3) The rapid growth of population and its growing needs has meant that per capita availability of fresh water has declined sharply over the past 50 years in India. Critically discuss the magnitude of water crisis in India, its causes and remedies.

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Topic: Social empowerment; Salient features of Indian society

3) The rapid growth of population and its growing needs has meant that per capita availability of fresh water has declined sharply  over the past 50 years in India. Critically discuss the magnitude of water crisis in India, its causes and remedies. (200 Words)


  • Himanshu

    Water is indispensable for sustaining life. However, India is currently witnessing water crises.
    Magnitude of Problem:
    The Per capita availability of fresh water has halved in the last 50 years and is going to further decrease with rising population. The problem is more acute in urban areas especially dense cities like Delhi and Chennai as compared to rural areas. While on the demand side increasing rising domestic demands, need for more irrigation potential and rapid industrialization have caused concern, supply side constraints and poor water management have only accentuated the problem.
    Natural Causes:
    India’s major supply of water comes from monsoon rainfall which is variable and unpredictable. It has become even more variable with climate change. Further, a large potential of water usage through rivers is not possible to use because of unfriendly terrain.
    Man-Made Causes:
    * Increasing population and demand for water has put a serious
    * India has a very poor Water Usage and Management mechanism. While most of the laws have poorly formulated, some progressive laws have either been misused or are being violated impunity. Further, simple techniques like rain water harvesting, water recycling have only remained on paper, while ground water have continued to be over-exploited, Even the much touted dams have had limited impact on irrigation with serious ecological destruction.
    * Another problem has been international disputes on rivers with countries like China, Nepal etc.
    * Effective laws, Schemes and their implementation [for e.g. Reasonable water charges etc], proper water usage and management [Reducing water wastage, water recycling, water harvesting etc.],
    * Using traditional technologies with community participation. For e.g. Usage of water conservation structures to collect rain-water as demonstrated by Rajendra Singh in Alwar district.
    * Development of new technologies for harvesting new sources like India has developed Low-temperature thermal desalination plants for harvesting Ocean water.

    However, the much bigger question and concern is of the development model itself. Sustainable development is the only way forward!

    • mehar

      you covered all the aspects of the question nicely. collated the vast info into small paras is good but even then i think u exceeded the limit. good for us, who are reading the answer though.

    • Jagdish

      It would be great if you would have used the stats such as water availability in future and the gap in supply and demand to put forward the water crisis.

  • ThirdEye

    The talk of Water wars has raised by many due to the factors like Growth of population, industrialization, urbanization, pollution, Global warming, environmental changes etc. There is a possibility of conflicts between regions, countries for water and issue over Indus Treaty, Kaveri and Krishna water conflicts between states stand as testimony. Per capita availability reduced over the years. Below are main causes for water scarcity,

    1. Increased pollution due to industrialization like rise in toxic pollutants, sewerage channelling into rivers and streams, paper and textile industry, domesic waste dumping into lakes ponds etc.

    2. Increase in population, high consumption levels, usage of plastic, metals etc, consumerism leading to over usage of fresh water.

    3. With green revolution, rise in usage of ground water as irrigation, usage of fertilizers pesticides and insecticides etc leading to pollution of streams and drop in ground water table.

    4. Global warming led to rise in temperatures, drying of lakes and ponds in tropical areas.

    5. Deforestation, soil erosion, over grazing of pastures etc lead to loss of green cover and failures in water cycle process with irregular monsoons.

    6. Climatic changes like El Nino, La Nina etc contributing to monsoonal changes in India and crop failures further aggravating the situation

    The magnitude of water crisis can be explained by seeing that water also became a commodity in the market and industries, residents buying water for their daily consumption through tankers etc. The Plight of Vidharbha farmers, Farmer suicides, Death of flora and fauna with less availability of water are true evidence of this.

    Remedies are to raise forest cover, improve vegetation, moving to green energy, reducing fossil fuels and chemicals usage, following organic farming, public awareness, judicious usage of water, water shed management, using water harvesting methods, contour bunding techniques, better farming techniques like SRI etc. It is public awareness that is important coupled government support through community development programmes that can help in judicious usage of water and reducing water scarcity in India.

