7) Delhi is considered as one of the most polluted cities in the world. Critically discuss the causes of pollution in Delhi and other metros in India, measures taken to reduce their pollution and scientific basis of these measures. (

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TopicEnvironmental pollution

7) Delhi is considered as one of the most polluted cities in the world. Critically discuss the causes of pollution in Delhi and other metros in India, measures taken to reduce their pollution and scientific basis of these measures. (200 Words)

Business Standard

  • aimias

    With the increasing process of industrialisation and urbanisation, delhi which is one the metro-cities of india is facing high level of pollution in terms of noise, water and air.the most common example of water pollution is decreasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water due to hot and toxic water coming from industrial sector.

    There are causes which heavily responsible for this:-
    1.rapid industrialisation leads to discharge of toxic effluents in water body.
    2.waste coming from household lead to increase in sewage waste, food residues and cleaning agents.
    3.increase of population leads to increase in transport vehicles releasing enormous amount of pollutants also increase in noise pollution.
    4.increase of Indoor air pollution from reduced ventilation, the use of synthetic materials for buildings and reduced ventilation.
    5.burning of fossil fuels like coal creates carbon dioxide formations.
    6.delhi ia a hub of producing e-waste (components of computer like silicon chip etc.) which degrades the air and land quality due to dumping(as it a non-biodegradable waste).
    7.solid waste and hospital waste.

    Scientific measures to overcome from this pollution are:-
    1.treat water coming from industries biologically to remove toxicant materials before discharging into water bodies.
    2.treat e-waste by process of recycling and reusing it.
    3.use of eco-friendly CNG maximisely.
    4.scientific evaluation of fuels should be done in order to make use of least causing pollutant fuels.
    5.conversion of the pollutants to less toxic form.
    6.tall chimneys with contruction of industrial clusters from outside of residential areas and cities.
    7.catalytic converter filters in the vehicle can convert nitrogen oxide to nitrogen reduce the potential hazard of NOx.

    There is a serious cause of concern for delhi.as delhi is our india’s capital and must be prevented from ill-effects of pollution.
    Friends plz review my answer and give ur constructive suggestions.
    Thanx in advance:)

    • aimias

      Friends plz review my answer and give ur constructive suggestions…thnx in advance:)

    • Van Persie

      you have not mentioned the measures taken to address the issue of pollution…rather than adding your own measures you could have clubbed these measures under the measures taken only.overall a nice effort..You have given nice suggestions

      Keep writing and keep reviewing!

      • aimias

        Measures taken by me and also whatever measures I had given it is based on scientific terms, which is the demand of answer.hope you will understand, what m trying to say.thnx for reviewing!!

    • Mech Dude

      You could add for indoor pollution volatile organic compounds (VOC).
      Otherwise answer is well balanced.focus is correct .
      In hurry I have missed to read scientic (measures) word which you not missed.
      Please review mine also.

  • Van Persie

    Please review
    Criticisms welcomed

    Delhi with ever increasing pollution levels have crossed Beijing to be the most polluted cities in the world.Similarly other Indian cities are also suffering from high pollution levels which have resulted in 14 Indian cities in the list of top 20 polluted cities in the world.

    Causes and measures taken for the same includes:-
    1)Exponential increase in vehicular population have been one of the foremost reasons for high pollution.Added to it increasing number of diesel vehicles further complicates the matter which emits higher polluting gases compared to petrol vehicles.Although government have implemented euro IV norms for tier 1 Cities and euro III norms for rest of the country but in the present times they have been unsuccessful in reducing emissions.To this National Government Tribunal recently passed an order for banning diesel vehicles older than 10 years in the national capital.
    2)Large number of construction activities as a result of connurbation(continuous urbanization) is another reason for increasing pollution.Though government have guidelines to be followed in construction activity but they are mostly neglected by the builders.In this perspective and this sector contributing heavily to the pollution levels NGT banned all construction activities in the national capital region.
    3)Mismanagement of waste(disposal) is another reason for pollution.Largely waste is not disposed properly not only releasing harmful gases but also having an adverse impact on the people living nearby.Among the waste being treated through incarcerators.Though they produces electricity but also releases harmful gases putting pressure on the environment.Respective local governments and municipalities have failed to address this issue largely.
    4)other reasons includes number of industries who largely not follows established guidelines and pollutes the environment.

