PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION – Strategy: How to Prepare Better to Deal With Uncertainties

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Public Administration Strategy

The recent performance of Public Administration has not been very encouraging. A number of factors have contributed to the same which include relatively tougher papers; abstract questions; stricter evaluation; less generous marking; mysterious scaling/moderation by UPSC etc.

However, as the number of ‘Pub Ad’ applicants reduces year by year (given its performance), it may be assumed that the present trend is unlikely to continue for long.

But, apart from these factors that are ‘external’ to the aspirants, some ‘internal’ factors also have contributed to the subject’s overall below par performance. Choosing ‘Pub Ad’ based on bandwagon effect; writing very general answers in Paper-2; not stressing enough on basics; attempting to write scholarly answers etc. are some of the most prominent factors. It is because of some of these general mistakes made frequently by aspirants that they end up scoring low in ‘Pub Ad’. And, the situation becomes even more difficult when these mistakes are not figured out.

To address the same, this article provides a detailed strategy while highlighting these issues wherever they deserve mention.

Coming straight to the core issue of scoring good marks in Public Administration, you will need the following:

  • Clear Concepts – More on this will be explained later in the article
  • Ability to express the concept clearly (logically) on paper which requires a lot of writing practice
  • Ability to relate the subject with current affairs especially administrative and political issues
  • Ability to substantiate your argument with facts, evidence, and committee reports etc.
  • Imparting these angles to almost every answer that you write
  1.  Backing you answer with theoretical foundations and perspective of various thinkers
  2. Contemporary Administrative Practices
  3. Comparative Public Administration angle

Before dealing with the above, an even more important issue deserves discussion. And, this is one of the most frequently made mistakes.

Why should you choose or not choose Public Administration?

You should NOT take the subject solely because

  • Some neighbour/friend/relative/acquaintance IAS officer took it and scored good marks
  • It overlaps with GS II, III & IV substantially
  • Syllabus is shorter and can be finished earlier than most other optional papers
  • It seems easy to comprehend and effort is less

You should GO for it

  • If administrative matters in general genuinely evoke your interest
  • If you enjoy reading highly abstract and theoretical stuff for e.g. perspective of administrative thinkers
  • If you really like reading Indian Polity.
  • If you have some experience of working in an organization and you have begun to show interest in group management/organizational behaviour/personnel management etc.

But, please do not choose the subject if you are not interested in it. This might sound cliché but that is the eternal truth. A lot of aspirants take this subject and lose interest after some time. They cover the syllabus, understand the subject, do writing practice too; but here is a catch.

Understanding a subject and expressing it on paper showing that you have understood it are two entirely different ball games. This is where most of the candidates miss it.

For e.g. you might study Chester Bernard’s ideas and feel confident about your grasp. But if you answer a twisted question on Bernard, you will notice that your writing suffers from incoherence, looks abstract and lacks a logical flow. This gives a bad impression to the examiner and you will be awarded low marks despite your intuitive understanding of the topic.

Public Administration is not rocket science. It is very easy to understand. But, to understand it in a way so that you can express it beautifully on paper requires you to spend considerable time with the subject. You will need to read the same book 5-6 times and until you internalize the entire vocabulary of Public Administration, the job is not done. You will need to understand the subject both intuitively and logically.

To do the above, you really need a strong interest in the subject. Otherwise, reading becomes a ritual and ritualistic reading leads nowhere.

While falling in love with Public Administration might sound outlandish, nothing less works.

Strategy for Paper-1

For clear concepts, you need to refer books that deal with the subject in the simplest manner possible. Avoid poorly edited books or coaching material that may seem to cover the entire syllabus because they will not add much to your conceptual clarity.

Before referring any book, go through previous year papers of 20 years for that topic to become acquainted with the demand of the subject.