  • Despite being endowed with some of the greatest rivers, India is facing water shortage which is bound to increase in future. The problem can be assessed by its effects like:
    1. Most of the cultivated land in India is still dependent upon rainfall and do not have suitable means of alternative irrigation.This has a direct impact on RBIs monetary policy.
    2.Lack of access to drinking water is responsible for many preventable deaths like diarrhoea in children.
    3. Interstate and Intrastate litigations and bickering exists over water sharing. For example Kaveri river dispute.
    4. Groundwater level has been reducing and the indiscriminate extraction of ground water continues unabated.
    5. Rivers continue to remain polluted despite mutiple committments of the government. Ganga, Yamuna have remained uncleaned. Powai lake has been declared unfit for drinking. Algal blooms are common.
    6. India sees a double irony of flood and drought together in different parts.
    The reasons for such a grim situation are;
    1. Lack of proper irrigation facilities like canals and simultaneous subsiding of water pumps which extract groundwater indiscriminately.
    2. Little action taken to detoxify rivers and lakes which are sources of freshwater.
    3. Erratic monsoon and population explosion coupled with migration and lack of timely steps taken to check the problem.
    4. Lack of adequate treatment facilities for supplying water and pricing issues.
    Since water is state subject, so state governemnts arw expected tp play a leading role in this issue. Many initiatives have been taken but they need to be upscaled:
    1. Community based aquifer mappping and groundwater extraction. The governments can supply informations and monitor levels.
    2. Sensitization and awareness amongst people for juducious use of water and avoid wastage.
    3. Increasing storage facilities, but this means more dams. So adequate environmental and rehabilitation issues need to be taken care of.
    4. Building canal networks to supply water from surplus zone to deficit zone. Interlinking of rivers is too big a project to be real.
    5. Treatment of industrial effluents before going to rivers and strict implementation and monitoring of river water pollution.
    6. Increased participation of NGOs and subsidising water treatment facilities. Use of methods like UV treatment for short distance supply and chlorination for long distance supply.
    Some prominet examples is commmunity oed initiatives and rain water harvesting are Jauhar is Rajastgan by ” Waterman” Rajendra Singh and Ralegan Siddhi villlage in Maharashtra.

    • Zenith

      Wow..One can easily incorporate your points to write a 1000 words essay..Thank you for such a great answer

      • Nikhil


    • Ankita

      Good answer.. but you can cut down on the word count by not mentioning the 6 points about how problems can be assessed, as that was not mentioned in the question.

    • Joseph Stalin

      Enough reason for Examiner to take a break , 😛 hehe
      Comprehensive coverage

    • this is the best ans

  • $harma

    Water is imp. resource and becoming precious day by day as predicted many intellectuals that will led to third world war if not managed properly.
    Water is imp. input for social and economic developments.Agriculture sector is biggest user of water.

    Water crisis –
    India has 17% of world’s population but share only 4% of water resources.we are already using 50% our potential.

    Unequal spatial distribution of water, inefficient use, inter sectoral rivalry for use of water,lack of technology in agro field, lack of infrastructure and wrong policies of govt. led to water crisis.

    There are two aspect of water crisis and its managment one is demand side and supply side.
    supply side challnges include-
    1.Creation of new potential
    2.achieving equitable distribution
    3.meeting needs of sustainable developments

    while demand side include-
    1.creating new water intensive technology
    2.need to change societal mindset
    3.institutional restructuring

    Problems-in managing above challanges are social and enviormental constraint, also technical and financial inadequacy,land acquiring problem for new facility,high cost of storage and distribution and biggest problem is Wrong approach of govt. to emphasize more on supply side solution.

    1.need to balance between supply side and demand side solution with more emphasis on demand side solution
    2.creating water resistive seeds and technology.change land use pattern, crop rotation,conjuctive use of water.
    3.promote water harvesting system
    4.decentralization and local participation
    5.promotion of water success stories like water man Rajendra kumar in rajasthan

    govt. need to focus to change its approach along with reform in institutions and strict implementation of policies can lead to sustainable use of water and can avoid water crisis which is on the horizon.


    The water supply in India is going to be a serious challenge due to various reasons. The most serious concern is the growing population which is likely to increase to 1.66 billion by 2050. With the increasing population, the annual food requirement in the country will exceed 250 million tons. The total demand for grains will increase to 375 million tons including grain for feeding livestock.

    The demand for water in India is steeply increasing because of following reasons:

    1) The primary reason is population as India’s population which was 1.3 billion in 2005 is expected to rise to 1.66 billion in 2050.
    2) There is also going to be a major impact on development in form of urbanisation. In 2007, 28.2% of the Indian population was living in urban areas and the urban population is expected to increase to 55.2% by 2050.
    3) Increased industrialisation will demand more water as its contribution to GDP will
    increase from 29.1% in 2000 to 40% by 2050. Thus, demand for water will increase.
    4) The agriculture development will be more on water intensive cash crops and there
    will be 80% increase in the demand for water by 2050. With regard to the water use efficiency in agriculture, India is far below most of the developed countries
    5) Over-exploitation of ground water is another concern.

