities in either unemployed or doing less productive jobs , therefore perpetuating poverty. This is visible from rising number of slums and informal labour in cities.


      1. Better education, health and skill development facilities available in urban areas
      2. Structural change taking place in economy : The agriculture sector is highly saturated with diminishing returns it is becoming less lucrative profession for rural youth. Even the younger generations of rich landowners want to try their fate in industrial and service sector.
      3. Lure of higher standards of living has attractes rich and poor alike

      1. Socio-cultural : The demographic profiles in terms of ethnicity and culture of cities is getting diversified. Fault lines among various communities and cultures can lead to conflicts.
      2. Governance : urban infrastructure is inadequate to absorb migrants leading to fro eg rising number of slums , stress on resources like electricity , water etc
      3. Economic: industries are able to find low cost contractual labour easily among migrants. this is perpetuating the informalised nature of economy


      The government needs to focus on rural development as well . Therefore our plans must align with PURA vision of APJ abdul kalam. MGNREGA , NRLM etc must be strengthened .

    • Madhu Babu

      Good answer. but migration can be from city to city also for better job opportunities , in that case many migrants have higher education qualifications….you have concentrated about rural to urban migration only. urban poverty like slum areas and their unemployment is not covered…

      • anvit

        but city to city migration is not due to poverty

    • Deepak

      Good one

  • Kanak Sharma

    Relationship between poverty & migration

    1) Deficit Monsoon – India is agro-based economy, where more than 50% population
    is dependent on agriculture and agriculture here, is rain-fed. So, deficit
    monsoon drastically impacts the income of people employed in agriculture, which
    leads to poverty. Certain government policies are there to support this section
    of population in the lean season, for example, MGNREGS. But the wages offered
    by the NREGS for able-bodied workers are just not enough to support the whole
    family, which leads to migration of these people, including women and children,
    to urban areas and other parts of the country, where they find prospects of
    higher income.

    2) Alcoholism – Another factor that leads to poverty and drives the migration
    phenomenon is the alcoholism rampant among men. When men get addicted to
    alcohol, women have to go out in search of work and it also forces children to
    quit studies and work to support the family.

    3) Climate change – Climate change also has an adverse effect on income of the
    poor, like farmers, fishing communities and others. The start of the fishing
    season coincides with the monsoon, but fish catches have been dwindling for
    years, due to climate change, as a result, feeding family has become a burden.
    In such circumstances, parents decide to send their children for work as bonded

    For example, Srikakulam district in Andhra Pradesh has become a source of
    migrant labour in cities as far afield as Hyderabad, Chennai, Vijayawada and
    the sea ports of Gujarat. Children here are employed as deck hands, kitchen
    help and errand boys.

    • Kanak Sharma

      Please review my answer.

      • mukul

        Good attempt but each extra line about an unimportant issue eats into the word limit, leaving less space for something else which is important. For ex you emhasised more on alchoholism which was relatively unimportant for the question at hand.

        • Kanak Sharma

          Thanks for the review. It was much needed. Will take care of such things from now. 🙂

    • siddhartha paul

      could cut it short…..else good
      keep n writing

    • Gaurav Nagpal

      1st point quite elaborated could be short second point is a subset for larger point like economic constraints is always good to use upsc terms in the answer also alcohalism is not that major point for migration third point also not very important every issue can be divided into two structures 1.intro 2. body conclusion so try writing in these points secondly each issue have several implication but major are just 4 or 5 economic ,social politics,geographic try to frame ur answer onj these lines the structure will automatically come keep writing thanks for reviewiing man

      • Kanak Sharma

        thanks… will keep it in mind for the next time. 🙂

  • J Ahmed

    Poverty is inability to fulfill some basic needs of life like food, shelter etc. When the native place of a person does not provide resources to fulfill these needs he moves to another place. This is the very definition and cause of migration.