  1. Introduction: Read it from Sharma and Sadana or S Polianaidu. Supplement your reading with Mohit Bhattacharya. It will enrich your perspective. Almost all the pages will be important. We see little possibility of converting them into short notes. But you should jot down key ideas and concepts after second reading. Do not make notes right after first reading as you will not have a broader outlook of the subject and you may write everything in your notes.
  2. Administrative Thought: One and only Prasad and Prasad should be referred for this. Since questions will inter-link thinkers, try relating the theory of one thinker to that of other. Also read the background of the thinker. You can always correlate his theories with his background for e.g. Max weber ideas on bureaucracy were also a product of him being under the German authoritative system of the 1920s.
  3. Underline important lines/keywords like Mental Revolution, Zone of Indifference etc. Do try to remember some lines of these thinkers verbatim. It adds value to your answers in exam. Also, learn to apply these theories in real life administrative situations. UPSC has been asking case studies on the same. For e.g. you can relate Mcgregor’s theories to the present condition of the lower bureaucracy in India.
  4. Administrative Behaviour: Sharma and Sadana covers it pretty exhaustively. For motivation theories of Herzberg, Maslow etc, you can also refer to Prasad and Prasad. There is immense scope of making short notes here. The topics are also very easy to understand.  
  5. Organisations: Refer Sharma and Sadana for all topics except PPP. For PPP refer Fadia and Fadia. Please do not refer Fadia for other topics because this book, in my view, is poorly edited; very repetitive; lacks coherence and clarity. There is a lot of scope for relating this part to the Indian administration (paper-2). Quote examples and facts from the Indian context in answers. You need not necessarily quote international examples.
  6. Accountability and control; 6. Administrative Law: For both of them refer Sharma and Sadana. For dynamic topics like Civil Society, Right to Information, Citizen Charters keep an eye on international and national developments. Quote them heavily in your answers. Use small case studies if possible.
  7. Comparative Public Administration; 7. Development Dynamics: Ramesh K Arora – CPA is a brilliant book. It is a small book and covers the topic exhaustively. You can be assured of answering even the most twisted questions on CPA. For those who don’t have Arora, refer S. Polianaidu. Even though he covers CPA in a fragmented manner, it covers the topic thoroughly. Development administration is covered better in Polianaidu.
  8. Try to use cross-cultural examples heavily in answers. For e.g. Pakistan is an unbalanced polity with military at the helm of affairs in major policy matters; but India is a balanced polity where all organs of the government get their due share in policy making.
  1. Personnel Administration: Sharma and Sadana should be referred. And as Prince Dhawan (AIR-3, CSE 2011) rightly pointed out this topic should be covered alongwith Civil Services of Paper-2.
  2. Public Policy: IGNOU BA and MA Public Policy cover it thoroughly. There will be various modules that cover the same topic in BA and MA modules. So read it selectively. You can analyse present Indian policy decisions with respect to the various models given here.
  3. Techniques of Administrative Improvement: There is no single good source. Mohit Bhattacharya covers in a scanty manner, nevertheless go through it once. You will need to rely on the internet mostly. Questions from these topics do not carry much weightage.
  4. Financial Administration: Combine this with Financial Management from Paper-2. Both can be covered from Sharma and Sadana and current events in India. A lot of questions are being asked from this area. Prepare it well. Try making consolidated notes of both theoretical financial administration and Indian financial management.

After reading all these books once, go through Mohit Bhattacharya which is often called as the “Gita” of Public Administration. After finishing this book, you will begin to see the entire subject much more clearly and seamlessly connected. A lot of questions come directly from this book. Also, this covers the “new horizons” of Public Administration like Network Governance; Feminism in Administration etc. which may not be found in other traditionally rooted books.

Now, go through previous year papers again. Try answering questions. If you cannot, you will need a few more readings.

Start making notes from all these books in the second or third reading. Revise your notes as frequently as possible and as many times as possible. Understand the subject in and out. When you write, this understanding should reflect on paper.

Strategy for Paper-2

We need not pinpoint different books for different topics here because you only need to refer three sources:

1. Indian Administration by Rajni Goyal and Ramesh Arora – entire book. Making notes is not very useful as a large part of the syllabus coincides with Indian Polity of GS-II. The book covers almost all topics exhaustively

2. Second ARC reports cover the rest of the issues. These are very high quality reports. Its recommendations should be used heavily in your Paper-2 answers. Also try to make short notes. Reports that should be referred are:

  • Personnel Administration
  • State and District Administration
  • Public Order
  • Disaster Management
  • Local Government
  • Ethics in Governance (Selectively)

    3.  Other topics are mostly dynamic. Newspapers are the best source. The Hindu, Indian Express and Livemint editorials frequently comment on administrative matters. Also note down any new policies, plans, committees etc. Make issue-wise notes. Questions from current issues have a very high weightage. Do not ignore these at any cost. You will also need to quote facts/examples/ideas from the editorials quite often in your answers.