    Way forward:

    Agriculture Sector:

    1) Improvement in water usage efficiency;
    2) Adoption of rainwater harvesting and watershed management techniques;
    3) Reduction of subsidies on power supply particularly for pumping water;
    4) Prevention of ground water exploitation by introducing differential pricing, rewards and punishments;
    5) Implementation of National River Link project which aims to connect 30 rivers and canals to generates 175 trillion litres of water.

    Industrial Sector:

    1) Encourage recycling and treatment of industrial waste water through regulations and subsidies;
    2) Encourage introduction of new technologies which consume less water.

    Domestic Sector:

    1) Introduction of a policy for mandatory rainwater harvesting in cities;
    2) Propagation of efficient water usage;
    3) Creation of awareness about water conservation among common public.

  • Despite blessed with larger river basin or drainage system and monsoonal rains, the water crisis in India is indeed becoming a grave concern for citizen and policy makers. To large extent Indian water crisis is outcome of inefficient management and indiscriminate utilization of water resources.
    With the growing pace of urbanisation, the water requirement is substantially intend to be increased. Unplanned growth of cities, unregulated supply of water and populist policies in pricing of water are deepening water crisis in urban areas. Moreover, the fresh water now seems unattainable as different forms of pollution percolating deep in the water reservoir. It means in coming years, water will pose biggest danger and its proper unavailability will trigger health related issues, social conflicts and political control.
    Water crisis also aggravated concerns in rural areas. Due to agrarian nature of economy, the largest share of water consumed as irrigation. The large scale expansion in agricultural land, crop patterns, unscientific crops production methods, introduction of genetic seeds are only few causes which increased dependence on untimely irrigation involving massive extraction of groundwater.
    The extent of water crisis comes from ill management of water by the government and also by the people. The government does not want to pose any danger on farm vote bank and at the same time implements several concessions for farmers without focussing on ground realties. The construction of large dams, inequitable extraction of groundwater, absence of water harvesting techniques and its promotions, lack of sensitization among common mass in terms of using water are major attributes leading to water crisis.

  • pooja

    Though water is the most important and indispensible human need, it is also the most under prioritized and abused natural resource.

    The extent of water crisis in india can be gauged by the recent reports.
    Ø The pace of growth in demand halves between 2025 and 2050, but remains high enough to outstrip supply.
    Ø Irrigation dominates water usage
    In future, energy generation will use up an increasingly greater share of total water used
    Ø Only a little over one-third of total water potential of Indian rivers can be used.

    In india we come across a host of issues-
    1. Inefficient use for agriculture and falling ground water table due to tube wells etc
    Solution : extensive use of micro irrigation techniques

    2. Reduction in traditional water recharging
    Solution : reviving traditional acquifers

    3. Sewage and effluent discharge in water bodies
    Solution: Government intervention at the source and strict monitoring

    4. Lack of on-time de-silting operations in large water bodies that can enhance water storage capacity during monsoon.

    5. Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry
    Solution : investment in technology and including all stakeholders at the planning level to ensure optimization of existing resources

    Urban areas : problems compounded with increased concretization due to urban development that has choked ground water resources.

    India’s twelfth five-year plan has focused attention on putting greater emphasis on aquifer mapping, watershed development, involvement of NGOs, and efficiency in developing irrigation capacity. Because water is a state subject in the federal constitution, state governments are expected to play a large role in these efforts.

    Water is central to our lives and should be the central point of focus in our planning while we rapidly evolve into an urban society.

    • prd

      good answer .better mention also national water policy 2012

      • pooja

        thank u..yes can mention tat..

    • Harkatein Teri Bewkoofidin

      Mostly copied The pace of growth in demand halves between 2025 and 2050, but remains high enough to outstrip supply. directly copied word to word from Live mint

      2nd last para copied directly Word to word from nbr link [ any one could paste it first few line will get this link in google ]


      this above link was also used for word to word copying for point 4

      Purpose of this expose – Not to waste time But to remind others that such merely copying will cause more harm , wasting you time

      Why i did ? , because previously various answers of this contributor were found totally copied.

