2) What are the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of India. Write a critical note on the institutional mechanism that exists to protect and propagate these cultural heritages.

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Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2) What are the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of India. Write a critical note on the institutional mechanism that exists to protect and propagate these cultural heritages.(200 Words)

India – 2015/2014, Chapter – 5, Culture and Tourism

  • Words: 230

    The culture of India is one of the oldest an unique. Various peoples and cultures that moved into this sub-continent were subjected to the dynamic factors imposed by her geography.

    Tangible and Intangible Cultures

    Tangible culture includes historic sites, buildings, villages, etc. Government has taken steps since pre-independence era and after independence such as Establishment of Archaeological Survey of India, National Museums, Gandhi Heritage Mission, Centre and Laboratories for Art, Science, Cultural Property, Monuments and Antiquity, all these institutions are working to preserve India’s tangible culture.

    Intangible cultures are hard to preserve because they can get lost with social transformation, and era of Change (modernization). There are UNESCO listed intangible sites in India to ensure their better protection, examples Buddhist texts, Chhau dance, Ramlila, The tradition of Vedic chanting, etc.

    Institutions listed above are many way incompetent to provide best services to preserve tangible cultures. They lack funds and experts. Government pressure to handle and control some specific norms, ex: in 2013 on sadhu’s dream has made the ASI digging for gold in UP.

    Intangible culture needs government support in its empowerment for there experts. Ex: Shehnai players are nearly on grounds of extinct due DJ Culture in marriages. There are less very colleges and schools which promotes Indian art and culture.

    Government must promote eco-tourism, local community welfare scheme, at sites of tangible culture, this helps to conserve cultural traditions in areas that are at risk of losing touch with their ancestral customs and cultural roots.

    • Aseem

      Very nicely written.. also try to accommodate the positives also about the things done by ASI and others..

  • kid monkey

    we have more than 30 UNESCO recognized world class heritage centers in India. along with them we have much more to exhibit to the world, the culture, which is not only diverse but also ancient. Unity in diversity is another enchanting feature which is unique to us.

    tangible heritage-
    this means heritage in the form of material. it includes all ancient structures, pilgrimage centers, scenery of landscapes, fortes….so on.

    non tangible heritage-
    this includes our language, food habits, costume, cuisine, response, other cultural elements….they dont occur in material form.

    the way we protect them-
    we have ASI to guard more than 3000 recognized sites. but there are many more sites out sides its purview. we have CISF to guard major installation as well. but still there are a few loopholes in way. we could not protect them from littering and lettering over them at many places. our culture is also gradually being westernized. even if we have some institutions like sangeeta nataka parishads, lalit kala academy, saahitya academy, museums and so on, we are unable to protect them as intended. Much of our folk art is gradually being disappeared due to our ignorance.

    we must protect them, not only for the money that they offer in name of tourism, but also for the sentimental bond we have with them.

  • Priyank Mishra

    [240 words] India achieved an advance state of architecture in ancient, mediviel and modern times. Various monuments of ancient, Medivial era are spread through out the country. Prominient among them are Buddhist Stupas, Caves, Rock cut temples (Kailashnata Temple of Ellora), Temples, Mosques, Tombs etc. India being home to diverse communities, cultures carries a great amount of intangible heritage in the form of Ancient Dances (8 Classical dances like Kathakali, Bharatnatyam etc.), Paintings, Music,cuisines,languages, Festivals etc. which are practised from centuries by natives. Many of these cultural heritages are recognised by UNESCO. Minisitry of Culture is the nodal agency to promote, protect our cultural heritages. Various institutions under it are involved in the task. Prominient among them are Sahitya Kala Academy, Lalit Kala Academy, National School of Drama, Bombay Natural History Society, National Musuem and other musuems. The institutions organize various festivals, awards etc. to promote intangible cultural heritage. Along with it state governments, ASI are entrusted with the of preservation of elements of tangible heritage. In modern times our cultural heritages are loosing there sheen at very fast pace. With advent of modern Films, Serials, Music etc. our old cultural dance/drama/music/art forms not finding their appeal in the society. Similarly various monuments are degrading and are being destroyed. Efforts to improve tourism,private and scoecity participation, increased funding, promotion of indeginous art forms through TV like DD Bharti etc. are some of the steps to protect and promote our cultural heritage.

    • siva

      good ans

    • Dinkar Dinesh Dogra

      Throw some light on positive sides of Institutions;their achievements like ASI’s discoveries of existence of Harappan culture in places such as
      Kalibangan in Rajasthan and Dholavira in Gujarat; excavations at
      Buddhist sites in Kanaganhali in Karnataka, conservation efforts in Hampi, Karnataka.. ASI has copied more than 74,000 inscriptions..