    Main cause of poverty is unemployment. Poor people move to areas where employment is available so that they can fulfill the basic needs of themselves and their family. Also they can educate their children and provide them better health facilities. Had they got employment in their native place they would not have migrated.

    On the other hand, migration also causes some problems to migrating person like social insecurity, risk to life due to adverse conditions of work, exploitation which may also result into poverty for the families who reside back at native place.

    • Dheeraj

      – Detail a bit about migration related issues.You have done them which can be further expanded.
      – Try to express the same ideas in fewer words
      – Nice flow and organisation
      – Overall ,a good attempt

      • J Ahmed

        thanx Dheeraj bro…

  • ShwethaB

    Poverty and migration are correlated as poverty leads to migration.

    Increase in levels of poverty due to a large unemployed population and distress migration due to unsustainable agriculture and environmental problems is increasing migration of people. eg pollution in the coastal areas is leading to reduction in fish catch thus leading to migration from the coastal districts in Andhra Pradesh .The male migrant workers move out to supplement their household income to avoid seasonal fluctuations specially in a country like India which practices rain-fed agriculture

    2.The rural wages guaranteed under the schemes like MNREGA are not enough for the families.

    3.Poverty also leads to child trafficking who ends up becoming bonded labor.

    4.Alcoholism among the males leads the children to migrate and work for sustenance.

    The scemes like PURA,MGNREGA,PMGSY ,digital India can help to reduce the migration considering the existing cities are already under tremendous pressure of population.

  • Kash

    More than 30 per cent people in India lie below poverty line. Poverty is alone not only the cause behind migration but it plays a major role in migration. The relationship between migration and poverty are-
    1. People migrate to urban areas in hope of better income so that
    they can improve their economic condition
    2. Lack of job availability to poor people in home state force them
    to migrate to urban centers
    3. Many laborers in metro areas are from rural areas
    4. Laborers from Bihar and western UP migrate to Punjab during
    harvest season in search of livelihood

    Apart from these conditions, facilities available in urban centers also fuel migration. Increased migration is directly responsible for the slum in the periphery of metropolis. Schemes such as MGNREGA had played an effective role in curtailing migration and government should work more in the direction of making rural areas self-sufficient and increasing the income level of rural people by opening more avenues of employment.

  • Gaurav Tripathi

    Migration refers to movement of people to new area or country in order to find work or better living conditions. The interrelationship between poverty and migration is of dynamic nature. The reasons and purpose of migration by people can be different and intrinsically pushed in relation with geographic and socio-economic context.

    Poverty is multi-dimensional concept. It destroys the capability of individual to sustain and is a major factor responsible for migration. Currently, people affected from Chronic poverty are highest in India and basic necessities are not accessed by people. Thus, fight for survival and desire of having minimum facilities can push migration.

    Moreover, only poverty is not responsible for migration. It is livelihood security and improved standard of living that pushes people from rural region to migrate to urban centers. In India, because of unseasonal and deficit rainfall leading to poor agricultural growth , addiction to alcoholism causing distress in household economic structure and social stigma being entrenched in casteism.

    For example, people from UP, Chatisgarh, Odisha migrate to Delhi and other urban centers because of prevalence of disguised unemployment in agriculture and climate change of the states. Lack of unemployment opportunities compel people to migrate. Also, migration have resulted in reducing the poverty to some extent and in reducing the debt of people.

    Thus, migration and poverty is directly related. Migration involves all but poorest are in high numbers,this is because they do not even have labour to sell on account of being old, sick or disabled and therefore cannot undertake physical work. The complexity of the migration process is such that its costs and benefits must be viewed against the overall social, political and institutional context of remote rural areas.