      We here are to commit mistake , read and write not to race against each other for PERFect answers

      • Bikashfree

        Even if this is true, i would still say she is doing a great job… by collecting points from different sources and sharing with us, she is really saving our time..
        i m grateful to her for this service…

      • Hellraiser

        Dude, chill.. she is gathering all the points for u and u are getting it free of cost. Ready the points and assimilate them. Dont find fault in other. And by the way write some answers and post them here; That is way more productive than what u are doing right now


        Arey dukhi aatma………….kyon prashaan hai bhai…………tum log na kabhi khud likhte ho na dusro ko likhe dete ho…………kabhi maidaan me aao to pata chale……….ek ek point collect karna padta hai tab jaakar answer banta hai………….tabhi to UPSC devta khush honge………..

        • rahul

          well said optimus bhai…..igonre him and focus only ur studies.

      • shreesha

        She has written a great answer.we r not here to invent points but to make our answers efficient.
        Facts cannot be thought..!!!! U have to take references!!
        U r having a wrong perspective…. Thnks Pooja!

      • pooja

        thnks fr mentioning the references…you missed one reference….
        i also referred to Kirit Parikh’s interview given on nbr site..

    • NPN

      good one !

      • pooja


    • gajender

      Nice 🙂
      Review mine also if find time. 🙂

      • pooja

        yup…thnks 🙂

    • Ankita

      Thats a great answer.. just keep it in word limit

      • pooja


    • shreesha

      Great answers Pooja! Keep it up…

      • pooja

        thnks shreesha

    • Nice pooooja
      if u have time kathithi movie tamil
      a r murugdas movie it is about water crisis

      • pooja

        thnks…ill make it a point to see it (hopefully if its wid subtitles!!)

    • MIP

      good answer..

      • pooja

        thnk u

  • Priyank Mishra

    Water sources are increasing getting polluted today in urban and rural areas equally. Population pressure is enormous on every natural resources. The demand for high industrial growth which is primarily driven by fossil fuels has rendered every fresh water source vulnerable. Mining, land fill is great cause of ground water contamination. Untreated industrial and home water causes river, water body contamination. High floride, arsenic and even mercury content in ground and lake water is a serious health hazard. Coal based thermal power plants are great water guzzlers and their coal ash dumps greatly pollute nearby water sources.
    Some remedial measures to overcome water crisis in India are as follows.
    1) Untreated discharge of industrial affluents in water bodies should be strictly restricted and monitoring mechanism which are already in place should be strictly adhered.
    2) Rain water harvesting is to be promoted on massive scale.
    3) Water bodies which are polluted should be cleaned. Cleaning Ganga river has been a priority since 1986 however very less success has been achieved thanks to pilferage and corruption in system. Bottom up approach may be viable solution instead of big plans from top and zero work on ground.
    4) Water conservation education should be promoted.
    5) Public water supply system should be strenghtened and digging of individual borewells should be restricted.
    6) In agriculture, water is being wasted and polluted due to high use of pesticides and fertilizers. Check on water subsidy to farmers can be a solution.

  • vikrant sharma

    Ans:- India is bestowed
    with some great rivers still we face water crisis. The scarcity of water is
    growing day by day with the increase in population and decrease in the
    resources. In a report World Bank had said that due to the indiscriminate
    exploitation, nearly 2/3 of aquifers in India will go dry in 15 years. Ground water supports
    around 60 per cent of irrigated agriculture and more than 80 per cent of rural
    and urban water supplies. And as
    per the studies, 29% aquifers are semi critical or critical. Thus worsening the
    situation. India comes second next to china
    when it comes to the lack of access to safe water.


    1) Growing water demand means growing scarcity as a result of
    population growth.

    poor water quality resulting from insufficient investment
    in urban water-treatment facilities

    3) Irrigation
    dominates water usage. Indiscriminate
    exploitation in agriculture has led to the fall in the level of ground water

    4) Monsoonal
    rainfall is the lifeline for India’s
    groundwater. With reduced power of soil to absorb water has further deteriorate
    the system of recharging ground water table.

    5) Lack
    of awareness toward the conservation of water and process of recharging GWT is
    another major cause of the crisis

    monsoons patterns have further deepened the water crisis in India as large
    of the population is dependent on rain for their agricultural needs.


    watershed development is effective way in increasing
    soil moisture, recharges groundwater

    central and state governments should provide local groups with knowledge,
    understanding of the status of groundwater so as to manage extraction in a
    cooperative way.

    India must
    educate people about the need for dams to store water.

    Community led initiatives have been proved
    effective in water management and spreading awareness about water conservation.