      Balanced Ans otherwise.

  • Abhishek V

    The intangible cultural heritages are those whose richness can’t be measured explicitly in absolute form but only relatively like dance, art, music, drama etc. while tangible ones are like monuments, antiques etc.

    To preserve intangible and tangible heritage Government of India (GOI) has formed Ministry of Culture that has taken the following steps.

    For intangible heritage
    -Lalit Kala Academy has been founded to propagate understanding of India Art both inside and outside the country, also offering fellowships for the promotion of arts.
    -Sangeet Natak Akademi for music, preservation and propagation, of both hindustani and carnatic music school has been founded while Sahitya Akademi has been established for promotion of literature through publication, translation, seminars, offering fellowships and honoring the literary figures.
    -Centre for Cultural Resource and Training (CCRT) was set up as an autonomous organisatoin under GOI to link culture with education and, creating understanding and awareness about India’s rich cultural heritage among students.
    -Zonal Cultural Centres have been founded to arouse awareness of the local culture.

    For tanigible heritage
    -Archaeological survey of India for survey of archaeological remains and excavations, maintainence and conservation of monuments and sites, doing expeditions abroad, and training in archaeology etc., was established in 1861 as an attached office of Department of Culture.
    It has many individual structures for specialised purposes such as underwater archaeology wing, science branch, horticulture branch etc.
    -National museum was established under ministry of culture for exhibition and organisation of galleries, educational activities, giving workshops etc.

    Apart from above, many other institutions have been established for protecting and propagating Indian cultural heritage.

    Please review.

    • shreya

      Nyc ans as you hv writtn functions of most of institutions but Critical part is missing

      • Abhishek V

        arre haan yaar I missed that, a conclusive ending would have been better. Right?

        • sowjanya bakki

          yaa u answered only first part which is really good .. but critical analysis that means kind of negative part about these institutions ..how far they are protecting and promoting culture need to be answered

          • Abhishek V

            thank you 🙂

    • suvigy kumar

      well written

  • Siddharth Patil

    Tangible culture include forts,Ancient temples,Extinct
    cities,Building etc .Intangible culture include languages,script,dance
    ,painting music etc

    Institutional mechanism to protect and propagate this

    1.Various insttitution established Like Archaelogical survey
    of India(ASI),Lalit kala Academy,Sangeet natak Academy,Sahitya Academy,National
    school of Drama.

    2.GoI given National status to 5 museum for eg-Chattrapati
    Shivaji Maharaj Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai.

    3.Initiative for Digitalisation of data of All Monument and

    5.Help of Hollywood movies taken to promote indian tourism
    For eg Life of PI

    6.Incredible india Campaign and Atithi Devo bhava are
    marketing and promotion initiative taken by Government

    7.To propagate a Tourism on International Level Visa on
    Arrival Facility started by indian government

    8.Clean india Campaign will also play a important role in
    promotiong and Propagating cultural heritage of india

    Negative Side of Part

    1.Less Budgetary allocation by Central Government

    2.Shortage of Staff with ASI

    3.Smuggling of Artifact are taking place on Large scale

    4.Obsolute of Technology

    5.Most of the Monument ignored by Government.For eg .Some
    350 fort of Shivaji Maharj spread across the different states of west and southindia.

    6.Religious intervention should be controled to explore our
    hidden culture

    7.Question of safety of tourist not effective handled by government.For
    eg Rapes of Foreign tourist in Goa .

    India should take a effect steps to correct these negative
    fallout.India has potential to become tourist hotspot.it will help us to
    protect and promote our cultural heritage in diverse manner

    • hajarath

      Nicely written

    • skb

      Good content…

  • afzal

    our Indian culture is one of the most ancient,diverse and incredible culture…dating back to Indus valley civilization 2500-1750 bc. culture can be broadly classified into:-
    1.tangible culture:-culture having a definite form …which is a quantitative asset..like our old monuments,forts,tombs,coins,artifacts historic locations like harappa and mohenjodaro,ajanta and ellora caves etc.
    2.Intangible culture:-culture which is qualitative and doesn’t has a definite form like ancient script,language,dances and music etc.UNESCO has listed intangible cultural sites in india comprising of our traditional dance forms like kalaripayattu and vedic chanting etc
    although there are various institutions present in India for preserving these priceless assets like museums,archaeological survey of india,lalit kala academy,sahitya kala academy etc.but there incompetent and careless attitude towers our national monuments has lead to severe deterioration and extensive black marketing and smuggling in foreign market.
    many of the monuments and hundreds of years old forts and tombs are at such ignorance that have become the centers of uncivilized activities at extensive scale
    hence there is an emerging need for paying immediate heed to them and taking adequate steps for there preservence.as our culture is our strongest hold for tourism and for depicting the unity in diversity prevailing in india since the ancient times

  • Shinjan Shekhar

    India has one of the richest cultural heritages in the world, which can be broadly classified in two categories:

    1) TANGIBLE: That which can be physically touched such as great monuments, traditional clothing, utensils, historical vehicles etc. example – Golden temple, Old fort, sun temple, monastery in Lumbini, paintings etc Even though they can perish there are more methods to protect them as compared to intangible heritage.