  • SS

    With the surging level of inequality and unequal level of growth -temporary, circular and even permanent migration from rural to urban areas; from less developed to more developed areas is increasing among impoverished section of the population suffering from chronic poverty. This calls for the analysis of interrelationship between poverty and migration which is as follows:
    a) Most of the agriculture driven villages-while suffering from seasonal income, crop
    failure, agricultural credit failure-paving way for searching for better income-migration to industrial areas due to consistent and better income
    b) Coastal areas which are dependent on fishing-failure and dropping in fish
    catch-alternative income option required
    c) Wages offered under NREG schemes not sufficient-agricultural daily wage labourers not sufficient earning to sustain children—feeding children a burden—children are also sent or forced to migrate against child labour contract with advance
    payment-migration double benefit
    d) Long working hours in harsh conditions for low wages-two fold exploitation by
    recruiting agents and farmers-exploitation by market intermediaries and subsequent inability to break out of poverty—-paving way for higher mobility among poorer section of society
    e) Rampant alcoholism among labourer class-exhaustion of income-need for further income
    f) Circular migration-is linked to debt cycles among agricultural labourers-the need for
    money paying debts, covering deficits created by losses in agriculture and meeting expenditures of large magnitude

    Thus migration helps in greater inflow of cash, better working condition-improve
    income-improving standard of living –leading to better consumption pattern among impoverished section. However, rural-urban migration does not equalize incomes
    due to higher returns of migration to better offs and better educated and better informed.

  • Janeman

    poverty and migration seem to be interrelated.

    1) Migration typically takes place from poor regions towards more prosperous regions. (example:- most of the migrating population comes from poor areas in Bihar, UP, Chattisgarh, Orissa)

    2) Traditionally poor communities form a large chunk of internal migrants in INdia. (example:- tribals of Chattisgarh and Orrissa , lower caste people of UP and Bihar)

    3) When anti-poverty programs perform well, distress migration is reduced.
    (eg: Potential of MGNREGA to control distress migration was well recognised)

    4) Pul factors of migration like promise of employment is more attractive for poor people. here again, there is a direct link between migration and poverty.

    5) While external migration into countries like UAE has reduced poverty in regions like Kerala, internal migration has not helped much in this regard. Internal migration seems to provide only for minimum sustenance.

    6) Poor girls from areas like Jharkhand are being “bought” by people in Haryana where sex-ratio is low.

    Thus, poverty and migration are highly correlated.

  • HD

    The poverty and migration has a close relationship with each other.


    This happens particularly in rural areas . Due to seasonal unemployment , landlessness among marginalized sections ,underdeveloped village industry , lack of opportunities in rural areas , migration from occurs from rural to urban areas in search of jobs and fulfillment of aspirations.


    India’s growth is largely driven by service sector and highly skilled labour. Industrial sector particularly manufacturing sector is in limbos which has the absorptive capacity of surplus labour. Unskilled labour in cities in either unemployed or doing less productive jobs , therefore perpetuating poverty. This is visible from rising number of slums and informal labour in cities.


    1. Better education, health and skill development facilities available in urban areas
    2. Structural change taking place in economy : The agriculture sector is highly saturated with diminishing returns it is becoming less lucrative profession for rural youth. Even the younger generations of rich landowners want to try their fate in industrial and service sector.
    3. Lure of higher standards of living has attractes rich and poor alike

    1. Socio-cultural : The demographic profiles in terms of ethnicity and culture of cities is getting diversified. Fault lines among various communities and cultures can lead to conflicts.
    2. Governance : urban infrastructure is inadequate to absorb migrants leading to fro eg rising number of slums , stress on resources like electricity , water etc
    3. Economic: industries are able to find low cost contractual labour easily among migrants. this is perpetuating the informalised nature of economy


    The government needs to focus on rural development as well . Therefore our plans must align with PURA vision of APJ abdul kalam. MGNREGA , NRLM etc must be strengthened .

  • Ank2016

    Migration means moving from one place to another. The cause
    may include pull factors of the destination or push factors of the source.
    Migration owing to pull factors is not bad as it is mainly done by choice and not by compulsion. The pull factors may include better economic opportunities, educational institutions etc.