You need not refer to IJPA journals. Even if you refer them where will you use the content in your answers? IJPA journals are PhD plus stuff. You only need a graduate plus level of understanding here.

Answer Writing

There are no separate strategies for Paper-1 and Paper-2. In both the cases you will need to give Indian examples, write logically, and present arguments from both sides. Once you internalize the subject, answer writing will not require a lot of effort. But, if you have read the subject only once, you may face problems in presenting your viewpoint logically. Keep the following in mind while writing answers.

Do not write general answers as you write in GS. They should be ‘Pub Ad’ answers. Use administrative terminology from the subject; quote thinkers and theories in your answer; and explore the issue on administrative lines.

For e.g. if a question on reducing the size of Indian Cabinet comes, you should be able to write its positive and negative implications based on delegation and decentralization; efficiency; organizational behaviour; informal grouping angle etc.

In paper-1 especially, try relating your answer with the basic theories, contemporary and cross-cultural practices. For e.g. in comparing the strength of executive accountability to legislature, compare that of US and India. You can also quote that in 2013 US Congress stopped fund flow to the executive. Such financial control is difficult to achieve in India given the dominance of executive in the Indian Parliament.

Also, try to cover almost any answer right from its basics. For e.g. if a question on comparison between Bernard and Simon comes, you should first clearly state what both thinkers claim, and then explore similarities or dissimilarities.

Same works for Paper-2 as well. For e.g. when writing an answer on local government, start from the basic provisions in the constitution relating to that question. When analysis of a policy or judgment is asked, first give a small introduction of the policy.

Try to quote committees like Punchhi, 2nd ARC, Sarkaria in your answers wherever possible. For e.g. there was a question in 2014 on the possibility of giving regulatory powers to the PRIs apart from developmental functions. You can directly quote both 2nd ARC and Padmanabhaiah committee that recommend giving local policing powers to PRIs. The answer looks richer this way making a good impression on the examiner.

You can write either in paragraphs or points. A mixture of points and paragraphs written under sub-headings give a structure to your answer, and make the job of the examiner easier.

Finally, do not write in a complicated language. Use Simple English in an administrative style with short sentences covering relevant examples after every one-two paragraphs.

UPSC is not looking for scholars of Public Administration. You should only be able to state the concept clearly on paper and take a fair stand on issues after giving appropriate arguments and evidence from both sides. That is enough.

“You have to learn the rules of the game. And then you have to play better than anyone else.” – Albert Einstein

Please just make sure you are doing it right. Wish you all the best!

By Team Insights

  • BST

    DEAR INSIGHTS, Please provide strategy for sociology.

  • aman

    thank you sir… it is really helpful …

    • ASH4U8IIT

      wats the highest in pubad this year ? mine is 243

  • rkb

    Thanks insights for this info. Thanks a lot.

  • Rehab Wani

    Thank you very much…
    This was badly needed…
    Thanks a lot. ?.

  • STAR15

    Thanks Insights….I was seriously looking for this….what is the success rate this year concerning pub admn…a success story of mains2014 will b helpful if uploaded here…after prelims, where to join for a good test series ???

  • aspirant

    It’s a wonderfull article and in depth analysis od pub add
    u basically disected the paper at micro level
    Please if you could do this with sociology

  • m.t.d

    thank u team insights… would u’ll be starting wit pub ad answer writing challenge after prelims?

  • Namita

    Sir.. Request you to share strategy for sociology.. Thanks..

  • Angel

    Thanks a lot sir…this strategy was badly needed. It will really help us. Thanks again.

  • aspirant

    Thank u sir..this is the best strategy I have ever seen.. Even after completing pub ad optional from a so called reputed institute I never knew these micro details .. Always in a quest to find them..Thankfully my quest ends here.. Now I exactly know how to proceed. Thank u so much sir..it would be very kind of you if you can start secure mains initiative for pub ad optional.I m cent percent sure pub ad butchering can be tackled by these kind of sincere strategies only..hats off too u sir..