    2) INTANGIBLE: That which can be recorded but can’t be touched or interacted with. In other words it exists intellectually in culture. example – various dances of india, languages, knowledge of literature and particular skills.

    So that development doesn’t cost us country’s cultural heritage, Government of India has undertaken various measures to protect, preserve and promote it.

    1) HRIDAY- Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
    The scheme aims at creation of effective linkages between tourism and cultural legacy in form of heritage, heritage adaptive rehabilitation including retrofitting of historic buildings, development and promotion of core tangible economic activities to enhance livelihood avenues among stakeholders.
    As of now 12 cities have been recognised for first phase. Its predominant objective is to preserve tangible and intangible assets of the identified cities.
    HRIDAY will have four components – Heritage documentation and mapping, inner city and heritage revitalisation, physical upgradation and basic service provision with focus on cleanliness, capacity strengthening (trainings, study tours, national and international visits) and knowledge management.

    2) HRIDAY would be dovetailed with PRASAD (Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spirituality Agumentation Drive) for rejuvenation of 12 pilgrim sites.

    Launched by Ministry of Culture to support and strengthen efforts of various stakeholders to bring in wider recognition, acceptance and preservation of all domains of intangible culture such as oral tradition, languages, preforming arts, social practices, rituals, craftsmanship etc.

    4) else, Lalit Kala Academy, Sangeet Natak Akademi, Centre for Cultural Resource and training and various other zonal centres and NGO have been set up to [reserve and promote intangible assets of our country.

    5)Archeological Survey of India has been set up to discover, survey, maintain and conserve monumental sites of India. There is also The NATIONAL MUSEUM and various other zonal and state museums set for preservation of tangible culture.

    Though we can see that government has done ample much to preserve indian culture, yet the job is incomplete unless there are adequate measure for monitoring that the respective tasks of these mechanisms is actually carried out. Merely doling out funds and schemes is not enough, a system of constant check is more important. Besides this, it is also very important to educate and aware citizen and children about their culture and heritage, as it belongs to entire India not merely to the Government of india. So unless citizens take pride in there culture, they would never come forward to preserve it, and until that can happen, the task would always be half done. From this point of view, HRIDAY is actually a step in right direction, it is yet to prove its mettle though.

  • Akshay

    Tangible cultural heritages-
    Visual arts- Architecture, monuments, buildings, sculptures, paintings, Literary work

    Intangible cultural heritages-
    Performing arts- Dance, drama,music, theatre

    There are various institutions which are working to preserve all the forms of art and cultural heritage like- Archaeological survey of India, Museums, CCRT india, societies, Sangeet Natak academy, etc. However, these institutions remain short of funds and expert intellectuals. In view of growing globalization and urbanization, ancient forms of heritage, particularly intangible heritage are losing importance and market. For ex- DJ and Pop music getting preference, instead of shehnai and flute players in marriages.

  • Aprajita

    Indian cultural heritage is a composite mixture of knowledge, belief,
    art, morals, law and customs. Out of these, tangible parts include
    monuments, relics, antiquities etc while the intangible parts include
    morals, laws, customs and beliefs.

    preserving culture is the duty of every citizen and the government. The Ancient
    Monuments and Archeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 prohibits one
    from injuring, altering, defacing or misusing any monuments. any person
    who is found guilty of any of these is punishable with imprisonment or
    fine or both. In order to sensitize school children and create awareness
    among them 12th January is observed as Heritage Day on which a heritage
    oath is administered in all the CBSE affiliated schools.

    Toprotect and preserve the intangibles of culture the UNESCO intangible
    cultural heritage list provides the necessary support. It includes
    Ramlila, The tradition of vedic chanting, Kalbelia( Rajasthani folk
    songs among few others. the best we can do at the individual level is to
    remain in touch with our culture by revisiting our roots from time to
    time. Cherishing our own traditions while embracing modernisation is the
    balance needed to make our future generations appreciate the vibrant
    colours of their culture.