  • mehar

    They say that future wars will be fought for water. China has
    already been rumoured to tinker with the course of Brahmaputra. As the
    population of India increases the shortage of water is going to be further
    acute. In 1951 the per capita water usage was ~5000 m(cube) which has been
    reduced to ~1500 m3 says all about the crisis.

    Water scarcity is mostly man made due to mismanagement of
    water resources and burgeoning population. Some major reasons are:

    · With large area under agriculture, inefficient use of water by causing water loss due to evaporation, drainage, excess use of ground water etc is a major concern. Situation
    is made worse by huge power subsidies given to the farmers. The solution lies in micro-irrigation techniques such as drip and sprinkler irrigation. Govt. Sinchai
    yojna is a good step towards it.

    · With the wave of urbanisation, the traditional water recharging areas such as ponds,
    lakes, wetlands etc have been decimating. We need to urgently revive these
    areas as is being done in Rajasthan. Even the boalis is a good example.

    · Disposal of sewage and drain water into the water bodies. Intervention at the source is required. A cultural revolution could be brought by govt. Initiatives like swach bharat to change the habits of people and adopting nature friendly habits.

    · Release of industrial waste, chemicals into water bodies. Strict monitoring, implementation of laws is requires and rejuvenation of water bodies like in case of Ganga and Yamuna.

    · De-silting operations not carried out before the monsoons that could greatly increase
    the water storage capacity and would also reduce the incidence of diseases.

    · Govt. needs to enhance its investment in both coming up with technologies that ensure optimisation of resources as well as create awareness.

    Hamara jal- hamara jeevan started at the water week is great
    way to go to achieve water management for sustainable development.

  • Debula

    The pressure of population growth and rampant development has
    added exponential pressure to resource bodies across the world. In developing

    population groups have increasingly become vulnerable given
    their proximity and dependence to these bodies. With special emphasis on water, developing countries are foregoing the potential of resource harnessing and
    judicious use, to figure in world-development reports, and credit rating
    agencies that are governed by traditional economics that do not take resources
    as finite.

    The water crisis in India is primiarily driven by a country on the verge of breaking
    into the global scene. The reasoning of investment in every field that requires
    energy guzzling economics, therefore is seen as a valid assumption. However,
    equally valid should be the warning signs for water usage. Irrigation uses
    water extremely inefficiently, and the government’s plan for a second G. Rev.,
    do not show signs of water usage abating any time soon. Furthermore, dams that
    were once thought to fix Indias water woes, are now considered to change the
    chemical composition and natural state of stagnant water in the dam. The
    long-term effects of dam water for irrigation purposes is gradually decreasing.

    Any remedies would require extended foresight, and would require public support
    too. Analysis by IGOs have proven that long-term planning exercises usually
    fail due to the inability of participants to exercise patience and intelligence
    in these matters. Therefore, it is imperative to start practices such as
    water-harvesting and river linkages to ensure that development models are not
    only catered to the city centers only. Mandatory rain water harvesting pits in
    city buildings, with decreased concretisation should be enforced. Groundwater recharge is already low for cities, and the emphasis should be on building
    water recharge facilities. Furthermore, wasteful habits in cities should be
    curtailed such as watering of officer lawns, upscale green spots etc. The
    emphasis should be on adopting hardier species that require lesser water and
    are also aesthetic. For villages, more emphasis on teaching the newer
    generation of resource management should be encouraged at the local governance
    level. This could be done by joint exercises with village panchyats and MRD.


    With water shortage hitting Megalopole like Rio-Sao Paulo, India is not far behind.Fast depleting water table in most of its metro cities is cause of great concern with the problem multiplying by disruption of monsoon by El-Nino and ever increasing population burden.

    Magnitude of water crisis in India can be gauged by:
    1) Urban water demand is 3 folds the rural household demand.
    2) Out of 632 districts surveyed, only 59 has safe drinking water.

    3) Surface and groundwater usage ranges from 40% to 80% per year.
    4) In last 7 years, ground water has receded by more than 50%.
    5) more than 65% of cultivable land has no irrigation facility, implying water shortage.

    1) HIgh scale of population concentration in few urban regions due to heavy urbanisation and migration. ex- Delhi needs to buy water from neighbouring states inspite of Yamuna in its vicinity
    2) Agricultural practise in India is highly water intensive with 90% of water being used for irrigation purpose only ex- northern India uses 80% of water in a year, mostly for irrigation.