  • Jyothi

    Thank You so much sir, really I was struggling and confused with strategy and book for reference. Thanks a lot for better planning

  • jam

    Thank you very much…
    Sir, Please provide further planning(like self study guide) for mains as well as for optionals immediately after prelims…
    Thank you again and again for providing us huge support in preparation…

  • Aditi1386

    Thank you very much

  • Cooties

    Dear insights, please provide strategy and guidance for Electrical engineering.I mailed on your email id regarding the same but didn’t get any reply

  • PSBD

    Absolutely fantastic Post.
    Squarely mentioned what to read and what not to.
    Thanq so much

  • mohit

    Thank u sir
    It would be great if u start “secure”intiative for pub ad. We are desperately looking for questions to practice

  • Pepper

    Thank you for your insight on pub ad,, really helpful.. broadening view point & linking the same with contemporary issue may be the key to success..rest all is read-> revise-> write (linking point) -> analyse -> Improve -> write 🙂

    • sumeet kumar

      Hi..
      Have you gone through ch.4 organisations from sharma and sadna?

      • Pacify

        Sorry I dont have that ,,,btw what chapter 4 is all about.

        • sumeet kumar

          i have started 1st reading through sharma and sadna currently on ch.4 organisations – companies boards and commissions topic not given in this book.

          • Pacify

            Ohh ya got it,, worst Unit in Paper I,, even I stucked on this, U can go through ARC report on state administration and and i have gone through bit from Goyal and Arora

            • sumeet kumar

              you giving mains this year?

              • Pacify

                Luck did not favor this year but currently studying pub ad only.. ll soon start writing again..

                • sumeet kumar

                  Ok.

                  • yuvi

                    bro to cover unit 1 of paper 1 , we have to read the first 3 chapters of sharma and sidhana , right ?
                    chap-1 .. meaning , scope
                    chap-2 .. significance n evolution … new public administration
                    chap-3 .. good governance : concept and applications

                    • sumeet kumar

                      yes 3 chapters.

                    • yuvi

                      many topics are not covered in sharma and sadana exhaustively like New Public Management , Public Choice Approach , LPG is old …. has to be covered from other sources

                    • sumeet kumar

                      yeah have to substitute it with books like prasad and prasad. at later stage mohit bhattacharya.
                      my aim is to go through whole syllabus at least 1st reading before march.

                    • yuvi

                      yea so whole syllabus you have to go by topic wise , not reading sharma to sadana page by page … lets see .. i am also doing the same .. 1st reading just like a book .. note making from 2nd reading … 3rd reading hopefully after clearing prelims and then finally test series i will join if i clear prelims on 7th August .. cheers mate …

                    • sumeet kumar

                      how much you have covered till now?

                    • yuvi

                      bhai i just finished chapter – 1 .. but not feeling confident of preparing this optional by self studying after seeing last years question paper .. and neither can i ask my parents for another coaching since i took Psychology coaching from vajiram but now when i opened the book , couldnt understand anything , so shifted to Pub Ad . Let’s see .

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i have taken coa from vajiram for pub ad. last year but it didnt help me.
                      so i am trying to do it myself and then take test series.

                    • yuvi

                      Classical Theory .. Chapter – 2 .. from where are you doing ?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      thinkers i have done from prasad and prasad currently on 4th ch.

                    • yuvi

                      your speed is good .. i can barely understand the thinkers .. too complex .. i think i need guidance .. self study se to get 200+ looks an impossible task for me … found Sharma and Sadana very factual and old … also very basic ! ..

                    • sumeet kumar

                      mene vajiram me class le chuka hu. tmhe yehe suggest krunga agar delhi me hoto to class join karlo par ek bar syllabus ki reading mar lo as soon as possible tbhe subject ka idea lagega. vjram ki 8 dec se new batch start ho rha ha ya fir mohanty join karlo. ek pawan sir bhe ha vo bhe thk pdate ha.

                    • LEVRA

                      I am also doing the 4th chapter… good luck man.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      from where you are doing ch. 5 ?

                    • LEVRA

                      i m doing it from sadhana and sharma as a base, …
                      will start from 27…. how much you have covered?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i am on ch.5 doing accountability topic.
                      you are preparing for state psc?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      can you tell me ch. from sharma sadna for 5th chapter i am not able to find few topics.

                    • LEVRA

                      it has covered all…whcih topic you r asking?
                      RTI,MEDIA,CITIZEN’S CHARTER, NGO.VO..all are given.
                      For the topic on ACCOUNTABILITY check the ethics chapter of Sadhana and shrma…

                    • sumeet kumar

                      got it. thanks.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      how much you have covered?