    other measures that can be taken includes:-
    1)Adequate use of the recently launched National Air Quality Monitoring national air quality index to keep an check on the emission levels.As soon as the threshold mark is crossed immediate actions can be given to close all the schools,industries and other polluting activities in the city till the time emission norms are in check as done in other countries like China.
    2)Promoting public transport by motivating people to use it.At the same time there is a need to upgrade public transport and provide last mile connectivity in order to gain on this point.Increased use of bicycles along with percolation of CNG and other eco-friendly fuels to all major polluted cities in the countries will also help.
    3)Putting a proper waste treatment mechanism in place.Although steps have been taken recently by MCD(Delhi) for waste collection but their treatment remains matter of concern.Here lessons can be learnt from countries like Sweeden who once was suffering from problem of waste but now is not only treating its own waste but also importing waste from other countries and treating them to produce electricity.
    4)Increased awareness in the public about ill-effects of pollution and how they can contribute in their own way to reduce emissions and help themselves and society in their own capacity.

    Increasing pollution poses a grave threat to public health in the form of premature deaths,increases cases of breathing problems,asthama etc.Therefore it is important that urgent steps are taken to reduce the pollution levels.A target based approach needs to be followed with Governments at all levels along with civil society working in tandem is the way forward.This will not only reduce help in pollution but also result in providing the populace the right to health under article 21.

    • aimias

      You can add more points in ur answer.rest everything is good,review mine too…

    • Jagdish

      National Government Tribunal – I think you have mistyped it. Government instead of green.

      NGT banned all construction activities in the national capital region: NGT said those not following 2010 guidelines of union should not be allowed to continue construction.

    • Shashwat Tiwary

      its bharat emission standard norms not euro…though it is based on the euro norms.

    • Mech Dude

      Your answer is too nice.but same problem as faced by me…..Word limit.
      Please review my answer also.

    • Dalip

      You have written nicely but you have gone in wrong direction a bit. Question is asking about measures taken and their scientific basis. So instead of other measures you have suggested you should have written scientific base for the measures. Rest is nice.

    • Abhijeet Gaurav

      One cause may be burning of agricultural wastes in nearby states such as Haryana…

    • Sherlock Holmes

      Nice answer 🙂

    • all construction activities have been banned by NGT in NCTD? plz allow me to know the source of ur info…as of now,i am aware of restrictions and conditions like,watering down of materials etc to reduce dust

  • Columbus

    Last year WHO declared Delhi to be most polluted city in the world. Despite being capital city of India it failed to implement right standard of environment protection and conservation. The main reasons of pollution in Delhi and other metros:

    1. Unplanned Urbanisation: The huge migration and unplanned urbanisation strained whatever infrastructure is their beyond its capacity. Slum is the biggest problem arised out of it. The lack of basic aminities has degraded the environment very badly. Open defecation, usage of polluted water degraded environment. Govt launched Rajiv Gnadhi Slum dwellers programme but lack of political will and implementation took its tool. Lack of public transport and its efficiency to serve huge population is denting the efforts to save environment. For instance Delhi Metro is recognised as a symbol of saving lakh of carbon footprints.
    2. Vehicles: The number of vehicles is growing exponentially. Lack of stringent fuel, engine norms have lead to huge pollution. Distorted diesel subsidisation Policy is the biggest reason of vehicular pollution. NGT banned diesel vehicles older than 10yrs to run on Delhi roads. Old engines combined with diesel fuel is polluting environment alot. They discharge large amount of PM10, 5, 2.5 which harms lung capacity enormously.
    3. Waste disposal and Treatment: Only 20percent of waste disposed is treated in Metros. The large amount of sewage discharge is polluting rivers, solid waste disposal is creating problem of land degradation, Ground water pollution. E waste discharged are not treated despite having huge potential. The main reason is lack of Govt policy which don’t let private players enter in this sector.
    4. Construction activities: The urban sprawl is affecting even surrounding areas and lack of implementation of construction norms is polluting environment. Recently NGT banned construction activities in Delhi region.
    5. Lifestyle: Western lifestyle adopted by people lead to huge wastage and lack of environmentally sensitive technology adoption. Govt has launched Air Quality Index to raise awareness among people about pollution.
    6. Urban Heating: The concretisation of urban areas have raised the local temperature atleast 2,3 degree above normal. It has lead to change in wind flow and excessive heating making life difficult in Summers. The low level of forest cover further reduces the capability of environment to renew itself.