    3) Pollution of ground and surface water.ex- Bagalkot in karnataka has most unsafe water to drink, increasing arsenic content in water of Punjab – rajasthan region

    4) Erratic precipitation along with global warming has resulted in reduced natural recharge of water sources.

    5) Lack of sensitization on proper usage of water has resulted into its maximum misuse.

    1) Water tax , water conservation techniques like rainwater harvesting , sensitizing people on water crisis and its management will help in reducing misuse of water.

    2) Water efficient farming techniques along with maximising irrigation facility, use of GM crops which require less water etc.

    3) Tackling water pollution by various scientific and traditional techniques ex- using organic fertilizer, sewage treatment etc and conserving sources of water like lakes, ponds , well ,rivers.ex- government initiative like Namami gange.

    4) Water intensive Industries ex- softdrink factories etc to be regulated and their source of water to be monitored.They could use treated water rather than natural source of drinking water.

    5) Make water distribution system efficient for minimum wastage of water.

    It is said that next world war will be for water.Drinking water being a limited resource should be sustainably utilized to avoid any calamity like situation which is not very far from reality.

  • VR

    The per capita availability of fresh water has decreased from 3000 cubic metres to 1123 cubic metres in past 50 years. This situation highlights the impending water crisis in near future. Though, the pace of growth of fresh water demand seems to be slowing, it is still high enough to outstrip the supply. There is already demand mismatch in urban (135 lpcd) & rural areas (40 lpcd), and given the fact that over 50% of India’s population will live in urban areas by 2050, will be a huge challenge for the water security of the nation. Such water crisis will become a cause for inter-states and intra-state conflicts for water resources; signs for the same are already palpable.

    The major causes of such water crisis are increasing population, excessive fresh water usage in agriculture, excessive number of dams, pollution of water resources like rivers, ponds, lakes etc., exponentially depleting ground water resources, increased demands because of industrial and energy growth etc. To check a water crisis these causes needs to be tackled.

    The following remedies can be taken to reduce the water crisis:
    i) As over 80% of water is consumed in agriculture, it need to be the utmost priority. The electricity tariff needs to be rationalised to market linked prices, which would encourage efficient use of water. Water efficient agricultural practices like crops suited to agroclimate, use of sprinkler systems, drip irrigation tecchnique etc. should be encouraged.
    ii) Preserving surface water resources like Ponds, lakes, rivers etc. It needs to be ensured that untreated water does not leave the community. Strict norms for industrial waste water needs to be implemented effectively. Many rivers are dying because of dams, and therefore only small dams which does not affect the natural flow of the river are built.
    iii) On individual level also efforts for efficient use of water, and water conserving practices like rainwater harvesting need to be taken.

    Humanity needs to understand that a water crisis would soon turn into a catastrophe if urgent steps are not taken, as water is life.

    Friends please review.

  • Lakshmi

    With rapid increase in the population the demand for the essential goods also increases where water is no exception. It is proved that per capita availability of fresh water has declined from 3,000 cubic meters to 1,123 cubic meters over the past 50 years.

    According to the World Bank India is a largest user of ground water in the world next to china, added to this India is a rapidly growing economy but still greatly dependent on agriculture is further thinning the water supply in India.

    1) Human activities: waste ful water use (mainly agriculture
    2) Insufficient public investment.
    3) Use of large amount of water for hydro-power generation, agri-business landholdings.
    4) India’s water crisis is often attributed to lack of government planning for better water management policies, increased corporate privatization, industrial and human waste and government corruption

    This issue can be addressed if certain measures are taken. Some of them being

    1) Programs for investments, regulation of water use, and law enforcement has to be in place to prevent further deterioration of the freshwater level.
    2) Community water-management schemes shoud be introduced.
    3) Awareness campaigns among farmers
    4) Programs for self regulation of water consumption.

    To protect the precious resource the major industrial, agricultural, and domestic reforms has to be introduced.

  • gajender

    Kindly review 🙂

    • pooja

      content is gud…but u can club some of the points together and put it as a single heading like improper use of water/over extraction..

  • Vibhaav

    The problem of water in India is substantial especially in the rural area and south India. As per the study of national commission for women It is estimated that the women spent 8 to 12 hours per day in arranging water in the water depleted areas.

    As underground water is generally more pure than water of rivers, more than 70 % population use this water for drinking purpose. At global level it is a practice of conserving underground water for critical situations only, but in India due to shortage of irrigation system availability, ground water is also being used for more than 60 % of irrigation.
    As per World Bank India is the largest user of underground water and at the present
    rate of usage, with 20 years, 60% of our aquifers will become severely critical.