    The push factors, on the other hand expose the inability of the source to provide the basic requirement of human sustenance. The factors include poverty, lack of educational and health institutions etc. The poverty among them constitutes the major factor and cause of migration. The lack of opportunities at the source leads to economic deprivation and finally migration in search of better economic opportunity.

    So, poverty leads to migration and migration leads to poverty. The migration in India is generally from rural to urban due to poor state
    of the agricultural sector and migrants are forced to live in slums in urban areas having poor conditions. This has an adverse effect on health and educational aspects of their children and this reduces their ability to overcome the vicious cycle of poverty.

    The migration is not always bad, but distress migration need to be eliminated by providing sufficient infrastructure and opportunities all
    over the country.

  • AVI

    Migration is the movement of people from one place to another for the fulfilment of their daily needs. It could be within country or to the other country.
    Some of the causes of migration are marriage, unemployment, education , security , poverty etc.
    Unemployment is related to the poverty. Floods , droughts like situation are also responsible for poverty. In such situation when people couldn’t find enough living-hood sources, migration to other place becomes the only option for the survival.

    In india migration is mainly from rural area to urban area. The rural poverty alone accounts for about 69% migration from the rural to the urban for better life. Studies have pointed out that rural poverty and the lack of opportunities in rural areas are the central push factors of mass level rural to urban population. The poverty and the plight of the village life in India exerts a stronger social pressure on the motive of migration.

  • rajan

    Article 19 of the constitution provides the fundamental right to move and work in any part of the country. The idea was to make to make the growth process dynamic in time and place.
    Yet of late poverty and migration, have been found to have complex and reinforcing in relation.

    How the poverty causes migration-

    Extreme deficiency of money force people to go toward big cities in search of job opportunities. The feeling in reinforced by the glamorous picture of cities often portrayed and also due to the push factor in rural areas such as natural calamities, or caste and religion based discrimination in the areas.

    How migration causes poverty

    Migration results in urban poverty. Cities are already full and few, if any employment activities are available. Migrants unwillingly have to turn towards disguised unemployment selling petty goods. The unemployment also feels the poverty of health and education. Slums with unhygienic condition come up.
    Finally Migration and associated unemployment leads to poverty of conscience, in such extreme conditions, the seeds of crime are sown. This poverty also affects the urban inhabitants, who have also face crowded cities, communicable diseases, in exorbitant land prices and vulnerability to crime.

    To reduce poverty associated with migration govt has come up with steps such as housing for all. Plans for greater cities. However to cut the problem from its root the need is to stop poverty in villages. MNREGA as reported to some extent successful in reducing rural poverty and thereby migration. However there is a need for more holistic development plans, such as PURA as outline by our ex-president Dr. Kalam without it the concept of inclusive development cannot really be achieved.

  • Tinku

    In a country where almost half of the population use open defecation, poverty is one of the major issue. Although migration of people are subjected to various reasons like trade, education, medical care, job etc, the tendency to migrate is historically higher for the poverty ridden section of the society in India.
    ->The major populatation of India is dependent on agriculture for livelihood. Almost half of the population is dependent on agriculture although agriculture conytributes only 17 percent of the whole economy. Therefore, the income is unduly petty compared to other section of the society. This results in the permanent poverty for the farmers. Along with this, total amount of land gets reduced in each generation. When individual land becomes insufficient to generate healthy income for a family, they seek to migrate to other jobs,. This is the main reason for migration of the poor section of the society with the hope of better economic condition.
    ->Poor people are less educated and aware of cunning traps of middlemans who lure them with good jobs in the cities.
    -> With the urbanization of India, around 32 percent live in the cities. Various jobs are created in the cities and this can be a good alternative of poor people. As the communication has been improved, poor people migrate to the outskirts of the city and find jobs in the cities.

    Although migration has been beneficial for a section of poor society to come out their bad days, it is not effective for many people. We need to create an atmosphere in the rural area itself to create various type of jobs by building proper physical and financial structure.