    Pollution is having immense effect on the health of residents. The recent thread of articles run by Indian Express where many doctors recommended Delhi to be unsafe for Breathing, Lung problem proves its damaging effect. Climate change is a reality and Urban areas should be the first point of adopting technology and ideas to improve peoples quality of life. Role of Govt is most important in implementing policies stringently before reaching the irreversible situation.

    • Mech Dude

      You provide first half of answer which is well structured .
      why you have given less emphasis on scientific measures.please elaborate it also.

      Please review my answer also.

      • Columbus

        I incorporated it in between, rather than mentioning separately. I thought it is better way, but not sure of after u pointed it

        • Mech Dude

          Review my answer also..

  • Mech Dude

    As WHO declared last year and also number of environmental related surveys made Delhi as one of the most polluted city in the world.other metros in India also facing the same problem.
    All these cities are facing following problems:
    1. Vehicular pollution due to increased number of vehicles and I’ll working engines and more emphasis on diesel,petrol use rather than natural gas
    2.industrial gas,waste etc.this happen because number of cities have proximity to industrial areas e.g.noida – Delhi.
    3.improper waste disposal mechanism.
    4. Slum area sewage problem and inadequate sanitation measures.for instance from Delhi to Agra river yamuna is in most polluted state.
    5. Noise pollution from variety of sources also work with air and water pollution.
    Some measures-
    1.more emphasis on use of clean energy like CNG.
    2.mass transit need to be increased plus one day with bicycle.
    3.green city,green building concepts should be taken in consideration at large scale.
    4. For industries try to locate as long as possible,use of high chimneys, well processing of chemicals before release to rivers,also peocessing on gases before release necessary.
    5.carbon tax,stricter penalties on non following of ISO 14001.
    6.metros annual budget should place emphasis on clean energy use ,awards for pollution reduction efforts,obligatory use of non conventional energy for some works.
    7. Smart city concept initiative also include environmental related concerns.
    8. Countries like sweaden ,foreign players,environmental NGO should be invite to provide solutions.
    The reduction of pollution is not only technical problem but it want also public will ,political will.as we follow the std.pollution related rules abroad we have to follow it in our country also then we will get our swachch Bharat.

    • aimias

      You have given the measures which is not based on scientific terms.but basically, questions demands scientific measures.have a look..keep writing and reviewing!!

      • Mech Dude

        Yes..for sure….

    • Columbus

      u can give less points but try to elaborate each one to be better and ur point are specific to Delhi … Metro include Mumbai, kolkatta which have exposure to sea and this factor is missing … I also missed it… Try to give more scientific rather than general prescription coz q demands it

  • gloryoflife

    With the trend of globalization every country is in race for increasing its overwhelming pace towards fortifying manufacturing sectors(industries etc),destroying forests for establishment of smart cities. Our country is also quashing the roots of environment to stand the pillar of smart country with weak roots which can be dismantle anytime.