    Causes of water crisis-

    1. Increasing population and Non judicious use of ground water

    2. shortage of irrigation facilities to farmers

    3. lack of knowledge of water harvesting and water conservation practices

    4. certain industries such as cola uses enormous
    amount of underground water which led to the shortage of underground water in
    adjacent areas

    5. unplanned industrialisation without complying to pollution control
    measures have led to severe pollution of rivers and underground waters

    6. continual of below normal monsoon then the usual period
    as a result of climate change

    7. in south India ,recharging aquifer naturally is difficult due to rocky surface and persisting over usage of underground water has led to
    severe water shortage


    1. watershed development programs and water harvesting

    2. judicious use of underground water

    3. enhancing irrigation facilities

    4 .Curbing river pollution

  • Ankita

    “The next world war would not be fought on the basis of arms but for water”. This quote signifies the water crisis and warns about the future possible crisis of water.

    Even though earth has three-fourth of water on the surface, but still availability of drinkable water is limited and very less. With this limited resource available, the demand has been growing because of rapid explosion in human population.

    Of all the countries facing this issue, India tops the chart for four reasons. One, the rate with which India’s population is increasing, the demand of clean and drinkable water is rising. Soon India would surpass china in terms of population. Two, India lacks in technological front to clean the water and make it drinkable. Three, India’s government has not been yet successful
    in providing clean water to all its citizen. Fourth, many urban set-up are not
    well planned and majority reside in the slums where hygiene is a major concern.

    1. Government has to act and it has to intervene fast. Only setting up the deadline would not do, instead government has to pro-actively jump in this issue
    2. Colonies needs to be authorised with proper hygiene facility
    3. Private players have to invest in research and development for water purification.

    India is covered with water on three sides. The next generation should not find India to be covered by water crisis and for this, action has to be taken as soon as possible.

  • Rohit

    Water everywhere but not a drop to drink. About 72% of earth is covered by water and 97% of this water is in oceans which is not usable by humans. With growth in population and rapid urbanization, India has seen a rapid decline in per capita availability of water.
    Issues and causes
    – urbanization is leading to high consumption of water in the urban areas
    – massive use of water exploitation for agriculture has depleted groundwater resources in rural areas
    – many rural areas do not even have access to the prescribed 55 lpcd of water for a family
    – climate change and other inherent causes are causing deficient monsoons
    – some parts of the country are frequently affected by drought leading to loss in agricultural production
    – dam construction has affected the river ecosystem and are not efficient for irrigation as thought
    – judicious use of groundwater and surface water for irrigation as well as personal consumption
    – increase efficiency of river water usable capacity
    – linking rivers without affecting river ecosystem and livelihood of people dependent on it in downstream areas
    – impact of dam construction needs to be studied carefully before implementation
    Government has to strengthen its policies and institutional framework to provide impetus to conserve water.

  • Sammy

    Water is a basic human right. If the supply of potable and non-polluted water can not match the demand , we have a water crisis. The magnitude of water crisis is huge and as Per UN in 2050 around 800 million people , mostly rural, will be in water scarce region and may face water crisis. These indicators show why we have a water crisis.

    Indicators :

    Low crop Yield- As per Eco. Survey,Non-availability of irrigated water is one of the major reasons for low crop yield as compared to world.

    Water borne diseases – Diarrhoea , Malaria, etc causes death of thousands every year. U5MR is very high because of these diseases as per WHO.

    Inter State Water Dispute – Recent example of Haryana and New Delhi.


    Increase in Demand :

    Increase in demand of water in Agriculture , Drinking water, Sanitation, Energy Sector etc. As per CWC, India’s demand will be around 1000 Billion Cubic Metre(BCM) in 2025 and 1500 BCM in 2050.

    Decrease in Supply :

    Ground Water : Excessive usage due to no regulation, Regional scarcity etc
    Surface Water: Water pollution , Unpredictable rainfall and More evaporation due to climate change, Inadequate access to safe drinking water, sanitation, Regional Scarcity etc


    Sustained Increase in demand:

    Agriculture : Drip Irrigation, More use of seeds which require less water unlike HYV seeds, etc
    Awareness and Education about Water crisis by using Media.
    Policy Driven : More water cess. Banning of Industries which produce excessive industrial water pollutants.