    Poverty and migration share a very strong interrelationship
    there are clear evidences that shows that there are rampant migration occurs in
    the regions of acute poverty. This migration is rampant among the weakest sections
    of the society who lacks basic even the amenities like food and they migrate in search
    of a better living in far off areas .Migration because of poverty stem out from
    unemployement , landlessness and other factors which shows impoverishment .

    Ø According to a study conducted in KBK region (Koraput-Bolangir-Kalahandi)
    of orrisa which is one of the most poorest region in the country it is evident that migration there is a increase in migration in the season of joblessness or drought they find the cities more attractive destination to get a job and migrate their in search good living standard

    Ø These migrant because of low or no skill most of them work as labourers in the cities or odd jobs like rag picking and some of them even take resort to bonded labour

    Ø These migrants mostly due to poverty in the cities became slum dwellers and their stardard of living remain mostly the same as before

    Ø The huge migration poses many problems and little children are most vulnerable to them they face problems likle trafficking, unpaid or Under paid labour, Lack of education facilities
    Our government has started programs like MNREGA which provide the work in the seasons of joblessness but it seems not enough to keep a check on migration of people we have to make sure that enough opportunities should be their so that they can earn a living easily for keep a check on the migration due to poverty

    please review friends…

    • wings on fire

      good answer
      in introduction you could have been precise in reasoning migration.

  • swati kumari

    According to the most popular definition of the poverty line, a person getting less than 2100 calories per day in urban areas and 2400 calories per day in rural areas is poor. And poverty can be simply understood as the state of being poor. Whenever we talk about poverty we generally mention the adverse conditions for long term (5years) or if it continues in the next generation. In reality poverty is a vicious circle in which a poor man is wandering and never comes out of it till his death. And after his death his heir does the same.
    Migration is a simple phenomena of shifting from one place to another either temporarily or permanently. If we see the logistics in our country India we can easily analyse the directly proportional relationship between the migration and the poverty.Poor people generally are forced by harsh situations to move on to another place in hope of better food,shelter,clothing,education etc. Sometimes the whole family migrates to another city and in some of the cases only the earning member goes to bigger cities for earning bread and butter.But the biggest irony of life is that the family left behind in previous place hopes for the return of the member who never returns.
    In our region,i.e Chhotanagpur Plateau, in villages people are busy in cultivating rice in monsoon.But after monsoon they have no source of earning bread. So youth and men start migrating temporarily to nearby cities for the next six months. They work in mines, coaleries,construction, industries etc. And return back to their native places with the arrival of monsoon in India.

    • NM

      Introduction could have been better.. More part of the answer is spent on defining poverty and migration rather than focusing on their interrelationship.
      Logical flow is missing and conclusion seems abrupt.. There is much scope for improvement..
      Keep up the writing practice:)

    • wings on fire

      agreeing with NM..!!
      try to address the question in structured answer and conclude.

  • NM

    Migration is the large scale displacement of a local population to a foriegn locality generally in search of suitable livelihood. The concept of migration is more prominent in remote rural areas of India where majority of residents are poor and socially backward. This fact can be accounted to a variety of factors like

    If one area is under developed, opportunities for employment is usually dismal. The remote rural areas often exhibit a vicious cycle of backwardness which results from lesser educational infrastructure, less skilled resources, very few employment generating industries and lesser opportunities for new ventures.

    People below poverty line generally depend on agricultural outputs which is prone to uncertain productivity and is greatly dependant on various climatic factors . Also poverty doesn’t give a scope to buy modern and high tech instruments to use for a better production for which folks usually depend on traditional method of occupation.

    In many cases migration ensures a certain supply of income for impoverished families which serves as a relief.

    However poverty also compels young children to be sent to work in labour intensive industries which is to be curtailed through timely and directed intervention.

