2) What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment? Examine.

DAY – 22: Insights Self Study Guide for Prelims + Mains – 2015

25 June 2015

Following Questions are Based on this TIMETABLE

ARCHIVES

2) What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment? Examine. (200 Words)

NCERT – Class XI, Indian Constitution at Work, Chapters 8

  • kaushal sharma

    73rd amendment (1992) of the constitution declares Panchayts as institute of “Self-Governance ” and gave the constitutional status to PRI under article 243 of the constitution.

    Differences-

    Before 73rd amendment:

    >Absence of regular elections

    >Insufficient representation of weaker sections of the society viz SC, STs
    and women

    > Lack of financial resources

    > Inadequate planning viz no welfare schemes of their own

    > No Organizational structure , hierarchy

    >Absence of Devolution of powers

    >Lesser Accountability

    After 73rd amendment:

    > Establishment of a three tier structure in rural and urban areas viz at District level , block level and at village level

    > Regular elections at every five years with age reduce to 21 years to
    become a member of Panchayts.

    > Proportionate seat reservation for SCs/STs as well as for women

    > Organisation of Gram Sabhas at the Gram Panchayat level

    > Responsibility of implementation of various Central or state
    government-sponsored schemes

    >Establishment of state finance commission for devolution of funds

    > Set up of various committees at 3 levels to ensure the progress and
    implementation of plans

    However certain problems still persists like recommendations of state finance commission are not mandatory in nature. The 29 items that are provided to Panchayts are handled by different ministries and are not in hands of Minister of panchayati raj and rural development. Thus there is a huge transition between the two phases, providing greater autonomy and accountability to latter phase which paved the way for democratic decentralization.

  • Deepak Kumar Pandit

    The main differences between the local governments before and after 73rd amendment are many. Some of the differences before the 73rd amendment acts are followings-
    1. No institutional set up.
    2. No proper elections in the PRIs
    3. No reservations of seats for schedule castes, schedule tribes, and women etc
    4. No demarcation of Independence of governance and government in terms of rule.
    5. Even finances were the major problems for Local government and they were to be dependent on the either state government or Central government.
    After 73rd Amendment acts-
    1. The institutional set up in terms of Local government.
    2. Proper elections in every 5 years under the supervision of State election commission
    3.Reservations of seats for SC, STs and even Women (33% but it is going to be increased to 50%)
    4. Demarcation of independence of government and governance based on the provisions of PRI act under schedule 11th and 12th.
    5. The finances are collected through the local taxes under the 73rd amendments of PRI on 29 subjects and with the help of State finance commission bring provisions in terms of taxation sharing between state government and Local government
    But there are many challenges too in the recent days in terms of clashes of political will, corruption and use of women by their husbands to run the administration under their names on their own whims and fancies. As they are called as Sarpanch Pati (SP) jokingly which needs to be regulated.

  • Cooties

    Local self governments have been a part of India since ages and especially since the time of Lord Rippon who is credited to be “The Father of Local Government” in India but many important changes were introduced by 73rd amendment which are as follows:
    -Local self governments were given a constitutional status and their existence was no more dependent on “whims and fancies” of state governments as mandatory norms for their election and 5 year tenure were made
    -Mandatory reservation for Socially Backward groups was into local governments
    -Constitutional bodies like State Election Commission and Finance Commission were made for effective and impartial implementation of provisions for local self governance
    -Defined the organisational structure and hierarchy for local governments all over the country
    Hence, 73rd amendment brought much needed changes to the local self government structure present in the country.