    Increase in Supply:

    Recharge of Groundwater: Small Wells, Rainwater Harvesting, Check Dams etc
    Surface Water: Canal top Solar Plants to prevent Evaporation , Decrease in dependence of Coal Power, Water Recycling Tech. etc

  • Vaibhav Tyagi

    India though gifted with one of the largest river systems in
    the world is standing on the verge of facing acute water crisis. Various
    reasons behind these are:

    · Rapid increase in Population: India’s
    population has increased dramatically in last 50 years and is projected to keep
    growing at a formidable rate for a considerable period of time.

    · Agricultural use: India went for green
    revolution with a target of increasing its agricultural production thus increasing
    the demand of water for irrigation. Though majority of the agricultural land
    remains rain fed but majority of water is consumed for irrigation.

    · Increased industrial activity unmatched by the
    increase supply of water from new sources.

    · Rapid urbanisation not followed by concomitant
    increase in water supply

    · Increase in per capita demand of water,
    especially in urban areas because of changed lifestyle.

    Sustained dependence on conventional sources of
    energy such as coal. Power sector consumes a hefty amount
    of water compared to other industries.

    · Failure to tap into water resources such a Brahmaputra
    due to geographical obstruction.

    Remedies lie in the proper management of water and
    focussing on not only economical but ecological and cultural aspect of it as

    · Water needs to be viewed as a resource for the
    people of whole country rather than a particular state and thus policy should
    be formulated independent of political turmoils between the various state
    governments like in case of Cauvery water

    · Lessen dam construction

    Increased focus and political will to work on
    water use same as land use.

    · Rain water harvesting should be rigourously

    · Use of ground water should be reserved only for
    agricultural purposes.

    · Increased dependence on renewable energy

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  • mounica

    With the growing population and increasing water needs the per capita availability of water in India has sharply declined to less than half of its availability on 1950. The issue of inequity of water availability is growing to rise causing water riots all over the country
    The causes and remedies for this problem are
    agriculture : water intensive agriculture is highest consumer of fresh water. Most of surface water n 90% of ground water is being used . water is overused. The faulty power and water subsidies of the government add to it. Here there is a Need for renewed subsidy policy, increased water tariff and use of micro irrigation techniques like sprinkler and drip and less water intensive cropping pattern will decrease the water usage.
    Conventional energy generation practises: coal based thermal energy generation will increased demand for water in the future. Instead of that government should encourage the abundant renewable energy -like solar and wind- potential to be utilised.
    Infrastructure: the construction of dams alter the course of water n also it properties. The stored water of dams alter the chemical content and temperature and natural quantity of water flowing through downstream areas. stagnant water picks up dirt and also encourages algal bloom . instead small check dams along the river and traditional water harvesting should be encouraged. Ex alwar dist of Raj.
    Industries : consume large amount of fresh water to be used in coolant. The imputed water is unfit for use. Instead they should use treated/recycled water . the polluted water to be reused.
    Domestic use: lack of awareness in usage . around 12.5ltr water is used in flush and fresh water gets wasted . instead homes should have double piping system n recycled water should be used for flushing and gardening. Water harvesting need to be compulsory(ex chennai) . awareness generation campaigns like the ” JAL JAN JODO campaign started by rajendra Singh sensitises about the use. Water management schemes.
    Public toilets.: use less water intensive eco -friendly toilets like the bio digester toilets. The bill and Melinda gates foundation eveloped toilets.
    It is the collective effort of the society that is required to conserve the water resources that are crucial for the survival of all beings.

  • Nitin kishore

    India is having one of the largest networks of rivers in the world.however this resources have not been fully utilised. Rapid urbanisation has resulted in decline of per capita availability of water ,with percentage of urban population slated to cross 50 % ;the problem is going to further deteriorate .
    Dams perceived as the modern temples though useful have created ecological imbalances in natural flow of rivers and dented their regeneration capacity
    reckless use of water by industries particularly by thermal coal plants is promoting the scarcity of water
    even timely subsidies by successive governments since green revolution to farmers has resulted in enormous increase in the number of submersible underground water pumps adversly affecting the underground water table
    many of our states have locked horn over water sharing and management of river water.
    To ensure adequate availability of per ca pita water we have to adopt pronged approach :
    short term steps
    – ban over individual bore well ,remove power subsidy from farmers
    -modernise thermal power plant to increase their efficiency
    long term measure
    – educate and create awareness about judicious use of water
    -switch over from thermal based plants to newer sources of renewable energies
    -formulate national water policy in consultation with states and form national water commission who looks after implementation of national water policy in coordination with states