    Poverty poses a variety of challenges for the poor migrants and their families. Women and children who are left behind in the village have to work under stressful condition to meet their ends until accumulated income reaches them. More often children compromise with their eductaion to be an additional support system of their family which again induces a vicious circle of “lack of education” and “poverty & backwardness”.

    Due to drain of skilled youth and working age people to other areas,the areas remain underdeveloped for ages due to acute lack of labour force.

    Moreover benefits of public distribution systems and schemes like NRGES is not able to reach the migrants as those are residential in nature . So, the cause of these schemes to eradicate poverty is shrinkened.

    Lack of awareness also victimises women and children who often fall into the trap of human trafficking.

    Though migration is often used as a coping mechanism by the poor and is a necessary breadwinner, efforts should be made by government to ensure well being of the migrants by promoting hygenic and hazardfree work environments, creating awareness about standard wage rates and better avenues of employement and introucing wellfare schemes under DPSP.

    Also, areas which exhibit high rates of migration should be given proper attention and adequate measures for development to check large scale migration should be taken up by authorities.

    • MDK

      Stick to word limit……

      • NM

        Yes, after posting I also realized 🙁 Thanks for reprimanding 🙂

  • swati kumari

    Review my answer …

    • NM


  • vm

    Poverty has pushed people to areas where work is available. Also in many cases migration has contributed to increase in inequality.
    The type of migration most occuring in India is seasonal. Among the seasonal migrants the poor forms the major chunk. Children are also becoming part of these because of lack of alternatives.
    The benefits accrued from migration has helped families to move out of proverty. Also since the migration is seasonal, there is very less labour shortage in rural areas at times of need. This helps in increasing overall productivity.
    The conditions within which migrant labourers work is inhuman. The risk invovled in migration is also high which reflects the depth of poverty that pushes the process. In places where migrants find work food through public distribution system, access to government schools etc are limited.
    Initiating development activites in sending villages can help in avoiding abject poverty. Also should the conditions of both legal and illegal migrants be improved.

    • NM

      As you wrote,

      Also since the migration is seasonal, there is ” very less labour shortage ? ” in rural areas at times of need. This helps in ” increasing ? ” overall productivity.

      The above logic seems wrong !!

  • NM

    I feel If each of us will make it a point to at least review two answers of our fellow aspirants..It will be extremely helpful and our answers will also get reviewed in turn.
    Reviewing the answers also helps in improving our analytical ability so that won’t go in waste 🙂

  • Aspirant

    Migration refers to people living their region of comfort to another region in search of better opportunities , Migration is most common among lower section of society due to various factors
    Their has been increasing migration of poor people from rural areas to urban areas and from one urban city to another city in search of livelihood , reason for migration include
    1)Failure of Crops: When their is an erratic monsoon many of agricultural labourers who lose jobs migrate to city in search of manual job in order to earn atleast two square meals
    2)Alcholism among elder male member : Force the children of family to work as labourers in other cities as labourers at low cost
    3)Middlemen Lure: Middlemen lure many of villagers to work in city and promise them of better livelihood and wages
    But poor people who migrate from rural areas are exploited in cities as the high cost of ciites render them homeless and they become part of urban slum where they live in fear of being illtreated by police and which inturn cause distress to them, If their is more migration in cities then as well it create competition among urban poor and migrants for job and can increase crimes
    Hence it is very neccessary that adequate conditions to migrants also in rural areas programmes like MNREGA need to be implemented more vigorously,Conditions for betterment of villages by providing schools, electricity need to be undertaken so that people dont migrate because of disparity and search of work

    • Aspirant

      Pls review

  • ACE

    With the fairy tale growth story of India distributed itself in verticals across select cities,it is no wonder the lay man finds himself in the pursuit of a greener pasture through migration.

    With an ever widening gulf between the haves and have nots in terms of infrastructure,opportunities,facilties coupled with the main culprit that is poverty the demographic map of India is changing dynamically

    The bulk of migration are from the highly impoverished,states of northeastern,central and eastern India.these people robbed of the Indian growth story due to various reasons ranging from official apathy,insurgency to a simple reason as difficult terrain.