    -Hub of industries and factories mingling in the society has made the situation more worse beyond any limit.They are subsisting their deep roots in every corner of the society.
    – Over populated area which increases the demand in every aspects .the main causes of population in metros are migration, urbanisation , education, job are interconnected with each other.
    -Major problem in Delhi is the air pollution due to increasing diesel vehicles which is crossing the limit of pollution .It was estimated that about 3000 metric tons of air pollutants were
    emitted every day in Delhi, with a major contribution from vehicular
    pollution (67%), followed by coal-based thermal power plants (12%). which is increasing day by day.
    -Lack of system and municipality co-operation for the disposal of garbage ,waste material from houses , factories etc in turn polluting water which creates scarcity of fresh water and prone to many diseases.
    -Lack of recycling process, increasing electonic waste are also on the other hand increasing hand to hand for creating a gift of pollution to its river and land.
    -Unawareness towards environment saftey and careless about substainable development and limited resources is very prominent cause of pollution.
    – Unlimited daily use of polythene bags in every hand will create mountains of polythenes in the upcoming areas.

    -Pollution Checking by Transport Department:
    -Public Awareness
    -Catalytic Converters :Since April 1995, only those 4-wheeled petrol driven vehicles are
    registered on first sale in Delhi , which are fitted with Catalytic
    -Use of clean coal technologies (super critical,IGCC,PFBC,CFBC etc to be promoted based on location specific requirements
    – Closure of hazardous air polluting industries.
    -Shifting of polluted industries from non conforming area( residents ) to conforming area(approved industrial area).
    -City disel buses phased out in delhi and introduced clean fuel (CNG) buses .
    -Efforts are being made to develop and promote cleaner technologies. With
    World Bank assistance, a waste minimisation programme has been launched
    for small scale industries. Programmes covering sectors such as
    textiles, pulp and paper, and tanneries have been identified for action.
    -Determine the status and trend in ambient air quality on significant
    parameters like benzene and polyaromatic hydrocar­bons (PAH).
    -A programme, National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM), has been
    in operation. Pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and
    SPM, and respirable SPM (RSPM) are monitored.

  • Jaipurite

    The undesirable distinction of Delhi being the most polluted city in the word and many other India cities are in the row, warrants us a thorough understanding of the causes so as to take appropriate and timely action.

    The key sources of pollution are vehicular emission with a lead followed by Industrial pollution. With the increased population of metros and a culture of having personal car promotes use of more fuel. The diesel being the biggest contributor of air pollution. Unleaded petrol and petrol both also contributes heavy pollution in decreasing order. The industrial activities with largely unregulated pollution checks emits pollutants to air. Here the fault lies both with citizen and institutions. We as citizen less care about the environment and follow a lifestyle with increasing contribution and ignorance. The unchecked and faulty clearance to industries circumventing the environment norms, cost heavy to atmosphere. The industries located in unauthorized areas, emits uncontrolled pollutants as required guideline are not made to follow and control boards ignore adherence to norms. Municipal wasted, domestic pollution are other important contributor.

    The solution lies in strict compliance by authorities and changing in the attitude of residents. The CPCB and SPCB, shall be adhere to air pollution guideline and accountability shall be fixed. Industries shall be strictly ordered to adhere to restrict withing the pollution norms and advanced pollution control equipment shall be installed at their premises. Recent NGT order of banning more than 10 year old diesel vehicle on Delhi road is a welcome move. The installation of National Air quality index on selected sites in cities to provide live streaming of air pollution will help in bring required consciousness in citizen. People shall be encouraged to use public transport more than private cars. They shall be prompt in informing concerned authorities about any activity causing pollution. Use of cycles shall be incentives and may be distributed on marginal cost or on rent. During peak pollution week schools may be closed. Also awareness campaign such as earth hour may be promoted to encourage awareness. Pollution mask may be supplied to free of cost. The industrial labor shall also be provided necessary protection.

    We can learn our lessons form Paris, where a prompt government supported and facilitated by informed, aware, conscious and participative citizen helped in reducing pollution level from a severe to modest level.

    • sophisticated car pooling market on line of London…may be a good start as well off resident Delizen are educated and tech savvy

  • gloryoflife

    Its the time to wake up becz it will be too late if measures will not taken and in front of our eyes there willl be the remanents of smart buildings with dirteness spreading all round difficult to breathe in poisonous air