                    • LEVRA

                      Man, just covered paper 1 . In the process of revision. Will start paper 2 in few days.
                      What about you . Have u joined any coaching class?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      last year vajiram but it didn’t helped me much most of the things washed out so trying to do on my own from books. still doing ch.5. it becomes difficult to keep up insight test series and optional simultaneously. forget about secure initiative.
                      what about you? took any classes?

                    • LEVRA

                      i m doing it on my own. 2-3 hours for pub ad. every day. Indeed, it gets very hactic to cover everything simultaneously but i m getting used to it now, gradually picking up the pace.

                    • LEVRA

                      hello sumeet, Have you completed the syllabus for optional?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      only paper 1 that to reading only no answer writing till now. not able to take up paper 2. you completed?

                    • LEVRA

                      i too have done paper 1, just started paper2, hoping to complete by may end. however, increasing load of preliminary exam is taking a toll.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      same here i am tilting more towards pre last time not able to clear brutally beaten so pressure building up. you are prepairing from delhi?

                    • LEVRA

                      nope, i m in chandigarh. ya man many things left to do….

                    • sumeet kumar

                      you have joined insight test series?

                    • LEVRA

                      yes sumeet i have joined it. infact i have a backlog of 2 tests.hehe… what about you ?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      joined it last test 17 pending will try to give by monday.
                      if its ok with you can we sync test preparation, it will keep us on track?

                    • LEVRA

                      ya sure.. but i havent attemoted the test 16 yet . i will give it tomrw. How do you want to do it. we can go together with common topics a day . wat say??

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i will suggest that give test 16 , after that skip test 17 for a while. start preparing for test 18 complete it asap along with test 17 history bipin chandra because you cant skip it. we can do that along so that we complete before atleast 2 days before test 18. i will be starting test 18 prepration from monday. lets see if it works, you agree?

                    • LEVRA

                      perfect, which portion should we start? ok bipan chandra.

                      I just gave test 16. I will prepare for both the test simultaneusly. Do not worry, i will catch up with you. Lets mark chapters whcih we will completre in a stipulated time frame. I will leave that upto to u to decide.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i am just going to give test 17. from tomorrow i will take up bipin chandra with survey or ramesh singh. we should take chpt. according to own preference and keep check on each other about each other progress so that we don’t. get bored keep competing.

                    • LEVRA

                      yes, i too will start the above books. By the way, how are you doing the eco survey? do you read the entire survey word by word? i have GS SCORES MODIFIED ECO SURVEY .

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i will start from today chptr. according to test . trying to do original survey.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i am doing from original survey it is important relevant for mains it should not take much time.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      hi buddy how much covered for next test?

                    • LEVRA

                      polity, Bipan chandra and ramesh singh almost done. will be doing yojna, plassey to partition today. How about you?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      ohh great..
                      ramesh singh ch.22 doing. bipin over and last chp. of india year book.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      till which chp. you will do ramesh singh?

                    • LEVRA

                      HI sumeet, have you given the test?
                      I have the Ramesh singh’s 5th edition which do not contain the chapter 25 as mentioned for the test. So just did till 24th chapter.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      no, will give today you given?

                    • LEVRA

                      today i will give, finlly completed. man, its gets hactic with so many things to handle, secure 2016, news paper, optional, GS etc…. finally cought the momentum. hope i will be able to take the next test on time.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      what was your score? mine was 66 lowest till date 🙁
                      how you are managing all this together?

                    • LEVRA

                      i couldnt take the test today, tommorw morning i will. Seems to be very tough this time yaa?? i will tell you my marks after giving the test. Ya i am…botany.
                      i gets difficult to manage, thats y i m always lagging behind the scheduled tests…
                      but i am seeing improvements…..thanks to insight…
                      how about you?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      i think you are over burdening yourself try to prioritize things in sequence of importance its better to less things on time then being lagging behind.
                      my score was low because i didn’t revised, i have read most of the questions in the test but did wrong due to confusion, so the key is revision as many times possible, and revision is boring and takes more time. i hate revising laxshmi kant. so i will suggest you to finish core books first and give test on time leave yojana additional history book for later if not completed on time.
                      and are you doing paper 2 i am from commerce so its a bit of phobia for me don’t know how to cover it.