    Even the highly grown states shows variance in their different areas which pushes for intra-state migration to these cities which are bursting in it’s seams due to ever growing influx of migrants.

    With the majority of migrant people doing menial jobs and surviving in poor conditions in these cities shows the situation from which they came from and which they are not willing to go back.

    The onus is on the government for equitable distribution of the growth corresponding with improvement in facilities and opportunities.

  • Rishi Ranjan Singh

    We understand that migration generally happens because of two factors, namely, Push factors and Pull factors. Pull factors is what when people reach out to other places mostly urban area because of better economic opportunity. In this case people may not be poor or below poverty. Like most of the IT engineers from all over India are particularly settled in Banglore or Hyderabad. Similarly a businessman from small village may migrate to cities for better growth of their business and better lifestyle.

    When we talk about the push factor of migration we see the actual interrelationship between poverty and migration. Poor in village are mostly peasants, labourers, craftsman and small farmers etc. A single unforeseen calamity in their life forces them to die out of starvation. Obviously sometimes they cannot even feed their children and education remains a farsighted dream. Such people they migrate to town to work as a labourer, cleaner, taxi-drivers etc. If we can develop better infrastructure and economic opportunity in villages and small towns, migration to cities are surely going to come down. This when we talk about push factor of migration poverty is very strong reason.

  • Mrinal Mukherjee

    The relationship between poverty and migration is quite intriguing. It is very important to understand the difference between ‘migration caused by poverty’ and ‘poverty caused by migration’.These two may seem similar but are actually the two different sides of a coin.

    Migration caused by poverty :

    Despite of the ardent efforts from the government, villages in India are still in a deplorable state. Dearth of employment opportunities in the rural sector has spurred urbanization. It has helped the marginalized to generate an income and sustain their families.Urban migration is also common among the victims of seasonal unemployment. It has enabled them to understand the ‘know-hows’ of the urban setup thereby making them financially stable to some extent.

    Poverty caused by migration :

    Urbanization has backfired many a times .According to the Urban Poverty Report of 2009 , urban poverty in India has crossed 25 % with rural migration as one of its key contributors. Increasing urban poverty is often accompanied by issues relating to housing,sanitation education etc.Among the chronically poor families,in order to cope up with the expenses , their children are deprived of education and are made to resort to beggary. Woman and children , in the labour intensive sectors are often sexually exploited.Also , rapid urbanization has led to a skewed work employment ratio towards the urban areas leaving those in villages in penury.

    Schemes like MNREGA and National Rural Livelihoods Mission have helped to stabilize this rural urban divide specially in the north east quite effectively.These schemes have not only dealt with the issues of unemployment quite diplomatically but has also protected the marginalized from the ill effects of migration.

    • anvit

      Do people not migrate from rural remote and impoverished villages to better prosperous villages, if I am an agricultural labour it would be better to work on a farm in a bigger village (paid labour ) than migrate to city (what kind of work , where to live , highly uncertain)
      P.S.- We should also consider rural to rural migration , we tend to focus on urbanization

      • Mrinal Mukherjee

        That’s a really good point ! I just checked , the proportion of rural to urban migration to rural to rural migration only differs by one million ! ( Census 2011)

  • wings on fire

    Poverty and migration are cause and effects of each other and education is medium between both. Due to illiteracy people lack employment, they face poverty they land up into low paying jobs and latter for better job opportunity they migrate. This is the general trend is commonly observed.

    India being an agrarian country has 60-65 % population engaged in it, due to unfavourable atmospheric condition employment are decreasing. MNREGA and National Rural Livelihoods Mission provide employment for 100 days which is not sufficient for development of deprived class it just help them to sustain, there children don’t have better education facilities due to migration and poverty, ultimately forced to work at young age .

    Educated class in urban areas are gradual increasing, but due of stagnant market employment for them are feeble hence, forced to migrate in different state or middle east countries.Slums are effect of migration which are occupied by labours and daily wage workers who have no security of job causes underdevelopment.

    Economic inclusion in agricultural,educational sectors can bridge the gap of unemployment.New schemes like Attracting and Retention of Youth in Agriculture (ARYA) and development of facilities for working can be improved.Which will gradually lead to eradication of poverty, illiteracy and migration.

    pls review

  • manisha
  • Sujeet Kumar

    Poverty is a socio-economic condition where individuals or house are
    not able to fulfill there basic needs.

    Migration is a situation where movement of people ocures from one place
    to other(Rural to Urban in present question)

    Migration is a symptom caused due to Poverty which in turn is caused
    due to various socio-economic constrains and Policy paralysis. Migration
    usually occurs from Rural to Urban area and esp from Remote Rural Areas where
    people suffer from poverty & Chronic poverty.

    There are various reasons involved for poverty to occur like Geographical,
    societal, Political, Administrative reasons. There is lack of employment/livelihood
    opportunities in Rural area’s due to physical isolation of places and poor
    governance which leads to Leakages & corruptions. With Low or excess rainfall
    & debts accumulated their situations becomes even worse. Hence the only option
    available with the poor is to migrate to Cities or Town. Poverty also forces
    families to get in trap of brokers who take advantage of the situation and
    encourage Child labor & Child Trafficking.

    Migrating to Cities or Towns have helped poor with extra income and
    they are able to repay debts faster, able to eat more regularly, able to spend
    on education, health, agriculture & housing. The chances of Migrated poor
    to exit from poverty trap are more along with increase in purchasing power.

    However Migration has its own Costs & risks involved. A Migrant is always
    at a risk of getting injured, getting affected by diseases due to lack of
    health care, being exploited at the hands of employer(low wages, unpaid extra hours
    of work, salary not on time, etc).

    Govt should take concerned action to ensure well being of Migratory Poor
    such as Policies made to reduce the risk & cost of migration with maximizing
    returns, access to subsidized food(PDS), access to state schools, cheap housing
    & government Healthcare, access to information on jobs, wage rate &
    rights. Govt should provide strict guidelines to employers to pay Migrants on
    time and make sure that Urban poverty reduction projects keep migrant concerns
    as top priority . NGOs should also pitch in and provide migrant support. Govt
    should also develop rural areas so that Poor households need not have to come
    to cities but find jobs near their place and be with their families.

    Hence only when poverty & Migration as seen as related subjects we
    can find a sustainable solution which will provide justice to the poor &
    equality to the migrants which in turn will be in larger societal &
    National interest

  • Arduous

    Poverty is something in which economic state of people or family does not change for 5 years and transfers to generation.

    As per various report it’s found that migration is more prevalent in SC’s,
    ST’s and OBC’s , this shows that migration is linked with poverty in various sections of society mostly the vulnerable .Migration is linked with following below conditions:

    1. Poor monsoon affecting the farming in area.

    2. Poor infrastructural development in the area for economic
    development in the area.

    3. No employment, education and basic government facilities.

    4. Lack of irrigation facilities in the area.

    5. Less payment through MGNREGA scheme.

    Above points are some of the reasons which increases the migration to nearest towns or cities , also migration reduces the debt trap of
    money lenders in rural area’s and better earning facilities in cities for people make them more attracted towards cities .recent example of Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh shows how fishing communities are not able to handle the economic requirements of their families.

    Though migration is beneficial to skilled man power in cities but it does not give better opportunities to labour section as they get trap in bonded labour schemes of agents in cities .Reducing poverty in remote rural areas can be done through proper infrastructural support and provision of basic amenities to the area which not only reduce the burden on cities but also provide better opportunities to people in villages by enhancing their schemes through various government interventions.