                    • LEVRA

                      thats true man… its over burdening my self. i will try to keep it cool…..

                    • sumeet kumar

                      you given test?

                    • LEVRA

                      yes man….very poor, 62.33. damn…..need to reinvigorate myself.
                      You said it right… revision … thats the key. Its been a while i have’nt revised my past notes.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      try to give test on time strictly so that when full length test starts you only have to revise.
                      how much done for next test?

                    • LEVRA

                      plassey to partition done, going throu economic survey …just that. hoping to finish much this wekened.
                      How about you.??

                    • sumeet kumar

                      bipin chandra done but have to revise again , finished eco survey, 2 and 3 ch. of gho che. will take up 4th chpt. with india year book industry chp. have seen mammoth size of this chapter f*** 100 pgs.
                      how you are preparing paper 2?

                    • LEVRA

                      are you talking about the optional?
                      Im going through Ramesh arora and rajni goyal’ Indian administration.
                      Before prelims, i m hoping to cover the 2nd ARC reprt.
                      How about you?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      csat paper 2?
                      you have started rajni goyal?

                    • LEVRA

                      i will start with csat from May….I have RAMESH ARORA FOR APTITUDE.. dont know about english comprehensions. Please guggest me .
                      Ya i did go through rajni goyal… revising it these days.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      if you have prepared last time for csat 2 know all basic then just solve 10 cl ques papers before aug. it will be fine if hopefully there is no change in optional.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      in notification.

                    • LEVRA

                      ya i did go through it once.. need to revise.
                      For aptitude i have r aggarwal . no source for english comprehension. how about u?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      have cl ques. papers but not started yet.
                      can you tell me around how much time it will take to go through rajni goyal first time i have even touched it. and some imp. chapters which i should must go through before prelims?

                    • LEVRA

                      this part is not very different from our GS polity. its just an extension of it. I suggest you to go through it. This way you can strengthen the polity portion for GS also. Since i have the habit of making notes it took me atleast 30 to 40 days giving 2 hours daily…..rest depends on your capability to grasp it plus your previous understanding of Indian Polity. Its also very interesting.. just go through it before prelims.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      ok thanks.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      bhai test de diya?

                    • LEVRA

                      yes bhai de diya…106 ,arks
                      how about you?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      nice.. mere to 68 he bane the.

                    • LEVRA

                      which test you are talking about sumeet? 27th april wala na?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      yup.

                    • LEVRA

                      hi for the 6th may test, which chapters do we have to prepare from DD. Basu?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      look up on discussion page of last test mentioned in comments.

                    • LEVRA

                      ok

                    • LEVRA

                      how is preperation going on? gave the latest test?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      2 din so bilkul slow hogye ha. have to give latest test doing india year book mass com chptr. after that bipin and polity. hope to finish by tomorrow. you completed?

                    • LEVRA

                      no, finished bipin chandra, eco survey and polity. Rest of the chapter will take 2-3 more days. only then i can give the test. need to get DD BASU from some where.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      you have done bipin chandra and india year book last year?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      you have done bipin chandra and india year book last year?

                    • LEVRA

                      yes, i completed bipan chandra thoroughly and also yearbook last year. but most of the things in year book i need to revise again, its very difficult to remember those intricate things in it.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      hey can you share mistakes that you did last year for prelims preparation, changes in your strategy for this attempt?

                    • LEVRA

                      I did not practice objective qs much………this time i believe i did rectified that. lets c…

                    • LEVRA

                      hi sumeet kumar, do you have soft copy of ICSE environmental sc. book???

                    • sumeet kumar

                      nopes.. i will purchase it in 2 days from local book shop.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      given latest test?

                    • LEVRA

                      yea.. 100/200. wats urs?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      82.

                    • LEVRA

                      okh… what about next test? prepared?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      in progress finished survey and bipin chandra, doing ch 13 gho che.
                      you have pdf. of ccrt?

                    • LEVRA

                      nop, i read it direcly from the ministry’s website.
                      hwve you bought the environemnt books?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      not yet..

                    • sumeet kumar

                      purchased environment icse books costly 380rs each!!

                    • LEVRA

                      thats indeed expensive. … which which standard? 9th,10,and 11th right?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      9 and 10 was recommended by insight comment.
                      going through 9th not finding much different from bio 12th ncert last unit plus gho che last chapters on climate.
                      how much completed?

                    • LEVRA

                      finished the geography and polity only. will do history today and Current affairs today…..

                    • LEVRA

                      have u read rajiv sikri ? if not read it… its a good book just finished….its also recmmnded by insights…

                    • sumeet kumar

                      no not yet. struggling to complete pre syllabus asap, so that can start revision.
                      hows your prepartion going, given latest test? checked your pre marks?

                    • LEVRA

                      nop….will sit for the test tommorrw…. i will go to buy the ICSE environmental studies book today.
                      what about u?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      9th vali pad rhe ha itne kuch khas nhe ha. pollution vale chapters karlena last ke chapter bekar ha tym waste. mostly 12th ncert bio last unit ka repetition ha. will take up 10th after this test.

                    • LEVRA

                      hi, how is preperation going on? covered the syllabus?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      yar sb revise karna ha.. aj delhi se aye ha pub ad ke liye sir se bat karni the, consolidate karna baki ha ab kuch nya nhe uthayenge, is month geo aur history revise karke khtama karne ki kosis rhege.
                      hows your prepration going…? given latest test?

                    • LEVRA

                      no man 2 tests pending….solving questions from vision materials…quite tough yaar…
                      haven’t revisied the current affairs since a long time man…feeling the heat now…

                    • sumeet kumar

                      how much have you revised?

                    • LEVRA

                      ECONOMICS KA REVISE NAI KIYA ABHI. POLITY, HISTORY, ENVIRONMENT AND SCIENCE COMPLETED AS PER THE NEW REVISION SCHEDULE GIVEN BY INSIGHT. GEOGRAPHY NEED MORE REVISION.

                      AND CURRENT AFFAIRS IS REMAINING….

                      BUT DOUBTS ON ALL THESE SUBJECTS STILL PERSISTS

                    • sumeet kumar

                      ok. for history you have revised all the books told by insight?
                      and please tell from you have done environment?
                      you completed eco survey?

                    • LEVRA

                      environment part i did according to the insight plan + shankar IAS, i revised once, but it seems not sufficient, need to do many a times becoz when it comes to solving questions , i m not able to score enough.. I did look at ecosurvey once, …how about u? how much u have done?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      revising economy then will take up ecology…. after that insight test papers.

                    • LEVRA

                      are you sitting for the tests as per scheduled?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      yes

                    • LEVRA

                      have you done with public institutions in India by bhanu pratab?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      na yar mains ka to abhe kuch nhe kar rha

                    • sumeet kumar

                      you are from science background?

                    • sumeet kumar

                      this will be your first attempt?

                    • LEVRA

                      no this will be my 2nd

                    • sumeet kumar

                      from where you are doing ch.5?

                    • hindolsen gupta

                      can you share ur experience of pub ad coaching at vajiram??how is the faculty and pros cons

                    • sumeet kumar

                      1st chapter is quiet big its introduction of whole syllabus after finishing whole syllabus then only you will get clear picture of subject. and dont pick up heavy book like mohit bhattachrya at the beginning sab kuch upper se nikal jayega i have done this disaster wasted my time.

                    • sumeet kumar

                      Yes.

                • sumeet kumar

                  will you be joining insight test series?

  • SKP

    thanks insight….It is wonderful…

  • RG

    Thanks a million for this post. I was really skeptical about pub Ad. Kind request if you could start mains-pubAd answer writing initiative after prelims. I am sure it will work wonders. Thanks again.

  • Gauri

    Insights please some help from you on Geography also.

  • M Singh

    Thank you very much Insights

  • Thank you team insight for the selfless support you are lending particularly to aspirants like me who are doing solitary preparation sitting in remote areas, with no other kind of relevant help and advise…….God Bless You !!

  • Ravi Patel

    Please provide History strategy

  • supriya

    u guys are angels! thank u so much!

  • Rehab Wani

    No mention of laxmikanth’s pub admn

    • Ace

      laxmikanth pub admn is mostly used for the PSUs wala part…i think sharma and sadana covers it well….

      • Rehab Wani

        Thank u 4 the reply.I didnt know, I have no knowledge of the book, had just heard of things about it so just raised the query, thank you 4 the insight.
        🙂

    • Big Mind

      You simply can’t skip Laxmikanth at any cost.

      You will be covering Laxmikanth for prelims anyway. So that’s why it’s not mentioned here.

      • Rehab Wani

        U mean polity by laxmikanth??
        There r 2 buks one z entitled polity nd other z specifically pub admn, wich 1 r u toking f??

        • Big Mind

          Polity by Laxminkanth. It’s indispensable.

          • Rehab Wani

            Ok so v hve 2 go 4 polity by laxmikanth , the 1 v do 4 prelims
            We are NOT to go 4 pub admn by laxmikanth , right??

            • Big Mind

              Yes. Abso-fucking-lutely right !

  • Masoom

    DEAR INSIGHT, Please provide strategy for Geography..

  • Charm

    Thank you so much! 🙂

  • Jagadeesh B

    Thanks a ton sir(& to whole team), this is the most exhaustive strategy for PubAd by far. Very well analysed. Really appreciate your effort, keep up the good work.

  • Sharmila

    Dear insights, please provide strategy for geography optionals

  • NK

    Respected sir,Kindly provide strategy for geography and the pros and cones of taking it as an optional.i will be highly obliged.thankyou sir.

  • Niks.7777

    Upload strategy for sociology…. Thank u….

  • Suyash Shrivastava

    Sir, please give a straight laced strategy for Law as well

  • ND

    Dear INSIGHTS, Thanku very much for these valuable analysis… after scoring very low marks in public admin in 2014.. I was in gloom..not able to understand the scenario..as going Delhi n do coaching there is not affordable…you have solved out this problem…Thanku sir…

  • Deep

    Thank you very much Insight.

  • Pradeep Pathare

    Thnx sir.. For helping us..

  • raghuregen

    Sir,can you please provide strategy for sociology as you have done for PubAd,Anthropolgy..

  • umesh bhati

    Thnks so much sir..

  • Lakshminarayana Lakshmi

    Thank you very much sir.

  • hi insights ,will you start public admanistration answer writting challeng after just prilims..thanx

  • suvidya

    Please provide strategy for economics.

  • Saqib Rashid

    agree with u 100% but this is unfair..one need to put in a lot of effort for doing this..which will eat into time dedicated for GS..puts pub ad students at a disadvantage..upsc shud understand we cant be perfectionists..
    but anyways cant make any excuses..need to live with whats demanded..

  • neha yadav

    Sir, please provide strategy for history optional.
    Waiting for reply….
    Thanx

  • nishant sharma

    dear insights!!!
    please upload philosophy optional strategy and preparation module as soon as possible
    thanks in advance 🙂
    you people are doing a marvellous job ;p

    • MANOJ KUMAR

      NIshant.. am also searching for philosophy optional preparation strategy and books list.. if u find any clue, kindly mail me the same. My mail id is [email protected]

  • navneet cool

    Thanks for such a marvellous and insight full guideline.

  • Keerthi Srinivas Rajeshwari

    Thank you team insights. I don’t think anybody could untangle the subject so well.

  • mpk

    Sir, plz start a scheduled strategy for Pub Ad after prelims along with GS….

  • DAYAL SINGH SATHA

    Thank you very much INSIGHT team

  • Shashikant

    Sir please provide strategy for geography. Please

  • Ashwin Thakur

    That’s why PA is challanging.

  • Roshan Patel

    That was an indepth insight. Thank you.

  • Ranjeet

    sir,
    pls provide link to purchase genuine books as there are so many books by same writer

  • Mahantesh S P

    Thanks a lottt sir….

  • yuvi

    When you mention Sharma and Sadana for Introduction .. what does that mean ? Read the specific Chapter from that book or read the whole book ?

  • mounika

    hello insights please help me to provide the link of public administration by sharma and sadhana.

  • siva

    thank u

  • Rohit

    After reading the detailed elusive strategy of Pub. Ad.. It would be very helpful for Sociology students if you share the strategy for Sociology.

    Thanks

  • KTGULFAM

    Hi everyone, I am planning to join Pub Admin. test series. Please review which is the best: Lukmaan/Pavan Sir/Synergy/Vajiram/GS Score. Too confused regarding this. Please advise.
    Thanks a lot!!

  • Vikas Sanap

    Hi,
    I am following above strategy for Public admin preparation.
    Could you please specify exact book titles with authors.